Renewable Energy Technology 2004 Energy Workshop

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1 Renewable Energy Technology 2004 Energy Workshop Andy Aden National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 17, 2004

2 Major NREL Thrusts Wind Solar Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Biomass Biorefineries Biosciences Geothermal Hydrogen Production Storage Delivery and End Use Systems Integration Distributed Energy Distribution and Interconnection Thermal Systems Superconductivity Vehicle Technologies Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Utilization Building Technologies Building Efficiency Zero Energy Buildings Federal Energy Management Basic Energy Science New Materials Chemical and Biological Sciences Analytical Studies International

3 Why Renewable Energy? Energy Security Dramatically reduce dependence on foreign oil Biomass is the only renewable that directly reduces our dependency on liquid transportation fuels Economics Trade deficit reduction Job creation potential, especially in rural areas Environment / climate change Much lower environmental impact Fuels and power Sustainability Renewable technologies are more sustainable

4 U.S. Energy Consumption Trend Non-hydro Renewables Quadrillion BTUs Hydro Nuclear Natural Gas 20 Wood Crude Oil Source: , Energy Perspectives: A Presentation of Major Energy and Energy-Related Data, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1975; , Annual Energy Review 2000, Table 1.3. Coal

5 Changes in Atmospheric Concentration CO 2, CH 4, and N 2 0 A Thousand Year History Source: IPCC Third Assessment Report (2001) Atmospheric concentration CO 2 (ppm) Atmospheric concentration CH 4 (ppb) Atmospheric concentration N 2 O (pbb)

6 Renewable Share of U.S. Energy Supply (data for 2002) Solar <1% Nuclear 8% Natural Gas 24% Geothermal 5% Biomass 46% Petroleum 39% Renewable 6% Wind 2% Hydroelectric 46% Coal 23% Source: AEO 2004 tables (released in December 2003) based on US energy consumption. Overall breakdown Table A1 (Total Energy Supply and Disposition), and Renewable breakdown Table A18 (Renewable Energy, Consumption by Section and Source).

7 The Unique Role of Biomass While the growing need for sustainable electric power can be met by other renewables Biomass is our only renewable source of carbon-based fuels and chemicals

8 Imagining a Sustainable World Sustainable Resources Primary Intermediates Secondary Intermediates Human Needs Sunlight Animals Food Wind Ocean/hydro Biomass Organic Fuels Energy Motors/ Lights Heat Geothermal Transport. Nuclear Minerals Electricity Hydrogen Batteries Materials Organic Inorganic Air Choices The Environment Water Soil Nutrient Climate Wildlife habitat/ cycles biodiversity Sole Supply Advanced Technology Scenarios for Production of Fuels and Chemicals Lee Lynd, Dartmouth College, 25 th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels & Chemicals, Breckenridge, CO, May 4-7, 2003

9 U.S. Renewable Energy Resources

10 Wind Energy 6366 MW installed in U.S., 34,000 MW worldwide Current levelized electricity cost is 3-5 /kwh at 15 mph; 2012 goal is 3 /kwh for land based; 2012 goal is 5 /kwh for offshore Strong European competition R&D: improvements in turbine and tower designs, structural dynamics, lower cost GE Wind 1.5 MW turbines installed near Quay, De Baca County, New Mexico 2003 GE Wind Energy All Rights Reserved 12932

11 U.S. Wind Power Capacity

12 Solar Photovoltaics About 350 MW installed in U.S.; 40% off grid 742 MW sales in 2003; ~33% per year growth Current cost is /kwh, 2010 goal is /kwh, 2020 goal is 6 8 /kwh Strong competition, government support from Japan and Germany R&D: device efficiency, crystalline and thin film technologies, manufacturing process development, lower cost Sacramento Municipal Utility District 01026

13 Concentrating Solar Power Electricity: parabolic troughs, power towers, dish/sterling systems Current levelized electricity cost is 10 /kwh; 2010 goal is 6 /kwh 350 MW capacity in U.S. (trough) with new 50 MW solar-only trough plant currently planned for Nevada R&D: improve efficiency, increased annual capacity factor using thermal storage, lower capital cost Solar power facility located near Kramer Junction, CA 11070

14 Electricity from Biomass Chariton Valley Switchgrass Field Existing Industry (~9,000 MW in U.S.) Direct combustion, residues, ~20% eff. Alliant Ottumwa Generating Station, Chillicothe, Iowa 700 MW PC Near Term Co-firing with coal, ~35% eff. Several successful demonstrations SOx and some NOx reductions Encourages feedstock supply/infrastructure

15 Electricity from Biomass (cont.) Mid Term Modular Systems (village power) Micro turbines, Stirling engines Simple to operate in remote locations Long Term Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, ~40+% eff goal is syngas at $5.28/GJ Advanced gas turbines, fuel cells Demonstrations in U.S. and Europe

16 Fuels from Biomass Ethanol (Billions of gal/yr) EXISTING Advanced Corn Mills Renewable Fuel Standard 5 bgy in 2012 EMERGING Sugar Platform -New Enzymes -Pretreatment -Fermentation Cellulose Grain Year ADVANCED Fundamental Advances in Lignocellulose Processing and fermentation Existing and emerging technology supports targets of a renewable fuel standard Advanced technology provides the leap to substantial oil displacement Government role in high risk R&D Industry role is to commercialize

17 The New Industrial Biorefinery USES Fuels: Ethanol Renewable Diesel Biomass Feedstock Trees Grasses Agricultural Crops Agricultural Residues Animal Wastes Municipal Solid Waste Cargill Dow Dedicates PLA Refinery April 2002 Conversion Processes - Enzymatic Fermentation - Gas/liquid Fermentation - Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation - Gasification -Combustion - Co-firing Power: Electricity Heat Chemicals Plastics Solvents Chemical Intermediates Phenolics Adhesives Furfural Fatty acids Acetic Acid Carbon black Paints Dyes, Pigments, and Ink Detergents Etc. Food and Feed

18 NREL / DOE- Industry Partnerships Example: DuPont s Integrated Biorefinery Chemical co-products lower cost of fuel EtOH Advanced collaborative R&D (CRADA) building block for Sorona polyester corn corn stover Integrated Corn Biorefinery (ICBR) chemicals bioethanol power Sorona

19 Things to Remember Minnesota is a leader in renewable energy implementation Ethanol and biodiesel fuels Solar and wind power Renewable resources are plentiful Renewable energy technology is technically feasible today and in some cases cost competitive Continued rapid growth anticipated over the next decade Cost and technology barriers are being overcome through R&D Industry participation is vital for continued commercialization

20 For Additional Information Web:

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