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2 Organica is a registered trademark of the Keter Group Energy Division.

3 Every Day is Earth Day

4 Without energy there is no life... but today s growing use of energy represents the greatest threat to life. In the European Union, energy use causes 80 % of greenhouse gas emissions that are the main cause of climate change. The reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels has become a global objective which more and more countries are striving together to achieve. Growing and unstable prices and fuel supply uncertainty represent an increasingly high risk due to energy dependence on oil and natural gas. The rocketing growth of energy consumption and, on the other hand, diminishing fossil fuel reserves have become the biggest problem of the contemporary time. The care for our future has led to the research on renewable energy sources use, and thus to the development of new, more efficient and environmentally-friendly technological procedures for clean energy production

5 Do we have anything better? Yes, we do! Biogas. Why biogas? The green energy production from biogas which pertains to the renewable energy sources means a promising mode of energy production that is less harmful to the environment because it reduces carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere, and it also reduces dependence on imported energy sources. Since the biogas plant construction completes the natural cycle (food - animal breeding - waste processing - biogas - field - food), it also contributes to rural development. Biogas is a mixture of gases produced by anaerobic fermentation of organic substances. The fermentation of stable manure, liquid manure, energy crops, slaughterhouse waste and other organic waste takes place through decomposing organisms, such as bacteria and mould. Biomass and animal waste decomposition proceeds without the presence of free oxygen in a closed container called a fermenter. Biogas contains from 50 to 70 % of methane, from 25 to 50 % of carbon dioxide and a small mixture of hydrogen, nitrogen, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide and water vapour. Thus, biogas is one of the most efficient fuels with a favourable impact on the environment because it does not contribute to an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

6 Biogas Sources: The biogas production is one of the options for efficient treatment of organic waste. Biogas can be obtained from almost any organic substances that contain a sufficient portion of carbon, and from all the biological materials whose composition can be changed through the activities of microorganisms. MANURES ENERGY CROPS VEGETABLE WASTE MUNICIPAL ORGANIC WASTE pig, beef, sheep, goat, rabbit and chicken manure manure maize, grass and cereal silage beet leaves sugar beet fodder and crop residues fresh mown grass household waste animal by-products Production Biogas: The usual biogas production system includes the following elements: 1. Animal Excrement Collection Collecting manure as a liquid, slurry, semi-solid, or solid. 2. Anaerobic Fermenter A fermenter is an impermeable and hermetically sealed facility in which biogas is created and stored. It represents the most important part of gas production. Its choice depends on the planned or already existing manure collection system. 3. Sludge Collection Biogas and sludge are the products of the anaerobic fermentation of substrates in the reactor. Water, non-decomposed cellulose, lignin and minerals represent the greatest portion in sludge which is a rich organic fertilizer that returns nutrients and micro-organisms to the soil. 4. Gas Installation The gas collection system from the fermenter to the gas storage tank, from the gas transfer unit to the place of use, that is, to the engines and boilers, includes: piping, gas pump, gas flow meter, pressure regulator, condensate drain, and in some cases there is also a filter for sulphur removal from biogas

7 Biogas Usage: Biogas has the same characteristics as natural gas. Herefore, it can be used for the same purposes. The Most Frequent Methods for Using Biogas: heat and steam production, electric power generation, co-generation of heat and power (CHP), heating and cooling, direct burning for cooking and lighting, fuel for agricultural machinery, fuel for motor vehicles, fuel for boilers, hydrogen production from biogas and further use, production of chemicals

8 Benefits of Using Biogas: biogas is a renewable energy source, it reduces carbon dioxide and methane emissions, it reduces energy costs, it reduces odours, decentralized use / enhanced reliability of energy supply, biogas plants yield a high-quality fertilizer, biogas plants reduce soil and groundwater pollution, electric power and heat generation from stored solar energy in accordance with the current needs, independently of the season, it allows rational use of abandoned agricultural lands, additional activities in the energy area provide an additional source of income, it increases added value and the purchasing power in rural regions, it provides additional work for the domestic industry and handicrafts, it allows reduction in mineral fertilizer use, it essentially contributes to the preservation of our cultural landscape

9 The Technological Process of Biogas Production: In the fermentation process there are four different processes that follow each other until they produce CH 4 and CO 2. The processes take place under the influence of several types of anaerobic bacteria that are responsible for: hydrolysis of complex bonds in organic molecules (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, sugar, amino acids), fermentation (simple organic acids, alcohols), transformation into branched molecules with many methyl groups (acetic acid, hydrogen, formic acid, bicarbonate) and biogas synthesis. The biogas advantage lies mainly in the fact that it can relatively easily be converted into electric power. The biogas is burnt in a gas engine that drives an electric generator. In addition, a large amount of heat is released during combustion. This heat can be used for heating industrial processes or residential buildings. The produced biogas quantity will primarily depend on the input organic substances that enter the process, on ph factor, temperature and on the delay time values in fermenters

10 How to assess your resources for biogas production? For a rough estimate of the amount of biogas, which can be obtained according to the type and quantity of available livestock, you can use the table below. However, we recommend that this estimate is made by the Organica Company s expert who will precisely determine it to help you choose the most appropriate solution. Type of livestock Weight of animals Biogas production Kg m 3 /per animal per day Cattle Pigs Sheep Poultry Here we present a unique offer of Organica biogas power plants on a turnkey basis. Organica is a registered trademark of the Keter Group Energy Division

11 Why is it good to choose the Organica turnkey power plant by the Keter Group provider? Each investor is unique to us and receives an individual approach, we look for the most appropriate facility location for each particular investor, we assess his/her energy needs and additional options that can be achieved by producing biogas, we draw up a technological project and financial plan, we can arrange project financing, we can arrange to obtain the necessary consents and a building permit, the entire biogas power plant will be built by us, building the power plant and technology placement are constantly monitored by us, we can arrange to incorporate the biogas power plant into the power grid, we obtain the necessary certificates and a licence to carry out the works, we provide for starting up the biological process, biogas and energy production, we help each client to achieve optimization of biological processes and the highest efficiency, we train the future power plant operator

12 Additional advantages for choosing the Keter Group provider are the following: In Slovenia, we alone are able to consecutively supply devices to different investors, we provide the longest warranty on our technologically advanced devices, we have our own operating power plants. Potential investors can have a closer look at them, we have highly trained professionals with experience and our own laboratory, we continuously follow up biogas devices to upgrade them with new technological ideas and products that bring our customers higher added value and increased monthly revenues, we provide device services and prompt response of our experts, our devices have a quality certificate, we can construct a biogas power plant for any clients according to their requirements, needs and possibilities in order to make it the most profitable for them

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14 Process visualisation Gas analyzer Exhaust gas heat exchanger with a torch Gas flow from the fermenter to the postfermenter Gas engine with a generator Fermenter heaters Pneumatic valves Engine room

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16 The world is in your hands. Think green. Published by KETER GROUP, Titova cesta 2a, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia. Concept, design, photography by DCC marketing d. o. o., Vrbanska cesta 5, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia. All rights reserved. We apologize for any errors you may encounter in the text.

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GCE Environmental Technology. Energy from Biomass. For first teaching from September 2013 For first award in Summer 2014

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