POROSITY, SPECIFIC YIELD & SPECIFIC RETENTION. Physical properties of

 Stephany Conley
 6 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 POROSITY, SPECIFIC YIELD & SPECIFIC RETENTION Porosity is the the ratio of the voids to the total volume of an unconsolidated or consolidated material. Physical properties of n = porosity as a decimal fraction Primary Porosity: original Vt = the total volume of a material porosity in the rocks (i.e., initial Vs = the volume of the solids in the empty space between/within the material particles that make up the rock) Vv = the volume of the voids Secondary Porosity: porosity in a rock derived from external processes (i.e., fracturing, dissolution, etc.) Often, porosity is expressed as a percentage by multiplying the ratio by 100. Porosity also depends on the range of grain size (sorting) and shape of the subject material, but not on the size. Finegrained materials tend to be better sorted than coarsegrained materials, thereby exhibiting greater porosities. Source: Kasenow,
2 Specific yields of different formations Relation between Sp.Yield, Porosity and Specific retention HYDRAULIC HEAD & GRADIENTS HYDRAULIC HEAD & GRADIENTS water entering an unconfined or confined well will stand at a particular level. This level is often termed as the hydraulic head and is actually the sum of three components  the pressure head, elevation head and velocity head. The velocity head is often disregarded because ground water movement in most cases is relatively slow.
3 In practical applications, a depth to ground water measurement is obtained and subtracted from the top of the well casing elevation to measure total head. Note that the datum plane illustrated below is often calibrated to sea level. The direction of ground water movement can be understood in the fact that ground water always flows in the direction of decreasing head. The rate of movement on the other hand is dependent on the hydraulic gradient, which is the change in head per unit distance. The change in head measurement is ideally in the direction where the maximum difference of head decrease occurs. Hydraulic gradient In the example below, the hydraulic gradient is determined to be ft./ft. (the change in head divided by the change in distance). Notice the units are foot by foot but can be described in more inconsistent units such as foot per mile. Sand Tank Model for showing Hydraulic gradient
4 DARCY'S LAW & HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (K) DARCY'S LAW & HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (K) In the mid1800s the French engineer Henry Darcy successfully quantified several factors controlling ground water movement. These factors are expressed in an equation that is commonly known as Darcy's Law. Units for Hydraulic conductivity By rearranging Darcy's Law and solving for hydraulic conductivity (K) in common units we can get a sense of what hydraulic conductivity really represents. Velocity of ground water Another important factor controlling ground water movement is its velocity. The ground water velocity equation can be derived from a combination of the velocity equation of hydraulics and from, Darcy's Law.
5 Hydraulic conductivity in different rock types
6 Isotropic and heterogeneous The aquifer is homogeneous if hydraulic conductivity is the same and heterogeneous if different in different rock formations. If the value of hydraulic conductivity is the same in all directions, then the aquifer is said to be isotropic. If hydraulic conductivity is different in different directions, the aquifer is said to be anisotropic. Validity of Darcy s s law Darcy s law basically states that V H V is the average velocity Passing though the area of cross section and The factor of proportionality is K which is called as Hydraulic conductivity. As V is moving through the entire porous material, solids as well as pores, the volume rate of flow is calculated as Q= V * A. But the actual velocity in the soil is many times higher than the obtained at the cross section as water moves in the pores and can be assumed as though water is moving through capillary tubes.
7 Validity of Darcy s s law The relation between the actual velocity vm and the darcy s velocity v is as under Vm=(A/Acap)*v A= Total area normal to the flow Acap= sum of the cross sectional areas of capillarity tubes Vm=v/n where n= Porosity The Darcy s law is applicable only for laminar flow, for very small velocities and water molecules travel smooth paths and more or less parallel to the solid boundaries of the pores. If the velocities are increased, the flow becomes turbulent, and water moves in irregular manor and the Darcy s law is not applicable. Validity of Darcy s s law Groundwater is normally slow and the darcy s law is acceptable except is fractured/ cavernous flow. The flow regime is normally expressed as Reynolds no in fluid mechanics as under Nr=ρvD/µ v= velocity of the fluid D= dimension of conduit ( Diameter of pipe) ρ= density of fluid(gm/cm3) µ= viscosity of fluid (g/sms) or p µ/ ρ= kinematic viscosity of velocity If Nr= < 2100 the flow is laminar If Nr is in between 2100 to 4000, it is intermediate If Nr>4000 the flow is turbulent Factors affecting hydraulic conductivity Temperature Kt= (µ20/ µt) K20 Kt= K at temperature t µ t= Absolute viscosity at t K20= K at 20deg C µ 20= Absolute viscosity at 20 Quality of water K also has depends on the water quality (SAR= Na/sqrt((ca+mg)/2) Rainfall for unconfined aquifers Intrinsic permeability The intrinsic permeability of the porous medium is the property of the medium only and independent of the density and viscosity of the fluid. This can be expressed as K= K µ/ ρg (cm/sec) k= intrinsic permeability (Darcy=0.987*10^8 cm2) ρ=density of fluid(g/cm2) g=acceleration due to gravity(cm/s2) The preferred units are m/day 1 Darcy= 864/m/day
8 Intrinsic permeability Hydraulic conductivity of sands K=Cd^2 Where C= Constant depending on temp, packaging, grain size distribution and shape K= 1 m[(1α^2)(θ/100 P/dm)^2] α ^3 Where m= packing factor(=5) θ= Sand shape factor varying from 6 for spherical to 7.7 to angular grains, P= % of sand held between adjacent sieves dm= is the geometric mean of rated size of adjacent sieves. Sand analysis Hazen method The Hazen equation was used for sediments with a uniformity of less than 5 and an effective grain size (de, which is equal to d10) between 0.1 mm and 3 mm. The formula for the Hazen equation is: K = g/v Ch*f(n)d10^2 where: Ch = 6 x 104 f(n) = [1 + 10(n0.26)] the function of porosity, n. g = m/s2 Gravity acceleration. v = 1.14 x 106 the kinematic viscosity.
9 Kozeny method The Kozeny equation is applicable to course sand samples with a low uniformity of less than 2 and an effective grain size between 0.5 mm and 4 mm. The formula for the Kozeny equation is: K = g/v Ckf(n)d10^2 where: Ck = 8.3 x 103 f(n) = n3/(1n)2 Breyer method The Breyer equation is used for poorly sorted samples. The equation can be used for samples with uniformity values from 1 to 20 and effective grain sizes between 0.06 mm and 0.6 mm. The formula for the Breyer equation is: K = g/v Cbde^2 where: Cb = 6 x 104 log(500/u) DupuitForchheimer Assumptions Darcy s law can be used to solve one dimensional flow equations by assuming that the flow is purely horizontal and also uniformly distributed with depth. The vertical flow is negligible. These assumptions are called DupuitForchheimer assumptions One dimension problems Seepage from open channels Subsurface runoff Uniform infiltration and drainage to a stream Recharge rate of Leaky aquifer Height of perched water table Effect of river stage on water table in flood plain Aquifer parameters
10 TRANSMISSIVITY (T) Transmissivity (T) is the volume of water flowing through a crosssectional area of an aquifer that is 1 ft. x the aquifer thickness (b), under a hydraulic gradient of 1 ft./ 1 ft. in a given amount of time (usually a day). If we think about our definition of hydraulic conductivity, we can conclude that transmissivity (T) is actually equal to hydraulic conductivity(k) times aquifer thickness (b). Or otherwise denoted as T = Kb. We can also conclude that transmissivity is expressed as ft2/day because if T = Kb, then T = (ft./day)(ft./1). Storage Coefficient The "S" is used to represent the storage coefficient of an aquifer which is the volume of water released from an aquifer per 1 foot/ m surface area per 1 foot /m change in head. Notice that we are not speaking of water flowing through an aquifer, rather we are referring an aquifer's ability to store water. Mathematically, the storage coefficient is dimensionless as the equation below illustrates. The size of the storage coefficient is dependent whether the aquifer is unconfined or confined. In regards to a confined aquifer, water derived from storage is relative to; (1) the expansion of water as the aquifer is depressurized (pumped) and, (2) compression of the aquifer. In a confined aquifer setting, the load on top of an aquifer is supported by the solid rock skeleton and the hydraulic pressure exerted by water (the hydraulic pressure acts as a support mechanism). Because of these variables, the storage coefficient of most confined aquifers range from 105 to 103 ( to 0.001). Conversely, in an unconfined aquifer setting, the predominant source of water is from gravity drainage and the expansion of water and compaction of the rock skeleton is negligible. Thus, the storage coefficient is approximate to value of specific yield and ranges from 0.1 to about 0.3.
11 Diffusivity = T/S Specific Capacity Specific capacity is defined as the discharge in cum/day per m drawdown of a well C= Q/s Where C= Specific capacity of well(m^2/day) Q= discharge (cum/day) s= drawdown (m)
12 CONES OF DEPRESSION As water is withdrawn from a well, the water level in the well begins to decline as water is removed from storage in the well. The head in the well will fall below the level of the surrounding aquifer and water begins moving from the aquifer into the well. The water level will continue to decline and the flow rate of water into the well will increase until the inflow rate is equal to withdrawal rate. Water from the aquifer must converge on the well from all directions and the hydraulic gradient must get steeper near the well. For this reason the resultant 3D shape of water withdrawal is a called a cone of depression. End
SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY GROUND WATER HYDRAULICS
SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY GROUND WATER HYDRAULICS, Zerihun Alemayehu GROUNDWATER Groundwater takes 0.6% of the total water in the hydrosphere 0.31% of the total water in the hydrosphere has depth less than
More informationGroundwater Hydrology
Groundwater Hydrology Þröstur Þorsteinsson Environment and Natural Resources, University of Iceland Why study groundwater? Important source of fresh water Large portion of the Earth s fresh water as groundwater
More informationLecture 20: Groundwater Introduction
Lecture 20: Groundwater Introduction Key Questions for Groundwater 1. What is an aquifer? 2. What is an unconfined aquifer? 3. What is groundwater recharge? 4. What is porosity? What determines the magnitude
More informationGroundwater. Groundwater Movement. Groundwater Movement Recharge: the infiltration of water into any subsurface formation.
On March 22, 2014, a major landslide occurred near Oso, Washington. Death toll currently at 30, with 15 still missing. Groundwater Before and After Swipe http://bit.ly/pen1jt N. Fork Stillaguamish River
More informationModule 2. The Science of Surface and Ground Water. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 2 The Science of Surface and Ground Water Lesson 7 Well Hydraulics Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the student shall be able to learn the following: 1. The concepts of steady
More informationPE Exam Review  Geotechnical
PE Exam Review  Geotechnical Resources and Visual Aids Item Page I. Glossary... 11 II. Parameters... 9 III. Equations....11 IV. Tables, Charts & Diagrams... 14 1. Module 1  Soil Classification... 14
More informationWell Hydraulics. The time required to reach steady state depends on S(torativity) T(ransmissivity) BC(boundary conditions) and Q(pumping rate).
Well Hydraulics The time required to reach steady state depends on S(torativity) T(ransmissivity) BC(boundary conditions) and Q(pumping rate). cone of depression static water level (SWL) drawdown residual
More informationCHAPTER 13 OUTLINE The Hydrologic Cycle and Groundwater. Hydrologic cycle. Hydrologic cycle cont.
CHAPTER 13 OUTLINE The Hydrologic Cycle and Groundwater Does not contain complete lecture notes. To be used to help organize lecture notes and home/test studies. Hydrologic cycle The hydrologic cycle is
More informationEART 204. Water. Dr. Slawek Tulaczyk. Earth Sciences, UCSC
EART 204 Water Dr. Slawek Tulaczyk Earth Sciences, UCSC 1 Water is an amazing liquid, (high heat capacity  particularly in phase transitions, maximum density at ca. 4 deg. C) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Basin Hydrologic
More informationLecture 21: Groundwater: Hydraulic Conductivity
Lecture 21: Groundwater: Hydraulic Conductivity Key Questions 1. What causes groundwater to move? 2. What is the hydraulic conductivity? 3. What is Darcy s Law? 4. How is groundwater velocity estimated?
More information7.0 GROUNDWATER AND STABILIZER TRANSPORT MODELING
7.0 GROUNDWATER AND STABILIZER TRANSPORT MODELING 7.1 Introduction The concept of passive site remediation is the slow injection of stabilizing materials at the up gradient edge of a site and delivery
More informationSteady Flow in Confined Aquifer
Steady Flow in Confined Aquifer If there is steady movement of groundwater in confined aquifer, there will be a linear gradient /slope to the potentiometric surface, whose two directional projection is
More information7. The diagram below represents cross sections of equalsize beakers A, B, and C filled with beads.
Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents four tubes, labeled A, B, C, and D, each containing 150 ml of sediments. Tubes
More informationIntroduction to Groundwater. Photo: Joanne Offer/The IRC
Introduction to Groundwater Photo: Joanne Offer/The IRC Groundwater Groundwater is water that has permeated or percolated into the ground. It is an important part of the water cycle. Groundwater is an
More informationEast Maui Watershed Partnership Adapted from Utah State University and University of Wisconsin Ground Water Project Ages 7 th Adult
INTRODUCTION What is groundwater? Water contained in saturated soil and rock materials below the surface of the earth. It is not NEW water, but is recycled water through the hydraulic cycle. The source
More informationCHAPTER ONE OCCURRENCE OF GROUNDWATER
CHAPTER ONE OCCURRENCE OF GROUNDWATER 1.1 Introduction Groundwater is water that exists in the pore spaces and fractures in rocks and sediments beneath the Earth s surface. It originates as rainfall or
More informationLearning objectives. Upon successful completion of this lecture, the participants will be able to:
Solomon Seyoum Learning objectives Upon successful completion of this lecture, the participants will be able to: Describe and perform the required step for designing sewer system networks Outline Design
More informationPermeability, Flow Rate, and Hydraulic Conductivity Determination for Variant Pressures and Grain Size Distributions
Permeability, Flow Rate, and Hydraulic Conductivity Determination for Variant Pressures and Grain Size Distributions Nick Desiderio, npd5050@psu.edu, February 18, 2014 Abstract Carbon capture and storage
More informationThis document downloaded from vulcanhammer.net vulcanhammer.info Chet Aero Marine
This document downloaded from vulcanhammer.net vulcanhammer.info Chet Aero Marine Don t forget to visit our companion site http://www.vulcanhammer.org Use subject to the terms and conditions of the respective
More informationDr. Yahya K. Atemimi 2017 University of Babylon Civil Eng. Dept. Chapter five SOIL WATER AND WATER FLOW
Chapter five SOIL WATER AND WATER FLOW 51 Introduction Water can flow through the interconnected soil pore. Water in the pore is under pressure, the pressure is measured relative to the atmospheric pressure.
More informationAquifer Type. Karst. Rock. Aquifer Characteristics. Permeability Mostly 1 0 Mostly 2 0 Almost All 2 0 Flow Slow, laminar Possibly fast/turbulent
Karst Aquifer Tests Karst The term karst is derived from the Slovenian word kras, which is the name of a mountain range on the border between Slovenia and Italy. The term karst is most often applied to
More informationWEEK 9 ACTIVITY. Lecture (3 hours) Self Assessment. 34 slides
WEEK 9 ACTIVITY Lecture (3 hours) 34 slides Self Assessment Site Investigation (ECG513) ARM  2009 LEARNING OUTCOMES Week 9 : (3H) Coverage : Geophysical Methods, Permeability and Ground Stress measurement.
More informationLab 6  Pumping Test. Pumping Test. Laboratory 6 HWR 431/
Pumping Test Laboratory 6 HWR 431/531 71 Introduction: Aquifer tests are performed to evaluate the capacity of an aquifer to meet municipal or industrial water requirements. Hydraulic characteristics
More informationPage 1. Name:
Name: 75741  Page 1 1) The diagram below shows the result of leaving an empty, dry clay flowerpot in a full container of water for a period of time. The water level in the container dropped to level
More informationStandard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) 1
Designation: D 2434 68 (Reapproved 2000) Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 2434; the number immediately following
More informationGroundWater Flow to Wells Introduction. Drawdown Caused by a Pumping Well
1 GroundWater Flow to Wells Introduction Wells used to control salt water intrusion, remove contaminated water, lower the water table for construction, relieve pressure under dams, and drain farmland
More informationGEL Hydrogeology (Groundwater) LAB 2: POROSITY & HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY  Porosity Segment  Grade: /25
GEL 4250  Hydrogeology (Groundwater) LAB 2: POROSITY & HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY  Porosity Segment  Name: Section: Grade: /25 COMPLETE & TURN IN ONLY PAGES THAT HAVE A FIELD FOR YOUR NAME. ALL OTHER PAGES
More informationHYDROGEOLOGY LECTURE
HYDROGEOLOGY LECTURE dl NOTES EDITION 2.3 dh A Q dh/dl K Q/A Matthew M. Uliana, Ph.D., P.G. ED. 2.3 Hydrogeology Lecture Notes Matthew M. Uliana, Ph.D., P.G. Edition 2.3 Last revision: January 2012 Please
More informationGroundwater Flow Evaluation and Spatial Geochemical Analysis of the Queen City Aquifer, Texas
Groundwater Flow Evaluation and Spatial Geochemical Analysis of the Queen City Aquifer, Texas Abstract The Queen City Aquifer is a saturated sandstone unit in the coastal plain of East Texas. The goals
More informationUnderstanding Earth Fifth Edition
Understanding Earth Fifth Edition Grotzinger Jordan Press Siever Chapter 17: THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE AND GROUNDWATER Lecturer: H Mohammadzadeh Assistant professors, Department of Geology, FUM Copyright 2007
More informationGY 111 Lecture Note Series Groundwater and Hydrogeology
GY 111 Lecture Notes D. Haywick (200809) 1 GY 111 Lecture Note Series Groundwater and Hydrogeology Lecture Goals A) The hydrologic cycle B) Groundwater dynamics C) Mapping groundwater (done in class not
More informationFluid Flow in Porous Media
Fluid Flow in Porous Media Petroleum Engineering 524 Fall 2010 Written by Thomas W. Engler, Ph.D., P.E. Professor of Petroleum Engineering New Mexico Tech Copyright 2010 Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction
More informationOverview. Students will...
Overview Students will... Understand the interaction between ground water and surface water. Observe the difference between a permeable layer and an impermeable layer in an aquifer. See how water is stored
More informationThe Hydrosphere: Lecture 8: Groundwater. Paul R. Houser,27 March 2012, Page 1
The Hydrosphere: Lecture 8: Groundwater Paul R. Houser,27 March 2012, Page 1 Groundwater How is groundwater formed? What are the zones of subsurface water and their characteristics? What is a water table,
More informationDRAINAGE & DESIGN OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Drainage on Highways DRAINAGE & DESIGN OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM P. R.D. Fernando Chartered Engineer B.Sc.(Hons), M.Eng. C.Eng., MIE(SL) Drainage Requirement of Highway Drainage System Introduction Drainage means
More informationProceedings of the 13 th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Athens, Greece, 57 September 2013
Proceedings of the 13 th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Athens, Greece, 57 September 2013 HYDROGEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION FOR DELINEATING DRILLING SITES FOR ARTIFICIAL
More information(,,,) = ( )exp ( + C(x,y,z,t) = the concentration of the contaminant at location x, y, z from the source at time t.
INTRODUCTION Quick Domenico.xls (QD) is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application of An Analytical Model For Multidimensional Transport of a Decaying Contaminant Species, by P.A. Domenico, Journal of Hydrology,
More informationLeachate Management Leachate Control and Collection
Leachate Management Leachate Control and Collection Leachate Collection Sanitary landfills have leachate collection and removal system above liner At unlined landfills and dump sites Perimeter Ditch 
More informationEffect of the Underlying Groundwater System on the Rate of Infiltration of Stormwater Infiltration Structures.
Effect of the Underlying Groundwater System on the Rate of Infiltration of Stormwater Infiltration Structures. Presented at: Storm Water Infiltration & Groundwater Recharge A Conference on Reducing Runoff
More informationWater supply components
Water supply components Water sources structures (Dams, wells, reservoirs) Surface water Groundewater Pipelines from source Water treatment plant components Pumping stations Storage (elevated tanks) Distribution
More informationAPPLICABILITY OF CARMANKOZENY EQUATION FOR WELL CONSOLIDATED SAMPLES
SCA2013080 1/6 APPLICABILITY OF CARMANKOZENY EQUATION FOR WELL CONSOLIDATED SAMPLES Babak Salimifard, University of Manitoba, Douglas Ruth, Faculty of Engineering, University of Manitoba, Craig Lindsay,
More informationComparison between Neuman (1975) and Jacob (1946) application for analysing pumping test data of unconfined aquifer
Comparison between Neuman (1975) and Jacob (1946) application for analysing pumping test data of unconfined aquifer Dana Mawlood 1*, Jwan Mustafa 2 1 Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering,
More informationCapture Zone Analyses For Pump and Treat Systems. Internet Seminar Version: September 4, 2008
Capture Zone Analyses For Pump and Treat Systems Internet Seminar Version: September 4, 2008 1 1 Background Hydraulic containment of impacted ground water (i.e., plume capture ) is one of the remedy objectives
More informationHomework # 4  Solutions Fluid Flow (5 problems)
Homework # 4  Solutions Fluid Flow (5 problems) 1. An openended cylindrical standpipe contains a soil specimen as shown below. The soil is saturated with void ratio = 0.75 and specific gravity = 2.7.
More informationDischarge Lake/Wetland: Generalized Monitoring Strategy
Discharge Lake/Wetland: Generalized Monitoring Strategy General Hydrologic Characteristics of Discharge Lakes & Wetlands Discharge lakes and wetlands are in direct hydraulic connection with the watertable
More information22 Tubewell Drainage Systems
22 Tubewell Drainage Systems WK Boehmer' and J Boonstra2 221 Introduction ' Tubewell drainage is a technique of controlling the watertable and salinity in agricultural areas It consists of pumping, from
More informationAPPENDIX G HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE
Storm Drainage 13G1 APPENDIX G HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE 1.0 Introduction The hydraulic grade line is used to aid the designer in determining the acceptability of a proposed or evaluation of an existing storm
More informationFlow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in High Porosity Metal Foams
Proceedings of the World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering (MCM 2015) Barcelona, Spain July 2021, 2015 Paper No. 333 Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in High Porosity Metal
More informationCIV E Geotechnical Engineering I Consolidation
Purpose Determine the magnitude and time rate of settlement for a compressible cohesive soil. Required reading Das 2006 Sections 10.4 to 10.16 (pages 312 to 358). Theory Bringing soil samples into the
More informationAnalysis Fraction Flow of Water versus Cumulative Oil Recoveries Using Buckley Leverett Method
Analysis Fraction Flow of Water versus Cumulative Oil Recoveries Using Buckley Leverett Method Reza Cheraghi Kootiani, and Ariffin Bin Samsuri International Science Index, Physical and Mathematical Sciences
More informationSimulation of horizontal well performance using Visual MODFLOW
Environ Earth Sci (2013) 68:1119 1126 DOI 10.1007/s126650121813x ORIGINAL ARTICLE Simulation of horizontal well performance using Visual MODFLOW Wan Mohd Zamri W. Ismail Ismail Yusoff Bahaaeldin E.
More informationGroundwater Risk Assessment
Groundwater Risk Assessment ELQF  6 November 2012 Katy Baker Technical Director ARCADIS (UK) Limited Imagine the result Problem definition The importance of the CSM 2 The definition of the problem: 3
More informationCHAPTER 2. Objectives of Groundwater Modelling
CHAPTER 2 Objectives of Groundwater Modelling In the last two decades mathematical modelling techniques have increasingly proved their value in furthering the understanding of groundwater systems and,
More informationCurriculum Guide to the Sand Tank Groundwater Model
Curriculum Guide to the Sand Tank Groundwater Model By: Don Lane WV Conservation Agency Figure 1 Components of the Model Note: Do not use the injection wells. Liquid placed in the wells takes too long
More informationWater Budget IV: Soil Water Processes P = Q + ET + G + ΔS
Water Budget IV: Soil Water Processes P = Q + ET + G + ΔS Infiltration Infiltration capacity: The maximum rate at which water can enter soil. Infiltration capacity curve: A graph showing the timevariation
More informationAnalytical Determination of the Effect of Biofilm Growth on the Pressure Drop over a Biofilter
Proceedings of the World Congress on Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer (MHMT 16) Prague, Czech Republic April 4 5, 2016 Paper No. ICMFHT 105 DOI: 10.11159/icmfht16.105 Analytical Determination of the Effect
More informationMultiphase Flow in the Subsurface  Flow of a Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL)
Multiphase Flow in the Subsurface  Flow of a Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) March 29, 2011 Wonyong Jang, Ph.D., P.E. Multimedia Environmental Simulations Laboratory (MESL) School of Civil and Environmental
More informationMemorandum. Introduction. Carl Einberger Joe Morrice. Figures 1 through 7
Memorandum TO: Michelle Halley, NWF DATE: October 9, 2007 FROM: Carl Einberger Joe Morrice PROJ. NO.: 9885.000 CC: Project File PROJ. NAME: National Wildlife Federation ATTACHMENTS: Tables 1 through 6
More informationCTB3365x Introduction to Water Treatment
CTB3365x Introduction to Water Treatment W2c Primary sedimentation Jules van Lier The screened and degritted sewage is further conveyed towards the biological treatment step. Can we remove some part of
More informationPrediction for Natural Recharging In Langat Basin and Ukm Campus as Case Study
Prediction for Natural Recharging In Langat Basin and Ukm Campus as Case Study 1 Mohaad Fawzi Al Ajlouni, 2 Rakmi Abd Rahman, 3 Abdul Ghani Rafek, 4 Mazlin Mokhtar, 5 Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri 1, 5 Department
More informationDefinitions 3/16/2010. GG22A: GEOSPHERE & HYDROSPHERE Hydrology
GG22A: GEOSPHERE & HYDROSPHERE Hydrology Definitions Streamflow volume of water in a river passing a defined point over a specific time period = VxA discharge m 3 s 1 Runoff excess precipitation  precipitation
More informationEES 1001 Lab 9 Groundwater
EES 1001 Lab 9 Groundwater Water that seeps into the ground, and is pulled down by gravity through void spaces (*see below) in the soil and bedrock eventually percolates down to a saturated zone, a waterlogged
More informationINJEÇÃO DE CO 2 PARA PRODUÇÃO ACRESCIDA DE METANO DE CARVÃO EM CAMADA CO 2 INJECTION FOR ENHANCED COALBED METHANE (ECBM)
INJEÇÃO DE CO 2 PARA PRODUÇÃO ACRESCIDA DE METANO DE CARVÃO EM CAMADA CO 2 INJECTION FOR ENHANCED COALBED METHANE (ECBM) C.F. Rodrigues 1 & M.J. Lemos de Sousa 3 1 FPENAS, University of Fernando Pessoa,
More informationAn experimental study of permeability determination in the lab
Petroleum and Mineral Resources 221 An experimental study of permeability determination in the lab E. Lock, M. Ghasemi, M. Mostofi & V. Rasouli Department of Petroleum Engineering, Curtin University, Australia
More informationDesign Guideline for Gravity Systems in Soil Type 1. January 2009
Design Guideline for Gravity Systems in Soil Type 1 January 2009 This page is intentionally blank. Design Guideline for Gravity Systems in Soil Type 1 January 2009 For information or additional copies
More informationAGSM 337/BAEN 465 Sedimentation, Flow Equalization Page 1 of 7
AGSM 337/BAEN 465 Sedimentation, Flow Equalization Page 1 of 7 Definition of Sedimentation Gravitational accumulation of solids (particles) at the bottom of a fluid (air or water) Essentially settling
More informationA NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR EXTRACTION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FROM ABANDONED OIL WELLS
A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR EXTRACTION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FROM ABANDONED OIL WELLS Seyed Ali GhoreishiMadiseh McGill University 3450 University St., Room 125 Montreal, QC, Canada H3A2A7 email: seyed.ghoreishimadiseh
More informationDRAINAGE DESIGN AND RUTTING PERFORMANACE GUIDELINES FOR PERMEABLE PAVEMENT
DRAINAGE DESIGN AND RUTTING PERFORMANACE GUIDELINES FOR PERMEABLE PAVEMENT by Su Ling Cao Daryl Poduska Graduate Assistants Dan G. Zollinger Associate Professor Sponsored by The UniGroup U.S.A. The Department
More informationEFFECT OF NATURAL CONVECTION PATTERNS ON OPTIMAL LOCATION AND SIZE OF A HEAT SINK IN A GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR
PROCEEDINGS, ThirtySixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 31  February 2, 2011 SGPTR191 EFFECT OF NATURAL CONVECTION PATTERNS ON OPTIMAL
More informationPropagation of water table waves in unconfined aquifers
Griffith Research Online https://researchrepository.griffith.edu.au Propagation of water table waves in unconfined aquifers Author Jazayeri Shoushtari, Amir, Cartwright, Nick Published 203 Conference
More information*** IN THE PUMPING WELL
Specific Capacity = discharge rate/max drawdown after pumping at a constant, known rate for a time until apparent equilibrium is reached (i.e., minimal change in drawdown with time) Theis et al, 1963 
More informationStandards for Soil Erosion and Sediment Control in New Jersey May 2012 STANDARD FOR RIPRAP. Conditions Where Practice Applies
STANDARD FOR RIPRAP Definition A layer of loose rock, aggregate, bagged concrete, gabions, or concrete revetment blocks placed over an erodible soil surface. Purpose The purpose of riprap is to protect
More informationA MODEL FOR SOIL OXYGEN DELIVERY TO WASTEWATER INFILTRATION SURFACES. J. Erickson, E. J. Tyler* ABSTRACT
#4.44 A MODEL FOR SOIL OXYGEN DELIVERY TO WASTEWATER INFILTRATION SURFACES J. Erickson, E. J. Tyler* ABSTRACT Soil could accept onsite wastewater at rates two to three orders of magnitude higher than the
More informationPeriod #17: Soil Compressibility and Consolidation (III)
Period #17: Soil Compressibility and Consolidation (III) A. Review: In discussing the behavior of soil deposits, we have covered the two most basic issues: a) For given soil properties and applied loads,
More informationContinuous Simulation Modeling of Stormwater Ponds, Lakes, & Wetlands: A BUILTIN APPLICATION OF PONDS 3.2
Continuous Simulation Modeling of Stormwater Ponds, Lakes, & Wetlands: A BUILTIN APPLICATION OF PONDS 3.2 PRESENTED AT THE SFWMD WORKSHOP PREDEVELOPMENT VERSUS POST DEVELOPMENT RUNOFF VOLUME ANALYSIS
More informationThe Borehole Permeameter Approach for Stormwater Infiltration Testing
The Borehole Permeameter Approach for Stormwater Infiltration Testing AWRA National Conference J. Scott Kindred, PE Kindred Hydro, Inc. November 9, 2017 Topics Covered Borehole permeameter (BP) equation
More informationInfiltration well and urban drainage concept
Future Groundwater Resources at Risk (Proceedings of the Helsinki Conference, June 1994). IAHSPubl.no. 222, 1994. 527 Infiltration well and urban drainage concept S. SUNJOTO Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah
More informationS.P. YIM Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute P.O.Box 150, Yusong, Daejon, Republic of Korea
Hydrodynamic Dispersion Coefficients in a Porous Medium with Parallel Fractures  C.K. Lee Handong Global University 3 Namsongri, Heunghaeeub, Bukgu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791708 Republic of Korea S.P.
More informationCHAPTER 4 GROUNDWATER
CHAPTER 4 GROUNDWATER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 I suppose I don t need to tell you that groundwater is the term used for the liquid water that s present beneath the land surface in the pore spaces in regolith
More informationGROUNDWATER General Facts and Concepts
GROUNDWATER General Facts and Concepts General schematic of hydrologic cycle. As the term implies, water moves within the cycle and groundwater (aquifer) is just one zone of the cycle. Aquifers and Wells
More informationInfiltration. Lecture Outline. Intro to Infiltration GreenAmpt method for infiltration Other methods to calculate infiltration Measuring infiltration
Infiltration CVEN 4333 Spring 2016 Topic 9 Lecture Outline Intro to Infiltration GreenAmpt method for infiltration Other methods to calculate infiltration Measuring infiltration CVEN 4333 Spring 2016
More informationCONTROL VOLUME ANALYSIS USING ENERGY. By Ertanto Vetra
CONTROL VOLUME ANALYSIS USING ENERGY 1 By Ertanto Vetra Outlines Mass Balance Energy Balance Steady State and Transient Analysis Applications 2 Conservation of mass Conservation of mass is one of the most
More informationDesign of a passive hydraulic containment system using FEFLOW modelling
Design of a passive hydraulic containment system using FEFLOW modelling Rémi Vigouroux remi.vigouroux@arteliagroup.com Florence Lenhardt florence.lenhardt@arteliagroup.com Noëlle Doucet noelle.doucet@arteliagroup.com
More informationCOMSOL Multiphysics Simulation of Flow in a Radial Flow Fixed Bed Reactor (RFBR)
COMSOL Multiphysics Simulation of Flow in a Radial Flow Fixed Bed Reactor (RFBR) Anthony G. Dixon *,1, Dominic Polcari 1, Anthony Stolo 1 and Mai Tomida 1 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester
More informationMultiphysics Modelling of Sound Absorption in Rigid Porous Media Based on Periodic Representations of Their Microstructural Geometry
Multiphysics Modelling of Sound Absorption in Rigid Porous Media Based on Periodic Representations of Their Microstructural Geometry TOMASZ G. ZIELIŃSKI Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
More informationEstimating Streambed and Aquifer Parameters from a Stream/Aquifer Analysis Test
Hydrology Days 2003, 6879 Estimating Streambed and Aquifer Parameters from a Stream/Aquifer Analysis Test Garey Fox 1 Ph.D. Candidate, Water Resources, Hydrologic, and Environmental Sciences Division,
More informationTiming Key Narrative Snapshots a) 00:44 How does groundwater recharge occur? How do streams form?
Module 4 Narration: Runoff and Recharge Timing Key Narrative Snapshots a) 00:44 How does groundwater recharge occur? How do streams form? These processes are closely linked. Lets first investigate how
More informationSTAGNATION POINTS: ANALYTICAL THEORIC APPROACH
STAGNATION POINTS: ANALYTICAL THEORIC APPROACH By V. Francani, L. Colombo and D. Cremonesi vincenzo.francani@polimi.it, loris.colombo@polimi.it, daniele.cremonesi@polimi.it Index 1 ABSTRACT... INTRODUCTION...
More informationLeaky Aquifers. log s drawdown. log time. will the red observation well look more like?.. A infinite aquifer. D none of the above
Leaky Aquifers b K S s unpumped aquifer b K S s b 1 K 1 S s1 aquitard pumped aquifer previously K was zero (i.e. no leakage) subscript 1 = pumped zone subscript = unpumped aquifer prime = aquitard = pumping
More informationPrimary Recovery Mechanisms
Primary Recovery Mechanisms The recovery of oil by any of the natural drive mechanisms is called primary recovery. The term refers to the production of hydrocarbons from a reservoir without the use of
More informationIntroduction. Welcome to the Belgium Study Abroad Program. Courses:
Introduction Welcome to the Belgium Study Abroad Program Courses: AGSM 335: Soil and Water Management BAEN 460: Principals of Environmental Hydrology BAEN 460 / AGSM 335 Combined lecture and HW sessions
More informationChapter 2: Aquifers and groundwater
Chapter 2: Aquifers and groundwater Groundwater movement through aquifers is driven by differences in groundwater levels or pressure and is controlled by how porous the material is that it passes through.
More informationModule 7: Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains. Lecture 7: Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains
Module 7: Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains Lecture 7: Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains 7.0 HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF SEWERS AND STORM WATER DRAINS 7.1 General Consideration
More informationUNIT HYDROGRAPH AND EFFECTIVE RAINFALL S INFLUENCE OVER THE STORM RUNOFF HYDROGRAPH
UNIT HYDROGRAPH AND EFFECTIVE RAINFALL S INFLUENCE OVER THE STORM RUNOFF HYDROGRAPH INTRODUCTION Water is a common chemical substance essential for the existence of life and exhibits many notable and unique
More informationHydrology. Jürg M. Matter LamontDoherty Earth Observatory, The Earth Institute at Columbia University. May 9, 2008
Well Logging Principles and Applications Hydrology Jürg M. Matter LamontDoherty Earth Observatory, The Earth Institute at Columbia University May 9, 2008 Outline Background Flowmeter Logging Fluid Movement
More informationEstablishing Critical Protective Concentration Levels (PCLs) for LeadAffected Soils
Establishing Critical Protective Concentration Levels (PCLs) for LeadAffected oils Introduction Effective Date: August 2, 2001 The purpose of this document is to describe the processes for establishing
More informationGROUNDWATER FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA
GROUNDWTER FLOW IN POROUS MEDI. lcolea, Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering & Geosciences; School of Civil Engineering. Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), SPIN.. Medina, Dept. pplied Mathematics III;
More informationNumerical Simulation of Variabledensity Groundwater Flow: Submarine Groundwater Discharge
Numerical Simulation of Variabledensity Groundwater Flow: Submarine Groundwater Discharge Bill X. Hu and Xinya Li Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences Florida State University Submarine
More informationCEE 371 Water and Wastewater Systems
Updated: 22 November 2009 CEE 371 Water and Wastewater Systems Print version Lecture #19 Drinking Water Treatment: Granular Media Filtration (cont.) Reading: Chapter 7, pp.217225 David Reckhow CEE 371
More informationReservoir Engineering
Reservoir Engineering How much oil is in place? How much oil is recoverable? How can I maximize oil recovery? Under economic constraints Origin of Petroleum Where are the resources? Traps Dome trap Fault
More information