Biofuels. Letizia Bua

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1 Biofuels Letizia Bua

2 Biofuels What is a biofuel? What the European Community says about it? How we can produce it? (Technology options) eni and renewable energy 2

3 What is a biofuel? interesting!

4 Life cycle of biomass CO 2 CO 2 Emissions (combustion) Fixation (photosynthesis) C 6 H 14 C 6 H 12 O 6 Conversion

5 What the European Community says about it?

6 Renewable Energy Directive (RED) In order to reduce CO 2 emissions, the European Community indicates a quantity of biofuels to use. The RED fixes that 10% of energy in transport sector at 2020 must be from biofuels, electricity and hydrogen produced from renewable. The suggested pathway is: % ,5% ,5% ,5% of which 1,2% advanced biofuel ,0% of which 1,2% advanced % of which 1,6% advanced % of which 2,0% advanced What does advanced means?

7 Biofuels: are all the same? 1 st generation Competition with food (e.g. corn) 2 nd generation Lignocellulosic waste: from forest, agricultur, organic fraction of municipal waste (not in competion with food) advanced 3 rd generation Not in competition with food, nor with land use (e.g. algae)

8 Biofuels production(mt): now 3 Bioethanol Biodiesel Corn 43 Tot: 46 Tot: Tot: Tot: 24 Palm Sugar Cane Rapeseed Now the biofuels are most of 1 st generation Fonte:

9 How we can produce it? (Technology options)

10 From biomass to biofuels Biochemical Conversion Thermochemical Conversion Saccharification /Fermentation Anaerobic Digestion Photsynthetic Processes Pyrolysis Liquefaction Gasification Hydrotreating

11 Biofuels s spectrum Bioethanol Biodiesel (FAME) Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Biomethane Pyrolysis Bio-oil Biomass to Liquid (BtL)

12 Bioethanol + C O 2 Sugars Ethanol Carbon Dioxide

13 Bioethanol: the most ancient! Biomass Fermentation Distribution Grape cultivation, winemaking, and commerce in ancient Egypt ca BC Fonte:

14 Ethanol (1 st generation) grinding crushing Bagasse ( energy) Sugarcane Molasses (10-15% sucrose) Fermentation Sucrose Distillation/ Dehydratation EtOH 7-10% EtOH 99,7%

15 Ethanol (1 st generation) grinding Corn liquefaction saccharification α-amylase (80-90 C) glucoamylase (30 C) Enzymes glucose Fermentation EtOH 8-12% Distillation/ dehydratation EtOH 99,7%

16 Ethanol (2 nd generation) Lignocellulosic Biomass

17 Saccharification process of lignocellulosic biomass Lignin Cellulose Hemicellulose Hydrolized Hemicellulose Sugar

18 Biodiesel: FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) Triglycerides Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME)

19 Biodiesel (1 st generation) MeOH (catalyst) MeONa Transesterification Oil Extraction Purification Glycerol Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Oleaginous Plant

20 Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Triglycerides HVO

21 Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) H 2 Hydrodeoxygenation Triglycerides / fatty acids H 2 Isomerization Distillation HVO

22 Green Refinery Projects Venice and Gela (I) Venice refinery has been converted into a biorefinery. eni with some partners (UOP) has developed a technology (Ecofining) to produce HVO (Greendiesel). An Ecofining plant started to work in January 2014, producing about ton/year of biofuels. The maximum capacity of the biorefinery is ton/year of biofuels. A conversion in biorefinery is announced for Gela refinery too. An other Ecofinig plant is planned for 2017.

23 Diesel from microbial oil HVO Triglycerides Sugar

24 Microbial oil (2 nd generation) Pretreatment Saccharomyces ( EtOH) Saccharification Lignocellulosic Biomass lignin Fermentation Cell lysis The microbial oil is equivalent to the vegetable oil. Extraction Oleaginous micro-organisms microbial oil Greendiesel (HVO)

25 Diesel from Algae Diesel Fuel Microalgae Lipids

26 3 rd Generation Biodiesel Microalgae are able to store up to 70% weight of oil inside the cell. Microalgae Oil content (% dry weight) Botryococcus braunii Chlorella sp Crypthecodinium cohnii 20 Cylindrotheca sp Nitzschia sp Phaeodactylum tricornutum Schizochytrium sp Tetraselmis suecia Fonte: Y. Chisti / Biotechnology Advances 25 (2007)

27 Diesel from Algae: production process CO 2 emissions CO 2 sun water nutrients open ponds Water treatment/ recycle settling Jet fuel Diesel fuel upgrading algal oil algal biomass extraction

28 Diesel from Algae: oil productivity Productivity (oil, t/ha/y) Corn Soybean Rapeseed Sunflower Palm Microalgae (30%w Suitable oil) climatic regions for 50* microalgae : Microalgae (70%w annual average oil) temperatures 120* of > 15 C Optimal cultivation zone (*) Fonte: Y. Chisti / Biotechnology Advances 25 (2007)

29 Microalgae cultivation: pilot plant at eni refinery (Gela, Sicily, I) Since 2011 ~ 1 ha Productivity: up to 100 t/ha/y of algal biomass

30 Biomethane Organic waste (solid and liquid) + C O 2 Biomass Methane

31 Biochemical Conversion: BIOGAS Biomass Biogas (methane + CO 2 ) Fertilizers Animal manure Heat Organic waste Methanogens Electricity

32 Thermochemical conversion gas liquid Biomass solid Heat Energy Carrier

33 Thermochemical conversion: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction (hydrothermal) Pyrolysis Biomass DRY Bio-oil Refinery Liquid fuels Liquefaction Biomass WET Bio-oil Refinery Liquid fuels

34 Waste to Fuel Biomass (wet ~65% H 2 O) wet organic fraction of municipal solid waste waste from food processing sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants Waste to Fuel pilot plant at eni - Renewable Energy and Environmental R&D Center (Novara, I)

35 Biomass to liquid(btl) Biomass DRY Bio-syngas Refinery Fuels (liquid)

36 Biomass to Liquid (BtL): ancient origins A car built in the 1940s with a wood gas generator device *. Wood gas generator (gasogen): is a bulky and heavy device that transforms burning wood in a mix of molecular hydrogen (H 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), molecular nitrogen (N 2 ) and water vapor (H 2 O). This gas mixture, known as "wood gas", "poor gas" or syngas can fuel an internal combustion engine. *

37 From syngas to liquids: Fischer Tropsch synthesis Prof. Franz Fischer Dr. Hans Tropsch Developed in 1935 Bio-syngas FT Synthesis Waxes C 35 -C 120 Wax upgrading

38 Fischer Tropsch waxes: upgrading Waxes C 35 -C 120 Hydrotreating C 5 -C 11 Gasoline C 12 -C 15 C 9 -C 25 Diesel C 18 -C 70 Bio-lubricant Jet fuel

39 European Projects on biofuels BtL FASTCARD, Fast-pyrolysis/upgrading CASCATBEL,

40 Thank you for your attention Information contained in this presentation was produced within the NECST project "A New Energy Culture: Sustainability and Territories" funded under the Erasmus Plus Programme by the European Commission. This presentation is the sole responsibility of the NECST Project and does not represent the opinion of the European Commission or of the National Agency Indire nor is the European Commission or the National Agency Indire responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains 40

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