Happamoittavien päästöjen vaikutus ilmakehän hiilidioksiditasapainoon.

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1 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Happamoittavien päästöjen vaikutus ilmakehän hiilidioksiditasapainoon. TkT Tuomo Suntola Termodynaaminen analyysi osoittaa, että valtameret-ilmakehä -systeemiä suljettuna systeeminä tarkasteltuna, vuotuiset rikki- ja typpioksidien päästöt valtamerten 10 metrin pintaveteen sekoitettuna rajoittavat ilmakehään syötetyn hiilidioksidin liukenemista siten, että hiilidioksidin tasapainotilaa vastaava osapaine ilmakehässä nousee havaittua 0,4 prosentin vuotuista kasvua vastaavalle tasolle. Living with Climate Variability and Change, WMO2006, , Espoo, Finland. Suntola, T., Turunen, H., Kobylin, P., Salminen, J., Liukkonen, S., Do the SOx and NOx emissions contribute to the increase of the CO2 level through acidification of soil and waters?,

2 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Do the SOx and NOx emissions contribute to the increase of the CO2 level through acidification of soil and waters? Living with Climate Variability and Change, WMO2006, , Espoo, Finland Suntola, T., Turunen, H., Kobylin, P., Salminen, J., Liukkonen, S.

3 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo file:///c:/users/tuomo/skydrive/ts%20arkisto/luennot%20ja%20seminaarit,%20energy/2006%200718%20ilmastokokous,%20dipoli/support/ipc C,%20CO2%20capture%20and%20storage.pdf

4 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Carbon circulation in nature Atmosphere 700 Gt 7 Gt/y 50 Mt/y 100 Gt/y 60 Gt/y Forests 450 Gt Oceans Gt Oil & gas 300 Gt Grass, ect. 100 Gt Soil 1300 Gt Coal 5000 Gt Sediment layer Gt? Sedimentary rocks (limestone) Gt?

5 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Carbon distribution in atmosphere and oceans 7 Gt annual CO 2 emissions 700 Gt atmosphere Natural CO 2 exchange 100 Gt/y 50 Mt annual SO x emissions Oceans Gt 700 Gt 100 m surface layer Gt deep oceans

6 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Reaction equations and the calculation procedure for the multiphase CaCO 3 -CO 2 -H 2 O system in the presence of sulfuric acid CO g CO aq (1) CO aq +H O H +HCO (2) HCO H +CO (3) CaCO s Ca +CO (4) 3 3 H SO l HSO +H (5) HSO H +SO (6) T and p - standard H, C, S data - model for G E Solver for minimum (G) - concentrations - activities, ph - partial pressures - equilibrium constants

7 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo The effect of anthropogenic CO 2 and SO x emissions on the equilibrium partial pressure of CO 2 in closed atmosphere ocean system. 70 Mt annual SO x emissions 7 Gt annual CO 2 emissions 7 Gt annual CO 2 emissions atmosphere 720 Gt p(co 2 ) = 380 [ppm] =p 0 (CO 2 ) atmosphere 720 Gt p(co 2 ) =p 0 (CO 2 ) % atmosphere 723 Gt p(co 2 ) =p 0 (CO 2 ) % ocean Gt ocean Gt ocean Gt (a) (b) (c)

8 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Equilibrium between CO 2 pressure and ocean at different temperatures 1E-3 P(CO2)/bar 8E-4 6E-4 Effect of annual acid rain in 1 meter surface layer CO2 pressure in the atmosphere 4E-4 2E-4 T=25 C T=15 C T= 5 C 0 0 2E-4 4E-4 6E-4 8E-4 1E-3 CaCO3 mol/kg

9 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Equilibrium between CO 2 pressure and ocean at different temperatures 4,500E-04 p(co2) [bar] Annual increase in the p(co 2 ) pressure 4,000E-04 T=25 C 3,500E-04 Effect of annual acid rain in 1 meter surface layer Pre-industrial p(co 2 ) pressure 3,000E-04 2,500E-04 T=15 C T= 5 C 2,000E-04 5,000E-04 5,500E-04 6,000E-04 6,500E-04 7,000E-04 CaCO3 [mol/kg]

10 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Annual variation of atmospheric CO 2 pressure Alaska Mauna Loa South Pole

11 T. Suntola 11

12 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Effect of SO x emissions on atmospheric CO 2 equilibrium SO x emissions Calculated effect of SO x emissions on CO 2 pressure by 3,9 m effective surface layer Consumption of fossils fuels Mauna Loa Observations

13 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Global Warming & Climate Change IPCC: The average global temperature is rising sharply due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Humans are contributing to the greenhouse effect by emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) that trap energy and warm the atmosphere. Most of the emissions come from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gasoline. OR Humans are contributing to the greenhouse effect by disturbing the balance of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere, soil and waters.

14 Luonnonfilosofian seura, Tieteiden talo Global Warming & Climate Change Humans are contributing to the greenhouse effect by disturbing the balance of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere, soil and waters. Through the effect of acidification on the natural CO 2 balance, anthropogenic SO x and NO x emissions may play an important role in the dissolution process of CO 2 into soil and waters and, accordingly, on the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. Reducing of SO x and NO x emissions may therefore be of high importance in the fight against the CO 2 driven greenhouse effect.

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