1 Page : 1 of 60 Guidelines for Processing Plant Rev 01 KLM Technology #03-12 Block Aronia, Jalan Sri Perkasa 2 Taman Tampoi Utama Johor Bahru Malaysia (ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDELINE) Rev 01 - Aprilia Jaya Karl Kolmetz KLM Technology is providing the introduction to this guideline for free on the internet. Please go to our website to order the complete document. TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION Scope 4 General Design Consideration 5 DEFINITIONS 21 NOMENCLATURE 24 THEORY OF THE DESIGN 26 Properties LNG 26 Feed Gas Processing 28 A. Acid gas removal system 28 B. Dehydration system 32 C. Mercury removal system 34
2 Page 2 of 60 Liquefaction 35 A. Ideal Cooling Process for Simple Cascade 35 B. Refrigeration Cycle 37 Fractionation 41 Storage and retention systems 45 APPLICATION Example Case 1: Fractionation Process 49 Example Case 2: 1 st Liquefaction Process 52 Example Case 3: 2 nd Liquefaction Process 54 REFEREENCES 60 CALCULATION SPREADSHEET Fractionation Process.xls 58 Liquefaction Process.xls 59 2 nd Liquefaction Process.xls 60 LIST OF TABLE Table 1: Typical LNG feed gas composition 6
3 Page 3 of 60 LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1: A typical cost distribution for an LNG plant 7 Figure 2: Typical LNG plant block flow diagram 9 Figure 3: Cascade refrigeration process 12 Figure 4: Mixed fluid cascade process (MFCP) 14 Figure 5: Mixed Refrigerant Liquefaction Process 16 Figure 6: Schematic overview of the DMR refrigeration cycles 18 Figure 7: Typical (simplified) APCI C3/MCR LNG Liquefaction Process 20 Figure 8: Acid gas removal 31 Figure 9: Sweet gas dehydration 33 Figure 10: A Carnot refrigerator operating between TL and TH 36 Figure 11: (a) Schematic and (b) A Carnot refrigerator that uses a minimum amount of work for a liquefaction process diagram for a simple 2nd liquefaction cycle 38 Figure 12: Demethanizer example 44 Figure 13: Typical LNG Storage and Loading 48
4 Page 4 of 60 KLM Technology is providing the introduction to this guideline for free on the internet. Please go to our website to order the complete document. INTRODUCTION Scope This design guideline covers the basic elements in the field of LNG Units, in sufficient detail to allow an engineer to design a LNG unit with the suitable size of diameter, reflux rate, actual stages, exergy efficiency, liquefied temperature, minimum work and heat during liquefaction. This design guideline includes design of a fractionator LNG unit, and liquefaction process. LNG will likely play an increasing role in the development of giant gas fields, as most countries, especially net oil importers, are keen on developing their gas reserves, however stranded, for greater energy independence and extending domestic oil reserves where applicable, as well as for environmental reasons. The design of LNG unit may be influenced by factors, including process requirements, economics and safety. In the design section, there are figures that assist in making these factored calculations from the vary reference sources. Included in this guideline is a calculation spreadsheet for the engineering design. All the important parameters used in the guideline are explained in the definition section, which helps the reader understand the meaning of the parameters or the terms used. In the application section of this guideline, three case studies are shown and discussed in detail, highlighting the way to apply the theory for the calculation. The theory section explains fractionation sizing, feed gas processing, and liquefaction process. Example Calculation Spreadsheets are part of this guideline. This Example Calculation Spreadsheets are based on case studies in the application section to make them easier to understand.
5 Page 5 of 60 INTRODUCTION General Design Consideration LNG is a mixture of hydrocarbons composed predominantly of methane and which can contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen or other components normally found in natural gas. LNG shall have a methane content of more than 75 % and a nitrogen content of less than 5 %. Although the major constituent of LNG is methane, it should not be assumed that LNG is pure methane The density of LNG depends on the composition and usually ranges from 420 kg/m 3 to 470 kg/m 3, but in some cases can be as high as 520 kg/m 3. Density is also a function of the liquid temperature with a gradient of about 1,4 kg/m 3 /K. Density can be measured directly but is generally calculated from composition determined by gas chromatographic analysis. LNG has a boiling temperature depending on composition and usually ranging from 166 C to 57 C at atmospheric pressure. The variation of the boiling temperature with the vapour pressure is about 1,25 x 10-4 C/Pa. The temperature of LNG is commonly measured using copper/copper nickel thermocouples or using platinum resistance thermometers. The viscosity of LNG depends of the composition and is usually from 1, Pa s to 2, Pa s at 160 C, which is nearly 1/10 to 1/5 of the water. Viscosity is also a function of the liquid temperature. Feed to LNG plants is composed primarily of methane, together with ethane, propane, butane and heavier components. Non-hydrocarbon components such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and mercury are also usually present. A typical range of feed composition is shown in the table below.
6 Page 6 of 60 Table 1: Typical LNG feed gas composition Methane CH % Propane C 3 H % Ethane C 2 H 6 Butane+ C 4 H 10 + Carbon dioxide CO 2 0 8% Nitrogen N 2 0 9% The primary drivers for the capital cost of an LNG liquefaction facility are site specific in nature. Surprisingly, less than 50% of the LNG plant cost is capacity related. As a result, most of the cost of an LNG liquefaction project is beyond the influence of the design engineer and is a function of site related conditions, project development and project execution efforts. Although there is no typical or standard LNG plant, the major elements that are found in most LNG plants include: 1. a feed gas handling and treating section 2. a liquefaction section 3. a refrigerant section 4. a fractionation section 5. an LNG storage section 6. a marine and LNG loading section 7. a utility and offsite section
7 Page 7 of 60 Others, 1% Utilities, 16% Liquefaction, 28% Storage & offsites, 27% Fractionation, 3% Acid Gas removal Dehydration and (AGR), 6% mercury removal, 2% Refrigeration, 17% Figure 1: A typical cost distribution for an LNG plant A typical LNG base load liquefaction plant flow scheme is shown in Figure 1. The process and utility requirement depends on site conditions, feed gas quality, and product specification. In a typical scheme, the feed gas is delivered at high pressure (up to 90 bar) from upstream gas fields via pipelines, and any associated condensate is stabilized and removed. The gas is metered and its pressure controlled to the design operating pressure of the plant. The gas is pretreated to remove any impurities that interfere with processing or are undesirable in the final products. These treatments include sweetening and dehydration, and consist of the removal of acid gases and sulfur compounds for example, carbon
8 Page 8 of 60 dioxide (CO 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and mercaptans, removal of mercury and other trace contaminants, as needed, and removal of water. The dry sweet gas is then cooled by refrigerant streams to separate heavier hydrocarbons. The treated gas is subjected to multiple cooling stages by indirect heat exchange with one or more refrigerants, whereby the gas is progressively reduced in temperature until complete liquefaction. The pressurized LNG is further expanded and subcooled in one or more stages to facilitate storage at slightly above atmospheric pressure. Flashed vapors and boil-off gas (BOG) are recycled within the process. The resulting LNG is stored in atmospheric tanks ready for export by ship. Heavier hydrocarbons that may be separated during cooling are fractionated and recovered. Ethane is normally reinjected into the gas stream to be liquefied. Propane and butane can either be reinjected or exported as LPG products and pentane (or heavier components) can be exported as a gasoline product. Liquefaction processes mainly use mechanical refrigeration, in which heat is transferred from the natural gas, through exchanger surfaces, to a separate closed-loop refrigerant fluid. The refrigerant loop uses the cooling effect of fluid expansion, requiring work input via a compressor.
9 Page 9 of 60 Fuel Natural gas Pretreatment compression sweetening Hydrocarbon fractionation LPG Fuel Fuel Pretreatment dehydration Hg removal Chilling Liquefaction End flash/n2 rejection LNG storage Refrigeration system Figure 2: Typical LNG plant block flow diagram Liquefaction The liquefaction process is the key element of the LNG plant. Liquefaction is based on a refrigeration cycle, where a refrigerant by means of successive expansion and compression, transports heat from the process side to where the natural gas is. LNG plants often consist of a number of parallel units, called trains, which treat and liquefy natural gas and then send the LNG to several storage tanks. The capacity of a liquefaction train is primarily determined by the liquefaction process, the refrigerant used the largest available size of the compressor/driver combination that drives the cycle, and the heat exchangers that cool the natural gas. The principal reason for liquefying natural gas is the 600-fold reduction in the volume which occurs with the vapor-liquid phase change. This volume reduction is important in the transportation and storage of the gas. In the liquid state, the gas can be transported
10 Page 10 of 60 in discrete quantities, can be economically stored in tanks for use as required, and can be transported long distances not feasible with gas pipelines. Liquefaction uses the same principle as a household refrigerator to cool the feed gas to below the methane boiling point of around -161 C. At this temperature, the gas liquefies to 1/600th of its original volume. The liquefaction system in an LNG train comprises propane coolers, a heavy-hydrocarbon removal column, and cryogenic heat exchangers. The feed gas from the mercury removal system will be cooled by propane coolers. The coolers liquefy the heavier hydrocarbons, which then flow to a heavy-hydrocarbon removal column. Heat and pressure will be used to separate the heavier hydrocarbons from the feed gas stream in the column. These heavier hydrocarbons (ethane, propane, butane and heavier components) will exit the bottom of the column and be sent to the common fractionation system The main cryogenic heat exchanger is similar to the evaporator plate inside a refrigerator. It provides a sufficiently large surface area to efficiently transfer heat from the feed gas to the refrigerant. In the cryogenic heat exchanger, the feed gas will be further cooled and condensed by the refrigerant stream from the refrigeration system. The refrigeration system cools and pressurises the refrigerants used in the liquefaction system. The refrigeration system will use closed-loop, refrigerant circuits to provide the low-temperature refrigerants. The refrigerants will be used to liquefy and subcool the feed gas in the cryogenic heat exchangers. In order to produce the low temperature necessary for liquefaction, mechanical refrigeration systems are utilized. Three types of liquefaction processes can be used to accomplish this refrigeration: 1. Cascade Refrigeration Process, in which a number of separate refrigerant loops are used, with different single-component fluids, such as propane, ethylene, and methane 2. Mixed Refrigerant Process, which uses a mixture of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons. 3. Precooled Mixed Refrigerant Process
11 Page 11 of 60 Cascade Refrigeration The first LNG liquefaction units utilized the cascade refrigeration process. These facilities use the classical cascade cycle where three refrigeration systems are employed: propane, ethylene and methane. Two or three levels of evaporating pressures are used for each of the refrigerants with multistage compressors. Thus the refrigerants are supplied at eight or nine discrete temperature levels. Using these refrigeration levels, heat is removed from the gas at successively lower temperatures. The low level heat removed by the methane cycle is transferred to the ethylene cycle, and the heat removed in the ethylene cycle is transferred to the propane cycle. Final rejection of the heat from the propane system is accomplished with either water or air cooling. The refrigeration heat exchange units traditionally were based on shell and tube exchangers or aluminum plate fin exchangers. Newer designs incorporate plate fin exchangers in a vessel known as core-in-kettle designs. A critical design element in these systems is the temperature approach which can be reached in the heat exchangers.
12 Page 12 of 60 Ethylene circuit Natural gas feed Propane circuit Expansion valves Natural gas to liquefaction Expansion valves LNG to storage tank NGL to fractionation Expansion valves Figure 3: Cascade refrigeration process
13 Page 13 of 60 Mixed Fluid Cascade Process The Mixed Fluid Cascade Process (MFCP) is shown in Figure 4. The purified natural gas is precooled, liquefied, and subcooled by means of three separate mixed refrigerant cycles. The cold of the precooling cycle is transferred to the natural gas via two plate fin heat exchangers, whereas the cold of the liquefaction and subcooling cycle is transferred via two spiral wound heat exchangers by the other two refrigerants. The refrigerants are made up of components selected from methane, ethane, propane, and nitrogen. The three refrigerant compression systems can have separate drivers or integrated to have two strings of compression. The process has been designed for large LNG trains (>4 MTPA). The MFCP is a classic cascade process, with the important difference that mixed component refrigerant cycles replace single component refrigerant cycles, thereby improving the thermodynamic efficiency and operational flexibility.
14 Page 14 of 60 Process gas Precooling Liquefaction Subcooling LNG Figure 4: Mixed fluid cascade process
15 Page 15 of 60 Mixed Refrigerant Processes This system uses a single mixed refrigerant composed of nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane, butane and pentane. The refrigerant is designed so that the refrigerant boiling curve nearly matches the cooling curve of the gas being liquefied. The closeness of the match of these two curves is a direct measure of the efficiency of the process. The process has two major components: the refrigeration system and the main exchanger cold box. The cold box is a series of aluminum plate fin exchangers which provide very close temperature approaches between the respective process streams. The low pressure refrigerant is compressed and condensed against air or water in a closed system. The refrigerant is not totally condensed before being sent to the cold box. The high pressure vapor and liquid refrigerant streams are combined and condensed in the main exchanger. The condensed stream is flashed across a J-T valve and this low pressure refrigerant provides the refrigeration for both the feed gas and the high pressure refrigerant. Removal of pentane and heavier hydrocarbons from the feed gas is accomplished by bringing the partially condensed gas out of the cold box and separating the liquid at an intermediate temperature. The liquid removed is then further processed to produce a specification C5+ product. Light products from this separation are returned to the liquefaction system.
16 Page 16 of 60 Refrigeration compression system Feed gas Condenser Separator Accumulator Refrigerant pump Cold box Flash tank Heavy liquid Fuel LNG pump LNG Figure 5: Mixed Refrigerant Liquefaction Process
17 Page 17 of 60 Dual Mixed Refrigerant (DMR) Process Dual Mixed Refrigerant (DMR) process for liquefaction, as shown in Figure 6, has two separate mixed refrigerant cooling cycles, one for precooling of the gas to approximately 50 C (PMR cycle) and one for final cooling and liquefaction of the gas (MR cycle). Process configuration is similar to the Propane Precooled Mixed Refrigerant (PPMR) process, but with the precooling conducted by a mixed refrigerant (made up mainly of ethane and propane) rather than pure propane. The cooling duty for liquefaction of the natural gas is provided by a second mixed refrigerant cooling cycle (MR cycle). The refrigerant of this cycle consists of a mixture of nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane. Mixed refrigerant vapor from the shell side of the main cryogenic heat exchanger is compressed in an axial compressor followed by a two stage centrifugal compressor. Intercooling and initial desuperheating is achieved by air cooling. Further desuperheating and partial condensation is achieved by the PMR precooling cycle. The mixed refrigerant vapor and liquid are separated and further cooled in the main cryogenic heat exchanger, except for a small slipstream of vapor MR, which is routed to the end flash exchanger. The DMR process has also employed double casing instead of single casing equipment. With a single precooling cycle and two parallel mixed refrigerant cycles, the capacity can also be boosted up to 8 MTPA. The process can either use propane or an MR in precooling. Proven refrigerant cycles can be used without step changes in technology. The capacity can be increased further with different (larger) drivers. Another possibility for the propane-mr process is to transfer power from the propane cycle to the mixed refrigerant cycle.
18 Page 18 of 60 Fuel gas Endflash system M LNG rundown Dried LPG LMR HMR M MR cycle PMR cycle Treated gas To/from fractionation M Figure 6: Schematic overview of the DMR refrigeration cycles
19 Page 19 of 60 APCI propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant process The propane precooled mixed refrigerant process was developed from a combination of the cascade and mixed refrigerant processes. This technology is simple for train capacities up to 5 Mtpa. It accounts for the majority of the LNG facilities used worldwide. There are two main refrigerant cycles. The precooling cycle uses propane, the liquefaction and sub-cooling cycle uses a mixed refrigerant consisting of nitrogen, methane, ethane and propane. In this process, the initial cooling of the feed gas is accomplished by using a multistage propane refrigeration system. The pre-cooling cycle uses propane to cool the process gas to -40ºC at which point the gas is processed in a scrub column to remove the heavy hydrocarbons and partially liquefy the mixed refrigerant. The cooling is achieved in an exchanger with propane refrigerant boiling and evaporating with process gas streaming through immersion tubes. A centrifugal compressor recovers the evaporated propane stream and compresses the vapor to be condensed against water or air and recycled. The chilling of the gas is accomplished in a single, large, spiral-wound heat exchanger. This exchanger allows extremely close temperature approaches between the refrigerant and the gas to be achieved. Pre-cooling compression will typically require a 40 MW gas turbine plus helper motor or steam turbine. The mixed refrigerant in this process is a lighter mixture composed of nitrogen, methane, ethane and propane with a molecular weight around 25. The mixed refrigerant after recompression is partially cooled with air or water and then further cooled in the propane refrigeration system. The partially condensed refrigerant from the propane chilling is separated and the high pressure vapor and liquid streams sent separately to the main exchanger. The liquid is flashed and provides the initial chilling of the gas. The high pressure vapor is condensed in the main exchanger and provides the low level, final liquefaction of the gas. As in the other processes, the LNG leaves the exchanger subcooled and is flashed for fuel recovery and pumped to storage.
20 Page 20 of 60 MCR compressors LNG sample analysis Frame 7 turbine Main LNG exchanger Boil off gas to fuel gas C3 compressor Frame 7 turbine MCR sample analysis Scrubber LPG reinject Scrubber Mixed refrigerant loops LNG end flash Cryo pump LNG storage MRV Natural gas from treating Scrubber column btms sample analysis To fractionation Figure 7: Typical (simplified) APCI C3/MCR LNG Liquefaction Process
21 Page 21 of 60 DEFINITIONS Acid Gas - Natural Gas containing Carbon Dioxide or Hydrogen Sulphide which forms an acid compound when combined with water. Bottoms - The liquid or residual matter which is withdrawn from the bottom of a fractionator or other vessel during processing or while in storage Boil-off gas - gas generated during the storage or handling of volatile liquefied gases British Thermal Units (BTU) - A unit of heat widely used in the gas industry. Defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. Also described as a fixed Joules. Commonly used in multiples of one million Btu, abbreviated as MMBtu. Condensate - A natural gas liquid with low vapour pressure produced from reservoir with high pressure and temperature. These very light hydrocarbons remain a liquid at normal pressure and temperature. Cryogenics - The process of producing, maintaining and utilising very low temperatures (below -46ºC). Condensate - a hydrocarbon liquid that forms by condensation from natural gas. It consists primarily of pentanes (C5H12) and heavier components. There will be some propane and butane dissolved within the mixture The coefficient of performance or COP - The efficiency of a refrigerator or the ratio of the heating or cooling provided over the electrical energy consumed Demethanizer - A fractionator designed to separate methane (and more volatile components if present) from a hydrocarbon mixture. Downstream - A term used to describe activities along the gas value chain. Downstream typically refers to liquefaction, shipping and regasification. Dry Gas - An alternative name for lean gas. It does not always mean free of water.
22 Page 22 of 60 Exergy - The maximum useful work possible during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with a heat reservoir. When the surroundings are the reservoir, exergy is the potential of a system to cause a change as it achieves equilibrium with its environment. Exergy is the energy that is available to be used. Fractionation - Generally used to describe separation of a mixture of hydrocarbons into individual products based on difference in boiling point and/or relative volatility. Gas processing - The separation of constituents from natural gas for the purpose of making salable products and also for treating the residue gas to meet required specifications. Hydrocarbon - An organic compound containing only elements hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons exist as gases, liquids and solids. For example Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane, Hexane & Heptanes. Liquefied natural gas LNG - a colourless and odourless cryogenic fluid in the liquid state at normal pressure composed predominantly of methane and which may contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen or other components normally found in natural gas Liquefied natural gas plant or LNG plant - a plant the components of which are used to store liquefied natural gas and may also include a plant that conditions, liquefies, transfers or vaporizes liquefied natural gas. LNG Train - An independent gas liquefaction unit within a processing facility. A liquefaction facility may contain one or more trains each producing a designed output measured in million tons per annum (Mtpa). Liquefied petroleum gas LPG - gaseous hydrocarbons at normal temperatures and pressures but that readily turns into liquids under moderate pressure at normal temperatures; e.g. propane and butane LNG value chain - The commercial development of LNG which means LNG suppliers first confirm sales to the downstream buyers and then sign year contracts with strict terms and structures for gas pricing.
23 Page 23 of 60 Natural gas - gaseous forms of hydrocarbons, principally methane, with minor amounts of ethane, butanes, pentanes, and hexanes along with nonhydrocarbon impurities such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas liquids NGL - liquid hydrocarbons, such as ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and natural gasoline, extracted from field natural gas Raw gas - a mixture containing methane, other paraffinic hydrocarbons, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, helium and minor impurities, or some of them, that is recovered or is recoverable at a well from an underground reservoir and that is gaseous at the conditions under which its volume is measured or estimated. Re-gasification - The reconversion (warming) of LNG to a gas for pipeline distribution. Reflux ratio - A way of giving a relative measurement to the volume of reflux. Usually referred either to the feed or overhead product. Sweet gas - Gas which has no more than the maximum sulfur and/or CO2 content defined by (1) the specifications for the sales gas from a plant; (2) the definition by a legal body. Also, the treated gas leaving a sweetening unit.
24 Page 24 of 60 NOMENCLATURE B Bottom flow rate, kg/hr C AG Acid gas concentration in sour gas, mole% COP act Actual COP COP rev Reversible COP D Distilate flow rate, kg/hr Da The diameter of an amine plant absorber, in D RA the diameter of the regenerator above the feed point, in D RB The diameter of the regenerator below the feed point, in dt Tower diameter design, m E oc plate efficiency F Feed flow rate, kg/hr GPM Amine circulation rate, gpm H Tower height, m h Enthalpy, kj/kg Lw Weir length, cm N theoretical stages N act actual stages N m Minimum stages P Contactor pressure, psia Q Sour gas to contactor, MMscfd QL The rate of heat rejection during liquefaction, kj/h q LL The refrigeration effect per unit mass liquefied gas, kj/kg liquid q LG The refrigeration effect per unit mass of the gas, kj/kg gas R m Minimum reflux ratio s Entropy, kj/kg.k T L Low temperature, R T H High temperature, R uv Max. allowable vapor velocity, m/s V m Maximum vapor rate, kg/s w act Work consumed in the cycle for the liquefaction, kj/kg liquid w act Work of compression per unit mass of the gas, kj/kg gas W min Minimum work input, kj/h w rev Reversible work, kj/kg liquid %W Amine Amine concentration in liquid solution, wt% x The quality of the mixture
25 Page 25 of 60 xb xd xf y mole fraction bottom light key mole fraction overhead light key mole fraction feed light key The fraction of the gas Greek letters α relative volatility η ex Exergy efficiency,% µ L liquid viscosity, Cp ρ L Liquid density, kg/m³ Vapor density, kg/m³ ρ V Superscript B D F H N P Q Bottom flow rate, kg/hr Distilate flow rate, kg/hr Feed flow rate, kg/hr Tower height, m theoretical stages Contactor pressure, psia Sour gas to contactor, MMscfd
CO 2 RECOVERY FROM CO 2 REMOVAL UNIT AT GL1Z PLANT Hocine Friha Chemical Engineer Technical Department GL1Z/ Sonatrach Bethioua, Oran, Algeria firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Algeria which has ratified
Chemistry of Petrochemical Processes ChE 464 Instructor: Dr. Ahmed Arafat, PhD Office: building 45 room 106 E-mail: email@example.com www.kau.edu.sa.akhamis files Book Chemistry of Petrochemical Processes
Process Analytics Improving Natural Gas Liquefaction Plant Performance with Process Analyzers LNG is natural gas in its liquid state with high energy density, which makes it useful for storage and transportation
Page : 1 of 12 Project Engineering Standard www.klmtechgroup.com KLM Technology #03-12 Block Aronia, Jalan Sri Perkasa 2 Taman Tampoi Utama 81200 Johor Bahru Malaysia RECOVERY AND SPLITTER TABLE OF CONTENT
LNG Basics for Petroleum Engineers Michael Choi Retired 1 To help protect your privacy, PowerPoint has blocked automatic download of this picture. Primary funding is provided by The SPE Foundation through
MLNG DUA DEBOTTLENECKING PROJECT Yahya Ibrahim Senior General Manager Malaysia LNG Malaysia firstname.lastname@example.org Tariq Shukri LNG Consultant Foster Wheeler Energy Limited Reading, U.K. Tariq_shukri@fwuk.fwc.com
Teknologi Pemrosesan Gas (TKK 564) Instructor: Dr. Istadi (http://tekim.undip.ac.id/staf/istadi ) Email: email@example.com id Instructor s t Background BEng. (1995): Universitas Diponegoro Meng. (2000):
Figures vi Tables viii Foreword ix Acknowledgments xi About the authors xiii Chapter 1. Fundamentals 1 Fluid Properties 1 Temperature 2 Pressure 3 Gravity and Miscibility 3 Solubility 4 The Ideal Gas Law
Training Title NATURAL GAS HYDRATES & DEHYDRATION Training Duration 5 days Training Venue and Dates Natural Gas Hydrates & Dehydration 5 02 26 June $3,750 Abu Dhabi, UAE In any of the 5 star hotels. The
MOLECULAR GATE TECHNOLOGY FOR (SMALLER SCALE) LNG PRETREATMENT Presented at the 2010 Gas Processors 89 th Annual Convention Austin, TX March, 2010 Michael Mitariten, P.E. Guild Associates, Inc. Dublin,
ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL QATAR GAS ONE YEAR EXPERIENCE Bouchebri El-Hadi Senior Process Engineer Benmouley Abdelkader Head of Process Qatar Liquefied Gas Company Limited. Ras Laffan Industrial Area, Doha,
Originally appeared in: September/October 217, pgs 19-29. Used with permission. SPECIAL FOCUS: LNG TECHNOLOGY Precooling strategies for efficient natural gas liquefaction G. KRISHNAMURTHY, M. J. ROBERTS
Simple Dew Point Control HYSYS v8.6 Steps to set up a simulation in HYSYS v8.6 to model a simple dew point control system consisting of: Gas chiller Flash separator Liquid stabilizer with gas recycle &
DYNAMICS OF BASELOAD LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PLANTS ADVANCED MODELLING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES Dr. Matthew J. Okasinski, P.E. Principal Engineer Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA
PROCESSING NATURAL GAS Leontev A.A. Vladimirskiy State University named after the Stoletov brothers Vladimir, Russia ПЕРЕРАБОТКА ПРИРОДНОГО ГАЗА Леонтьев А.А. Владимирский государственный университет имени
Optimising the LNG process John Baguley, Liquefied Natural Gas Ltd, Australia, outlines the benefits of an innovative liquefaction process technology for mid scale LNG projects. The rapidly expanding global
LNG basics Juan Manuel Martín Ordax LNG basics Definition: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is the liquid form of natural gas. LNG is a natural gas. LNG is a liquid. When cooled at atmospheric pressure to temperatures
Problems in chapter 9 CB Thermodynamics 9-82 Air is used as the working fluid in a simple ideal Brayton cycle that has a pressure ratio of 12, a compressor inlet temperature of 300 K, and a turbine inlet
Training Title GAS DEHYDRATION & BOOSTER STATION UTILITIES RESPONSIBILIT Training Duration 5 days Training Venue and Dates REF Gas Dehydration & Booster Station Utilities 5 4-8 Nov $5,750 PE038 Vienna,
Large scale hydrogen liquefaction in combination with LNG re-gasification Andres Kuendig a, Karl Loehlein a, Gert Jan Kramer b, Joep Huijsmans c a Linde Kryotechnik AG, Daettlikonerstrasse 5, 8422 Pfungen,
International Journal of Engineering and Technology Volume 3 No. 1, January, 2013 Estimation of Boil-off-Gas BOG from Refrigerated Vessels in Liquefied Natural Gas Plant Wordu, A. A, Peterside, B Department
GTC Technology White Paper GT-LPG Max SM Maximizing LPG Recovery from Fuel Using a Dividing Wall Column Engineered to Innovate GT-LPG Max SM Maximizing LPG Recovery from Fuel Using a Dividing Wall Column
Training Title GAS CONDITIONING & PROCESSING Training Duration 5 days Training Venue and Dates Gas Conditioning & Processing 5 06-10 January 2019 $4,000 Dubai, UAE Trainings will be conducted in any of
Training Title GAS CONDITIONING & PROCESSING TRAINING Training Duration 5 days Training Venue and Dates Gas Conditioning & Processing 5 07 11 April $3,750 Dubai, UAE In any of the 5 star hotels. The exact
THE CONCEPT OF INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC ENERGY STORAGE FOR LARGE SCALE ELECTRICITY GRID SERVICES Sakari Kaijaluoto 1, Markus Hurskainen 1,* and Pasi Vainikka 2 1 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Koivurannantie
GTC TECHNOLOGY GT-UWC SM How a Uniting Wall Column Maximizes LPG Recovery WHITE PAPER Engineered to Innovate Maximizing LPG Recovery from Fuel Using a Uniting Wall Column Refiners have a challenge to recover
Enhancement of LNG Propane Cycle through Waste Heat Powered Absorption Cooling A. Mortazavi 1, P. Rodgers 2, S. Al-Hashimi 2, Y. Hwang 1 and R. Radermacher 1 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
http://dx.doi.org/10.7494/drill.2014.31.1.91 * * * COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS IN LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) REGASIFICATION PROCESSES 1. INTRODUCTION ing place in the neighborhood of natural gas deposits.
Simple Dew Point Control HYSYS v10 Steps to set up a simulation in HYSYS v10 to model a simple dew point control system consisting of: Gas chiller Flash separator Liquid stabilizer with gas recycle & compression
LNG LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS TECHNOLOGIES Air Liquide Group Air Liquide Engineering & Construction The world leader in gases, technologies and services for Industry and Health Air Liquide is present in 80
UNIQUE DESIGN CHALLENGES IN THE AUX SABLE NGL RECOVERY PLANT Presented at the 81 st Annual Convention of the Gas Processors Association March 11, 2002 Dallas, Texas Joe T. Lynch, P.E. Ortloff Engineers,
GTU Paper Analysis CHAPTER 1 BASIC CONCEPTS Sr. No. Questions Jan 15 Jun 15 Dec 15 May 16 Jan 17 Jun 17 Nov 17 May 18 Differentiate between the followings; 1) Intensive properties and extensive properties,
Modular Oil & Gas Equipment Onshore & Offshore Separators & Desalters AI Energy Solutions onshore and offshore oil process solutions offer innovative technologies packaged with global project management
Gas Burning Feed Stock UTILITIES TOWN GASS SUPPLIES ENERGY INTENSIVE INDUSTRIES Power Generation CHEMICAL PLANTS AMMONIA METHANOL 1 Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing Natural gas has been formed by
This is a chapter from the Chemistry Resource Kit The Qenos Chemistry Resource kit has been developed as an information package for secondary students and others who wish to learn about Qenos, plastics
LNG R&D for the Liquefaction and Regasification Processes Author: Marcello De Falco, Associate Professor, University UCBM Rome (Italy) 1.Theme description Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is used for transporting
Transfer and Storage of Flammable Liquefied Hydrocarbon Gases GPA Technical Meeting Antwerp, Belgium 22-24 February, 2012 Moving Fluids - Developments in Machinery Joel V. Madison CEO & President Ebara
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 100 (2009) (2008) 697 706 000 000 Energy Procedia www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia www.elsevier.com/locate/xxx GHGT-9 Cryogenic CO 2 Capture in
Lecture Note of Design Theories of Ship and Offshore Plant Design Theories of Ship and Offshore Plant Part I. Ship Design Ch. 2 Introduction to Offshore Plant Design Fall 2015 Myung-Il Roh Department of
INCREASING THE CAPACITY OF NGL RECOVERY TRAINS Stéphane MESPOULHES XVI CONVENCIÓN INTERNACIONAL DE GAS Caracas WHO IS TECHNIP? 2 World Class Engineering & Construction Group in Oil & Gas Public Company
Power Recovery in LNG Regasification Plants Harry K. Clever Director of Sales firstname.lastname@example.org Hans E. Kimmel Executive Director R&D email@example.com Ebara International Corporation Sparks, Nevada,
Modified Reverse-Brayton Cycles for Efficient Liquefaction of Natural Gas H.M. Chang 1, J.H. Park 1, K.S. Cha 2, S. Lee 2 and K.H. Choe 2 1 Hong Ik University, Seoul, Korea 121-791 2 Korea Gas Corporation,
LNG Plant Overview Seminar with Supplier Association Murmanshelf Murmansk, 15 May 2012 Jostein Pettersen Table of Content Part 1 : LNG plant overview (Jostein) Part 2 : Main equipment units (Jostein) Part
LNG Systems for Marine Application LNG Reliquefaction & LNG Regasification Oil & Gas Systems LNG reliquefaction plant arrangement for a Q-flex membrane tanker Reliquefaction system for LNG Carriers Hamworthy
Improvement of distillation column efficiency by integration with organic Rankine power generation cycle Dmitriy A. Sladkovskiy, St.Petersburg State Institute of Technology (technical university), Saint-
Our technology and expertise are ready to work toward your LNG future today It s not just what we do. It s how we do it. As worldwide energy demand continues to grow, the ConocoPhillips Optimized Cascade
Natural Gas and the Liquefaction Process Table of Contents Cameron LNG.................... 2 Liquefied Natural Gas................ 4 LNG Safety...................... 5 Environmental Safety................
1. Process Description: The coal is converted to Raw Syngas in the Gasification Section. The Raw Syngas produced out of the Gasifier would be shifted (water gas shift) to adjust required H2/CO ratio and
Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Górak (Editors) All rights reserved by authors as per DA2010 copyright notice SYNTHESIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF DEMETHANIZER FLOWSHEETS FOR LOW
Gastech 2017 Conference Development of a New High efficiency Dual cycle Natural Gas Liquefaction Process Chang LIN, Hong WANG, Gailing BAI, Di WU China Huanqiu Contracting & Engineering Corporation Limited.
PROGRAMME GASTECH 2OO2 Doug Yates, LNG Operations Coordinator, Phillips Petroleum Company DOUG YATES is currently the Darwin LNG Operations Manager for the Darwin LNG project in Australia. Prior to assuming
GTL Taken Partly from the Internet and Edited and Revised 2016 by H M Fahmy STEPS TO GET OIL FROM SEA OR EARTH SEISMIC SHOOTING SEISMIC INTERPRETATION ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES PREPARATION OF RIG DRILLING OIL
Guidelines for Processing Plant SOLUTIONS, STANDARDS AND SOFTWARE www.klmtechgroup.com Page : 1 of 650 Rev 1 KLM Technology #03-12 Block Aronia, Jalan Sri Perkasa 2 Taman Tampoi Utama 81200 Johor Bahru
OPTIMUM COMPRESSOR CONTROLS FOR CLOSED LOOP REFRIGERATION William P. Schmidt Janet Firley Mitchell Matthew J. Okasinski Jeremy D. Beard Air Products and Chemicals Abstract This paper discusses compressor
CHAPTER 6 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 6.1 Introduction 1 Most natural gas is transported from the wellhead to a processing plant, and thereafter, to consumers in high pressure gas transmission pipelines.
Chapters 5, 6, and 7 Use T 0 = 20 C and p 0 = 100 kpa and constant specific heats unless otherwise noted. Note also that 1 bar = 100 kpa. 5-1. Steam enters a steady-flow device at 16 MPa and 560 C with
Multi-Stage Cascade Refrigeration System Contents Refrigeration Cycle and Input Condition of Natural Gas Cascade Refrigeration Three-Stage Refrigeration of methane Two-Stage Refrigeration of ethylene Three-Stage
The Eighth Jordan International Chemical Engineering Conference (JIChEC 17) November 7-9, 17 Improvements to configurations of natural gas liquefaction cycles Said Al Rabadi 1 Department of Chemical Engineering
The Separation and Liquefaction of Oxygenated CBM Yang Kejian and Zhang Wu Abstract CBM, or Coal Bed Methane, with air released during coal mining production has been a long time issue. It has not been
2. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT 2.1. What is a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) Plant? A CCGT power plant uses a cycle configuration of gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) and
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 4 (2011) 824 829 Energy Procedia 00 (2010) 000 000 Energy Procedia www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia www.elsevier.com/locate/xxx GHGT-10 Controlled
Utilisation of LNG Cold Energy at Maptaput LNG Receiving Terminal Phatthi Punyasukhananda 1,2,* and Athikom Bangviwat 1,2 1 The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut s University
PROCESS INSTRUMENTS Application Note Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy () for Carbon Dioxide Measurements In Natural Gas Processing Introduction Natural gas is one of the world s most important
- 2 - Q1. (a) Briefly explain how the following methods used in a gas-turbine power plant increase the thermal efficiency: i) regenerator ii) intercooling between compressors (6 marks) (b) Air enters a
Problems at the Cumene Production Facility, Unit 800 Background Cumene (isopropyl benzene) is produced by reacting propylene with benzene. During World War II, cumene was used as an octane enhancer for
BASELOAD PLANT IN XINJIA, CHINA - COMMERCIALISATION OF REMOTE GAS RESOURCES FOR AN ECO-RESPONSIBLE FUTURE Eginhard Berger, Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Xiang Dong, Xinjiang Guanghui Industry and
DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM LNG PRODUCTION RATE BY PROCESS SIMULATION MODELLING OF LOW TEMPERATURE NATURAL GAS SEPARATION UNIT Ewa Ciesielczyk, Oil and Gas Institute, Kraków, Poland Jan Rudnicki, Branch of
Energy Efficiency and Recovery at Large Scale Cryogenic Plants: A Survey J. G. Weisend II, P. Arnold, R. Garoby, W. Hees, J. Jurns, A. Lundmark, X.L. Wang November 24, 2017 Introduction Cryogenics is an
Benha University Thermodynamics II Faculty of Engineering 2 nd year 2016 Mechanical Engineering Dep. Final-exam (code: M 1222) Time: Three Hours (attempt all questions) (assume any missing data) Question1
Methanol Production by Gasification of Heavy Residues by C. A. A. Higman Presented at the IChemE Conference "Gasification: An Alternative to Natural Gas" London, 22-23 23 November, 1995 Methanol Production
Compact liquefied gas expander technological advances Joel V. Madison President Ebara International Corporation SYNOPSIS LNG expanders are now an important part of every new LNG liquefaction plant. The
SET - 1 1. a) Discuss about PMM I and PMM II b) Explain about Quasi static process. c) Show that the COP of a heat pump is greater than the COP of a refrigerator by unity. d) What is steam quality? What
55 171 2013 13-20 Journal of the Combustion Society of Japan Vol.55 No.171 (2013) 13-20 FEATURE Various Efforts to New Gaseous Fuels Transformation of Energy, Technologies in Purification and End Use of
A case for dehydration Adrian Finn and Terry Tomlinson, Costain Oil, Gas & Process Ltd, UK, discuss process technology to meet water and hydrocarbon dew point specifications on natural gas storage installations.
B.Tech thesis on Simulation analysis of a Propane Recovery Plant using ASPEN PLUS In partial fulfilment of requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Technology (Chemical Engineering) Submitted by SANJANA
Austro Energy Systems Int. AG Gas reformer AES3000 1 Gas reformer AES3000 Purification of associated gas from the hydrogen sulfide and high hydrocarbons and conversion of its qualities into similar properties
DESIGN AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE FOR ANADARKO S LANCASTER FACILITY Presented at the 95 th Annual Convention of the Processors Association April 11, 2016 New Orleans, Louisiana Joe T. Lynch, P.E. Ortloff
OPTIMIZING HYDROCARBON and ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS Dave Penner and John Harness UOP, A Honeywell Company The production of oil and gas employs a highly developed and sophisticated
GTI Small-Scale Liquefier Technology March 2013 GTI Liquefier System > Proven technology in use at 13,000-30,000 gpd > Optimized for energy efficiency > System well suited to rapid start-up and frequent
Carbon Capture Options for LNG Liquefaction ME-Tech 25 January 2011, Dubai Chris Sharratt Manager, Midstream Business Solutions Group Images: Courtesy of Woodside Energy Ltd Outline LNG liquefaction sources