Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency Treatment of Life Cycle Assessment in the Renewable Fuel Standard Rulemaking.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency Treatment of Life Cycle Assessment in the Renewable Fuel Standard Rulemaking."

Transcription

1 LCA PES.2009 January 2010 Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency Treatment of Life Cycle Assessment in the Renewable Fuel Standard Rulemaking Executive Summary Prepared by Stefan Unnasch, Brent Riffel, Larry Waterland, Life Cycle Associates Christopher Loreti, The Loreti Group for American Petroleum Institute 1220 I Street, NW Washington, DC Life Cycle Associates, LLC

2 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared by Life Cycle Associates, LLC and The Loreti Group for the American Petroleum Institute (API). Life Cycle Associates and The Loreti Group are not liable to any third parties who might make use of this work. No warranty or representation, express or implied, is made with respect to the accuracy, completeness, and/or usefulness of information contained in this report. Finally, no liability is assumed with respect to the use of, or for damages resulting from the use of, any information, method or process disclosed in this report. In accepting this report, the reader agrees to these terms. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Life Cycle Associates, LLC performed this study under contract for API, with The Loreti Group subcontracted to review petroleum fuels pathways. API s Project Manager was David Lax. Contact Information: Stefan Unnasch Life Cycle Associates, LLC

3 1 Background In December of 2007, President Bush signed the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) into law. One of the provisions of this law mandates a substantial increase in the use of renewable transportation fuels in the U.S. by 2022, a provision referred to as the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with developing the regulations for the RFS, and is responsible for the life cycle analysis (LCA) of both baseline petroleum fuels and renewable fuels, another requirement of EISA. 2 Objectives The objective of this review is to evaluate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s EPA s treatment of key issues involving the assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 1 for alternative and petroleum transportation fuels as described in the Draft Regulatory Impact Assessment (DRIA) and supporting documentation for the RFS2 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) released in May of EPA used a variety of agricultural and process engineering models and spreadsheet analysis tools, including the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET), Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (FASOM) and Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI), to analyze life cycle impacts of petroleum and renewable fuels. This review focused on assessing EPA s application of these tools and the conclusion resulting from their application as stated in the DRIA. EPA states that the LCA discussed in the DRIA is a consequential LCA instead of the attributional LCA relied upon in the RIA for the RFS1 rule adopted in An attributional LCA is one that accounts for flows/impacts of pollutants, resources, and exchanges among processes within a chosen temporal window. Whereas a consequential LCA is one that attempts to account for flows/impacts that are caused beyond the immediate system in response to a change to the system. Thus, for example, in the consequential LCA, the effects of the changes in the fuel production system between the baseline and the with biofuel cases are as important as the emissions associated with each individual fuel. 3 Key Findings This review identifies a number of issues and shortcomings that are briefly summarized in Table 1, focusing on biofuels production, petroleum production, and LCA modeling respectively. EPA s treatment of biofuels reflects the most optimistic view of production technologies and provides an excessive credit for co-products compared to the likely environmental benefit and credits applied in other studies. The analysis of petroleum relies on a combination of studies and models and should be updated to reflect available data in a consistent manner. EPA used FASOM and FAPRI to asses emissions associated with land use change (LUC) and GREET for direct emissions. Although the models have limitations, they are detailed greenhouse gas modeling tools that can yield useful output with appropriate data 1 Up to the point of use; EPA performed a well-to-tank (WTT) assessment in which the end product is the finished fuel at a vehicle fueling station, but does not include the emissions from the vehicle fuel combustion. 2 Life Cycle Associates, LLC

4 Table 1. Review of EPA DRIA - Key Findings Topic Biofuels Technology Feasibility Co-products Electric Power Representation of EISA Impact Petroleum Oil production Petroleum Refining LCA Modeling Choice of models FASOM Analysis Direct LUC N 2 O Emissions FAPRI Analysis Food Effects Other Indirect Effects Time Horizon Uncertainty Comment Optimistic assumptions make biofuels look very feasible. EPA represents idealized nth plant technology. Actual production costs will likely be much higher in near term. Thus, assumptions on suitable feedstock and potential volumes need to be reexamined. DGS and glycerin production will double with corn ethanol and biodiesel production. The risk of glutting the market is not considered. Co-product credits are assumed for export power for cellulosic ethanol. However, power production is not required as part of the ethanol process. Use of credits in carbon trading mechanisms should be reflected in a consequential LCA. Analysis of corn ethanol effectively segregates existing and low efficiency plants and attributes all improved plants to the rule. Analysis can be refined to reflect appropriate data. More appropriate data can be used for energy consumption and flaring and venting emissions for imported crude oil in 2005, eliminating need to estimate emissions based on domestic production. EPA used incorrect assumptions to model the production of diesel and gasoline The GREET model uses a rule-of-thumb approach to allocating energy among refinery products; a more rigorous method is needed. Emissions from hydrogen production associated with petroleum refining appear to be understated and need to be reexamined. Unsupported domestic crude oil energy content was used for refining calculations Used available tools. Idealized model assumptions and constraints. FASOM, FAPRI, and GREET are available tools that model life cycle GHG emissions most completely. This approach results in lower GHG emissions than straightforward substitution analysis for LUC. FASOM model was constrained for zero change in forestry, maximum 10% conversion from pasture to crop, and 2008 Farm Bill limits on CRP conversion, which effectively cap U.S. LUC. Soil carbon storage from stover is attributed to cellulosic ethanol. Perpetual carbon storage assumed for stover and switch grass. N 2 O emissions are a large GHG source from biofuels. The uncertainty and variability in factors affecting N 2 O should be examined. Unsatisfactory GHG agreement between FASOM and FAPRI. Soil carbon release is based on Winrock analysis that covers only 60% of countries predicted by FAPRI for land conversion. FAPRI U.S. land constraints are not incorporated into FASOM. Economic models do not hold food production constant, thus providing a GHG benefit for producing less food. EPA plans to model rebound effect but ignores transportation logistics and demand for coal based fertilizer. 100 year time horizon is inconsistent with future land use. No uncertainty analysis, only sensitivity case studies. 3 Life Cycle Associates, LLC

5 inputs. A key challenge is in identifying input assumptions that are appropriate for these complex models. 4 Fuel Pathways Evaluated 4.1 Biofuel Pathways EPA considers a mix of biofuel conversion technologies to comply with the EISA requirements. These fuels include both existing biofuels such as corn ethanol, as well as a range of fuels that are under development including cellulosic ethanol from a variety of materials and other fuel pathways Biofuel Production Pathways EPA s calculation of the life cycle GHG emissions is based on the performance of fuel technologies described in the DRIA. Energy and material inputs provide the basis for the calculation of direct emissions. The GREET model that EPA relied upon for the basis of their analysis performs most of these calculations internally and provides an adjustment for coproducts. EPA calculates the GHG emissions for a range of corn ethanol technology options. The energy requirements for specific corn ethanol plant technologies in the DRIA are consistent with surveys and process modeling. However, EPA focuses on a projection of new technologies, which would need to be built or retrofitted in 10 years. In fact, most of the ethanol capacity required to meet EISA requirements has either been built or has started construction covering over 12 billion gallons of capacity. EPA s analysis of 2022 technologies effectively cherry picks the best ethanol plant options and attributes these to EISA. Improvements to ethanol plants could occur both to the existing capacity as well as any new capacity built to comply with the rule. A better approach would be to rate ethanol plants according to their performance and only categorize plants that fall within certain feedstock or energy use parameter ranges as is the approach for the California Air Resources Board s (ARB s) low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). EPA should determine what process performance is required to achieve a 20% reduction in GHG emissions rather than a-priori assuming capital intensive technology improvements. The DRIA examines a number of cellulosic ethanol pathways. Enzymatic hydrolysis processes are examined in great detail. Other options include gasification, acid hydrolysis, and others. EPA does not investigate the material inputs for these options or their life cycle GHG emissions. EPA examines a number of biodiesel pathways. These include soy biodiesel and biodiesel from tallow and other oils. Their life cycle analysis of tallow and other waste oils is inconsistent because the system boundaries are ignored. The alternative use of tallow needs to be considered since the material is not disposed in a landfill. Tallow is used as both animal feed and boiler fuel. A consequential LCA needs to consider its alternative use. 4 Life Cycle Associates, LLC

6 Co-Products Co-products from biofuels production have a significant impact on the LCA of fuels with different attribution methods leading to quite different results for any given product or process. Some biofuel pathways generate excess electricity through the combustion of biomass residue to meet onsite heat and electricity needs. EPA used FASOM to calculate the net change in agricultural sector electricity consumption associated with each of the pathways analyzed, and these amounts were then combined with GREET default GHG emission factors for fertilizer and pesticide production to calculate GHG emissions changes. However, this approach does not appropriately reflect the environmental impacts of power generation associated with biofuels facilities because it employs a credit based on displaced fossil power. This credit could also be sold as a renewable power credit thus double counting the impact under RFS2. Ethanol produced using the dry-milling process results in co-product distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS), which can be used for animal feed. Projected annual corn ethanol production under EISA would result in the coproduction of substantial quantities of DDGS. But, if the animal feed market cannot use all the DDGS produced, the material could be burned as an energy source instead. Thus, EPA s analysis needs to take into account the challenges in effectively selling excess DDGS, which it currently does not. Biodiesel is typically produced by reacting fat or oil feedstocks with a base and methanol in a transesterification reaction to produce a methyl ester and glycerin. In addition, biodiesel production from soy oil, a significant vegetable oil feedstock results in another co-product, soybean meal. The treatment of biodiesel co-products (soybean meal and glycerin) in GREET does not appropriately partition the emissions associated with glycerin production and the treatment in EPA s analysis is unclear. Several errors in the GREET allocation factor approach compound to yield excessively high glycerin energy content of the glycerin co-product. This effect alone understates GHG emissions of biodiesel production, resulting in lower well to tank emissions than would be calculated by other approaches Biofuels Key Recommendations EPA should take several steps to present a more accurate picture of the life cycle GHG impact of biofuels. First the cost and viability of the near term transition to biofuels is oversimplified. Secondly, the aggregation of technologies and analysis for 2022 technologies attributes improvements and co-product power that are not related to the rule. Finally, the GREET model should be updated to reflect numerous data and calculation issues summarized below and discussed in the main report. To address the viability of the rule, EPA should examine more carefully the near term costs of cellulosic ethanol and the risks and contingencies associated with a build-up of new technology that is as rapid as the prior expansion in corn ethanol. Alternative scenarios for sugar cane ethanol also need to be examined. For example, EPA s analysis does not examine the use of residual oil to dewater ethanol in the Caribbean, which accounts for most of the 5 Life Cycle Associates, LLC

7 Brazilian ethanol imported to the U.S. today. EPA should rate ethanol plants on actual performance and develop ratings for ethanol plants that fall into technology categories similar to the approach taken by ARB. EPA could determine what energy inputs are required to meet a 20% GHG reduction rather than predicting the future mix of ethanol plant technologies. And, several issues with GREET calculations should be addressed, most notably, the fossil fuel carbon in biodiesel should be counted and allocation methods for biodiesel should be revised. 4.2 Petroleum Fuels Pathways The petroleum fuel cycle includes energy inputs and emissions related to the production of crude oil, transport of crude oil to refineries, refining of the oil, and distribution of the finished products. This analysis focused on the crude oil recovery and refining steps as they require the greatest amounts of energy and have the greatest emissions. EPA used GREET for conducting its analyses of the petroleum fuels pathways. This analysis reviewed how EPA applied the model as well as the petroleum fuels pathways within the model itself Crude Oil Supply and GHG Emissions In applying GREET, EPA adjusted the GHG emissions for the production of heavy oil and Venezuela extra heavy oil by applying scaling factors to the GREET GHG emissions for the production of conventional crude oil. EPA s basis for making these adjustments is questionable, however, for several reasons. For example, EPA did not use the emissions value for conventional oil in GREET to derive the scaling factors. Instead, an average of other imported oils from another literature source was used. However, there is no supporting data for any of the emissions intensity values cited in this source. An additional problem with the EPA s use of the scaling factor is that the GREET model already contains an adjustment factor to account for additional venting and flaring associated with imported oil. GREET itself contains a number questionable assumptions about the energy and emissions associated with crude oil production. Notably the use of 98% efficient extraction is difficult to validate. GREET estimates that energy consumption to produce foreign crude oil and the venting of methane other than that in associated gas is the same as for domestic crude oil. For associated gas venting and flaring, GREET is based on the assumption that emissions from imported oil are twice the domestic level. No data are provided to support either of these assumptions Petroleum Refining and GHG Emissions In conducting its analysis, the EPA applied the GREET model to the quantities of different types of gasoline and diesel fuel consumed in the base year EPA should incorporate more appropriate estimates of the actual gasoline and diesel fuel produced for the 2005 baseline and the correct allocation of diesel fuel production among the different sulfur content categories. Within GREET, the refinery energy efficiency is a key parameter in calculating emissions. Crude oil is by far the largest input to a refinery, however GREET uses an understated energy content for 2005 crudes. In addition, the revised GREET refinery efficiency may underestimate the amount of natural gas required to make the hydrogen consumed at 6 Life Cycle Associates, LLC

8 refineries. And, GREET employs an outdated allocation of the energy to the distribution of refinery products. Better data on refinery operation should be used to distribute energy inputs and emissions to refined products Petroleum Fuel Recommendations EPA should revisit the adjustments it makes to the imports of heavy oil and Venezuela extra heavy crude oil and provide a rigorous justification for the selected adjustments used. EPA should also explain how the correction factors it applies to these different crude oils interact with the correction factors GREET already applies to all types of imported crude oil. EPA should re-run the GREET model using the correct proportion of gasoline and diesel fuels sold in 2005 using the correct EIA data. EPA should also re-run the GREET model for diesel fuel, to correct a mistake in modeling diesel fuel production in GREET as if it were ultra-lowsulfur diesel (as defined by the EIA) when in fact virtually no such fuel was sold in Life Cycle Modeling EPA performs life cycle analyses for a variety of renewable fuel pathways taking into account both direct energy inputs and emissions and land-use impacts. The use of crops as feedstocks for fuel production results in the conversion of land and the consequent release of carbon dioxide. However, the land use conversion (LUC) impacts associated with biofuels production cannot readily be described via a simple substitution analysis. 5.1 GREET Model and Direct Emission Impacts EPA used GREET to determine energy and emissions values for the processes employed in the various stages of the life cycles of selected fuel pathways. These model results were combined with FASOM results estimating fertilizer use, changes in electric power, and land use emissions. This complicated set of model interactions allows the use of FASOM s more detailed assessment of land impacts. While the advantages of this approach are not examined or sufficiently justified in the DRIA, the results are directly comparable to analogous analyses conducted by ARB. An important concern is that EPA does not clearly explain how emission factors or intermediate life cycle results from GREET are aligned with those used in FAPRI and FASOM. EPA provides no straightforward way to compare the energy and GHG intensity of various processes in the fuel cycle. For example, the impacts of various life cycle parameters on results and related errors in the DRIA are buried in a layer of models and need to be clearly presented. In addition, GREET appear to omit a portion of fuel cycle emissions for fertilizer production and assumes only natural gas based while the use of coal based fertilizer is growing. 5.2 Direct Land Use Impacts The EPA s analysis shows a significant reduction in GHG emissions for the feed stocks used in several biofuels pathways, particularly those associated with the build-up of root material 7 Life Cycle Associates, LLC

9 in the soil. However, the life cycle GHG impact of stored crop roots remains uncertain. While certain cropping systems may store additional carbon, the same carbon can be released by conversion to a different crop. Also, any potential benefits of increased soil carbon storage associated with the adoption of no-till cropping practices can potentially be offset by increases in soil N 2 O emissions in some types of soils. Assumptions regarding crop rotation and/or crop conversion are difficult to determine from the FASOM and FAPRI modeling performed. This subject requires further documentation. Agricultural N 2 O emissions include both direct and indirect emissions. Soil N 2 O emissions are probably the largest source of GHG emissions associated with the growing of energy crop feedstocks, but probably the least well quantified at the regional scale. EPA s treatment of N 2 O emissions appears to be consistent with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) requirements; however it is difficult to verify. The analysis on U.S. emissions is embedded in FASOM and determining an aggregate N 2 O factor (% of nitrogen applied as fertilizer to biofuels) is not straightforward. International N 2 O emissions are based on nitrogen fertilizer application rates and again it is difficult to verify the level of nitrogen application for each crop type. Since N 2 O emissions are one of the largest emission sources from biofuels production, the uncertainty in these emissions needs to be examined more carefully. 5.3 FASOM and FAPRI Land Use Analysis EPA uses the FASOM and FAPRI agricultural models to estimate the cropland affected by biofuel production. The analysis performed depends upon the supply and demand for land, crops, and products including animal feed and beef. The net effect depends on key economic inputs that are exogenous to the agricultural models used. EPA s analysis should make these input assumptions more transparent and provide more illustrations of the sensitivity of model results to these inputs. Several other issues are apparent from the analysis and are discussed in the main report. 5.4 Other Indirect Effects EPA has examined a variety of direct and indirect effects associated with renewable fuels. The analysis of LUC impacts includes an assessment of the economic impacts of agricultural commodities which are addressed by FASOM and FAPRI. However, a variety of other indirect effects are not examined in the DRIA. For example, a significant impact of biofuels expansion is the shift in crop exports, global shipping, and bunker fuel consumption. Changes in the transport of U.S. and Brazilian exports seem as meaningful as the subtle macroeconomic shifts examined by FAPRI and FASOM. In addition, expansion of biofuels use will have a significant impact of food consumption and fertilizer manufacture. EPA s analysis maintains a constant supply of fuel, but food supplies are allowed to vary in the agro economic analysis. Clearly food price rationing will induce less consumption and potential GHG savings, but should this effect be a credit for biofuels? The effect of price rationing on the analysis should also be examined as was done for the California LCFS. Another critical aspect of biofuels life cycle analysis is related to fertilizer production. The direct emissions from fertilizer production are estimated in GREET and are presumably comparable to those in FASOM. However, EPA s consequential LCA does not take into 8 Life Cycle Associates, LLC

10 account the growth in fertilizer demand associated with biofuels agriculture. If EPA s analysis is based only on the natural gas factors in GREET for ammonia fertilizer production, these should be revised to reflect an appropriate marginal mix, consistent with the other consequential analyses in the DRIA. 5.5 Uncertainty Analysis EPA performs a variety of sensitivity analyses that examine different feedstock scenarios and other life cycle model inputs. The EPA s sensitivity analysis examines the effect on model results of perturbations in individual model parameters. Because parameters are perturbed one-by-one, this is a local analysis that does not consider the impact of multiple, simultaneous parameter perturbations. However, EPA does little to assess the uncertainty in its analysis. While the difficulty in performing uncertainly analysis is well understood, EPA could do much more to quantify the uncertainty in its modeling results. For example, data on parameters such as agricultural inputs, soil carbon release, energy use and many other parameters could provide the basis for a true uncertainty analysis. 5.6 Life Cycle Modeling Key Recommendations EPA has investigated the life cycle GHG emissions of renewable and petroleum fuels in a detailed manner using the modeling tools that are available and feasible at present. The complex mix of life cycle and agro-economic models and databases employed by EPA captures the major factors that affect GHG emissions. EPA used FASOM and FAPRI to assess emissions associated LUC, and GREET for direct emissions. Although the models have limitations, they are detailed greenhouse gas modeling tools that can yield useful output with appropriate data inputs. A key challenge is in identifying input assumptions that are appropriate for these complex models and EPA should review and better justify the input assumptions adopted. 6 Summary of Recommendations This review identifies a number of issues and shortcomings focusing on biofuels production, petroleum production, and LCA modeling respectively that EPA should address. These are summarized in the following. 6.1 Biofuels Production EPA should take several steps to present a more accurate picture of the life cycle GHG impact of biofuels. These include: The cost and viability of the near term transition to biofuels is oversimplified. EPA should: - Examine more carefully the near term costs of cellulosic ethanol and the risks and contingencies associated with a build-up of new technology that is as rapid as the prior expansion in corn ethanol - Examine alternative scenarios for sugar cane ethanol including the use of residual oil to dewater ethanol in the Caribbean, which accounts for most of the Brazilian ethanol imported to the U.S. today 9 Life Cycle Associates, LLC

11 - Rate ethanol plants on actual performance and develop ratings for ethanol plants that fall into technology categories similar to the approach taken by ARB - Determine what energy inputs are required to meet a 20% GHG reduction rather than predicting the future mix of ethanol plant technologies The aggregation of technologies and the analysis for 2022 technologies attributes improvements and co-product power that are not related to the rule. EPA s treatment of biofuels reflects the most optimistic view of production technologies and provides an excessive credit for co-products compared to the likely environmental benefit and credits applied in other studies. EPA should adjust this treatment to align more closely to that employed in these other studies The GREET model should be updated to reflect numerous data and calculation issues discussed in the main report. Most notably, the fossil fuel carbon in biodiesel should be counted and allocation methods for biodiesel should be revised. 6.2 Petroleum Fuels Production The analysis of petroleum relies on a combination of studies and models that should be updated to reflect available data in a consistent manner. Specifically EPA should: Revisit the adjustments it makes to the imports of heavy oil and Venezuela extra heavy crude oil and provide a rigorous justification for the selected adjustments used Explain how the correction factors it applies to these different crude oils interact with the correction factors GREET already applies to all types of imported crude oil Re-run the GREET model using the correct proportion of gasoline and diesel fuels sold in 2005 using the correct EIA data Re-run the GREET model for diesel fuel, to correct a mistake in modeling diesel fuel production in GREET as if it were ultra-low-sulfur diesel (as defined by the EIA) when in fact virtually no such fuel was sold in Life Cycle Modeling EPA used FASOM and FAPRI to assess emissions associated LUC, and GREET for direct emissions. Although the models have limitations, they are detailed greenhouse gas modeling tools that can yield useful output with appropriate data inputs. Given the importance of specifying appropriate data inputs, EPA should review and better justify the input assumptions adopted. 10 Life Cycle Associates, LLC

Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency Treatment of Life Cycle Assessment in the Renewable Fuel Standard Rulemaking

Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency Treatment of Life Cycle Assessment in the Renewable Fuel Standard Rulemaking LCA.8009.21P.2009 January 2010 Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency Treatment of Life Cycle Assessment in the Renewable Fuel Standard Rulemaking Prepared by Stefan Unnasch, Brent Riffel, Larry

More information

U.S. EPA Renewable Fuel Standard 2

U.S. EPA Renewable Fuel Standard 2 Policy Update Number 6 April 2, 2010 U.S. EPA Renewable Fuel Standard 2 Final Rule Summary Fig. 1. Projected volumes of renewable fuels under RFS2. Source: EPA 2010a. ICCT Policy Updates summarize and

More information

Life cycle analysis of ethanol: issues, results, and case simulations

Life cycle analysis of ethanol: issues, results, and case simulations Life cycle analysis of ethanol: issues, results, and case simulations Jeongwoo Han Systems Assessment Group Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Annual ACE Conference Omaha, August

More information

Assessing the Carbon Footprint of Corn-Based Ethanol

Assessing the Carbon Footprint of Corn-Based Ethanol Assessing the Carbon Footprint of Corn-Based Ethanol Jan Lewandrowski, Senior Economist USDA, Office of the Chief Economist Event : 2018 ACES Conference Location: Arlington, VA Date: December 6, 2018 Background

More information

AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECTED GLOBAL WARMING IMPACT OF CORN ETHANOL PRODUCTION (YEARS )

AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECTED GLOBAL WARMING IMPACT OF CORN ETHANOL PRODUCTION (YEARS ) AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECTED GLOBAL WARMING IMPACT OF CORN ETHANOL PRODUCTION (YEARS 2010-2030) Prepared for: Illinois Corn Marketing Board ProExporter Network Prepared by: Steffen Mueller Stefan Unnasch

More information

Critical Issues of Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis

Critical Issues of Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Critical Issues of Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Michael Wang Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory CRC Workshop on Life Cycle Analysis of Biofuels Argonne National Laboratory Oct.

More information

DOE Activities on Biofuels Sustainability Issues. Zia Haq

DOE Activities on Biofuels Sustainability Issues. Zia Haq DOE Activities on Biofuels Sustainability Issues Zia Haq Coordinating Research Council, October 22, 2009 Introduction: Department of Energy Biomass Program The Biomass Program (OBP) at the DOE works closely

More information

Seoul, Korea May, 2017

Seoul, Korea May, 2017 Life-Cycle Analysis of Bioethanol Fuel Steffen Mueller, PhD, University of Illinois at Chicago Energy Resources Center Seoul, Korea May, 2017 Introduction University of Illinois at Chicago has 29,000 students

More information

Life Cycle Assessment. Alissa Kendall Assoc. Prof. Civil & Environmental Engineering

Life Cycle Assessment. Alissa Kendall Assoc. Prof. Civil & Environmental Engineering Life Cycle Assessment Alissa Kendall Assoc. Prof. Civil & Environmental Engineering Alissa Kendall - 2016 Why we (increasingly) need a life cycle approach for evaluating energy and emissions Conventional

More information

Second Generation Biofuels: Economic and Policy Issues

Second Generation Biofuels: Economic and Policy Issues Second Generation Biofuels: Economic and Policy Issues Wally Tyner With Input from Farzad Taheripour March 27, 2012 Presentation Outline New data on global land use change Sources of uncertainty for second

More information

A Comparison of Corn Ethanol Lifecycle Analyses: California Low Carbon Fuels Standard (LCFS) Versus Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2)

A Comparison of Corn Ethanol Lifecycle Analyses: California Low Carbon Fuels Standard (LCFS) Versus Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) Discussion Paper A Comparison of Corn Ethanol Lifecycle Analyses: California Low Carbon Fuels Standard (LCFS) Versus Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) June 14, 2010 For: Renewable Fuels Association and Nebraska

More information

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Program

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Program The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Program Presentation for The Nexus of Biofuels Energy, Climate Change, and Health Workshop (Institute of Medicine) January 25, 2013 Karl Simon, Director Transportation

More information

Biofuels: An Important Part of a Low-Carb Diet

Biofuels: An Important Part of a Low-Carb Diet Biofuels: An Important Part of a Low-Carb Diet Steven Bantz Union of Concerned Scientists Washington, DC The Union of Concerned Scientists is a science-based organization in DC, Berkeley, CA, and Cambridge,

More information

Biofuels: Trends, Specifications, Biomass Conversion, and GHG Assessments

Biofuels: Trends, Specifications, Biomass Conversion, and GHG Assessments Biofuels: Trends, Specifications, Biomass Conversion, and GHG Assessments 6 th International Symposium on Fuels and Lubricants New Delhi, India March 9-12, 2008 S. Kent Hoekman, Ph.D. Desert Research Institute

More information

Bio-energy greenhouse gas life cycle assessment review

Bio-energy greenhouse gas life cycle assessment review Bio-energy greenhouse gas life cycle assessment review CO 2 Summit: Technology and Opportunity Helena Chum Ethan Warner Garvin Heath Maggie Mann June 8 th, 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S.

More information

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Version 1.5

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Version 1.5 1. Introduction The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Version 1.5 Michael Wang Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory August

More information

Alternative Fuels. August 23, EPA s Office of Transportation and Air Quality

Alternative Fuels. August 23, EPA s Office of Transportation and Air Quality Alternative Fuels August 23, 2007 EPA s Office of Transportation and Air Quality Research and Development Regulatory The Clean Air Act and EPA The Energy Policy Act and EPA New Policies Mandatory and Voluntary

More information

March 22, Pollution Probe Pathways Initiative Workshop. Renewably Sourced Fuels. Carolyn Tester

March 22, Pollution Probe Pathways Initiative Workshop. Renewably Sourced Fuels. Carolyn Tester March 22, 2015 Pollution Probe Pathways Initiative Workshop Renewably Sourced Fuels Carolyn Tester Principle-based Advocacy Free market, level playing field, market solutions No mandates or subsidies Consumer

More information

Implications of the Low Carbon Fuel Standard for State and National Ethanol Use

Implications of the Low Carbon Fuel Standard for State and National Ethanol Use Implications of the Low Carbon Fuel Standard for State and National Ethanol Use James Kaufman Wyatt Thompson and Seth Meyer Department of Agricultural Economics Working Paper No. AEWP 2009-05 August 2009

More information

Biofuels in the Gas Tank: What Does It Take? Maria Janowiak Future Fuels Field Trips March 2009

Biofuels in the Gas Tank: What Does It Take? Maria Janowiak Future Fuels Field Trips March 2009 Biofuels in the Gas Tank: What Does It Take? Maria Janowiak Future Fuels Field Trips March 2009 Three types of energy: Heat Electricity Fuel Current US Energy Use 94% of our energy comes from fossil fuels.

More information

Biomass Use at Dry-Grind Ethanol Plants: Less Greenhouse Gases and More Profits

Biomass Use at Dry-Grind Ethanol Plants: Less Greenhouse Gases and More Profits Biomass Use at Dry-Grind Ethanol Plants: Less Greenhouse Gases and More Profits Douglas G. Tiffany University of Minnesota Adv. Biomass Energy Workshop W.C. Research and Outreach Ctr. University of Minnesota

More information

Ethanol Energy Balances

Ethanol Energy Balances David Andress & Associates, Inc. 11008 Harriet Lane (301) 933-7179 Kensington, Maryland 20895 Ethanol Energy Balances Prepared by: David Andress David Andress & Associates, Inc. 11008 Harriet Lane Kensington,

More information

Biofuels A policy driven logistics and business challenge

Biofuels A policy driven logistics and business challenge Biofuels 2020 A policy driven logistics and business challenge Research and Innovation, Position Paper 02-2010 This is DNV DNV is a global provider of services for managing risk. Established in 1864, DNV

More information

Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis

Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis Liquid Biofuels for Transportation National Academies Workshop on Oil Peaking Daniel Sperling Professor and Director October 20, 2005

More information

Ethanol Fuels: E10 or E85 Life Cycle Perspectives

Ethanol Fuels: E10 or E85 Life Cycle Perspectives : E10 or E85 Life Cycle Perspectives Seungdo Kim and Bruce E. Dale* Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Michigan State University, Room 2527, Engineering Building, Michigan State University,

More information

Updated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Results of Fuel Ethanol

Updated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Results of Fuel Ethanol Updated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Results of Fuel Ethanol Michael Wang Center for Transportation Research Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory The 15 th International Symposium

More information

New Studies Portray Unbalanced Perspective on Biofuels. DOE Committed to Environmentally Sound Biofuels Development

New Studies Portray Unbalanced Perspective on Biofuels. DOE Committed to Environmentally Sound Biofuels Development New Studies Portray Unbalanced Perspective on Biofuels DOE Committed to Environmentally Sound Biofuels Development DOE Response based on contributions from Office of Biomass Program; Argonne National Lab,

More information

Biofuels Toward the Next Generation. BCSEA Energy Solutions, June 10, 2008 Patrick Mazza, Research Director, Climate Solutions

Biofuels Toward the Next Generation. BCSEA Energy Solutions, June 10, 2008 Patrick Mazza, Research Director, Climate Solutions Biofuels Toward the Next Generation BCSEA Energy Solutions, June 10, 2008 Patrick Mazza, Research Director, Climate Solutions Climate Solutions Climate Solutions mission is to accelerate practical and

More information

Bioenergy Carbon Footprint Implications on market development

Bioenergy Carbon Footprint Implications on market development GBEP STUDY TOUR FOR CAPACITY BUILDING: BIOENERGY WEEK Bioenergy Carbon Footprint Implications on market development Marcelo Moreira www.iconebrasil.org.br Brasilia March, 19 th 2013 Motivation Avoid Climate

More information

GREET Life-Cycle Analysis Model and Key LCA Issues for Vehicle/Fuel Technologies

GREET Life-Cycle Analysis Model and Key LCA Issues for Vehicle/Fuel Technologies GREET Life-Cycle Analysis Model and Key LCA Issues for Vehicle/Fuel Technologies Michael Wang Systems Assessment Group Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory, USA The 11 th Concawe Symposium

More information

A European Perspective on fuels LCA Modelling

A European Perspective on fuels LCA Modelling JRC/EUCAR/CONCAWE WTW Analysis of European Road Fuels A European Perspective on fuels LCA Modelling J-F Larivé, CONCAWE Content The JEC WTW study LCA models What s different? Boundary issues: direct and

More information

Growing Crops for Biofuels Has Spillover Effects

Growing Crops for Biofuels Has Spillover Effects Growing Crops for Biofuels Has Spillover Effects VOLUME 7 ISSUE 1 Scott Malcolm smalcolm@ers.usda.gov 10 Marcel Aillery maillery@ers.usda.gov Federal mandates for biofuel production promote expanded crop

More information

Methodologies: Emission and Mitigation of GHG in the production and Use of Ethanol from Sugarcane

Methodologies: Emission and Mitigation of GHG in the production and Use of Ethanol from Sugarcane 1 st Brazil-U.S. BiofuelsShort Course: Providing Interdisciplinary Education in Biofuels Technology July 27 -August 7, 2009 University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Methodologies: Emission and Mitigation

More information

The Impact of Applying RINS to U.S. Ethanol Exports on Farm Revenue and the Economy. Prepared For: Growth Energy

The Impact of Applying RINS to U.S. Ethanol Exports on Farm Revenue and the Economy. Prepared For: Growth Energy The Impact of Applying RINS to U.S. Ethanol Exports on Farm Revenue and the Economy Prepared For: Growth Energy October 2017 Table of Contents I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 5 II. BACKGROUND... 7 III. METHODOLOGY...

More information

Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal and Biomass

Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal and Biomass Affordable, Low-Carbon Diesel Fuel from Domestic Coal and Biomass 32 nd IAEE International Conference San Francisco, CA June 23, 2009 John G. Wimer Director, Systems Division, NETL Disclaimer This report

More information

Biofuels and Carbon: Implications for Powertrain Strategies

Biofuels and Carbon: Implications for Powertrain Strategies Biofuels and Carbon: Implications for Powertrain Strategies John M. DeCicco University of Michigan Energy Institute UMTRI Automotive Futures Conference on Powertrain Strategies for the 21 st Century July

More information

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BIOFUELS WITH THE GREET MODEL

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BIOFUELS WITH THE GREET MODEL drhgfdjhngngfmhgmghmghjmghfmf LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BIOFUELS WITH THE GREET MODEL MICHAEL WANG Systems Assessment Group Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory NAS Workshop on Bioenergy with

More information

CONTRIBUTION OF THE ETHANOL INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OF THE UNITED STATES

CONTRIBUTION OF THE ETHANOL INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OF THE UNITED STATES CONTRIBUTION OF THE ETHANOL INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OF THE UNITED STATES Prepared for the Renewable Fuels Association by John M. Urbanchuk Managing Partner February 17, 2014 The environment facing the

More information

Sustainability of sugar cane bioethanol: Energy balance and GHG

Sustainability of sugar cane bioethanol: Energy balance and GHG Sustainability of sugar cane bioethanol: Energy balance and GHG Joaquim E. A. Seabra Manoel Regis Lima Verde Leal CTBE Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory Global Sustainable Bioenergy - Latin

More information

Global Warming. Department of Chemical Engineering

Global Warming. Department of Chemical Engineering Global Warming How Can Biofuels Help? Clint Williford Department of Chemical Engineering Introduction ti Greenhouse emissions Reducing growth of GHG emissions Biofuels Why and why now? What they are? How

More information

25x 25 Sustainability Presentation: 5 th California Biomass Collaborative Forum Joint Forum on Biomass Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

25x 25 Sustainability Presentation: 5 th California Biomass Collaborative Forum Joint Forum on Biomass Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis 25x 25 Sustainability Presentation: 5 th California Biomass Collaborative Forum Joint Forum on Biomass Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis May 28, 2008 25x 25: a National Alliance Formed in Spring 2004

More information

Biofuels Potential and Sustainability

Biofuels Potential and Sustainability Biofuels Potential and Sustainability Andy Aden, PE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2008 Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute Conference March 6, 2008 1 Outline Biofuels potential Current state

More information

CO 2 Resource Utilization for Microalgae Biofuels Production or Carbon Sequestration - A Life Cycle Assessment Perspective.

CO 2 Resource Utilization for Microalgae Biofuels Production or Carbon Sequestration - A Life Cycle Assessment Perspective. CO 2 Resource Utilization for Microalgae Biofuels Production or Carbon Sequestration - A Life Cycle Assessment Perspective. Susan Boland October 2, 2015 Outline Life Cycle Associates Intro Life Cycle Assessment

More information

Future U.S. Biofuels and Biomass Demand Uncertainty Reigns. Wally Tyner

Future U.S. Biofuels and Biomass Demand Uncertainty Reigns. Wally Tyner Agricultural Outlook Forum Presented: February 24-25, 2011 U.S. Department of Agriculture Future U.S. Biofuels and Biomass Demand Uncertainty Reigns Wally Tyner Future U.S. Biofuels and Biomass Demand

More information

Tools for Greenhouse Gas Analysis: Exploring Methodologies for Development Finance. July 14, 2009

Tools for Greenhouse Gas Analysis: Exploring Methodologies for Development Finance. July 14, 2009 Tools for Greenhouse Gas Analysis: Exploring Methodologies for Development Finance July 14, 2009 OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION (OPIC) An Agency of the United States Government History of Carbon

More information

Biofuels: Environmental Sustainability and Interaction with Food Systems

Biofuels: Environmental Sustainability and Interaction with Food Systems International Council of Science Biofuels: Environmental Sustainability and Interaction with Food Systems Bob Howarth (Cornell University, USA) Chair, International SCOPE Biofuels Project November 3, 2010

More information

Biofuels: Costs and Potential for Mitigating Greenhouse Gases

Biofuels: Costs and Potential for Mitigating Greenhouse Gases Biofuels: Costs and Potential for Mitigating Greenhouse Gases Madhu Khanna Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics Energy Biosciences Institute University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign GHG Emissions

More information

Positioning Your Plant to Maximize the Opportunity Created by Low Carbon Fuel Markets

Positioning Your Plant to Maximize the Opportunity Created by Low Carbon Fuel Markets Positioning Your Plant to Maximize the Opportunity Created by Low Carbon Fuel Markets Dr. Zhichao Wang, Ag & Env Engineer/ Carbon Analyst EcoEngineers ACE Aug. 16 th, 2018 Low Carbon Fuels in The News

More information

NC STATE UNIVERSITY. Energy Crops for NC. Dr Nicholas George

NC STATE UNIVERSITY. Energy Crops for NC. Dr Nicholas George Energy Crops for NC Dr Nicholas George Why pursue alternative fuels? 1. Climate change There is a warming trend across the USA Biofuel crops are carbon-neutral. They are therefore a way to reduce carbon

More information

Sustainability of biofuels: GHG emissions

Sustainability of biofuels: GHG emissions Joaquim E. A. Seabra Sustainability of biofuels: GHG emissions joaquim.seabra@bioetanol.org.br Scientific Issues on Biofuels Fapesp May 25 th, 2010 Sustainability of biofuels Worldwide, the main driving-forces

More information

A Prospective Analysis of US-Brazil Biofuel Policies

A Prospective Analysis of US-Brazil Biofuel Policies A Prospective Analysis of US-Brazil Biofuel Policies Héctor M. Núñez and Hayri Önal Madhu Khanna, Xiaoguang Chen, Haixiao Huang University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Energy Biosciences Institute CTBE-IEA

More information

Tools for greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment for biofuels: a comparison

Tools for greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment for biofuels: a comparison Task 38: Climate change effects of biomass and bioenergy systems Tools for greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment for biofuels: a comparison IEA Bioenergy Conference 2015 Helena Chum and Ethan Warner National

More information

EPA Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR September 13, 2010

EPA Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR September 13, 2010 Comments of Biotechnology Industry Organization on EPA s Call for Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources EPA Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0560 September

More information

An Ethanol Policy That Benefits All Americans

An Ethanol Policy That Benefits All Americans SIEPR policy brief Stanford University June 2007 Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research on the web: http://siepr.stanford.edu An Ethanol Policy That Benefits All Americans By Frank A. Wolak In

More information

Biofuel thematic paper Biofuel potential

Biofuel thematic paper Biofuel potential November 2007 Biofuel thematic paper Biofuel potential The potential for biofuel production/usage is assessed below. The assessments cover: EU, the U.S., China, Brazil, Denmark and the whole world; they

More information

BioEnergy Policy Brief July 2009 BPB

BioEnergy Policy Brief July 2009 BPB BPB 07 01 A Brief Description of AGSIM: An Econometric-Simulation Model of the Agricultural Economy Used for Biofuel Evaluation C. Robert Taylor Mollie M. Taylor AGSIM is an economic impact simulation

More information

Projected U.S. Corn Exports, Acreage and Production Under E-10, E-12 and E-15 Ethanol Policies

Projected U.S. Corn Exports, Acreage and Production Under E-10, E-12 and E-15 Ethanol Policies Projected U.S. Corn Exports, Acreage and Production Under E-10, E-12 and E-15 Ethanol Policies Daniel O Brien, Extension Agricultural Economist, K-State Research and Extension July 19, 2010 This article

More information

BIOENERGY: THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL CARBON

BIOENERGY: THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL CARBON BIOENERGY: THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL CARBON TIM SEARCHINGER, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY (TSEARCHI@PRINCETON.EDU) JUNE, 2011 Gross terrestrial carbon sink (2.8) & ~1 Gt logging regrowth (slightly exceeds logging

More information

Life Cycle Analysis of Canola for Biodiesel Use: PNW perspective

Life Cycle Analysis of Canola for Biodiesel Use: PNW perspective Life Cycle Analysis of Canola for Biodiesel Use: PNW perspective W. L. Pan, WA Biofuels Cropping Systems Coordinator W.A. Hammac, PhD Candidate Bioenergy Research Symposium, Nov. 13, 2012 Topics What is

More information

Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Biofuels: Role of Technology and Policy

Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Biofuels: Role of Technology and Policy From the SelectedWorks of Xiaoguang Chen 2012 Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Biofuels: Role of Technology and Policy Xiaoguang Chen, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics Haixiao

More information

Subject: The Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Renewable Fuels Produced from Biomass Sorghum Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR

Subject: The Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Renewable Fuels Produced from Biomass Sorghum Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR January 30, 2015 Sent electronically Mr. Jon Monger Office of Transportation and Air Quality MC 6406J U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20460 Subject:

More information

Proceedings of the 2007 CPM Short Course and MCPR Trade Show

Proceedings of the 2007 CPM Short Course and MCPR Trade Show Proceedings of the 2007 CPM Short Course and MCPR Trade Show December 4 6, 2007 Minneapolis Convention Center Do not Reproduce or Redistribute Without Written Consent of the Author(s) The Realities of

More information

Life Cycle Assessment as a support tool for bioenergy policy. Dr. Miguel Brandão

Life Cycle Assessment as a support tool for bioenergy policy. Dr. Miguel Brandão Life Cycle Assessment as a support tool for bioenergy policy Dr. Miguel Brandão Outline: Applying LCA for quantifying the climate effects of bioenergy Urgent need for replacing fossil fuels in order to

More information

Pocket Guide to Ethanol

Pocket Guide to Ethanol Pocket Guide to Ethanol 1. ETHANOL FACTS AT A GLANCE 2. CORN USE/ DDG PRODUCTION 3. ECONOMIC IMPACTS/ OIL REDUCTIONS 4. ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE 5. RFS2 6. TAX INCENTIVE/TARIFF 7. CELLULOSIC 8. HIGHER LEVEL

More information

How Effective are U.S. Renewable Energy Subsidies in Cutting Greenhouse Gases?

How Effective are U.S. Renewable Energy Subsidies in Cutting Greenhouse Gases? How Effective are U.S. Renewable Energy Subsidies in Cutting Greenhouse Gases? Brian C. Murray 1 Maureen L. Cropper 2 Francisco C. de la Chesnaye 3 John M. Reilly 4 Abstract The federal tax code provides

More information

Alternative jet fuel (AJF) LCA for ICAO s CORSIA & 2050 AJF production potential in the US

Alternative jet fuel (AJF) LCA for ICAO s CORSIA & 2050 AJF production potential in the US FAA CENTER OF EXCELLENCE FOR ALTERNATIVE JET FUELS & ENVIRONMENT Alternative jet fuel (AJF) LCA for ICAO s CORSIA & 2050 AJF production potential in the US Project 1 Lead investigator: S.R.H. Barrett,

More information

Curbing Greenhouse Gases: Agriculture's Role

Curbing Greenhouse Gases: Agriculture's Role Curbing Greenhouse Gases: Agriculture's Role Bruce A. McCarl Professor Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University (409) 845-7504 (fax) mccarl@tamu.edu Uwe Schneider Research Associate Department

More information

Nagore Sabio, Paul Dodds UCL Energy Institute. International Energy Workshop (IEW) 2016 University College Cork, 1-3 June 2016

Nagore Sabio, Paul Dodds UCL Energy Institute. International Energy Workshop (IEW) 2016 University College Cork, 1-3 June 2016 Evaluating the impact of bioenergy emission accounting methodology in energy system decarbonisation pathways to 2050 using a scenario approach: A case study of UK Nagore Sabio, Paul Dodds UCL Energy Institute

More information

Biofuels and Food Security A consultation by the HLPE to set the track of its study.

Biofuels and Food Security A consultation by the HLPE to set the track of its study. Biofuels and Food Security A consultation by the HLPE to set the track of its study. Discussion No. 80 from 8 to 28 May 2012 In October 2011, the CFS has recommended that appropriate parties and stakeholders

More information

Evaluating fuel ethanol feedstocks from energy policy perspectives: A comparative energy assessment of corn and corn stover

Evaluating fuel ethanol feedstocks from energy policy perspectives: A comparative energy assessment of corn and corn stover Energy Policy 35 (2007) 5918 5930 www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol Evaluating fuel ethanol feedstocks from energy policy perspectives: A comparative energy assessment of corn and corn stover Amanda Lavigne,

More information

E85 Pricing and Recent Consumption Trends

E85 Pricing and Recent Consumption Trends E85 Pricing and Recent Consumption Trends Scott Irwin and Darrel Good Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics University of Illinois June 19, 2013 farmdoc daily (3):118 Recommended citation format:

More information

Bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark competition between food, bioenergy and fossil fuels under physical and environmental constraints

Bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark competition between food, bioenergy and fossil fuels under physical and environmental constraints Bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark competition between food, bioenergy and fossil fuels under physical and environmental constraints I. Callesen 1,3, P.E. Grohnheit 2 and H. Østergård 1 1

More information

ALBERTA AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Alberta s Offset Protocols Biofuel, Biomass and Energy Efficiency May 6, 2010

ALBERTA AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Alberta s Offset Protocols Biofuel, Biomass and Energy Efficiency May 6, 2010 ALBERTA AND THE ENVIRONMENT Alberta s Offset Protocols Biofuel, Biomass and Energy Efficiency May 6, 2010 Outline Overview of Approved Alberta Offset Protocols Biofuel Protocol Biomass Protocol Energy

More information

BioEnergy Policy Brief January 2013

BioEnergy Policy Brief January 2013 Aggregate Economic Implications of National Cellulosic Biofuel Goals 1 Naveen C. Adusumilli, C. Robert Taylor, Ronald D. Lacewell, and M. Edward Rister Estimates of the domestic and international economic

More information

Biofuels and the Environment: First Triennial Report to Congress

Biofuels and the Environment: First Triennial Report to Congress DRAFT EPA/600/R-10/183A DO NOT CITE OR QUOTE January 2011 External Review Draft Biofuels and the Environment: First Triennial Report to Congress NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS A PRELIMINARY DRAFT. It has not

More information

Economy-wide Implications from U.S. Bioenergy Expansion

Economy-wide Implications from U.S. Bioenergy Expansion Economy-wide Implications from U.S. Bioenergy Expansion Mark Gehlhar*, Agapi Somwaru*, Peter Dixon**, Maureen Rimmer** and Ashley Winston** Abstract The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA)

More information

JEC Biofuels and Well to Wheels Analyses. Heather Hamje European Biofuels Technology Platform Meeting Brussels, October 14 th 2014

JEC Biofuels and Well to Wheels Analyses. Heather Hamje European Biofuels Technology Platform Meeting Brussels, October 14 th 2014 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FOR THE EUROPEAN REFINING INDUSTRY JEC Biofuels and Well to Wheels Analyses Heather Hamje European Biofuels Technology Platform Meeting Brussels, October 14 th 2014 JEC and Evolution

More information

Emerging Biofuels: Outlook of Effects on U.S. Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Markets

Emerging Biofuels: Outlook of Effects on U.S. Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Markets Emerging Biofuels: Outlook of Effects on U.S. Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Markets Simla Tokgoz stokgoz@iastate.edu 515-294 6357 Center for Agricultural and Rural Development Iowa State University Outline

More information

Description of the GLOBIOM model

Description of the GLOBIOM model Description of the GLOBIOM model 17 September 2013, Ecofys, IIASA, E4tech Ecofys, IIASA and E4tech are jointly undertaking a project for the European Commission (DG ENERGY) on the modelling of ILUC associated

More information

Office of the Chief Economist Office of Energy Policy and New Uses. November 19, 2008

Office of the Chief Economist Office of Energy Policy and New Uses. November 19, 2008 THE CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR INDUSTRIAL BIOMASS IN THE UNITED STATES BY Dr. Marvin Duncan USDA/OCE/OEPNU November 19, 2008 This presentation has five sections Background Current biofuels

More information

Implementing Sustainability Requirement within the Low Carbon Fuel Standards A Performance-Based Approach

Implementing Sustainability Requirement within the Low Carbon Fuel Standards A Performance-Based Approach Implementing Sustainability Requirement within the Low Carbon Fuel Standards A Performance-Based Approach Sonia Yeh Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis IAEE European Conference

More information

Terrie Boguski Harmony Environmental, LLC Kansas State University. January 2010

Terrie Boguski Harmony Environmental, LLC Kansas State University. January 2010 Terrie Boguski Harmony Environmental, LLC Kansas State University January 2010 What are Greenhouse Gases? Gases that allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely. When sunlight strikes the Earth s surface,

More information

Lessons from Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use

Lessons from Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use Lessons from Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use James K. Hammitt Harvard University (Center for Risk Analysis) Toulouse School of Economics (LERNA-INRA) Outline

More information

Attributional vs. Consequential Lifecycle Analysis: Applications and Limitations

Attributional vs. Consequential Lifecycle Analysis: Applications and Limitations Attributional vs. Consequential Lifecycle Analysis: Applications and Limitations John M. DeCicco School of Natural Resources and Environment & Energy Institute University of Michigan CRC Workshop on Lifecycle

More information

How Much Energy Does It Take to Make a Gallon of Ethanol?

How Much Energy Does It Take to Make a Gallon of Ethanol? How Much Energy Does It Take to Make a Gallon of Ethanol? David Lorenz and David Morris August 1995 1995 Institute for Local-Self Reliance (ILSR) Reproduction permitted with attribution to ILSR One of

More information

Office of the Chief Economist Office of Energy Policy and New Uses

Office of the Chief Economist Office of Energy Policy and New Uses Philadelphia Inquirer, Jan. 6, 2007 OVERVIEW OF AGRICULTURE FOR BIOFUELS IN THE U. S. By Hosein Shapouri, Ph. D. CRC WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE ANAYSIS OF BIOFUELS Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL,

More information

Developing LCFS for Biofuels: Getting it right for Corn Ethanol

Developing LCFS for Biofuels: Getting it right for Corn Ethanol University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Adam Liska Papers Biological Systems Engineering 4-28-2008 Developing LCFS for Biofuels: Getting it right for Corn Ethanol

More information

CONTRIBUTION OF THE ETHANOL INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OF THE UNITED STATES

CONTRIBUTION OF THE ETHANOL INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OF THE UNITED STATES CONTRIBUTION OF THE ETHANOL INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OF THE UNITED STATES Prepared for the Renewable Fuels Association by John M. Urbanchuk Technical Director Environmental Economics Updated January 31,

More information

Energy Issues Affecting Corn/Soybean Systems: Challenges for Sustainable Production

Energy Issues Affecting Corn/Soybean Systems: Challenges for Sustainable Production Energy Issues Affecting Corn/Soybean Systems: Challenges for Sustainable Production Issue Paper 48 January 2012 Dr. Doug Karlen www.cast-science.org 1 Authors Douglas Karlen (Chair) Task Force Members

More information

The economics of biofuel. David Zilberman Deepak Rajagopal Steve Sexton Gal Hochman Agricultural and resource economics UC Berkeley

The economics of biofuel. David Zilberman Deepak Rajagopal Steve Sexton Gal Hochman Agricultural and resource economics UC Berkeley The economics of biofuel David Zilberman Deepak Rajagopal Steve Sexton Gal Hochman Agricultural and resource economics UC Berkeley Why Biofuel? Increase in demand for fuel 18 cars/1000 people in China

More information

Emerging Biofuels: Outlook of Effects on U.S. Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Markets

Emerging Biofuels: Outlook of Effects on U.S. Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Markets Emerging Biofuels: Outlook of Effects on U.S. Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Markets Simla Tokgoz stokgoz@iastate.edu ed 515-294 6357 C t f A i lt l d R ld l t Center for Agricultural and Rural Development

More information

Tools for the GHG assessment of biofuels

Tools for the GHG assessment of biofuels PR-5100-71091 Tools for the GHG assessment of biofuels Patrick Lamers, Helena Chum Understanding Climate Change Effects of Forest Biomass and Bioenergy Systems Workshop Angers, France, November 7 th, 2017

More information

Anne Claire De Rouck Sarah Cook. Life Cycle Assessment Sugarcane Farming Sustainability

Anne Claire De Rouck Sarah Cook. Life Cycle Assessment Sugarcane Farming Sustainability Anne Claire De Rouck Sarah Cook Life Cycle Assessment Sugarcane Farming Sustainability Today's Goals Introduction to our LCA Research Lessons Learned LCA use for environmental assessment is a relatively

More information

Alternative Fuels Considerations on Land Use Impacts and complementarity/competition for feedstocks

Alternative Fuels Considerations on Land Use Impacts and complementarity/competition for feedstocks Alternative Fuels Considerations on Land Use Impacts and complementarity/competition for feedstocks Air Transport Net Forum Greening and independence from fossil fuels Frankfurt 08/10/12 Laura Lonza Scientific

More information

GCAM Modeling of Bioenergy and Carbon Emissions from Land Use Change

GCAM Modeling of Bioenergy and Carbon Emissions from Land Use Change GCAM Modeling of Bioenergy and Carbon Emissions from Land Use Change MARSHALL WISE, LEON CLARKE, KATE CALVIN, PAGE KYLE, HAEWON MCJEON Joint GCAM Community Modeling Meeting and GTSP Technical Workshop

More information

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BIOFUELS & LAND USE CHANGE

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BIOFUELS & LAND USE CHANGE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BIOFUELS & LAND USE CHANGE Bruce E. Dale University Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering Michigan State University Presented at: Fifth Annual California Biomass Collaborative

More information

Florida Water Availability and Water Needs In 2020, Chuck Aller Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services February 28, 2008

Florida Water Availability and Water Needs In 2020, Chuck Aller Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services February 28, 2008 Florida Water Availability and Water Needs In 2020, 2060 Chuck Aller Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services February 28, 2008 Florida Agriculture Today 41,000 farms and ranches 14.3 million

More information

Co-firing in coal power plants and its impact on biomass feedstock availability

Co-firing in coal power plants and its impact on biomass feedstock availability Co-firing in coal power plants and its impact on biomass feedstock availability Jerome Dumortier School of Public and Environmental Affairs Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis Prepared

More information

Taking Stock 2018: Technical Appendix

Taking Stock 2018: Technical Appendix Taking Stock 2018: Technical Appendix This document provides additional detail on the methods and data sources used in Rhodium Group s Taking Stock 2018 report produced for the US Climate Service. NATIONAL

More information

Creating Energy from Waste How the RFS2 Helps Make it Happen

Creating Energy from Waste How the RFS2 Helps Make it Happen Creating Energy from Waste How the RFS2 Helps Make it Happen Western Washington Clean Cities The Future of RNG as a Transportation Fuel in Washington RNG: The National Landscape and Successful Projects

More information