Product and chain development for Oil Palm

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1 Product and chain development for Oil Palm Bio-based materials and renewable energy Jan E.G van Dam Div Biobased Products Wageningen UR Bio-based economy.the solution for sustainable developments...?...

2 Bio-based economy and Sustainable developments KYOTO and CO 2 neutral production Transition process Renewable resources for energy and products Exploitation of biomass from agro-industrial residues Value addition in materials, and green chemicals Transition to a bio-based based economy What are the biomass resources where are those available at what costs??

3 Growing demand for biomass resources Agricultural crops sugar fats and oils ethanol biodiesel Forestry crops wood fuel charcoal Competing claims for biomass resources Sustainable production food supply security land use deforestation rural development FAO / UNEP / UNIDO NGO Rapid expansion of demand for energy purposes DEVELOPMENT OF BIOREFINERY

4 Unused biomass resources Agricultural crops Forestry crops Animal waste Municipal solid waste Marine crops Agricultural residues Food industry wastes Forestry residues Black liquor Waste paper Manure Sewage Algae, Fishery residues Various Crops and Regions Soft Wood Wheat Corn Soya Cotton Coconut Sugarcane Soya Hard Wood Soft Wood Wheat Sugar beet Algae Cacao Cotton Cassava Soft Wood Rice Cotton Coconut Palm oil Hard Wood Eucalypt Soya Eucalypt

5 R&D activities for sustainable developments (1) Supply management Upgrading of existing and innovative technologies to ecologically improved production Novel innovative markets for renewable products Valorisation of residues R&D activities for sustainable developments (2) Agro-logistics, storage, transport and packaging White biotechnology, biorefinery Product development Renewable energy from biomass residues Building and construction materials Green chemicals and bio-polymers, adhesives, additives and coatings

6 Renewable raw materials Agroresidues of food and non-food crops cotton stalks rice straw / hull sugar cane bagasse corn cobs coconut husk jute sticks, etc palm oil residues eucalypt bark verge grasses Oil palm Projects in division BBP Optimization oilseed processing (Indonesia) PalmPlus (BIT project SENTER, Zebra Special Products NL PTPN3 Indonesia) 2001 pulping of EFB (Tigaraska ( Indonesia) 2004 pyrolysis oil (BTG) application development 2005 market survey for production of bioplastics from Palm oil (confidential NL / Malaysia) 2006 dissolving cellulose from Palm oil residues (confidential)

7 Oil palm student theses in division BBP K.A. Dejonghe and W.Wong (Erasmus Univ Rotterdam): Survey of palm oil industries in Malaysia 1999 Rusli Hidyat and F. van Beckum (Univ Twente): palm fruit sterilization by using direct steam injection 2004 Adelwahab et al (WUR) - Enhanced use of waste biomass of palm oil production in an environmentally safe and sustainable way in Malaysia aysia and Ghana 2005 W. de Vries (RUG) Valorisation of biomass residues from the palm oil production chain 2006 B. Dehue (WUR) - Palm Oil and its By-Products as a Renewable Energy Source Potential, Sustainability and Governance Jing Zhang (WUR) - Short study into the use of palm oil by-products while increasing the sustainability of palm oil production. Definition of new processing chains for palm oil by-products and the environmental and economic performance. Oil Palm (Malaysia ( Malaysia, Indonesia) 27 millions of tons a year, 23% of the World s vegetable oil production (2003) Extensive global expansion (from 2 to 7 million ha in last 20 years) 80% of the World production on account of Malaysia and Indonesia Palm oil and palm kernel oil are the only products (9% of the produced biomass), the rest is waste

8 Oil Palm Innovation MPOB / PORAM Obvious surplus EFB

9 There is more.. Biomass from agro-industrial residues palm oil residues low utilisation rate

10 Local perception of Palm oil production Cash crop with large impact on whole society & landscape High ambition levels, growing awareness of potential and threats Problems with waste production and disposal (POME / EFB) Recycling of nutrients, limited need for energy efficiency Reduction of greenhouse gas emission and possibilities for CDM / CO 2 trade Utilisation of Palm oil residues Lignocellulosic fibres at estate fronts (10.5 tons /ha/yr) trunks (70 tons / ha / 25 yr) Residues at palm oil mill empty fruit bunch (1 ton / ton palm oil) mesocarpfibre (0.6 ton / ton) shells (0.4 ton / ton) effluent ( ton/ton) partly used as boiler fuel

11 Options for sustainable residue utilisation Bio-diesel (residual oil / pressing cakes) Bio-gas, H 2 / ABE and ethanol fermentation Bio-polymers (PLA, PHA) Bio-oil pyrolysis (BTG) / Charcoal Fibres for paper, building boards and composites Dissolving cellulose green chemicals (lignin and furfural adhesives) Development of sustainable Palm oil Technology transfer implementation and process integration Smal scale biorefinery at Palm oil mills for ligno-cellulosic by-products, effluents and expelled residues Refining, compression and preprocessing Extraction of components for value addition ( green chemicals and products) Biotechnology for Fermentation to fuel and biopolymers Condensing energy content of transportable carbon Higher resource efficiency

12 Biorefinery (cascading) of biomass Biomass disposal drying chopping pelletising composting extraction residue refining fuel extract ash tar precipitation modificationcoatings Biopolymers sugars Alcohol / H 2 fibre pulp effluent gassify combustion silica Protein, lipids fermentation Paper / board adhesives Feed Energy waste compost Developmental strategy Demonstration of technical feasibility socio-economic potential marketing potential business plan laboratory and pilot scale field study Identification of partners in primary production and industry investors and stakeholders

13 Biomass from agro-industrial residues World production capacity coconut husk million tons / year Husk preparation (CFC/ FAO project) Coconut Coconut husk Opening Milling

14 Building and construction materials Conclusions (1) By-products utilisation for added value is beneficial to the sustainability of palm oil production Essential for certifying the sustainability of the palm oil biomass energy and products. Multi-stakeholder involvement needed (RPSO) Include outsider (food vs non-food) industries involved in energy and fibre products

15 Conclusions (2) Large interest in Malaysia (government, companies, and investors) in improved palm oil production for energy production Show case : Sustainable Oil Palm bio-diesel and biomass by-products for energy and products (import / export scenarios, CDM, LCA / criteria, bio-refinery tools) Now is the moment for active participation! There is no waste when it s bio-based based

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