SUSTAINABLE BIOPLASTICS INDUSTRY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES IN MALAYSIA

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1 SUSTAINABLE BIOPLASTICS INDUSTRY FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES IN MALAYSIA Professor Mohd Ali Hassan University Putra Malaysia Professor Yoshihito Shirai Kyushu Institute of Technology

2 Presentation Outline Biomass Resources in Malaysia Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia FELDA-UPM-KIT Biomass Project Palm Biomass Bioplastics Sustainable Bioplastics Industry in Malaysia

3 Biomass Resources in Malaysia Biomass organic matter available on a renewable basis includes forest and mill residues, wood wastes, agricultural crops and wastes, animal wastes and MSW MSW 9.5% Wood industry 3.7% Rice 0.7% Sugarcane 0.5% Abundant in Malaysia > 70 million tonnes collected / year Produced throughout the year high sunlight intensity/time and high rainfall Palm Oil 85.5% Main contributor of biomass is the palm oil industry (ligno-cellulosics)

4 Malaysian Palm Oil Industry Fresh Fruit Bunch 70 million tonnes Palm Kernel Oil 2 million tonnes Oil Extraction Crude Palm Oil 15 million tonnes Renewable Resources Fiber 9 million tonnes Shell 4 million tonnes Palm Oil Mill Effluent 50 million tonnes Empty Fruit Bunches 15 million tonnes

5 Palm Oil Industry and CDM Methane sinks Employs anaerobic treatment for palm oil mill effluent Extensive and efficient system The largest methane emission Methane not utilized

6 Sustainable Business from Palm Biomass Concentration of biomass business as usual Bioplastic (PLA) or Bioethanol Empty Fruit Bunch > 15 million t/yr Palm Oil Mill Effluent > 50 million t/yr Saccharification of cellulose Organic acids Sugars Lactic Acid or Cellulosic Bioethanol fermentation Electricity Biogas / Methane Plant Bioplastic (PHA)

7 Organic acids from POME L-R: treated POME, filtered POME, concentrated POME, clarified organic acids Figure. 50 L anaerobic bioreactor used to produce organic acids from POME 7

8 Fig. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of strain EB172 containing P(3HB-co-3HV) granules in fed-batch cultivation using mixed organic acids from treated palm oil mill effluent as substrates

9 Biopolymers open up new options for an old problem >>> disposal Wow! Plastic lasts FOREVER AGHH! Plastic lasts FOREVER 1950 s Today

10 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) Carbon source Extraction Fermentation PHA in cell wall Polyesters accumulated inside microbial cells as carbon & energy storage Bacteria Produced from natural, renewable resources Able to be recycled, composted or burned without producing toxic byproducts 100 % biodegradable Produced under conditions of: low limiting nutrients (e.g. N, S, P) and excess carbon

11 PHA Structure PHA R PHB - CH 3 PHV -CH 2 CH 3 PHBV - CH 3 & CH 2 CH 3 PHBHx -CH 3 & - CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 PHBO -CH 3 & -(CH 2 ) 4 CH 3 R = Hydrocarbon x = n = 1-4

12 Carbon Cycle of Bioplastics Photosynthesis CO 2 H 2 O Biodegradation Recycle Carbohydrates Plastic Products Fermentation PHA Polymer

13 Applications

14 $$$$ factor The major drawbacks in commercialisation of PHA are 1) high cost of production and recovery 2) price Raw material ~ 40-50% of the total production cost Current price with natural producer like Ralstonia eutropha is US $6-10 per kg, about 3-5 times more expensive than PP

15 To be commercially viable, PHA price ~ US $3-5 per kg Therefore, various carbon sources are being explored in order to reduce the price of bioplastics Our work focuses on producing organic acids and sugars as cheap carbon sources for bioplastics (PHA and PLA)

16 UTILIZATION OF BIOGAS & BIOMASS FOR NEW BIOPRODUCTS JOINT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT UNIVERSITY PUTRA MALAYSIA FELDA PALM INDUSTRIES SDN. BHD. KYUSHU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

17 PALM OIL INDUSTRY: NEW BIOPRODUCTS PROJECT #1 - Improved Methane Fermentation from Palm Oil Mill Effluent for Electric Power Generation for CDM PROJECT #2 - Organic Acids Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent >>> Bioplastics PROJECT #3 - Production of Sugars and Other Valued Products from Empty Fruit Bunch and Fruit Fiber

18 Bioplastics from Palm Biomass Concentration of biomass Oil Extraction Palm Oil Mill Effluent Consumer products Bioplastic (PHA) Bio-acids Plant

19 Bioconversion of organic acids from POME into PHA (PHBV) Feasibility study (Suitability of substrate) Optimization studies (Lab scale) Organic acids production (FELDA pilot plant) Optimization studies (Production & recovery) PHA analysis & characterization Pilot scale production Development of polymer for potential applications Process & engineering design for upstream & downstream production

20 New Business Using Biomass Energy from Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia CDM provides profitable area for bioplastic business to which biomass energy can be supplied from palm oil industry with a reasonable price for new business CDM provides a complete methane fermentation system and change lagoon area into a profitable area. CDM provides electricity using the methane fermentation system for bioplastic business with a competitive price. 1. CDM can reduce GHG by sealing the lagoons. 2. Prevention of undesirable smell by modern treatment. 3. Local employment can be encouraged from new business. Based on the economic growth in Malaysia, the development of new oil palm plantations in the tropical rainforest will soon be no longer economically viable. In order to meet the increasing demand for palm oil in the future, palm oil industry must cooperatively stay with other industries and people >>> 3P (Profit, People, Planet)

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