Reclamation of Mines and Mine-spoils

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1 Reclamation of Mines and Mine-spoils K.D. Sharma Head Technical and R & D Greenfield Eco Solutions Pvt Ltd (GESPL) Mid Career Training Program for IFS Officers, 2013 IGNFA, Dehradun

2 Mining Leases in India Total area under mining leases in India is about 1 million ha. Out of this about 0.4 million ha area is under coal mines. This does not include individual leases under 10 ha area each.

3 Area-wise Distribution of Mining Leases* Frequency group area (ha) (Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur, 2010) # of mining leases % of leases Area ( 000 ha) All groups * Excluding fuel, atomic and minor minerals % of area

4 Denudation of Forest Cover Uneven Topography Depletion of Water Resources and Altered Water Quality / Contamination Well-being of Society Deleterious Impacts on Human and Livestock Health Waste / Spoil Piles Air, Noise and Water Pollution Impact of Mines and Mine-spoils and Environmental Damages

5 Hypothesis of Reclamation Conducting post-mining soil and mine-spoil inventories define the establishment of ecosystem stability. Understanding successful germ-plasm selection; characterizing physical and chemical properties of soil, mine-spoils and overburden; conserving and maximizing soil moisture storage through rainwater harvesting; and evaluating plant community sustainability are important.

6 Criteria for Evaluating Mine-land Reclamation Stabilization of surface materials through appropriate landscape reconstruction, and Establishment of long-term, sustainable vegetation communities. In general, a silvi-pastoral system is being designed for reclamation as it complements the needs of local population.

7 What is Required? Consultancy Advice and Guidance Planning Implementation and Execution Reclamation, Rehabilitation, Remediation and Restoration Projects on a TURN KEY BASIS Observation Evaluation Development Monitoring

8 Case Study 1: Reclamation of Lignite Mine-spoil Location: Giral Village, Barmer, Rajasthan Rainfall: 265 mm per year Type of Mining: Opencast Water Harvesting: MCWHS Amendments: Fine Sand, Caliche and FYM Plant Species: Indigenous, Naturalized and Exotic Leguminous and Indigenous Nonleguminous (15 species)

9 Coal/Lignite Mining (Giral,Rajasthan) Before Reclamation After Reclamation

10 Case Study 2: Reclamation of Limestone Mine-spoil Location: Gotan Village, Nagore, Rajasthan Rainfall: 424 mm per year Type of Mining: Opencast Water Harvesting: BTRHS Amendments: Bentonite, Fine Sand and FYM Plant Species: Indigenous, Naturalized and Exotic Leguminous and Indigenous Nonleguminous (19 species)

11 Limestone Mine Spoil: After Reclamation (JK White, Gotan, Rajasthan)

12 Case Study 3: Reclamation of Gypsum Mine-spoil Location: Kavas Village, Barmer, Rajasthan Rainfall: 265 mm per year Type of Mining: Strip Water Harvesting: MCWHS Amendments: Fine Sand & FYM in Auger Holes Plant Species: Indigenous, Naturalized and Exotic Leguminous and Indigenous Nonleguminous (23 species)

13 Gypsum Mine Spoil: After Reclamation (FCI, Kavas, Rajasthan)

14 Micro-catchment Rainwater Harvesting System (MCWHS) for Backfills (A variant of MCRHS is Ridge-Furrow System)

15 Bench Terracing Rainwater Harvesting System (BTRHS) for OB Dumps (A variant of BTRHS is Half Moon Terracing)

16 Soil Moisture Storage (% volume)* Mine-spoil With RWH Without RWH Lignite/Coal Limestone Gypsum * Monthly mean of 4 years ( )

17 Iron Ore Mining (Advalpal, Goa) Before Reclamation After Reclamation

18 In situ Rainwater Harvesting Jodhpur, Rajasthan Agolai, Jaisalmer

19 On-site Rainwater Harvesting Raipur, Chhattisgarh Mahoba, Uttar Pradesh

20 Check Dam for Rainwater Conservation (NMDC Diamond Mine, Panna, Madhya Pradesh)

21

22 Development of Greenbelts I (Beechwal, Bikaner)

23 Development of Greenbelts - II At Industry (Solan, Himachal Pradesh) Along Canal (Suratgarh, Rajasthan)

24 The Company: GESPL Greenfield Eco Solutions Pvt. Ltd. (GESPL) incorporated under the Indian Companies Act 1956 (CIN: U74900RJ2012PTC039532), offers One-Stop Solutions for reclamation of degraded lands and restoration of damaged environments associated with the core-infra sectors of economy such as mining, power, manufacturing, industrialization, urbanization and infrastructure development.

25 Mission of GESPL To restore the forest wealth, greenbelts and vegetative covers, improve environment and create a corpus fund for the purpose thereof.

26 Vision of GESPL To reconcile and balance the environmental concerns vis-a-vis economic and social development in a perpetual and sustainable manner as per the mandate of Article 21 of Indian Constitution, Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Bill 2011, and State, National and International Sustainable Development Frameworks.

27 Capabilities and Expertise of GESPL- I Developing landscape, forests, grasslands, fodders, crops, greenbelts and vegetative covers on degraded lands, which complement the needs of local communities and minimize the impacts of global warming and climate change. Continue

28 Capabilities and Expertise of GESPL - II Water conservation and Runoff management; in situ, ex situ and on-site rainwater harvesting; water auditing; water use economy; supplemental/deficit irrigation; CSR activities; and other related issues. Continue

29 Capabilities and Expertise of GESPL-III Selecting successful germplasms; characterizing soil/over-burden and waste/spoils; restoring land capability; landscaping and land shaping; controlling soil erosion; profile development; soil modifications; creating plant-rooting medium; planting techniques; phytostabilization and phyto-remediation of mine tailings, OB dumps and backfills; and ensured post-reclamation sustainability.

30 Quality Policy of GESPL We are committed to delivering guaranteed post-reclamation/remediation sustainability employing cutting edge, state-of-the-art green technology and postcare maintenance of land, water and environmental resources to enhance customer satisfaction and provide continued improvement of our products, services, support and technology.

31 Thank You! For more information or assistance Please contact:

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