Voltage: electrical energy that is used to push electricity through a wire

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1 Energy Resources Wednesday, March 25 th, 2015 EQ#12 Block #3 EQ: What is a KWH? How big is it? Kilo-Watt Hour, 3,600,000 J AA: If the period of a pendulum is 3 s when the bob has a mass of 100 g, what is the period when the bob mass changes to 200 g? 3 s, it doesn t change. Energy Resources: Energy Users (use energy) Car Stove Tractor People Animals Energy Resources (provide energy) Coal Wind Water Sun Wood Electrical Vocab: Voltage: electrical energy that is used to push electricity through a wire Power Plant: a location where electricity is generated Substation: receives high voltage electricity from power plants, and it delivers lower voltage to homes Transformer: a device used to change the voltage of electricity Turbine: a fan blade that turns to power something Generator: a device that generates electricity

2 Phantom/Vampire Load: a device uses electricity when it is turned off Kill-A-Watt Meter: a device that measures how much electricity uses KWH: Kilo-Watt-Hour: a big bundle of energy equal to 3,600,000 J Electricity: The most common type of purchased energy in the world There is a grid of systems that delivers electricity to most locations a) That grid is a combination of all things that provide electricity substations, wires, transformers, power plants Electricity can be accessed from wall outlets Transformers are used at the power plants to raise voltage for long distance travel Transformers at the substations lower the voltage Transformers at the street level lower voltage for use in homes Transformers on specific devices lower the voltage for that device The two best benefits of electricity: 1) Electricity can be produced from many types of energy 2) It is easy to transport and deliver electricity on wires The downside to electricity: 1) 8 to 30% of the energy is lost to heat when traveling 2) Electricity can be dangerous

3 Tuesday, March 31 st, 2015 EQ#12 Block#4 EQ: What are the two best benefits to using electricity? 1) Electricity can be produced from many types of energy 2) It is easy to transport and deliver electricity on wires AA: What is needed to push charge through a wire? Voltage How can you represent 3,600,000 J of electrical energy? KWH What is the device that produces electricity? Generator Wednesday, April 1 st, 2015 EQ#13 Block#1 EQ: What are the six basic steps to the power plant process? 1) Collect the fuel 2) Burn the fuel to create heat 3) Use the heat to change water into steam 4) Use the steam to spin a turbine 5) The spinning turbine powers the generator 6) The generator produces the electricity AA: List the four main items that make up a grid? Wires, transformers, power plants, substations

4 The Power Plant Process: 1) Collect the fuel 2) Burn the fuel to create heat 3) Use the heat to change water into steam 4) Use the steam to spin a turbine 5) The spinning turbine powers the generator 6) The generator produces the electricity *The secret to making electricity: you have to spin magnets around a wire that is in a complete circuit A generator that is hooked up backwards is a motor The Law of Entropy All steps create waste heat No system is ever 100% efficient As a result systems with less steps are more efficient Monday, April 6 th, 2015 EQ#13 Block#2 EQ: What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources? Non-renewable are used faster than their replaced Renewable are replaced fast or faster than they are used AA: Where do we get energy to drive the power plant process? Make a list. Wind, water, coal, sunlight, wood, solar, oil

5 Vocab: Natural Resources: any material supplied to the earth that is usable (wind, water) Non Renewable Resources: resource that is used faster than it is replaced Renewable Resources: resources that are replaced as fast or faster than they are being used Sustainable: something that is able to be maintained without damaging or running out Alternative Energy: describes any resource that is renewable Hydrocarbon: chemical compound made of hydrogen and carbon, made by nature and contains high amounts of energy Petroleum: crude or oil from the ground Fossil fuels: non-renewable sources of energy formed from the remains of dead stuff over millions of years (natural gas, coal, oil) Geothermal: thermal or electrical energy harvested from the heat under the ground Hydroelectric: electrical energy harvested from moving water Solar: thermal or electrical energy harvested from the sun Wind power: electrical or mechanical energy harvested from the wind Biomass: thermal or electrical energy harvested from dead plant matter

6 Tuesday, April 7 th, 2015 EQ#13 Block#3 EQ: What are the solid, liquid and gas forms of oil known as? Solid=asphalt Liquid=petroleum Gas=natural gas AA: What is a hydrocarbon, and in what sources of energy do we find them? Hydrocarbon: chemical compound made of hydrogen and carbon, made by nature and contains high amounts of energy. Coal, oil, and natural gas. Oil: A non-renewable source of energy Oil is rich in hydrocarbons (lots of energy) Oil is formed from dead stuff that died on the land over millions of years Best benefits of oil: easy to burn, easy to transport, very energy dense Oil is used for fuel, plastic, lubricants, and rubber Oil is found naturally as a solid, liquid, and gas: a) Asphalt-solid b) Petroleum-liquid c) Natural gas-gas Problems with oil: a) Burning oil creates smog (a hydrocarbon fog) b) Getting oil out of the ground damages the environment

7 Projected oil resources will last until 2055 Wednesday, April 8 th, 2015 EQ#13 Block#4 EQ: What makes coal, by definition, coal? Coal is a rock that is at least 70% Carbon AA: Name each version of oil by state of matter, and list one example of a use for each one. Solid=asphalt, used for roads, and shingles Liquid=petroleum, used for gasoline, car oil, diesel fuel, vasoline Gas=natural gas, used for propane, butane Coal: Coal is a non-renewable resource of energy Coal is a rock that is at least 70% carbon Coal forms from dead stuff that died in wet areas over millions of years Benefits to coal: a) Easy to burn b) Okay to transport c) Contains lots of energy There are two types of coal commonly used: 1) Bitumin (80% carbon) 2) Anthracite (90% carbon=more energy)

8 Problems with coal: a) Burning coal produces acid rain (H 2 0+SO 2..water+sulfur dioxide) b) Mining coal damages the local environment Projected coal resources will last until 2300 Thursday, April 9 th, 2015, EQ#14 Block#1 EQ: How is energy released in the nuclear fission process? Fission is the process of using a neutron to break apart an unstable atom and release tremendous amounts of energy AA: What is the chemical difference among bitumen, anthracite and diamond? Bitumen 80% Anthracite 90% Diamond 100% Uranium (U) and Plutonium (Pu): They are non-renewable sources of energy They are both very heavy and unstable elements Plutonium has more energy than Uranium; the USA uses only Uranium (safer) Fission is the process of using a neutron to break apart an unstable atom and release tremendous amounts of energy Uses of Uranium and Plutonium: 1) Production of electricity 2) Bombs Pros of Uranium and Plutonium: 1) Nuclear fission creates more electricity than any other type of power

9 2) The operation of a nuclear power plant is very clean Cons of Uranium and Plutonium: 1) Uranium and Plutonium are very radioactive and harmful to humans 2) Nuclear waste is very difficult to store and manage Uranium and Plutonium resources are projected to last until the year 5000 Renewable Sources of Energy: Solar Energy: Energy that comes from the sun Renewable because the sun has enough fuel to burn for another 4 billion years There are two types of solar energy: a) Passive Solar: when you use energy from the sun without the use of any technology (plants, making sun tea, tanning, greenhouses) b) Active Solar: the use of solar energy with technology (solar panels, solar hot water heater) Solar energy is very efficient Passive Solar is a one step process, Active Solar is a two step process Wind Energy: Wind is created by uneven heating of air by the sun Wind blows from high to low temperature areas The wind stops blowing when the temperatures are the same Wind will continue to blow as long as the sun continues to shine Wind is a renewable source of energy

10 Wind spins the turbine on a windmill, the turbine powers a generator, and the generator makes electricity Three step process, very efficient! Biomass Energy: Energy from dead plant matter It is renewable as long as plants continue to die Wood, crop remains, garbage, and manure Ethanol is the most common type of biomass energy (comes from corn or sugar) Hydroelectric Hydro works best with fast moving water Water has lots of mass, therefore fast moving water has lots of kinetic energy (KE=1/2mv 2 ) The best spots for hydro are in fast moving rivers or at the bottom of waterfalls Hydroelectric is produced when the water spins the turbines, turbines power the generators, and the generators make electricity Hydro is a three step process and is very efficient Geothermal Energy: Part I: Geothermal System in the Home: The Sun shines on the earth and warms up the ground The ground is a great insulator; therefore it takes a long time to cool down In Perry County, at a depth of 8 feet, the ground is 55 degrees Fahrenheit year round Geothermal heating pulls heat from the ground and puts it in a house

11 Geothermal cooling works by taking heat out of the house and putting it into the ground Part II: Geothermal System in Power Plants: Heat is put into the ground from being close to lava Water is poured into holes in the ground Water turns into steam, steam turns the turbines, turbines power generators, the generator makes electricity This only works in volcanic regions This is a four step process Nuclear Fusion A nuclear form of energy (energy from the atom) Fusion is when two low mass atoms collide together and become a single atom (Hydrogen and Helium) When fusion occurs, lots of energy is released in the form of heat In 2015, nuclear fusion is still experimental. The predicted first nuclear fusion power plant is Fusion is a very clean source of energy

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