Chapter 18 Renewable Energy

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1 Chapter 18 Renewable Energy MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Habitat loss, soil erosion, and air pollution are disadvantages of which renewable energy source? a. solar c. biomass fuel b. wind d. moving water C DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 1 2. Which of the following describes new wind turbines? a. cost-effective c. take a year to build b. take up a large amount of space d. cannot generate much electricity A DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 3 3. Renewable energy is energy from sources that a. are constantly being formed. c. humans can manufacture. b. will take years to deplete. d. were once living organisms. A DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 1 4. Which of the following is an example of how biomass fuel is currently being used? a. Biogas digesters ferment manure and produce methane. b. Dung-fired power stations produce electricity. c. Ethanol from fermenting corn is added to gasoline. d. All of the above D DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 5. A geothermal power plant can be used to generate electricity a. anywhere in the U.S. b. in areas where reservoirs of water are heated inside Earth. c. in areas where the ground stays warm throughout the year. d. Both (a) and (c) B DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 5 6. A hybrid car uses a. an efficient gasoline engine and an electric motor. b. an efficient gasoline engine and a fuel cell. c. a fuel cell and a solar cell. d. a photovoltaic cell and an electric motor. A DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 4 7. Compared to washing clothes in warm water, washing clothes in cold water uses a. much more energy. c. much less energy. b. the same amount of energy. d. a little more energy. C DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 5 1

2 8. Hydrogen gas could be used as a fuel source in the future because it a. is abundant. c. is used in fuel cells. b. can be burned as fuel. d. All of the above D DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 2 9. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion works because water boils at low temperatures when a. in a high-pressure chamber. b. cooled in a vacuum chamber. c. under low pressure in a vacuum chamber. d. pumped from the ocean. C DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: Which of the following is an example of cogeneration? a. driving a fuel-efficient car b. using the waste heat from a furnace to power a steam turbine c. using ocean thermal energy conversion to run a turbine d. using tidal power to generate electricity B DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: Which of the following is a major source of biomass fuel in developing countries? a. wood c. corn b. dung d. Both (a) and (b) D DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: A geothermal power plant gets energy by a. pumping heated water or steam from geothermal reservoirs. b. circulating fluid underground. c. holding water behind a dam. d. using methane from decomposition. A DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: In the United States, which of the following would increase energy efficiency? a. using public transportation and developing more efficient engines for vehicles b. turning thermostats down in winter and up in summer c. insulating homes and businesses d. All of the above A DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: The most energy-efficient vehicles available today are a. cars with gasoline engines. c. fuel cell cars. b. hybrid cars. d. cars that use biomass fuel. B DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 4 2

3 15. Geothermal heat pumps can heat homes by a. circulating fluid underground to absorb heat from Earth. b. pumping hot water or steam from deep underground. c. using underground rivers to turn a small turbine. d. All of the above A DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: Which of the following statements about hydrogen gas as a fuel source is correct? a. Hydrogen gas can be burned as a fuel or used to produce electricity chemically. b. Hydrogen gas is not abundant enough on Earth. c. When hydrogen gas is burned, it releases pollutants. d. Generating hydrogen gas by burning fossil fuels is inexpensive. A DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: A heat exchanger is used in a. geothermal power plants. c. wind turbines. b. passive solar heating. d. active solar heating. D DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work is a. energy conservation. c. energy efficiency. b. renewable energy. d. energy conversion. C DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: One disadvantage of wind energy is that a. wind turbines are not cost-effective. b. large amounts of farmland are needed for the turbines. c. the difficulty of transporting the energy from its source to where it is needed. d. wind turbines generate only a small amount of energy. C DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: Which of the following is a disadvantage for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion? a. not enough cold water c. not enough warm water b. inefficient plants d. can only be done in cold areas B DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: In developing countries, you are most likely to find biomass used a. to generate electricity. c. as a source of hydropower. b. for manufacturing. d. for heating and cooking. D DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 3

4 COMPLETION 1. The fastest growing source of energy in the world is. wind power DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: 3 2. Tidal power, hydrogen fuel cells, and ocean thermal energy conversion are sources of energy. alternative DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: 1 3. Hydroelectric energy is electricity generated from. moving water DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: 5 4. Energy from sources that are constantly being formed is energy. renewable DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: 1 5. When bacteria decompose organic wastes, one by-product is, which can be burned to generate heat and electricity. methane methane gas DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 6. Wind, plant growth, and the water cycle are powered by. the sun sunlight solar energy DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: 1 7. Energy from sources that are still in development is energy. alternative DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: 1 4

5 8. A tidal power plant works much like a(n) power plant. hydroelectric DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: 1 9. Wind turbines convert the movement of the wind into. electrical energy electricity DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: An alternative energy technology that uses the temperature difference between layers of water to generate electricity is ocean. thermal energy conversion DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: Using gasohol or ethanol from corn in vehicles is an example of using fuel. biomass DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: Hydrogen gas can be produced by using to split molecules of water. electricity DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: Electricity is produced chemically when hydrogen and oxygen are combined in a(n). fuel cell DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: The production of two useful forms of energy from the same fuel source is called. cogeneration DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: 3 5

6 15. Carpooling and taking public transportation are ways people can energy. conserve DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: Hybrid cars convert some of the energy of into electricity. braking DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: Solar cells are also called. photovoltaic cells DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: Passive solar heating uses energy from the sun to a home directly. heat DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: The technology that uses solar collectors to gather energy from the sun is known as. active solar heating DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: A good way to increase the of a home is to increase the amount of insulation. energy efficiency DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: A photovoltaic cell converts the sun's energy into. electricity DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: 2 6

7 SHORT ANSWER 1. Describe the differences between passive solar heating and active solar heating. Passive solar heating uses the sun's energy to heat something directly, and requires no moving parts. Sunlight shining through a window and directly heating a room is an example of passive solar heating. Active solar heating requires moving parts. For example, active solar could involve pumping a liquid into solar collectors, where the sun's energy heats the liquid. The liquid is then pumped to a heat exchanger that transfers the heat, then sends it to where it is needed. DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 2 2. Explain the difference between what a photovoltaic cell does and how solar heating works. Answers may vary. Sample answer: A photovoltaic cell converts the sun's energy into a small amount of electricity rather than directly using the sun's heat, either through an active or a passive system. DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 2 3. Compare the use of biomass fuel in developed countries and developing countries. Wood and dung (or manure) are the biomass fuels used most frequently in developing countries for heating and cooking. In developed countries, biomass fuel is converted into methane and used to produce electricity and converted into ethanol to use as a fuel for vehicles. DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 4. Describe how a hydroelectric power plant works. Answers may vary. Sample answer: Hydroelectric power plants have a dam that holds a reservoir of water behind it. As the water is released and flows out of the dam, the water turns a turbine that generates electricity in the power plant. DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 5 7

8 5. What is the difference between how a geothermal power plant operates and how a geothermal heat pump (for home heating) works? A geothermal power plant pumps steam or heated water from geothermal reservoirs in Earth's interior and uses it to power a turbine that generates electricity. A geothermal heat pump for home heating has a loop of piping that circulates a fluid underground. It uses the stable temperature of the ground (approximately 13 C, or 55 F, all year long in temperate climates) to heat a home in winter. Geothermal heat pumps may also be used (in reverse) to cool a home in summer. DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 5 6. What are two ways that hydrogen could be used as a fuel source in the future? Hydrogen gas can be burned as a fuel or used in fuel cells to produce electricity chemically. DIF: 3 REF: 2 OBJ: 2 7. Identify three ways that people can conserve energy in their daily lives. Answers may vary. Sample answer: turn lights and electrical devices off when not using them; walk, ride a bicycle, or take public transportation instead of driving a car; and buy fewer products DIF: 3 REF: 2 OBJ: 5 8. What is the equation for determining energy efficiency? percent of energy efficiency = energy out/energy in 100 DIF: 3 REF: 2 OBJ: 3 9. How is most energy lost from homes? through cracks around windows and doors, and through poorly insulated walls and roofs DIF: 3 REF: 2 OBJ: What form of renewable energy meets most of the energy needs of developing countries? biomass fuel DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 8

9 11. Why is it likely that hydroelectric energy will be generated increasingly by micro-hydropower plants rather than by large hydroelectric dams? Micro-hydropower plants eliminate the need for large dams, can float on the water so they don't block the river, are cheaper, and can generate electricity from small streams in remote areas. DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: Salt water corrodes metals rapidly. What effect is this likely to have on the cost of electricity produced from tidal power? It would likely increase the cost of the electricity because parts of the plant would corrode and need repairs, which would increase maintenance costs. DIF: 3 REF: 2 OBJ: 1 PROBLEM 1. Your friend says that all forms of renewable energy come directly or indirectly from the sun. Is your friend correct? Explain your answer by listing the forms of renewable energy. Describe how the sun creates the various forms of energy you've listed. If you've named any forms of energy that do not come from the sun, identify their sources. Solar energy used for passive solar heating, active solar heating, and photovoltaic cells comes directly from the sun. Wind power is created when energy from the sun heats Earth's surface unevenly. Biomass fuel comes from organic matter. The organisms that produced this fuel relied on the sun for their energy plants use the sun's energy to produce sugars that animals use for food. Hydroelectric energy is produced by rivers created by the water cycle, which is driven by the sun's energy. Geothermal energy comes from heat in Earth's interior and does not rely on energy from the sun. DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 1 2. You heat your home with electric heat. You wish to reduce your electric bills, so you have decided to burn wood in a wood furnace. What are the environmental advantages and disadvantages of doing this? What other steps could you take to conserve electricity? Advantages: You would use less electricity; wood is a biomass fuel (and therefore renewable). Disadvantages: burning wood adds pollutants to the air, and if wood is used faster than trees can grow, deforestation, habitat loss and soil erosion will occur. You could also make sure your home is well insulated and keep the thermostat set at 20 ºC, 68 F (or lower) during the winter and 26 C, approximately 80 F (or higher) during the summer. DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 1 9

10 3. If hydrogen is the most common element on Earth, what makes generating hydrogen expensive and polluting? What is a possible solution that would generate hydrogen without polluting the environment? Answers may vary. Sample answer: Gathering a large quantity of hydrogen all in one place so electricity could be used to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen would be difficult. If the energy for this electricity comes from fossil fuels, generating hydrogen would be expensive and polluting. One solution is to use electricity from solar cells or wind power to split water molecules. DIF: 3 REF: 2 OBJ: 2 ESSAY 1. Explain the difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation. Give an example of each. Answers may vary. Sample answer: Energy efficiency is the percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work. For example, the energy efficiency of a light bulb is determined by the amount of energy that goes in (electricity) and the amount that does useful work (lighting a room). The rest of the energy is lost as heat. Energy conservation is saving energy. One way of saving energy is using energy-efficient devices. DIF: 3 REF: 2 OBJ: 3 2. Describe three alternative energy technologies. Answers may vary. Possible answer: Three alternative energy technologies are ocean thermal energy conversion, burning hydrogen as a fuel, and hydrogen fuel cells. Ocean thermal energy conversion works because water boils at lower temperatures when it is at a greatly reduced pressure in a vacuum chamber. As cold ocean water at low pressure is boiled by warmer water, the resulting steam is used to spin a turbine that generates electricity. Cold water from deep in the ocean is used to cool the water so it can be re-used. Hydrogen is the most abundant element on Earth. Hydrogen gas can be produced by using electricity to split water molecules. The gas then can be burned as fuel. It also can be used in fuel cells. These cells produce electricity chemically by combining hydrogen and oxygen. DIF: 3 REF: 2 OBJ: 1 3. Choose a form of renewable energy, and describe its advantages and disadvantages. Answers may vary. Sample answer: Wind power is a form of renewable energy. New wind turbines are cost-effective, can be erected in a few months, and don't take up much space. Disadvantages are the need to locate the turbines in an area that has enough wind and to transport the electricity from its source to where it is needed. DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 1 10

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