1 Energy Policy of Ethiopia IEEJ : July 2011 Ministry of Water and Energy Country Report Japan International Cooperation Agency Tokyo International Center July, 5, 2011
2 Outline Background Energy situation in Ethiopia Energy resources potential Energy resources exploitation potential Estimated Fuel wood supply and demand(million M³) Energy supply: Fuel use by sector Energy sector issues Objectives and rationales of energy policy Rationales of energy policy Objectives of energy policy Priority of the energy policy Reasons for focus on renewable energy
3 continue Energy development Development of hydropower Development of solar energy Wind Bio fuel Biogas Energy efficiency and conservation measures Shortcoming of the policy Participants interest areas in the training
4 Background Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa, with a territory of 1.04 million sq. kilo meters. Biomass fuels (fire wood, agricultural and animal wastes) and hydropower, is considered the main indigenous energy sources in Ethiopia. Biomass fuels are the principal energy sources; which are used mainly for cooking in household. In Ethiopia biomass energy covers over 90% of the total energy consumption as it is available for and affordable to majority of the people.
5 continue Hydropower contributes significantly to the electric generation; 1843 mega watt (MW), representing about 90% of the total electric city generation and the rest is From others, such as, solar, diesel and geothermal. Different studies indicate that, Ethiopia has about 45,000MW hydropower potential; and the land scope /mountains feature/ and hydrological conditions enables the country to generate hydropower at lower cost relatively.
6 Energy situation in Ethiopia Energy resources potential Energy resource Woody biomass Crop residue + animal waste hydropower solar wind Geothermal coal Natural gas Exploitable potential 767 million tons 38 million ton/year 45,000 MW kwh/m²/day M/S 5,000 7,000MW 70 million tons 7. TCF (Terra Cubic Feet)
7 continued Energy resources exploitation potential Hydro little exploited 4.4% Biomass uneconomical exploited Solar, wind, geothermal contribute almost nothing to the energy economy Coal and natural gas contribute noting to the energy consumption (share)
8 continued Estimated Fuel wood supply and demand(million M³ year Demand Sustainable supply Deficit Source: Ethiopian forestry action plan, 1996
9 continued Petroleum products supply and consumption (tons) year total supply T consumption 2007/08 1,881,272 1,880, /09 2,013, na 2009/10 2,035, na
10 continued Energy supply: The energy sources of Ethiopia is classified in two big blocks; traditional and modern energy. a. Major supply sources Minor supply sources Traditional (>90%) Modern (<10%) Biomass (wood, charcoal, cow dung, agricultural residue) Electricity Petroleum products a. utilization Utilization Inefficient/much loss (over 85%) Relatively efficient /significantly losses eg. Electricity over 10%
11 continue Fuel use by sector Sector Energy/Fuel type biomass petroleum Electricity household service industry transport 100 agriculture 100
12 Energy sector issues Biomass fuels have become difficult and time consuming to collect in rural areas; and more expensive in urban areas. Employing energy wasteful three stone open fires coupled with the fast population grows aggravated the biomass fuel crisis. Over exploitation of natural forest resources for firewood; results climate change, loss of biodiversity and productivity. The impact of increasing foreign currency spent for importation of petroleum products on national economy and foreign exchange availability;
13 Continued The need to provide access to modern energy for the rural peoples/to shift from traditional to modern energy sources/ which demands heavy investment in terms of foreign currency and local resources. Lack of access to modern energy in rural areas Low efficiency of energy utilization in all sectors An increasing investment needs for modern energy
14 Objectives, rationales & priorities IEEJ of energy policy : July 2011 Ethiopia has energy policy document drafted in The policy document has encouraged the use of indigenous resources and renewable energy. Now a day, Ministry of Water and Energy of Ethiopia is an organization responsible to development of energy resources, implementation strategies, polices, sector laws.
15 Continue Rationales of energy policy To develop and utilize the existing potential resources on the basis of overall development strategy of the country; To promote the development of renewable/alternative energy sources and technologies to secure energy supplies and reduce the use/dependency of fossil as well as traditional energy resources; To reduce unnecessary losses of energy resources and to ensure that energy is efficiently utilized; To support other economic sectors to meet their development objectives by putting in place a clearly defined energy policy; and To develop the efficiency and capacity of the energy sectors for improving implementation capabilities of the energy development program of the country.
16 Continue Objectives of energy policy To ensure sustainable and a reliable energy supply at the right time and affordable price, to support the development strategy of the country and create access to modern energy; To remove problems faced in the development and utilization of energy resource, and give priority to the development of indigenous energy resources; To set guidelines and strategy for the faster development and supply of energy; To increase energy utilization efficiency and reduce energy waste; and To ensure that the development and utilization of energy is friendly to the environment.
17 Continued Priority of the energy policy The development of hydropower resources is the priority focus of the government for modern energy supply, due to availability of high potential of hydropower suitable to generate electricity at lower cost relatively; Energy mix is encouraged for supply diversification, and renewable energy such as solar, wind and geothermal are to be developed given their cost competitiveness; To take appropriate energy policy measures to achieve a gradual transition from traditional to modern fuels;
18 Continued To set issues, and publicize standards and codes which will insure that energy is used efficiently; To develop human resources and establish competent energy institutions; To provide the private sector with necessary support and incentive to participate in the development of the country s energy resources; and To pay due and close attention to ecological and environmental issues during the development of energy projects.
19 Continue Reasons for renewable energy A large segment of the population is still without modern energy services; thus, demand is expected to grow rapidly in the future; Suitable for decentralized application; Non renewable energy resources are limited in Ethiopia; whereas, renewable energy availability is relatively high; The contribution of renewable energy to the total energy use is still too low. To save hard currency, that needs to import petroleum/fossil fuels To increase energy security in diversifying the energy supply; To minimize environmental degradation/environment friendly
20 Energy development Ethiopia is imported fossil fuel fully for transportation and to some extent for household cooking and lighting energy needs. Economic growth of the country results to increasing this and other types of energy use. To reduce the challenges and to moderate the growth of energy demand, the Government of Ethiopia is looking for renewable/alternative energy development, such as hydropower, geothermal, bio fuel, solar, wind.
21 Continued Development of hydropower The economy of the country grows by 11% annually for the last 5 years. The development of countries economy demands high energy. Thus, the electric power consumption increased about 25% annually with emerging economies of the country. To meet this energy needs, only for the last three years the government is undertaken a construction of three new power plants with generation capacity of 1180 MW; and Ethiopian Government is planning to enhance the current 2,000MW generation capacity and 41% access to electricity to 10,000MW and 75% respectively in the next five years of growth and transformation period.
22 Continued Power generation projects ( physical years): No. Projects Sources of energy Installed capacity MW status 1 4 hydro 7471 Under construction 2 7 hydro 1320 committed 3 1 wind 120 Under construction 4 6 wind 752 committed 5 1 geothermal 70 committed 6 3 Co generation /sugar factory 104 committed
23 Continued Development of solar energy The Government of Ethiopia looking for this alternative energy sources to address the energy needs of the rural peoples living in scattered villages. Thus, several measures and techniques have been employed to implement this alternative energy sources; such as duty free importation for PV technology. Solar energy is currently used to electrify public sectors and installing solar home system in rural areas, where there is no access to hydropower.
24 Continued Wind The country has exploitable potential of 10,000 MW of wind energy. Currently 120 MW plant is being constructed in the northern part of the country. Wind speed measurements from metrological service Ethiopia; as Source: A.A University, faculty of technology, study of feasible options for rural electrification in Ethiopia final report part II, August 2001.
25 Continued station V0 (m/s) at 2m AGL V (m/s) at 20m AGL Addis Ababa Awash Dire Dawa Debre Ziet Gode Gondar Gore Jijiga Jimma Kebrri Daaher Mekelle Neghelle
26 Continued Bio fuel To reduce petroleum imports, government of Ethiopia is started to produce ethanol from sugar factory and blend it with gasoline. The expansion plan of existing sugar factories and development of the new ones in the next five years the production capacity of ethanol may reach 181 million liters per year. Beside to production of ethanol, the government of Ethiopia is planning to establish Cogeneration schemes at sugar factory.
27 Continued Biogas Ethiopia has around 27 million cattle; principally sufficient to provide feedstock for two million family size biogas digester. Up to 2015 physical year, Ministry of Water and Energy planned to introduce 25,000 domestic and 1,000 institutional biogas digesters for generation of cooking energy and largely improved fertilizers.
28 Energy efficiency and conservation measures To reduce unnecessary energy wastage, it is necessary to adopt energy conservation and efficiency measures in all sectors. Some of the measures need to be taken: To give more focus on improving the efficiency of existing energy endues devices to use energy resources efficiently; Formulate an enforcement policies and regulations; in order to promote energy efficiency and conservation in all sectors.
29 Continued Some of the measures that had been taken were: Biomass energy, which covers the majority energy consumption of the country, is used in a very wasteful way. Highly dependence and inefficient utilization of biomass energy have resulted in depletion of forest resources in Ethiopia, while the use of energy wasteful three stone open fire stove has been linked to indoor air pollution and poor health.
30 Continued To minimize this effect, through the development of fuel saving stoves (Mirt & Gonzie ); conservation of biomass resources have been success fully implemented. In past five years period of time about three million fuel saving biomass stoves were introduced throughout the country. In the coming five years ( physical years), Ministry of Water and Energy is planning to enhance the dissemination figure of fuel wood energy saving stoves to nine millions. Dissemination of 10,000 Mirt stoves means: Fuel wood saving of up to 6,000 tons per annum; A considerable reduction in net carbon emission, because less wood burnt;
31 Continued Compared to traditional three stone open fires: Commercial Mirt stove 70% saving Gonzie stove about 64% saving Mirt stove has a saving of about 50%
32 Continued To minimize electricity losses, the government of Ethiopia is started to change incandescent lumps and substitute with compact florescent lump (CFL).
33 Shortcoming of the policy Shortage of qualified person for formulating proper policies for the various energy sub sectors; Insufficient assessment of energy resources and technologies; and Lack of timely updating
34 Participants interest area in this training: Energy policy and strategy formulation Energy demand and supply projection techniques and methodologies Designing an enforcement policy and regulations, to promote energy efficiency and conservation. This will help us to recognize possibility of improving the efficiency of existing energy utilization and design sustainable energy development strategy.
35 Renaissance Hydropower Project 5250 MW GWh/year 66 billion m 3 of water storage capacity 31
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