ASSESSMENT OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF BAHIR DAR TOWN AND THE GAPS ISWM PLAN IDENTIFIED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN.

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1 SYSTEM OF BAHIR DAR TOWN AND THE GAPS IDENTIFIED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ISWM PLAN Forum for Environment 0 P a g e

2 Forum for Environment in collaboration with Bahir Dar City Administration Dream Light Plc Bahir Dar University Bahir Dar Forum for Environment. ANRS Region Bureau of Environmental Protection, Land Administration and Use 1 P a g e

3 Assessment of the Solid Waste Management System of Bahir Dar town and the gaps identified UUNUNENEPEPP Federal, Regional and Local Policies and Laws Institutional Setup Operational & Technology gaps Financial gaps Stakeholders Role 2 P a g e

4 A. National and Local Policies 1. Laws/ Acts Ethiopia has Environmental policy. The policy addresses different environmental issues including Solid Waste Management (SWM). The bases for the Environmental Policy of Ethiopia (EPE) are articles 92.1 and 92.2 of the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. These articles enshrine the following rights Article 92.1:- Government shall endeavor to ensure that all Ethiopians live in a clean and healthy environment Article 92.2:- Government and citizens shall have the duty to protect the environment. Some of the articles of the EPE directly or indirectly address solid waste management issues. These include: Article 3.7 addresses issues related to Human Settlement, Urban Environment and Environmental Health, Article 3.8 addresses issues related to the Control of Hazardous Materials and Pollution from Industrial Waste Article 3.9 addresses Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change Federal Laws and Regulations-1 Proclamation/Regulation Number and Date Proc. No. 513/2007 Proc. No. 300/2002 Proc. No. 299/2002 Proclamation 414/2004 Proc. No. 200/2000 Regulation 159/2001 E.C. Title 1. Solid Waste Management Proclamation 2. Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation 3. Environmental Impact Accessment Proclamation 4. Ethiopian Criminal Code article No. 520(a,b,c),article No. 519, Article No Public Health Protection Proclamation 6. Prevention of Industrial Pollution Regulation 3 P a g e

5 SWM Activity Law or act Description Source reduction/segregation Households Solid Waste Management Proclamation Article 11.1 Collection and storage Household shall ensure that recyclable solid waste are segregated (industrial) Regulation 159/2001 E.C. prevent or, if that is not possible, shall minimize the generation of every pollutant to an amount not exceeding the limit set by the relevant environmental standard dispose of it in an environmentally sound manner handle equipment, inputs and products in a manner that prevents damage to the environment and to human and animal health Solid Waste Management Proclamation Article 11.2 Article 5.2.b & c Urban administration shall ensure that adequate HH solid waste collection facilities are in place ensure the installation of marked waste bins by streets and in other public places ensuring the collection of SW from waste bins with sufficient frequency Transportation >> Article 13.2 Urban administration shall set standards to determine the skills of drivers and equipment operators and prevent overloads of solid waste Treatment Disposal /Land fill Incineration Recycling and reuse Hazardous waste Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation Article 5.1 Solid Waste Management Proclamation Article 14, 15 Solid Waste Management Proclamation Article 7.1 Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation Article 4.2 All urban administrations shall ensure the collection, transportation, and, as appropriate, the recycling, treatment or safe disposal of municipal waste through the institution of an integrated municipal waste management system. 14. Construction of solid waste disposal sites 15. Auditing existing solid waste disposal site Manufacturer or importer of glass container or tin cans shall collect and recycle used glass or tins Any person engaged in the collection, recycling, transportation, treatment or disposal of any hazardous waste shall take appropriate precaution to prevent any damage to the environment or to human health or well-being. 4 P a g e

6 Construction and demolition Ethiopian Criminal code article No. 520(a,b,c) Solid waste management proclamation Article 12 Whoever : a) fails to manage hazardous wastes or materials in accordance with the relevant laws; or b) fails to label hazardous wastes or materials; or c) unlawfully transfers hazardous wastes or materials, is punishable Construction derbis and demolistion wastes Regional Laws-1 General Law/Act Hygiene and environmental health protection regulation of Amhara Regional State Health Bureau Reg. No. 16/2000 Basic solid waste management directive of Amhara Regional state Health bureau on 2009 Source reduction Basic Solid waste management directive of Amhara Regional State Health bureau 2009 part 3,No 2.2 Garbage classification Basic Solid Waste Management directive of Amhara Regional state Health bureau on 2009 part 3,No 2.3 Collection and storage Transport and administration Treatment and Disposal Land fill Basic Solid Waste Management directive of Amhara Regional state Health bureau on 2009 part 3,No 2.3 Basic Solid Waste Management directive of Amhara Regional state Health bureau on 2009 part 3,No 2.3 Law/Act Basic solid waste management directive of Amhara Regional state Health bureau on 2009 part 3,No. 2.3 Incineration Circulation Recycling and reuse Basic solid waste management directive of Amhara Regional state Health bureau on 2009 part 3,No P a g e

7 Local Laws-1 Law/Act General Regulations to protect illegal acts in Bahir Dar city, Regulation number 14/2008, Part 2 Source reduction Garbage classification Collection and storage Regulations to protect illegal acts in Bahir Dar city, Regulation number 14/2008, Part 2, No. 8 and part 4 Transport and administration International Conventions The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has ratified several international conventions that have meaningful implication to solid waste management in the country. The conventions are ratified by the House of Representatives through the following proclamations and they are part and parcel of the laws of the land. Proclamation Number and Date Proclamation No. 192/2000 Proclamation No. 278/2002. Proclamation No. 279/2002 Proclamation No. 356/2003 Proclamation No. 362/2003 Proclamation No. 439/2005. Gaps Identified Convention THE BASEL CONVENTION ON THE CONIROL OF THE TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTS OF HAZARDOUS WASTES AND THEIR DISPOSAL THE ROTERDAM CONVENTION ON PRIOR INFORMED CONSENT ROCEDURE FOR CERTAIN HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS AND PESTICIDES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION ON PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS THE BASEL CONVENTION AMENDMENT THE CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY THE KYOTO PROTOCOL ON THE REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES The region has not yet proclaimed any law or act on environmental issues. It is rather using the federal laws but facing difficulty on enforcement and monitoring. Even if there are laws and regulations at federal and regional levels, their implementations and enforcement are very weak. 6 P a g e

8 B. Institutional Arrangement The current institutional arrangement of the Solid Waste Management of the Bahir Dar city is depicted in the following figure (Figure 1). Figure 1 Institutional Arrangement of the SWM of Bahir Dar Town 7 P a g e

9 Gaps Identified The current institutional arrangement of the solid waste management has no integration or coordination. Each sector is working independently. There is no a clear bridge between the Federal (National) institutions and the regional (or local) institutions There is no any financial support from the federal side to the locals. C. Technology (MSW) Primary collection & Transfer stations The door to door collection of solid wastes from households, institutions and commercials areas is conducted by a private solid waste management company named Dream Light plc. The responsibility of the waste generators is to accumulate the solid waste within bags and wait till the collectors come and regularly collect the garbage. Waste generators pay the service fee. Figure 2 Part of Solid waste collection activities Some part of the Street sweeping (6 km from the total 35 km of streets) are outsourced to a small and micro business groups; the remaining are covered by the city service itself. Currently there are no large containers for solid waste (Garbage) storage in the city (which were used before Dream Light Company started the house to house collection.) *Before 2009 there were about 70 Garbage containers in different corners of the city. 8 P a g e

10 Figure 3 previously used solid waste storage container Solid waste is collected from the source using push carts to the temporary transfer stations (Not legally approved sites (on the street sides). There are no standard transfer stations in the city. Door to door collection covers all residences and commercials, and some institutions. All healthcare and industries follow their way of removal. Most of them burn the waste; while some others dispose it to the nearby river (Abay or Blue Nile) or Lake Tana. Gaps Identified: No waste segregation at the source No standard solid waste transfer station Solid waste collection does not cover all solid waste generators Service fee are inadequate to cover the service costs Transportation Transportation of the solid waste to the dumping site is also done by the Dream Light plc. The company has 7 low skip trucks (which are not standard types specifically designed for this work). As the trucks are small in size and not the standard type, The frequency of trips to and from the disposal area is large and not cost effective. Since the trucks are not closed types, wind disperses wastes to the surrounding area while transportation All the waste is transported without segregation Gaps Identified: Transportation trucks are not standardized for solid waste transportation purposes No waste segregation before transportation Treatment: There is no any treatment facility for MSW. Some healthcare and governmental institutions have incinerators to burn their wastes. 9 P a g e

11 Recycling and recovery: The recycling of the solid waste is insignificant (<1%). Most of the solid waste is disposed to the open field dumping site; but the city administration initiated composting from the organic wastes. Dream light also started selling used papers to paper recycling industries. There are also some scavengers who collect some goods from the waste and resale or recycle it at small scale level. Gap Identified There is no separate place for waste recycling No financial or technical support for waste recyclers Disposal facility: Open field disposal (no sanitary landfill). Disposal site is close to rural settlements & about 3-4 km from the center of the city. This is affecting the community living nearby the site and easy to access for domestic and wild animals. As a result, farmers are losing their animals because of eating plastic bags and die as a result. There is no any treatment at the disposal site. There is no any machinery (compactor or graders) that regularly works at the disposal site. Daily about 70 % of the generated MSW(69 tons per day) is collected and disposed to the disposal area About 2% of waste(2 ton per day) is used to produce compost in the city service compost site The remaining 27.6% (27 ton) is not collected by the Dream Light Company. That means, it is either burned or buried in their compound or disposed to lakesides or into the river Figure 4 Partial view of the solid waste disposal site 10 P a g e

12 D. Financing Mechanisms Before 2009 financing of the MSW management was totally covered by the city administration. And the cost was incorporated in its annual budget; which was a big burden for the city administration but now this has been changed (after 2009) since the waste generators share the costs to some extent. Currently the community covers about 50% of the cost of collection and transportation of the MSW by paying service fee to the Dream Light Company. Each household pays about $0.8 USD per month as a service fee to the company. And the service fee for commercials ranges from $1 USD - to -$75 USD per month. Even though the service fee is set by the service providers and takers, there is no any chance to increase the fee from the already set. The reason is that the community is still lack knowledge and awareness to the importance of proper solid waste management. Still there are gaps between the fee and the costs of solid waste management. Some of the gaps are covered by the city administration and the company and, which becomes a big challenge to the company to work effectively and efficiently. Gaps Identified Even if there is a polluter-pay-principle (policy) in the country, was not practiced or implemented in the city. There is no set directives or guidelines how to pay fees equivalent to the service provided Awareness of the public towards solid waste management is at very low level Financial sources are not identified 11 P a g e

13 E. Stakeholders participation MSW management major stakeholders Figure 5 Partial view of Stakeholders Workshop 1. Bahir Dar City Administration financing, disposal management, control and monitoring, recycling(compost production) 2. Regional B.E.P.L.A.U ensuring sustainable environmental protection, assessment, report review, monitoring and auditing 3. Regional Health Bureau. controlling the management of the healthcare waste, controlling the sanitary of public service centers like hotels, restaurants etc.. 4. Private sectors... Cleaning, collection, transportation, disposal and recycling 5. NGOs. There are NGOs like forum for environment actively participating in awareness creation and developing waste management plan 6. Bahir Dar University research and study works 7. Households. Primary collection and paying service fee 8. Commercials. Primary collection and paying service fee 12 P a g e

14 9. Institutions.. Primary collection and paying service fee, burning the waste in incinerations 10. Informal recyclers collecting recyclable and reusable materials from door to door as well at the disposal site Stakeholder s role in the current waste management system Waste stream Activity Stakeholders directly involved Collection Households, commercials, some institutions, city Municipal Solid service, private Waste, healthcare company, small and and industrial micro business groups. Regulators City administration, A.N.R.S Environmental Protection & Land Administration Bureau, A.N.R.S Health Bureau Transportation Private company City administration, A.N.R.S health Bureau Reuse/recycling Informal sectors, city service, private Incineration Land fill/disposal company Healthcare and industries and some institutions Private company, city service A.N.R.S Health Bureau Environmental Protection & Land Administration Bureau City administration, A.N.R.S environmental protection & land administration bureau, A.N.R.S health bureau 13 P a g e

15 References: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Constitution Environmental Policy of Ethiopia Federal, Regional and Local Proclamations, regulations and directives 14 P a g e

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