Optimal Multi-scale Capacity Planning under Hourly Varying Electricity Prices

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1 Optimal Multi-scale Capacity Planning under Hourly Varying Electricity Prices Sumit Mitra Ignacio E. Grossmann Jose M. Pinto Nikhil Arora EWO Meeting Carnegie Mellon University 9/28/21 1

2 Motivation of this work Deregulation of the electricity markets caused electricity prices to be highly volatile. Under the assumption that our decisions do not affect the prices: Can we make strategic investment decisions (long-term) to take advantage of the market situation (short-term), i.e. reduce costs? (retrofit) Challenge: Multi-scale nature of the problem! Hourly varying electricity prices vs years investment horizon But: There are patterns/similarities $/MWh summer average daily price 28 Monday morning peak $/MWh Monday evening peak hourly price spring fall day (28) hour of the week weekend 2

3 Problem Statement for an Air Separation Plant Due to compressors! Air Separation Plant Liquid Oxygen Liquid Nitrogen Electricity costs Liquid Argon Gaseous Oxygen Gaseous Nitrogen Demand forecast Price forecast Operational Decisions Strategic Decisions When to produce and amounts? Inventory levels? Additional equipment? Additional tanks? Equipment upgrade? Investment Costs 3

4 Literature Review Multi-period capacity planning (e.g. Sahinidiset al. (1989), Liu and Sahinidis(1996), van den Heeverand Grossmann (1999)) Divide planning horizon into time periods Assume constant operating conditions over the time periods Year 1, spring: Year 1, summer: Year 1, fall: Year 1, winter: Year 2, spring: time Spring Summer Fall Winter We need to incorporate a scheduling representationthat can deal with hourly changing electricity prices. (e.g. Castro et al. (29) for batch scheduling, Ierapetritouet al. (22), Karwanet al. (27) and Zhu and Laird (21) for air separation plants) Multi-period capacity planning = large-scale problems We need an efficient solution algorithm Bi-level decomposition (Iyer and Grossmann (1998), You et al. (21)) 4

5 Overview: Methodology stochastic Step 3 Model the uncertainty in electricity prices deterministic Step 1 Obtain an efficient model for the short-term scheduling Step 2a Model the investment decisions: additional equipment, upgrade equipment, add. storage tanks; (retrofit, multi-period) Step 2b Develop a suitable algorithm to solve the large-scale optimization problem Single plant operational strategic Multiple plants modeling solution method 5

6 Operational Representation Feasible region: projection in product space (here: plant data) Modes: different ways of operating a plant Transitions: between modes to enforce e.g. min. uptime/downtime Energy consumption: requires correlation with production levels Demand constraints: differences for products with and without inventory mode 1, option A mode 1, option B mode 2 Immediate [1]: Minimum uptime Immediate [2]: Minimum downtime Immediate [1] Immediate [2] After some hrs Off Trans On Feasible regions for different modes State diagrams for transitions (air separation plant) 6

7 Strategic Model: Multi-scale Representation Year 1, spring: Year 1, summer: Year 1, fall: Year 1, winter: Year 2, spring: Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu Su Mo Tu Su Mo Tu Su Spring Summer Fall Winter Horizon: 5-15 years, each year has 4 periods(spring, summer, fall, winter) Each period is represented by one weekon an hourlybasis Varying inputs: electricity prices, demand data, configuration slates Each representative week is repeated in a cyclic manner Connection between periods: Only through investment decisions Investments are modeled by discrete choices 7

8 MILP model for multi-scale capacity planning Objective Operational Disjunction over the modes that describe the feasible region Operational Logic constraints for transitions (e.g. minimum uptime/downtime) Operational Mass balances for inventory, constraints related to demand Strategic Additional storage Strategic Additional equipment Idea: additional modes for which all variables are controlled by the corresponding binary investment variable Strategic Equipment replacement Idea: the corresponding mode has an alternative feasible region Terms for the objective function 8

9 Bi-level decomposition algorithm Idea: Infer information on total and operating costs Add design cut, superset cuts and subset cuts Solve aggregated problem(ap) (relax transitional constraints) to get a lower boundand investment Decisions (VU, VN, VS) Feasible? Yes No With fixed investment decisions: Solve detailed operational problems(dp) for every time period and obtain upper bound Idea: Remove most of the transitional constraints and variables Stop Add integer cut that excludes the previously obtained investment decision Feasible? No Yes Update the upper bound If (UB-LB)/UB < tolerance: Stop 9

10 Strategic Model: Case Study Superstructure Air Separation Plant Liquid Nitrogen LN2 1.Tank LN2 2.Tank? Existing equipment Option A Liquid Argon LAR 1.Tank LAR 2.Tank? Option B? (upgrade) Liquid Oxygen LO2 1.Tank LO2 2.Tank? Additional Equipment Gaseous Oxygen Gaseous Nitrogen Time Spring - : (yes/no) -Option B for existing equipment? -Additional equipment? - Additional Tanks? Fall - : (yes/no) -Option B for existing equipment? -Additional equipment? - Additional Tanks? Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu Su Mo Tu Su Mo Tu Su Spring Summer Fall Winter 1

11 Strategic Model: Case Study Results Immediate [1] Upgrade technology Off Immediate [2] TransOffOn1 After 4hrs Existing equipment Option A Option B Immediate Existing equipment Option A TransOn1On2 Immediate Option B? (upgrade) TransOffOn2 After 4hrs New equipment New equipment Immediate [1] Solution: -Buy the new equipment in the first time period - Do not upgrade the existing equipment -Do not buy further storage tanks Take-away message on the operational level for this case: Switch off the new equipment when prices are high. Bi-level decomposition requires 1.3 hrs. of CPU time (vs. full-space approach: > 5 hrs.) Additional technology 2 types of storage tanks available for every gas 11

12 Conclusion and Outlook Conclusion We developed a new model for multi-scale capacity planning under varying electricity prices A computationally efficient operational subproblemis an important ingredient and was developed as well The gap in the bi-level decompositioncan be closed within one iteration due to a strong relaxation Outlook Description of feasible regions for general models (nonconvex, disjoint) Parallelization for operational subproblems Uncertainty: -Reduce uncertain parameters - Robust Optimization for operational subproblems? - Stochastic Programming (recourse)? Different types of plants: utility plants, cement plants 12

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