SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO WATER TREATMENT PLANT PROCESS OPTIMIZATION

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1 SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO WATER TREATMENT PLANT PROCESS OPTIMIZATION Alex Yavich, Ph.D., P.E. Optimization Solutions Environmental, LLC WATERCON 2012 Optimization Solutions Environmental, LLC

2 Water Treatment Plant Operation Carbon adsorption etc. Disinfection Filtration Sedimen tation Floccul ation Coagulation

3 Key to Effective Operation Identify cause and effect relationships between unit operations and processes Be able to control the effects

4 How to Build Effective Operation? Chemical feed rate optimization Choice of coagulant Rapid and flocculation mixing UV254 monitoring

5 Chemical Feed Rate Optimization Improved effluent quality Reduced chemical and other operational costs Identification of other potential areas for improvement

6 Case 1 Three Rivers Filtration Plant, Fort Wayne, IN Total capacity: 72 MGD Source water: St. Joseph River

7 Case 1: Raw Water Quality

8 Case 1: Treatment train Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Lime PAC Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 CO 2 Influent Primary Coagulation / Lime Softening Stage Second Coagulation Stage Filtration Effluent

9 Chemical Feed Optimization Timeline Coagulation chemical feed control computer model implemented st /2 nd stage ferric sulfate feed Lime-softening optimization model developed integrated into chemical feed control program Corrosion control model developed and integrated into chemical feed control program

10 Chemical Feed Control at Fort Wayne Plant

11 Case 1: Chemical feed optimization 1 All costs in 2011 chemical prices

12 Choice of Coagulant Optimal coagulant is the coagulant that best meets plant s specific operational objectives By choosing the right coagulant, a water treatment plant can significantly improve its process performance and the quality of finished water

13 What are the Choices? Metal salts Turbidity removal through charge neutralization and sweep coagulation of colloidal particles Alum, PACl, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride Cationic polymers Charge neutralization is major coagulation mechanism Wide range of product is available (molecular weight, charge density, structure etc.)

14 Optimal Coagulant: Major Considerations Raw water Quality Turbidity ph Alkalinity NOM etc. Operational Objectives Effluent quality Chemical costs Sludge production Filter run etc. Plant Size Small Medium Large Treatment train Lime softening Carbon adsorption UV disinfection etc. Hardware Flocculators Clarifiers Filter configuration etc.

15 Case 2 Holland Water Treatment Plant Holland, MI Capacity: Source water: 38.5 MGD Lake Michigan

16 Case 2: Raw Water Quality Raw Water Parameters Temperature, o F Alkalinity, mg/l as CaCO 3 Turbidity, NTU Total organic carbon, mg/l UV254, cm -1 Typical Range

17 Case 2: Holland WTP Schematic Cl Coagulant Raw water Low lift pump MIxing Chamber Flocculation Basins Settling basins Filters Cl Treated water Clearwell High lift pumps

18 Operational Goal Alum was historically employed for coagulation Sludge production was problematic Goal reduce sludge production

19 Alternative Coagulants Tested PACl Alumer (a premanufactured blend of alum and cationic polymer) Seasonal coagulation practice Alum: December thru April Alumer: May thru November

20 Coagulation Computer Models at HWTP

21 Results of Full-Scale Testing and Computer Simulation Analysis PACl Sludge could be reduced by up to 45 percent Cost would increase by appr. 20% Potential turbidity problems on four Integral Media Support (IMS) cap filters Alumer Sludge could be reduced by up to 35 percent Cost would increase by 5-15% Not cost effective at increased UV254 Seasonal alternation between alum and alumer Sludge could be reduced by up to 25 percent No cost increase (compared to alum) More complex operation

22 Plant s Best Choice (current practice) Separate feeding of alum and cationic polymer Sludge reduced by up to 35 percent Cost reduction by percent (compared to alumer) Consistent filtered turbidity Improved operational control Can be optimized to meet plant s future goals

23 Rapid and Flocculation Mixing Raw water Low lift pump Coagulant Mixing Chamber Flocculation Basin Settling basin Mixing Intensity (G-value) G = (P/μV) 1/2 G velocity gradient, s -1 P power input, ft lb/s µ dynamic viscosity, ft s/ft 2 V volume, ft 3

24 Rapid and Flocculation Mixing Raw water Low lift pump Coagulant Mixing Chamber Flocculation Basin Settling basin Operation Mixing Time G value, s -1 Rapid mixing 1 60 sec Flocculation min 40-70

25 Case 3 Saginaw Water Treatment Plant Saginaw, MI Capacity: Source water: Raw turbidity: Coagulation: 52 MGD Lake Huron NTU FeCl 3 and cationic polymer Saginaw WTP

26 Chemical Mixing

27 Chemical Feeds

28 Computer Simulation Analysis

29 Chemical Feed Optimization Description Before chemical feed optimization Average dose, mg/l Avg. filter turbidity Annual cost 1 FeCl 3 Cat-Floc NTU $135, After feed rate optimization $94, After rapid mixer installation $69, Adjusted for 2011 chemical prices

30 Case 4 Holland Water Treatment Plant Holland, MI Capacity: Source water: 38.5 MGD Lake Michigan

31 Case 4: Effect of Flocculation Mixing on Filtered Turbidity

32 Water Quality Monitoring: UV254 UV254 is a measure of ultraviolet absorption at a wavelength of 254 nm UV254 is a surrogate measure of natural organic matter (NOM) in water

33 Why Should Surface Water Treatment Plants Monitor UV254 in Raw Water? Coagulation Filtration Clarification UV254 DBP control Taste and Odor Control Disinfection

34 Case 5: Effect of UV254 on coagulant demand Lake Michigan Filtration Plant, Grand Rapids, MI Capacity 130 MGD Source Lake Michigan

35 Case 6: Effect of UV254 on effluent turbidity South Haven Water Treatment Plant, South Haven, MI Capacity 4 MGD Source Lake Michigan

36 UV254 Analysis is Fast and Simple

37 Benefits of UV254 Monitoring Improved chemical feed control Consistent effluent turbidity Reduced chemical costs Important for identifying the optimal coagulant Improved DBP control Helps optimize UV disinfection

38 Summary Ensure that chemical feed rates are satisfactory under all plant conditions Does the plant use the right coagulant? Verify that rapid mixing operation is adequate Adjust, if possible, flocculation speed at least seasonally Implement raw water UV254 monitoring (surface WTPs)

39 Additional Information Seminar: Optimization of Water Treatment Plant Operations Presenter: Alex Yavich, Optimization Solutions, LLC Earn up to 4 hours PDH s or RTC hours Dates & Locations: 6/20/2012 Evanston, IL 6/21/2012 Girard, IL Contact: Lisa Hoffhines Education Coordinator Illinois Section AWWA (630)

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