The World First Ever Very Large Ethane Carrier (VLEC)

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1 The World First Ever Very Large Ethane Carrier (VLEC) Gastech 2017, Tokyo 4 th April 2017

2 This document contains information resulting from testing, experience and know-how of GTT, which are protected under the legal regime of undisclosed information and trade secret (notably TRIPS Art. 39) and under Copyright law. This document is strictly confidential and the exclusive property of GTT. It cannot be copied, used, modified, adapted, disseminated, published or communicated, in whole or in part, by any means, for any purpose, without express prior written authorization of GTT. Any violation of this clause may give rise to civil or criminal liability - GTT

3 AGENDA GTT in brief US Ethane export opportunity Trading Ethane : Shipping capacity Technical requirements & Challenges of the World s First Ever VLEC Status and lesson learned 3

4 1 Company overview 4

5 GTT at a glance An engineering company with more than 50 years of experience in the design of the Membrane Cargo Containment Systems GTT is a public company listed on the Euronext Stock Exchange (Paris) Around 358 highly qualified people (1), present worldwide (1) As at 31 st December

6 GTT achievements : several World First 1964 World 1 st Membrane ship delivered 1972 World 1 st Membrane onshore tank, still in operation today 1981 World 1 st Membrane LNG tank and largest LNG tank capacity at this time 1996 World Largest onshore tank delivered ( m3) 2005 World 1 st FSRU delivered and first LNG operations in open seas 2007 ~2010 Delivery of the World largest LNG Carriers (31 Q-Flex and 14 Q-Max) 2011 to 2012 World 1 st FLNGs built with GTT systems th ship delivered th Ship delivered 2012 World 1 st LNG Carrier sails thru the Arctic North East passage 2016 World first VLEC delivered 2017 World 1 st LNG bunker barge to be delivered 6

7 2 US Ethane export opportunity 7

8 Shale boom driving US ethane surplus US ethane supply/demand forecast (inclusing potential ethylene projects) Source: Poten & Partners, September 2016 Beyond 2022, a large increase of ethane surplus is estimated, which could be added to the seaborne market. 8

9 Why exporting Ethane is so strategic? Raw material for ethylene production for chemical application Exporting ethane requires a significant level of infrastructure In competition with Naphtha, not anymore the dominant petrochemical feedstocks NW Europe ethylene plant incremental margins Source: Poten & Partners, September 2016 Depending on the each project characteristics and the linkage formula to price ethane; & above all, key enterprising and visionary players are willing to develop the market Projects are currently re-materializing, as evidenced by current tenders for VLECs 9

10 3 Trading Ethane : Shipping capacity 10

11 Gas carrier fleet in 2014 Vessel Type (Cbm) Number of Vessels incl on order* LPG Ammonia Petchem C2 Ethane Max Length >60,000 Very Large Gas Carrier Fully- Refrigerated ft X 40,000-59,999 Large Gas Carrier Fully- Refrigerated 24 X 25,000-39,999 Medium Gas Carrier 15,000-24,999 Handysize Gas Carrier 5,000-14,999 Small Gas Carrier Fully- Refrigerated Semi- Refrigerated Fully- Refrigerated Semi- Refrigerated Pressurised 106 X 590ft 129 X 525ft X <4,999 Small Gas Carrier Pressurised 683 X In 2014, no ship above 25k can carry Ethane VLEC size was just 3 times bigger than largest Ethane ship! 11

12 Largest Semi-Ref LEG delivered in 2016 ABS classed Navigator Aurora. (Source: Navigator Gas/Borealis, credits: Morgan Hermansson) 37,500m³ total Cargo volume. Type C tanks. Built in JiangNan, China Quadri-fuel Engine, MDO/MGO/LNG and Ethane ready 4 ship ordered in delivered in to be delivered in 2017 Size limit for technically viable and economical type C carrier 12

13 4 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS & CHALLENGES OF THE WORLD S FIRST VLEC 13

14 General Layout of the VLEC GTT s Mark III Flex 14

15 Key VLEC equipment : The cryogenic tanks IGC code tanks classification Integrated Independent self-supporting Membranes Atmospheric Full 2 ndary barrier Type A Atmospheric Full 2 ndary barrier Type B Atmospheric Partial 2 ndary barrier Type C Pressurized No 2 ndary barrier NO technologies MARK technologies LNT-A-BOX LNG New Technologies (SGP) Prismatic SPB IHI (JAP) Many competitors 15

16 Why not keeping same type A technology from VLGC? According to IGC Code : gas lower than -55 C double hull + sec. barrier Hull (secondary container) Type A Ethane would be: Primary self supported tank +double hull +secondary insulation +secondary barrier Not economical and too long compared to other tank technologies Never made Self supporting type A tank (primary container) 16

17 Tank technology comparison Membrane Type A Type B prismatic Type B Moss Type C Pros Extensive experience on LNG carriers Light and best space efficient volume occupation Offered by several shipyards in Japan, Korea and China Most cost & schedule competitive tank type for VLEC size Compatible for LPG, Ethylene and LNG with no extra cost Extensive experience in type- A prismatic for VLGC Very robust Good space efficiency Centerline bulkhead prevents sloshing Very robust Good space efficiency Only partial secondary barrier is required Centerline bulkhead prevents sloshing Very robust Extensive experience on LNG carriers Only partial secondary barrier is required No bulkhead Tank shape prevents sloshing Very robust Can maintain pressure No secondary barrier required No double hull required Cons Full width prone to sloshing Partial filling restrictions Requires an independent secondary barrier Still under development for cryogenic gases below -55 C. No ship currently in operation for gases colder than -55 C Higher CAPEX and OPEX Very limited experience Technology and experience only available in Japan Membrane are type B are the two main solutions for a VLEC Higher CAPEX and OPEX Very poor space efficiency Technology and experience mainly available in Japan Very poor space efficiency Very heavy. Not economical for VLGC size GTT Membrane has been selected for 1: Safety & track record; 2:Cost & Schedule advantage and 3: wide offering from several shipyards. 17

18 Membrane Tank: Same design than LNG Carrier? Tank similar than Membrane LNG tank? Several challenges! Change from one unique cargo to 6 cargoes! LNG to Propylene : + 40% density ; Sloshing impact : + 20% Cargo type LNG Ethylene Ethane Propylene Propane n-butane i-butane / n- Butane mix Boiling point bar abs) -161 ⁰C -106 ⁰C -89 ⁰C -47 ⁰C -44 ⁰C -0,5 ⁰C -6 ⁰C Liquid phase density point) 450 kg/m³ 569 kg/m³ 547 kg/m³ 607 kg/m³ 583 kg/m³ 601 kg/m³ 597 kg/m³ Vapor phase density point) 1,9 kg/m³ 2,0 kg/m³ 2,1 kg/m³ 2,4 kg/m³ 2,4 kg/m³ 2,8 kg/m³ 2,9 kg/m³ Full review of GTT designs had been made, with AIP of all classification societies 1 st use of GTT Membrane Mark III Flex High Density 18

19 Pump type Two pump types were considered Submerged pump (similar to LNG) Deep well pump (similar to LPG) GTT has developed two designs With Std submerged pump With Deep well pump and sump well Tripod mas t with deep well pump (in red) Deep well pump is maintenance free inside the tank However, no reference of in Ethane/LPG inside the membrane tank Proven Design of conventional submerged pump was selected Sump well design with Membrane tank 19

20 Reliquefaction system Equipped with full re-liquefaction of the BOG, similar to VLGC Cascade liquefaction technology, widely used on Ethylene carriers Key challenge : Unlike Ethylene, Commercial Ethane composition is variable Reliquefaction needs to be customized for Ethane trade One out of three re-liquefaction system skids for each vessel (Source: Wartsila Gas Solutions) 20

21 5 Status and lesson learned 21

22 World First Ever VLEC : Ethane Crystal The Ethane Crystal during Sea trial, near Goeje Island, Korea Gas trial in 2 steps : with Propane in Korea, and Gap trial between Ethane and Propane in US 22

23 Lesson learned First cargos have been successfully loaded at Morgan s point (TX) and delivered in India! Initial filling level limitation (no filling between 10%~70%) can be down to 10~50% thanks to containment system reinforcement Further improvements VLEC can be even larger with same overall dimensions! Between 90k and 95k Membrane VLEC are offered to the market now Ethylene & LNG tank compatible at marginal cost To carry Ethylene in one tank for example To convert the VLEC into a LNG FSU or FSRU Or even a full LNG carrier LNG carrier of 80~100,000m3 are not popular so far However, several utilities are considering this size because of draft limitation, regulation volume limitation, and short route LNG voyage 23

24 Conclusion Ethane trade in large quantity is new. New ship type of Mid-size and Very Large size had been made in purpose. VLEC are compact and multi-cargoes to trade various petrochemical products World First Ever Ethane Carrier has been delivered in Nov Last ship of the series will be delivered tomorrow! (5 th April 2017) Ethane Crystal recognized as one of the top five of the Great Ships of 2016 by the prestigious Maritime Reporter & Engineering News. More new generation of VLEC should be sanctioned in

25 Thank you for your attention! Adnan Ezzarhouni General Manager, GTT China ; Patrick Janssens VP, Global Gas Solutions Global Marine, ABS ; Francois Durand Innovation Division - Project Leader, GTT ; Mélodie Noris Business Development Manager, GTT ; 25

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