ABOUT RIO VERDE WATER CORP.

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3 ABOUT RIO VERDE WATER CORP. Rio Verde Water Corp. (RVWC) was organized in response to the dire need of the local water districts and LGU s to outsource bulk water supply from private entrepreneurs. Local industrialist, Gov. Jose Ch. Alvarez, spearheaded to organize RVWC by tapping experienced engineers and hydrologists as shareholders and project developers/designers.

4 RVWC derives its expertise in bulk water supply system through the experience of its shareholders and staff who have constructed and operated bulk potable water and bulk industrial water systems in the country. These bulk water facilities have been operating for more than 2 decades. The engineers who built and operated the said facilities are the core group of RVWC.

5 Subsidiaries and Affiliates Rio Verde Water Corp. (RVWC) owns Rio Verde Water Consortium, Inc. (RVWCI) and Cebu Bulk Water Consortium, Inc. (CBWCI). RVWCI, a 150,000 cubic meters potable water per day facility, was constructed by RVWC in RVWC is more on engineering and construction while RVWCI is on operation.. The latter supplies the long term requirement of Cagayan de Oro City in Northern Mindanao, Philippines. CBWCI, on the other hand, is envisioned to run the operation of the Cebu-based Build-OperateOwn (BOO) projects in Cebu Island, Philippines.

6 RVWC is affiliated with Asia s biggest fertilizer complex, Philippine Phosphate Fertilizer Corp. (Philphos), since Gov. Jose Ch. Alvarez has controlling shares in both companies. Most of the engineers/managers in RVWC and RVWCI were employees of Philphos transferred to the two water companies. Philphos itself have constructed and has been operating water treatment and supply system. It constructed the Leyte Industrial & Development Estate (LIDE) Water Supply System (LWSS), which it owns has majority stakes with 100%, in the early 80s. It operated the said facility from 1983 to It has also been operating big water pumping station with total capacity of 576,000 cubic meters per day.

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10 The Rio Verde Multi Media Filtration System Technology Most raw water from rivers, lakes, creeks, and springs need to be treated by removing suspended solids, odor, color and bacteria only. Some raw waters, however, need specialized treatment like excess iron, arsenic, manganese, etc. These specialized treatment can be done by Rio Verde with its collaborators in various fields. For the majority of cases, however, the process reinvented by Rio Verde shall apply. The two important key characteristics of Rio Verde MMF Process is gravity flow and no addition of chemicals. This is in keeping with its main philosophy of Engineering New Waters with Nexus Approach And Shaving Water Footprints Raw water from the source diversion system enters the Multi Media Filter (MMF) and percolates its way down to the bottom by gravity. Collection system at the bottom of the filter conveys the filtrate to the Treated Water Reservoir (TWR) also by gravity.

11 The flowing filtrate itself pulls down the treated water from the top of the MMF to the TWR through the vacuum created due to the difference in elevation. Suspended solids are trapped in the different media layers which are periodically back flushed out to the river stream where it came from. The multi media alone cannot do the job of eliminating the fine suspended solids in the raw water. But a certain thickness of the silts that may build up at the top of the MMF is the little secrete why clear water with less than 5 NTU can be produced. Once the optimum thickness is exceeded, back flushing is triggered by the control system. Top most layer of the MMF is the natural accumulated silt. Just below it is anthracite coal. Then followed by silica sand and granulated activated carbon. These media are supported at the bottom by appropriately sized gravel. To eliminate inter mixing of media during operation and back flushing, a polypropylene filter cloth is put in place between the different media.

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16 1.0 Rio Verde Water Consortium, Inc. (RVWCI) Project Type Engineering and Construction Capacity 150,000 m3/day Location Cagayan de Oro City Project Cost PhP 950 Million Date Construction Started February 2005 Date Construction Completed December 2006 Commercial Operation Started March 2007 RVWCI s 150,000 cubic meters/day huge River Water Treatment Plant and Transmission Pipeline was constructed in by its parent company, Rio Verde Water Corp., to supply up to 150,000 m3/day of mineral-water-quality potable fluid to the water district of Cagayan de Oro City per their long term BOO (Build-Own-Operate) contract in accordance with the BOT Law. It was then called the COWD Bulk Water Supply Project in Cagayan de Oro City. It has been operating normally since 2007.

17 The source of the raw water is the Bubunauan River at Pualas, Baungon, Bukidnon. Raw water from a higher elevation flows by gravity directly to the Water Treatment Plant. Treatment process is the conventional flocculation-sedimentation system with rapid sand filtration. The clear water is disinfected with chlorine gas automatically to produce a WHO-standard quality potable water while maintaining the minimum residual disinfectant concentration in the main transmission pipeline. The potable water then flows by gravity to the off-take point through the 0.90 meter pipeline stretching 6 kilometers. The total length of pipeline is eight (8) kilometers.

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20 2. 0 Rio Tuba Bulk Water Supply Project Project Type Engineering and Construction Capacity 3,000 m3/day Location Rio Tuba, Bataraza, Palawan Project Cost PhP Million Date Started October 09, 2007 Date Completed April 08, 2008 Date Turned-over May 30, 2008 Client Coral Bay Nickel Corp. and Rio Tuba Nickel Mining Corp.

21 A 3,000 m3/day Rio Tuba Bulk Water System, in Rio Tuba, Bataraza, was mechanically completed on April It was turned over to the owners (Rio Tuba Nickel Mining Corp. and Coral Bay Nickel Corp., owned by Sumitomo Metals Mining of Japan) two months after a very successful commissioning. Actual flow rate produced averaged, 4,000 m3/day. This is 33% higher than the guaranteed output. The quality, as well as the line pressure, have been much better than the guaranteed levels. The double filtration system, using a primary filter and dual media filter, ensures compliance with the physical parameters set by Philippine National Standard for Drinking Water and WHO. The disinfection system eliminates the pathogens. An appropriately designed Overhead Water Storage Tank assures consumers with the right pressure in their faucets as well as buffer supply during flow interruptions from the source.

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24 3. 0 Bataraza Level II Water Supply Project Project Type Capacity Location Project Cost Date Started Date of Completion Date of Turn-over Client Engineering and Construction 2,000 m3/day Municipality of Bataraza, Palawan PhP Million May 28, 2008 October 27, 2008 January 09, 2009 Coral Bay Nickel Corp. and Rio Tuba Nickel Mining Corp.

25 Another contract for a 2,000 m3/day facility in the town proper of Bataraza was turned over to the local government on October This is Level 2 system; ie., there is water distribution to all town roads with communal faucets. Actual flow rate produced averaged 2,200 m3/day. This is 10% higher than the guaranteed output. The raw water source is from nearby Saray River. A rice field is upstream of the intake section. Hence, the raw water is very high in total suspended solids during heavy downpour. The product water quality, as well as the appropriate line pressure, are achieved using the same process and equipment design as that in Rio Tuba. The bulk water system is supplying the water requirements of the town proper of Bataraza. The project was financed by the Rio Tuba Nickel and Mining Corp. and Coral Bay Nickel Corp. as their social response to the needs of the stakeholders in that area. Bataraza is about 220 km from Puerto Princessa City and is about four (4) hours by land transportation from the said city. The surface water treatment system consists of the same equipment and process with Rio Tuba project.

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28 4.0 Pagdanan-Velasco Bulk Water Supply Project Project Type Engineering and Construction Capacity 500 m3/day Location Sitio Pagdanan, Brgy. Port Barton, San Vicente, Palawan Project Cost PhP 3.60 Million Date Started September 16, 2008 Date of Completion January 31, 2009 Date of Turn-over February 28, 2009 Client Mr. Jose Ch. Alvarez

29 A bulk water supply system was developed and constructed on September 2008 January 2009 in San Vicente, Palawan. The source is from Pagdanan, a sitio in the main land, and the product water is delivered to the island of Velasco (Endeavor) which is 3- km away from the mainland. The HDPE pipeline crosses the strait under the sea water. It is maintained that way by means of concrete sinkers. The product water is intended for the newly constructed resorts in the island.

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32 5. 0 San Vicente Bulk Water Supply System Project Type Capacity Location Project Cost Date Started Date Completed / Turnover Date Acceptance Client Engineering And Construction 2,000 m3/day San Vicente, Palawan PhP 5.0 Million August 15, 2010 November 15, 2010 January 12, 2012 San Vicente, Palawan government

33 Little Baguio Water Supply Improvement San Vicente, Palawan for the past five years since 2006 has been growing at a fast pace in terms of tourism. Basic necessity is water and power. Rio Verde Water Corp. was awarded a contract to engineer and construct a bulk potable water supply system from a river in Little Baguio which is about 7 kilometers from the town proper. A complete system, from the river abstraction system, filtration, and disinfection to potable water transmission connected to the existing distribution network was being designed and constructed starting last quarter of The Water treatment Plant was completed by RVWC in due time. But the transmission pipeline was withheld due to funding problem. Later, the said transmission pipeline was implemented by the municipality using the design and detailed construction drawing of RVWC.

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36 6. 0 Bataraza Six Barangays Level II Bulk Water Supply Project Project Type Capacity Location Cost Date Started Date Completed / Turnover Date Acceptance Client Bulk Water Supply 2,000 m3/day Bataraza, Palawan Project PhP 50.8 Million July 11, 2011 November November 27, 2012 Coral Bay Nickel Corp. and Rio Tuba Nickel Mining Corp.

37 A 2,000 m3/day Bataraza Six Barangays Bulk Water System, in Bataraza, was mechanically completed on November 16, It was turned over to the owners (Rio Tuba Nickel Mining Corp. and Coral Bay Nickel Corp., owned by Sumitomo Metals Mining of Japan) two months after a very successful commissioning. Actual flow rate produced averaged 2,200 m3/day. This is 10% higher than the guaranteed output. The quality as well as the line pressure have been much better than the guaranteed levels. The double filtration system, using a primary filter and dual media filter, ensures compliance with the physical parameters set by Philippine National Standard for Drinking Water and WHO. The disinfection system eliminates the pathogens. An appropriately designed Six (6) units Ground Water Tank assures consumers with the right pressure in their faucets as well as buffer supply during flow interruptions from the source.

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40 7. 0 Stench Removal From Cebu City Inayawan Garbage Dump Site Project Project Type Stench / Odour Removal Area Covered 15 Ha. Location Inayawan Landfill Project Cost PhP 6.8 Million Date Started July 15, 2010 Date Completed / Turnover October 15, 2010 Date Acceptance October 31, 2012 Client Local Government Unit (LGU) Cebu City To avert the impending withdrawal of fivestar investors in the SRP real estate fronting the Inayawan Garbage Dump Site, Cebu City LGU found its ally in Rio Verde Water Corp. in eliminating stench from garbage emission gasses. In the process of adsorbing foul odor millions of flies which were pestering the people in the dumping site and the surrounding barangays were no longer hovering the areas. The objectives of eliminating stench and flies were achieved in two months time.

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45 1.0 Claver-THPAL/TMC Bulk Water Supply & Level 2 Distribution Project Project Type Design And Construct Capacity 18,000 m3/day Location Claver, Surigao del Norte Project Cost PhP 389 Million Estimated Date to Start January 01, 2015 Estimated Date of Completion February 18, 2016 Client Taganito HPAL Nickel Corp. and Taganito Mining Corp. Taganito HPAL Nickel Corp. needs water for its process plant, staff housing, and for the twelve barangays of Claver, Surigao Del Norte. Projected total demand for the next ten (10) years or so is about 15,600 m3/day. Based on this, an 18 mld (18,000 m3/day) head works, water treatment plant (WTP), and transmission pipeline shall be constructed. Studies conducted by Rio Verde Water Corp. (RVWC) and THPAL consultant, Dr. Cuanio, indicated that Daywan River is the sustainable water source.

46 For higher reliability, there four (4) submersible pumps, with two (2) standby units, that shall abstract raw water from the river which are being mounted inside a so-called Intake Tower. Intake Tower is inlieu of the expensive conventional weir dam. The Intake Tower s location is optimized based on the river morphology. Start up and shut down of the intake pumps shall be automatically controlled by a computer in the Control Room located at the head board of the Water Treatment Plant (WTP). The treatment of raw water is simplified in four (4) parallel units of Multi Media Filter- Treater (MMFT), where turbidity and some micro-organisms are removed. The MMFT s design capacity is about 18,300 m3/day or 18.3 mld of safe potable water. Clear water from the MMFT is disinfected, using Calcium Hypochlorite thru an automatic disinfection system, at the 12 barangays. There shall be online excess chlorine analyzer to command the dozing pump on the right amount of disinfectant any time.

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49 2.0 Cebu City Bulk Water Supply & Level 2 Distribution Project Project Type EPC Capacity 36,000 m3/day Location Cebu City Project Cost PhP 920 Million Estimated Date to Start July 2015 Estimated Date of Completion December 2016 Client Cebu Bulk Water Consortium, Inc. Cebu Bulk Water Consortium, Inc. s proposal to undertake a project to supply bulk water to the twenty (20) upland barangays of Cebu City and to Metropolitan Cebu Water District (MCWD) is a viable endeavor technically, economically, and financially. The project is also socially acceptable to the upland barangays as this fulfils their centuries-old dream of having drinking water available at their barangay (level 2 supply) if not at their own houses.

50 The two rivers of Tabunan and Taptap are identified as the sources of water for the project. The abstraction points of the two surface waters are located at " N, and ' 5.61" E at Tabunan near the boundary with Magsaysay, Balamban and the other at ' 18.25" N and ' 42.53" E at the boundary of Taptap-Tagbao. The Tabunan river (with a flow rate of 33 mld during wet months and slows down to 15 mld on summertime) and TaptapTagbao (with average flow of22 mld on wet months and 5 mld on summer), are located at the above-named barangays respectively, both are in Cebu City. The two rivers will be harnessed to supply 42 mld of raw water to the Water Treatment Plant (WTP), process and treat the river fluid to become potable drinking water prior to distribution. The project will be implemented in fourteen (14) months partly through a domestic loan financing of Php495 million. At 7030 debt to equity ratio, the total capital expenditures of Php705 million will be met. It is assumed that the loan will carry a10% interest rate with a tenor of 10 years and a grace period of one (1) year.

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52 3.0 Bohol Water Utilities Bulk Water Supply Project ProjectType Design & Construct Capacity 10,000 m3/day Location Tagbilaran City Project Cost PhP96.25 Million Estimated Date to Start March2015 Estimated Date of Completion February 2016 Client Bohol Water Utilities, Inc. Bohol Water Utilities, Inc. (BWUI) needs additional bulk water supply to satisfy the demand of Metro Tagbilaran area, which includes Tagbilaran City, its neighboring towns and Panglao Island. As stipulated in the TOR of last year s bidding, a 10 mld (10,000 m3/day) head works, water treatment plant (WTP), and booster pumping system shall be constructed. Studies conducted by BWUI s consultant indicated that Ohan Spring is the sustainable water source. And that, only the turbidity and micro- organisms are needed to be treated to render the spring water fit for human consumption. Based on Rio Verde s (RVWC) detailed engineering, the estimated cost of the project is PhP96.25M.

53 The intake point at Ohan Spring looks like a big dug shallow well. A bell mouth intake structure shall be installed by RVWC. Two 37-kW vertical pumps, with standby units shall abstract spring water from Ohan and deliver the same to the paired Multi Media Filter located about 111 meters from the intake point up in a hill. Product water is conveyed to the transmission pipeline by a horizontal split case doublesuction transmission pump. There shall be two pumps at 75 kw rating each, with one on operation while the other serves as standby unit. The flow rate of at least 10 mld shall be recorded in the flow meter just after the booster pump. The flow meter is the end of the scope of this project.

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56 4.0 Bataraza 13 South Barangays Water Supply Project ProjectType Design & Construct Capacity 3,000 m3/day Location Bataraza, Palawan Project Cost Estimated Date to Start Estimated Date of Completion PhP80 Million January2015 August2015 Rio Verde designed, engineered and shall construct the 3,000 m3/day Bataraza 13 Barangays Water Supply And Level 2 Distribution project. The project is composed of four systems. Barangays Bono-bono, Bulalacao, Malihud and Tarusan shall be supplied by Kapangyan Falls at 1,500 m3/day capacity Water Treatment Plant (WTP). The far south barangays of Buliluyan, Malitub, Puring, Sapa, Sumbiling, Tagnato and Taratak shall have its source from Kennedy Falls with WTP capacity of 1,100 m3/day. Both shall be using the Rio Verde s MMF technology. Tabud and Tagolango, however, shall each have solar-powered deep wells water supply system to sustain the water requirement of the two barangays.

57 RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PARIS A world without fresh water would be a world bereft of humans, and yet one in five people lacks regular access to this most basic of life-sustaining substances. By 2025, fully a third of the planet's growing population could find itself scavenging for safe drinking water, the United Nations has warned.

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64 1. Reverse Osmosis Using Graphene Membrane In very basic terms graphene could be described as a single, one atom thick layer of the commonly found mineral graphite; graphite is essentially made up of hundreds of thousands of layers of graphene. In actuality, the structural make-up of graphite and graphene, and the method of how to create one from the other, is slightly different. Graphite is one of only three naturally occurring allotropes of carbon (the others being amorphous carbon and diamond). The difference between the three naturally occurring allotropes is the structure and bonding of the atoms within the allotropes; diamond enjoying a diamond lattice crystalline structure, graphite having a honeycomb lattice structure, and amorphous carbon (such as coal or soot) does not have a crystalline structure.

65 So, graphene is fundamentally one single layer of graphite; a layer of sp2 bonded carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb (hexagonal) lattice. However, graphene offers some impressive properties that exceed those of graphite as it is isolated from its mother material. Graphite is naturally a very brittle compound and cannot be used as a structural material on its own due to its sheer planes (although it is often used to reinforce steel). Graphene, on the other hand, is the strongest material ever recorded, more than three hundred times stronger than A36 structural steel, at 130 gigapascals, and more than forty times stronger than diamond. Researchers have produced a stable porous membrane that is thinner than a nanometre. This is a 100,000 times thinner than the diameter of a human hair. The membrane consists of two layers of the much exalted super material graphene, a two-dimensional film made of carbon atoms, on which the team of researchers, led by Professor HyungGyu Park at the Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering at ETH Zurich, etched tiny pores of a precisely defined size.

66 A key advantage of the tiny dimensions is that the thinner a membrane, the lower its permeation resistance. The lower the resistance, the higher the energy-efficiency of the filtration process. British company, Centre for Process Innovation (CPI) and American company, Lockheed Martin, one of the biggest US defense contractors, are also seriously looking into this promising technology. The patent application of the latter has been approved in the US with the product name PerforeneTM.

67 Access to clean drinking water is going to become more critical as the global population continues to grow, and we believe that this simple and affordable solution will be a game-changer for the industry, said Dr. Ray O. Johnson, senior vice president and chief technology officer of Lockheed Martin. Basically, the production cost of desalinated seawater using graphene membrane would be much lower, estimated at PhP25/m3 versus about PhP65/m3 with conventional membranes or about PhP50/m3 for currently improved membranes. This is comparable to treating surface water and transmitting the product water from a distance of 50 km.

68 Graphene has a unique one-atom thick structure made of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice (left). Nanoporous graphene (NPG) consists of creating nano-sized porous along this hexagonal graphene lattice (right). Credit Wikimedia Commons (left); National Energy Research Scientific Computer Center (NERSC) (right)

69 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image of a nanopore (a) and multiple nanopores (b) in a suspended graphene sheet (scale bars are 2 and 10 nm). Copyright American Institute of Physics (2008) and (c and d) influence of temperature on the sculpting of few-layer graphene by an electron beam (c) at RT and (d) at 700 C (scale bars are 1 nm). Copyright American Chemical Society (2011).

70 (a) Schematic showing different gas molecules passing through a nanopore in graphene, (b) schematic of a NPG-based membrane for 3He/4He isotope separation, and (c) schematic showing desalination process by using NPG-based membrane.from American Chemical Society (2012).

71 (a) Hydrogen groups (H-) and (b) hydroxyl groups (OH-) attached to the carbon atoms along the pore edges alter the pore chemistry and thus the water permeability of the graphene membrane. (c) Under an external applied pressure the water flows through the nano-channels while salt ions passage is restricted. Credit Grossman and Cohen-Tanugi (2012)

72 Functionalized porous graphene exhibits higher water permeability than other existing desalination methods without reducing its salt rejection performance. Credit Grossman and Cohen-Tanugi (2012)

73 2. Microalgae for Wastewater Treatment, CO2 Sequestration and Fuel Production Aerobic water treatment consumes a lot of energy in diffusing oxygen (air) through the waste water in a basin. What if the oxygen can be supplied from a microalgae inside the basin? In return the microalgae sequestrates the CO2 produced by the microalgae from the oxidation of the wastewater impurities to power up its photosynthesis process. A typical symbiotic process that can be applied to the secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater that is obviously environment-friendly. With experience gained in the growing of microalgae for wastewater treatment, much can be applied to its use for fuel production, like diesel. In effect, the water-energy-land nexus can be exploited to shave, if not minimize, the carbon footprint, as well as the water footprint, for a healthy Earth planet.

74 GREENLINE Model for 5 m3/day raw wastewater using microalgae LMMP demonstration pilot for 5 m3/day raw wastewater using microalgae

75 Innovative Algae-Based Technology for Wastewater Purification and Renewable Energy Production

76 3.Water Theatre Another water-energy nexus approach to produce safe drinking water from the vast oceans is via a Water Theatre. Teatro Del Aguasimply is a huge assembly of surface area wherein seawater is pumped through a series of tubes and sprayed onto a mess pad. Sea breeze picks up the water mists in the mesh pads and when it passes through the series of tubes condenses into pure water. Rio Verde Water Corp. is developing this concept into practical commercial set up. El Teatrodel Agua Desalinización de Agua de Mar

77 The Water Theatre Desalinization of Seawater

78 The Water Theatre Concept Design

79 Conceptual Design of the Water Theatre Seawater Sprayer And Condenser (Pink and the blue Portion of Pipes respectively) and Mesh Pad Seawater Absorbent (Cross Diagonals)

Watershed: an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas. It is the interdependent web of living

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