E886 Volume 2 AMMAN DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR. Volume 1 Environmental Impact Assessment. IMiiPC FOR THE A N 'CZ. AM ke Nl i inr A IC N M L.

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1 Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized ad.i A N 'CZ glq IC N M L ASSESMEN ~T UPDfE~A TE -THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN MINISTRY OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HOUSING AM ke Nl i inr A IMiiPC FOR THE E886 Volume 2 AMMAN DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR Volume 1 Environmental Impact Assessment Ir.r 10 daral-handasah shairand parlners j0269r2-rpt-env-oi REV O MviarchI1 200&4

2 AMMAN DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR VOLUME 1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT UPDATE Rev Date Description By CHK Approved 0 12/04/04 Final Issue 3. D. B. K. I B. R /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 PRC-EN-11 (Fl) REV 1 E~mL~icshair and partn2rs daral-handasah

3 Ammar, Developnment Cor,idor En vi,nmenta, Imp,act Assessmment U-JUdate PREFACE This report presents an update of the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Amman Rinq Road previously submitted to the Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MPWH) in September Whilst the 1999 report fully addressed the environmental impacts in the detail req uii red by the IWVVI oriu LBIankI fo;- a Category A pr Ject, IL I Iha Uee neclai y Lu prepare this Update to take account of the following: * The change in status for Phase 1 of the Amman Ring Road, from a limited access bypass to a development corridor, the Amman Development Corridor; * Recent changes to the Environmental Policy and Legal Framework and the Project Development and Planning Framework under which the project will now be implemented, in particular the introduction of EIA requirements and procedures by the new Ministry of Environment; * The recent decision to relocate the Al Juwaidah Customs Depot and to devexop an Inland Logistics Port on a site within the Development Corridor; CIhanges in Environmental rodaseline Data that may have accrued over.ihe as.l four years; * The need to prepare a final Environmental Management Plan and Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan on completion of Detailed Design and prior to commencement of construction. In accordance with the Terms of Reference prepared by the MPWH and the World Rank, the present EIA Update is presented as a 'stand alone' volume that readdresses each of the specific components of the original study for areas of change andu adudurese Li iss ue ILseU above. _V V I ii list ali the original Udata are not rel - presented for conditions that have not changed, the report provides adequate summary of the conclusions drawn and cross-reference to previous reports to aiiow the review reader to confirm the completeness of the studies and the specialist reader easy access to still relevant more detailed information. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 i March 2004

4 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface The Environmental Impact Assessment Project Team SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION Project Background Previous Studies Scope of Present Report Report Structure 1-4 SECTION 2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION 2-i Page No. 2.1 Introduction Project Need and Objectives The Amman Development Corridor The Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port The 'Without Project' Situation Project Summary Matrix Project Location and Proponent Project Location Administrative Boundaries Project Proponent Project Description Overview Contract Contract Contract Design Standards The New Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port 2-17 SECTION 3 POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK Introduction LegisIatiue Framework International Legislation Existing Jordanian Leqislation 3-1 3= Environmental Assessment Legislation and Procedures 3-5 Institutional Framework Central Government Agencies 3-6 3=3.2 Regional and Municipal institutions Research Institutions Non-Governmental Organisations Summary Project Environmental Assessment Framework National Framework Proiect Environmental Appraisal Programme Project Planning Framework Muniripal Administration Municipal Administration within the ADC The Existing Planninn System Land Expropriation Planning Problems 3-23 I xiv 10269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C ii February 2004

5 AmmII(Ian DevelopmIIent Corridor EnviUnmn,,etal I,I-act AssessmIent UwPdate SECTION 4 ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE CONDITIONS: 4.1 BIOPHYSICAL ISSUES 4.1 Introduction Climate Geology Stratiqraphy and Litholoqy Structure and Seismology Mineral Resources Topography, Landforms, Soils and Land Use Topoqraphy Landforms Soils Land Suitability Existinq Land Use Overall Landscape Quality Ecology and Bio-Diversity Bio-Geographical Zones Flora Fauna Status of Habitats Status of Species Surface Water Resources Catchment Characteristics Sprinq Discharqes Surface Water Impoundments Ground Water Resources Hydrogeology Ground Water Quality Aquifer Recharge Resource Exploitation Air Quality and Noise Sources of Air Pollution Air Quality Measurements Noise Historical and Cultural Heritage Backqround Sites of Interest along the ADC Sites of Interest within the CDP Shortcoming in Environmental Baseline Data Ambient Noise and Air Quality data Surface Water Flow Data Ground Water Quality Data 4-49 SECTION 5 ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE CONDITIONS: 5-1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES 5.1 Introduction Population National and Regional Population Amman and Zarqa Populations Directly Affected Populations Population Forecast and Distribution Population Structure Household Structure Housing and Utility Services /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C iii February 2004

6 5.3.1 Housing Stock Tenure Status Public Utilities and Services Education Adult Literacy Educational Attainment Employment and Income Employment income Regional Economic Activity Industrial Activity Arable Agriculture Livestock and Poultry Tourism Transportation Transport System Local Access Public Health The Role of Women The Role of Young People 5-22 SECTION 6 POTENTIAL TEMPORARY IMPACTS Introduction Potential On-Site Impacts Damage to the Landscape Reduction in Bio-Diversity Disruption to Existing Communication Routes Disruption to Existing Public Utilities Access Road Construction Soil and Water Pollution Drainage, Erosion, Turbidity and Sediment Load Disposal of Surplus Materials Noise and Air Pollution Demolition Use of Explosives Public Safety Workers' Safety Potential Off-Site Impacts Construction Camps Other Sites Resource Consumption Aggregate Resources Fill Materials Water Resources Haulage Summary of Potential ADC Temporary Impacts Potential Temporary Impacts at the CDP Site 6-15 SECTION 7 POTENTIAL PERMANENT IMPACTS Introduction Impacts on Agricultural Production Rain Fed Arable Lands Permanent Crops Total Production Losses 7-4 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C iv February 2004

7 Amman QeveIop.mentJ Cridor o-f I- -irovi,ui nti l I-, - -tzess,,,e,i- UIvdate 7.3 Land Acquisition and Property Take Land Take Property and Asset Take Population Displacement and Business Relocation Population Displacement Business Relocation Severance Severance of Existing Communications Links Severance of Rural Communities Severance of Individual Properties Drainage and Erosion Ecology and Bio-Diversity Archaeological and Cultural Heritage Sites Summary of Potential ADC Permanent Impacts Possible Permanent Impacts at the CDP Impacts at the CDP Site Impacts at Al Juwaidah Redevelopment at Al Juwaidah Summary of Potential Impacts at Al Juwaidah 7-17 SECTION 8 POTENTIAL OPERATIONAL IMPACTS Introduction Traffic Forecasts Noise Vibration Buildings Building Occupants Air Quality General Urban Area Benefits Safety Accidents Hazardous Materials Pollution of Water Resources Surface Watercourses Ground Water Maintenance Issues Landscape Maintenance Highway Maintenance Summary of Potential Operational Impacts 8-12 SECTION 9 INDUCED DEVELOPMENT Introduction Development Plans and Projects Municipal and Residential Developments Industrial Developments Potential Problems Due To Unplanned Development Urban Sprawl and Unplanned Development Land Degradation Unregulated Land Use at Intersections Threat to Cultural Resources Social Issues Specific Local Issues ADC Planning Control and Management Framework Requirements 9-11 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C v February 2004

8 Amman Deve,Uopment Corriuor EnvirVuUnmental Imupact AssesIsmenL-II't U-judte Development Corridor Master Plan Performance Evaluation Recommendations Provision of Adequate Infrastructure Population and Workforce Building Materials Water Supply Sewerage Solid Waste Disposal Electricity and Telecommunications 9-18 SECTION 10 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES Introduction Alternative Development Options 'Do Minimum' Option 'Change of Policy' Options Public Perceptions Summary of Alternative Development Options Alternative Alignment Options Alternative Design Options Summary of ADC Alternatives Alternatives for the CDP Site Location Criteria Land Requirements Potential Sites Site Evaluation SECTION 11 IMPACT MITIGATION Introduction Pre-Construction Impacts Construction Impacts: On-Site General Damage to Landscape Damage to Ecosystems and Wildlife Damage to Archaeological and Cultural Heritage Sites Dislocation of Local Access Damage to Public Utilities Construction Access Roads Prevention of Soil and Water Pollution Prevention of Erosion and Increased Sedimentation Disposal of Surplus Materials Abatement of Noise Abatement of Air Pollution (Excluding Dust) Abatement of Dust Construction Impacts: Off-Site Main Camp Construction Traffic Operation of Quarries and Other Extraction Sites Permanent Impacts Landscaping Productive Losses Land Acquisition and Property Take Severance Road Safety Operational Impacts J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C vi February 2004

9 Am,m,,, 'a evelo,,..ment Corridor 5- v hrun m elnt al l,pact Assess-OLent I l -ULC Mitigation of Noise Mitigation of Air Pollution Mitigation of Accidental Spills Maintenance Issues Future Planning Framework Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan General Compensation Options Entitlement Packages Procedural Transparency Environmental Enhancement Measures Summary of ADC Impact Mitigation Impact mitigation for the CDP Impact Mitigation at the CDP Site Impact Mitigation at Al Juwaidah SECTION 12 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Introduction Environmental Standards Access Requirements Environmental Monitoring Reporting Site Inspections Objectives Programme Reporting Responsibilities Inspection Costs Post-Construction Monitoring Environmental Quality Monitoring Objectives Monitoring Programme Reporting Responsibility Quality Monitoring Costs Monitoring by Supervision Consultant Objectives Programme Reporting Responsibility Supervision Costs Annual Environmental Reporting Cultural Resources and Land Acquisition Monitoring Land Acquisition Monitoring Internal Monitoring Independent Monitoring External Monitoring LARP Reporting LARP Monitoring Costs Environmental Auditing Summary of Environmental Monitoring Requirements SECTION 13 INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING Introduction Proposed ADC Implementation Structure Proposed Training Programme for ADC Implementation 13-3 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C vii February 2004

10 Amm'an QevelolJmnent Corridor EnviirOnm)ental I)InIact AssessmIIent U,,date Local Training External Training Training for Post-Construction Monitoring Summary of Institutional Strengthening Requirements 13-5 SECTION 14 PUBLIC CONSULTATION Introduction Phase 1 Programme Areas of Prime Concern Findings and Recommendations Phase 2 Programme Thematic Seminars Zarqa Scoping Session Sahab and Zarqa Exhibitions EA Review Meeting Phase 3-PAP Census and Socio-Economic Survey Phase 4-Public Consultation for the CDP and EIA Update PAP Census and Socio-Economic Survey at the CDP Site PAP Surveys at Al Juwaidah EIA Update Review 14-9 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C Viii February 2004

11 A,,,,,,an Develop,m,ent Corridor Eir, U1 1IeIintal,, l,,,,,act ASJss-t1es,,,ent UL/datUe LIST OF TABLES Table No. Title No. 2.1 Population Projections for Amman and Zarqa Governorates Forecast Growth in Traffic through the Inland Port Daily Traffic Flows on Existing Roads for the 'Without Project' Situation ADC Project Summary Matrix Geometric Design Criteria for the ADC Geometric Design Criteria for Service Roads Expected Land Requirements for the New Customs Depot Expected Land Requirements for the Inland Logistics Port International Environmental Legislation Environmental Legislation Prepared Prior to Law No. 12 of Environmental Legislation Prepared After Law No. 12 of Summary of Jordanian EIA Procedures UNDP Projects Implemented through the MoE Relevant Jordanian Standards Comparison of World Bank and MoE Environmental Assessment Principal Project Planning and Implementation Legislation Climate Stations Relevant to the Project Area Long Term Averages for Primary Climatic Parameters Long Term Averages for Project Significant Climatic Events Stratigraphic Succession in the Project Area Comparison between Recognised Formations and Mapped Units Recent Quarry Production in the area East of Amman Landform, Land Capability and Natural Vegetation for the NSMLUP 4-17 Land Units 4.8 Mediterranean Non-Forest Vegetation Irano-Turanian Steppe Vegetation Reptiles Recorded in the Vicinity of the ADC Birds Recorded in the Vicinity of the ADC Mammals Recorded in the Vicinity of the ADC Birds of Local Importance Zarqa River Discharges to King Talal Reservoir Hydrogeological Units Jordan's National Water Balance Summary of Wells Recorded in the Vicinity of the ADC Major Point Sources of Air Pollution in the Amman Area Major Archaeological Periods Represented by Remains in Jordan Archaeological Sites Remaining within 300 m of the ADC Alignment Archaeological Sites on the CDP Site Historical Trends in Population and Natural Growth Rate Present Population of Amman and Zarqa Governorates in Population Projections for Amman and Zarqa Governorates Age Structure of the Jordanian Population Present Population Age Structure between the Sexes Number and Size of Households Types of Housing Tenure Status of Occupants Population Connected to Public Water Supply and Sewerage Health Care Provision in Amman and Zarqa Governorates 5-7 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C ix February 2004

12 5.11 School Students up to Secondary Level Nationally School Students up to Secondary Level in Amman and Zarqa Composition of the Labour Force in Amman and Zarqa Governorates Agricultural Sector Employment Businesses, Investment and Employment at Sahab Industrial Estate Performance of the Sahab Industrial Estate for Areas under Cultivation Nationally Areas under Field Crops in Amman Governorate and the Highlands Areas under Tree Crops and Vegetables in Amman and Zarqa Livestock within Amman Governorate Poultry Production in Jordan Hotel Accommodation in Jordan The Movement of Imports and Exports by Truck Reported Infections and Epidemic Diseases Temporary Threats to Wildlife During Construction Potential Impact of Disruption to Public Utilities List of Known Utilities Crossings on the ADC Alignment Estimated Quantities of Cut and Fill for ADC Earthworks Noise Emission Levels for various Types of Construction Plant Estimated Aggregate Use on the ADC Use of Water in the Compaction of Fill Estimated Haulage Distances for Selected Construction Materials Summary of Potential Temporary Impacts for the ADC Possible CDP Temporary Impacts Affected Rain Fed Agricultural Land Estimated Rain Fed Arable Crop Losses Affected Areas Under Perennial Crops Affected Number of Trees Estimated Permanent Crop Losses Total Land Take Within the Right of Way Potential Additional Land Take Total Land to be Acquired Affected Residential Plots Take of Infrastructure and Non-Residential Structures Impact on Affected Chicken Farms Summary of Potential Permanent Impacts for the ADC Possible CDP Permanent Impacts Businesses in the Vicinity of the Al Juwaidah Customs Depot Summary of Potential Impacts at Al Juwaidah Hour and peak Hour Weekday Traffic Flow: 'Without Project' Case Hour and peak Hour Weekday Traffic Flow: 'With Project' Case Average Daily Traffic Flows for the ADC Predicted Changes in Noise Levels at Sensitive Sites Air Pollutant Default Parameters Air Quality Emissions for the 'Do Nothing' and 'Do Something' Options Number and Severity of Accidents Nationwide Number and Severity of Accidents Hizam Road Summary of Potential Operational Impacts for the ADC Approved Local Plans within the Study Area Expected growth in the Electricity Sector Summary of Analysis of Alternatives for the ADC Evaluation of CDP Site Alternatives J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C X February 2004

13 Arn,-an Develoornent Corridor E-Wnvro,nenta: hmpnact Assess--,-nn I d-` Typical Noise Standards for Construction Equipment Typical Standards for Motor Vehicle Noise Limits of Particulate Matter Emissions Maintained Crossings of the ADC Unmaintained Crossings of the ADC Summary of Proposed Noise Mitigation Measures Noise Attenuation Projected for Sensitive Sites Summary of Impact Mitigation Requirements for the ADC Possible Mitigation Measures at Al Juwaidah Principal Monitoring Standards Programme for PMT Site Inspections Locations for Baseline Monitoring Prior to Construction Sites to be Monitored During Construction Sites to be Monitored During Operation Summary of Proposed Air Quality, Noise and Vibration Monitoring Summary of proposed Ground Water Monitoring Summary of Environmental Monitoring Reporting and Costs Full List of Environmental Quality Monitoring Requirements Summary of Training Requirements Attendees at the Pre-feasibility Scoping Sessions Attendees at the Feasibility IPC Sessions Attendees at the 1999EIA Review Meeting EIA Review Matrix /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C Xi February 2004

14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title Pane 2.1 International Overland Trade Routes from Aqaba Primary Elements of ADC Construction Schematic Layout of the CDP Site Ministry of Environment Organisation Chart Governorate District Boundaries Municipal Boundaries Climatic Zones Wind Rose for Amman Airport Geology Geological Structure Mineral Resources General Topography Slope Analysis Land Units Soil Units Existing Land Use Bio-Geographical Zones Vegetation Zones Surface Water Drainage Ground Water Recharge and Wells Cultural Heritage Sites Greater Amman Municipality Long Term Development Plan Approved Local Municipal Plans Industrial Projects Corridor Development Amman Corridor Development Authority Organisation Chart Alternative ADC Route Alignments Alternative CDP Locations Sites Recommended for Environmental Quality Monitoring Sites Recommended for Environmental Quality Monitoring (ZTL) Proposed ADC Phase 1 Implementation Structure 13-2 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C Xii February 2004

15 Amm,,nan DeveCoI,-,erit Corridor Environrmnental irrndact Assessment Update IST OF APPENDICES Pt I% AIII el No. A English Translation of the 2003 Environmental Protection Law (Unofficial) B IA/im TWe!l Inventory and Hydrogeological Data C Sample Contract Clauses for Environmental Impact Mitigation D Indicative TahI of orntents for Annual Environmental Monitoring Reports E Terms of Reference for Environmental Management Staff J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C Xiii February 2004

16 Amman Develourument Corridor Prlect, Envif-u,,r,,eu, I[[1Dett iess,nent U-date ~IU ENVITDRONMLINTAI TMDAeCT ACCE'CMEMT POJ'1ECrT TEARA V AE ~ 1I VE 1 I' I r%i6 A Vt1 I- P I EU I E- 9%%#. L-% I I 116r`11E The original Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the Amman Ring Road (ARR) was issued in September 1999 by Dar Al Handasah (Shair and Partners) in accordance with the contract awarded by the Ministry of Public Works and Housing in August The Team Members contributing to that report were as follows: Mr. P. Speight Mr. M. Adgham Mr. A. Muqattash Mr. A. Budieri Mr M Shitilew%Ai C Cnidrations-lc Team Leader Information, Participation and Consultation Environmental Assessment Ecology I'l I *.J LI.WV I ' IJI.J-%I. Jl jioi.j... U LI%lI I0 Mr. W. Sharples Mr. V. Kumar Mr. A. Said Mr. M. Makhamreh Kr. K. Abdus Salam Urban Planning and Land Development Issues Socio-Economics Co-ordination and Liaison Institutional Studies Indigenous Communities Dr. M. Waheeb and Enq. Shan Tsay of the Department of Antiquities at the Ministry of Tourism undertook the Archaeological and Historic Sites Survey along the road corridor. TIrie LE1A TIream was a'so assist-ed t 1hroughout LItI VI 111 ICII sluud by mi ll luembevr I te LI Amman Ring Road Project Team: Mr. M. Jordanou Mr. E. Bolger Mr. A. Miller Dr. T. Searle Mrs. R. Shair Mr. D. Abou Joudom Project Manager and Transport Economics Highway Engineering Transport Modelling Geotechnical Issues Legal Matters Land Valuation Following the review of the 1999 EIA by the World Bank, the change in scope of Phlase L of Lthe A 7%RR to encompass th1 -e Amman rudevelopm^ent C-orrildor, the final design for Contracts 1, 2 and 3 of the ADC, and the inclusion of the site for the reiocation of the Customs Depot and new Inland Logistics Port, the previous Assessment has been updated and re-presented. The Team Members contributing to the present report are as follows: Dr. J. Davey Mr. A. Muqattash Mr. G. Alam Mr. M. Jordanou Team Leader Land Acquisition and Resettlement Traffic Survey Traffic Modelling and Transport Economics Dr. M. Waheeb of the Department of Antiquities at the Ministry of Tourism has undertaken the Archaeolognial and Historir Sites survey of the new Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port site. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 Xiv March 2004

17 Amman Development Corridor Proiect Environment impact Assessment Update Dr. F. Suyyagh of the Centre for Strategic Studies at the University of Jordan has carripre nut the sorcial-ecnnnmir suirvpys at the Al 1iiwAir1Ah CusCtonms Depnnt and adjacent areas. Mr. M. Yousef of the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature has carried out a review and update of the previous ecological survey. The present team has been assisted by members of the Amman Development Corridor Project Team: Mr. B. Rihani Mr. B. Kanj Mr. M. Fanak Mr. M. Jordanou Project Director Project Manager CDP Site Planning Transport Economics The EIA team members would also like to thank the following for their cooperation, in M!nrtJfIc III FulJ LI-ululI!nr: At the Ministry of Public Works and Housing: Mr. Sami Halaseh Director of Highway Studies Eng. Wafa Haddadin Head of Environmental Section Eng. Eman Ramahi Head of Geometric Design Eng. Layla TashIamnelhI Environmental En 1in eeri At the Ministrv nf Fnvimrnment: Dr. A. Qatarneh Head of Environmental Assessment At Dar Al-Handasah's Amman Office: Dr. N. Ghowi Reaional Director Mr. S. Madanat Resident Manager A/20n/Z-Nr---Ll ycu4n/r,nnt CA/l, v-l 1ncl i r-v n uavi#slbia AV AArd, AlI II na UV

18 4 I!NTRODUCTION

19 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update 5E%CnT 0r1 -i N T R `Dn TlN 1.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND The popu!aidoin o%f Jordain ic r-now esct-imatednr at- 5. r,ladgrwn.oe I S JS aw~.ili i I SJllvv UiiL LJ Li. J...J II iiiiiiji I Liiu ili i JVViiiI-J. %'.jvz;i Li il period , natural growth averaged 3.60/o per annum and total growth A AAI L- IL -L ^O aithough more recently these rates have reduced to approximateiy 2. 5 %/a and 3.00/ respectively for Most people live in cities and the urban areas of the Kingdom now accommodate 79%/a of the total population, with the Amman- Zarqa conurbation alone accounting for some 4 30 /o, or 2.4 million people. Approximately 5 40 /o of Jordan's population lives in the Amman and Zarqa Governorates. The Amman-7arna rpgion also contains 8o0/% of the Kingdom's commercial and industrial activity and is the focal point for the international transit trade that has played, a maj-r 1JicJy1-U role U icjjuii i ui; in iii national I IULI%Ji cii~ij economic activity i and4 growvth. -T_is t-rad.e is likely to IU L Li IL ~ 01 VL i I. I IiII LI 0U I II I LU develop further as opportunities arise from moves towards regional integration and the increased liberalization of trade 2. in 2002, tne vaiue of transit commodities passing through Jordan was JD 3,300 million; three times its 1992 value. Against this background of a continuously developing transport sector and a potential for rapid economic growth, the Government of Jordan, through the Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MPWH) commissioned a study to assess the feasibility of an Amman Ring Road (ARR), the provision of which has been a longstanding objective of the Government and the subject of various engineering and economic studies over the last two decades. The Feasibility Study initiated by MiAIL-n w.ithi a n ii oiml IAIe Word BanK built upon eariier studies to provide a comprehensive and detailed assessment of the project, including Environmental Impact Assessment. Since the potential for future urban expansion westwards and northwards from the Amman-Zarqa conurbation is constrained by topoqraphy and other factors, recent and planned development schernes are rapidly extending the urban area eastwards towards the proposed ring road. The new road is therefore now seen as thp fncris for this easterly development and the original concept of the project has recently changed from one providing a road bypassing Amman-Zarqa, to one providing a development corridor, the Amman Development Corridor (ADC). This will form the vital transport li nk from which new residential, commercial, and induslrial developments will be coordinated and efficiently served. Notwithstanding the importance of both national and international freight to the Kingdom's economy, its expansion is hampered by the lack of efficient customs clearance facilities and space for the storaqe of containers awaitinq clearance and/or shipment. Most import and export freight entering or leaving Jordan through the port of Aoaba passes throuah the existing Customs Depnnt at Al Juwaidah, in the eastern suburbs of Amman, where the increasing volume of traffic causes severe congestion due U- Lto~ inadequatey IIth,eU~ caac of l I LIIh the ite andu t1he surrounding Statistical Tearbook-. DepartLment o Statistics, Jordan joined the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 2000 and recently signed and Association Agreement with the European Union, and a Free Trade Agreement with the USA. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV0 1-1 March 2004 h

20 Amm-irf-ian Develoritm-jent Corridor Envifro-nmenial rmpact Assessf-r,ent Update roads. There is no logistical centre through which transit traffic can be coordinated and facilities at Aqaba are also restricted. It is therefore intended to relocate the existing Customs Depot and develop a new Inland Logistics Port on a single site, the CDP, within the ADC zone of influence adujacent tilo tlie nevv roadu. This wil Ue a 'landmark projectl, actingy aa caa L ylstl,ur further development throughout the corridor. The construction of the ADC and the CDP are among the priorities presented by the Government of Jordan for World Bank assistance. 1.7 PRFVTAhIS STIllnTFS Th i le Aii mman Ring Road (Ar\r\J was f irst studied uy Mssociated U Consulting ULIyElgineers between 1983 and A number of different alignments and routing options took traffic from the Desert Highway south of Queen Alia International Airport, eastwards through Sahab, north through Zarqa and westwards to join the Jerash Highway, with a spur southwards into the northern suburbs of Amman. The cost of the proposals, particularly for land acquisition and resettlement, were considered too high and implementation was deferred. The project was revisited by Raqn Al-Handasah in 1989, their studies including economic and environmental assescments of the eastern and northern sections of the route. While the project was shown to be economically attractive, no further actlon was taklen at that time. MPWH reactivated the project in 1996, but considered the costs associated with the sections north of Amman would have significantly magnified during the intervening years to the extent they would no longer be viable. The Ministry therefore contracted Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) to design Sections 1 and 2 of the original proposals south and east of Amman and undertake reconnaissance of altprnativp alignments to rino Amman anti-rlorkwisp from 7Zrnq hari tn the DepsPrt Highway interchange with Section 1. In addition, MPWH commissioned further work on th evlpmn f -lterativ -ordrad lgmn opti;ons tha+. vvoulda be %JI I LIi. LL LLp AI JI LJILLI, IlULlVVL L.LII I IU JI UJIIUJ UJIIJIIII Iq IL L JjLiUI LIl CL V L UIU subject to Pre-Feasibility assessment. These studies, funded through the World Bank, were therefore divided into two separate phases, a Pre-Feasibility Study tor the entire ARR encircling the Amman- Zarqa conurbation, completed in January 1998, and a Feasibility Study for Sections 1 and 2, the Zarqa Through Link and the Zarqa Eastern Bypass, which was issued in September A further Addendum Report investiqated alternative options for the southern sections of the ARR was issued in November Each of the previous studies has included appropriate Environmental Assessment, cujlmiiiuliiin III LIInt ppati of flull EnlvironmenLl ImpatL Assessment ('IA) Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan and Cultural Resources Impact Statement with the September i999 Feasibility Report. 3Final Report on the Amman Ring Road, Volume 2 Environmental Impact Assessment. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

21 Following submission of these reports, the concept of the Phase 1 of the ARR changed from that of a dedicated limited access highway acting as a bypass between the Desert Highway and Zarqa, to become the central transport link or deve!opnmint corridor from which future development woud him csrvedr. The Amman Development Corridor Study, completed by Dar Al-Handasah in September 2002, assesse Li e potential role andli impact of U the ADCL,LI t3 evuc1ltedu conditions and transport issues, and explored future development needs. suci-ecoululullill The Final Report of the Land Use Study for the ADC, submitted in June 2003, included a Pre-Feasibility assessment for the relocation of the existing Al Juwaidah Customs Depot and the development of an Inland Logistics Port (CDP) with various site options adjacent to the ADC. In August 2003, the Government decided the location of the new CDP would be a site to the north east of the ADC/Madounah Road intersection. With the completion of engineering design and the involvement of other Funding Agencies in LuLIstruction, the ADC was divided between three separate contracts. Detailed Design and Tender Documents for Contracts 1 and 3 were issued in September and November 2003 respectively. Those for Contract 2, delayed because of the need to add an additional interchanges for the CDP, are expected shortly. An update of the previous Economic Feasibility Study for the ADC was issued in December A Feasibility Study for the development of the new Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port is currently being undertaken. 1.3 SCOPE OF PRESENT REPORT Initial Screening of the ADC under the World Bank system identifies it as a Category A proiect; one requirina full Environmental Assessment (EA). as it is anticipated to have significant impact upon the human and natural environment, and affect a wide snpcruim nf Stakehnlders. WvhvI i'is i t th SeptIember ILie 1999 L.m IF uiy auu ressed tie e vii UoI I 1-1 t LCIi Impa C C detail required by the World Bank for a Category A project, it has been necessary to prepare the present Update report in order to take account of the foliowing: * The change in status of the project from a limited access Bypass to a Development Corridor; * Recent changes to the Policy and Legal Framework under which the project will now be implemented; * The recent selection of a site for the new CDP within the ADC; * Changes in Fnvirnnmental Baseline Data that may have acrrued over the last four years; The need tio issue a final Lnvironmental Miianagement Irlan andu LandU Acquisition and Resettlement Plan (LARP) 4 on completion of Detailed Design and prior to the commencement of construction. The present report, whilst based upon the findings of the earlier study, updates the background information, confirms the impact of the chosen road alignment, and assesses the impacts accruing from the development of the CDP. in tle 4The Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan includes all the information that under World Bank terminology comprises a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

22 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update 1-4 RFPORT STRICrTIiRF ITIhe report L'ulosvv a stlructlure I ypical oi a VVIord UBaInk L'A. IL is priested LVU as a 'stand alone' volume that, in accordance with the Terms of Reference, re-addresses each of the specific components of the originai study, taking account of the issues listed above. Insofar as it is possible in an Update, the report also follows the recently introduced requirements of the Ministry of Environment for Environmental Assessment, notwithstanding that the ADC is not a newly-conceived project, this is not a new EIA, and the Ministry's requirements have not yet passed into Jordanian Law. Where conditions have not chanaed from those discussed in the oriainal Assessment and the original data is not re-presented, the conclusions drawn are ciimmanriz7er anri cnarifir referenrc mare o i- i-he nfrmiin contained wtinin thek 1999 EIA. Section 2 outlines the need for and objectives of the project, discusses the 'Without Project' situation, and presents a short description of the construction to be undertaken. Section 3 presents an overview of the new policy and leqal framework under which the present report has been prepared and the project will be executed. Sections 4 and 5 present the Environmental Baseline Conditions, reviewing Sectlons 6 Lo 9 present *hie assessment o01 Environmental impacts. Section 6 gives an overview of the potential impacts that may be expected to be temporary, primarily suffered during the period of ADC and CDP construction. Section 7 defines the permanent impacts that may accrue, while Section 8 details the possible extent and magnitude of operation impacts once construction has been completed. Finally, Section 9 discusses the indirect impacts that may result from the additional development that will be induced within the ADC zone of influence. Section 10 gives a brief overview of the alternative development proposals that Ihiave Lbeen LUIonsIUdIedU UrIII t LInIg evolution of the project, Including 4Lhe 'Do Minimum' alternative. Sections 11, 12 and 13 comprise the Environmental Management Plan (EMP). Section 11 presents proposals for the mitigation of impacts previously identified in Sections 6 to 9. Section 12 presents proposals for environmental monitoring during and after construction, while Section 13 proposes institutional strengthening and capacity building to ensure the EMP is effectively implemented. Sectio)n 114 nrovirdes an nverview of the npub!ir connsultat;ion nrev/iousylx rcnomp!ete the ADC and details that proposed for the CDP. for The present report, Volume 1, presents the updated Environmental Impact Assessment for the ADC, including the CDP, while Volume 2 gives the detaiis of the ADC LARP LJpdate. Currently under preparation are Volume 3, which presents the CDP LARP together with full details of the socio-economic survey results, and Volume 4, which gives the results of the CDP Public Consultation Programme. 5 As outlined in World Bank Operational Policies OP.4.01, Annexes B and C. World Bank, January J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

23 DESCRIPTION

24 Amm,,an Develop,,ment I-iiiiiiidii Corrid L..Lii I IUUi or L~~~tvtiu!i,,ei,L U~~If Ifl//lv,,,, Assm ntudt -etli ii,e LIC Il1/1JOLL -be~,,it LJIJUdILt 2.1 INTRODUCTION This section presentc an overview of i-the prr%i9 ea a d eripti-ion of t-k proposed construction that is the subject of the present EIA Update. Section 2.2 summarises the needs and objectives the project is intended to meet, including discussion of the 'Without Project' situation. Section 2.3 gives details of the project location, including the administrative boundaries into which it falls, and identifies the Proiect Proponent. Sc1tinn 2.4 depcrrihpc the cnns-tri irtinn ton hnri e ib inrder t-he nrnioet. 2.2 PROJECT NEED AND OBJECTIVES The Amman Development Corridor (ADC) Current proiections indicate that Jordan's population will increase from its present 5.3 million to 8.1 million by Within the same period the population of the (nvernnrates nf Amman anri Zarqa is expected to grow, as shown in Table 2.1, from nearly 2.9 million to nearly 4.5 million people, an increase from 2002 of over TABLE 2.1 Population Projections for Amman and Zarqa Governorates Area Ppuaton ('OOO's) I Area 2002 ] Jordan 1 5,329 5,867 f 6,638 7,436 8,331 l Amman Governorate 2,028 2,233 2,527 2,831 3,172 Zarqa Governorate ,045 1,170 1,311_ AmmAn/7;rrnA TntAl v RhA - 1 S7 4 nnn 4 4R1 Increase from % % 56.4% Similarly, the Jordanian labour force was estimated' to be just over 1.2 million in 2001, of which 56% was located within the Amman (484,000) and Zarqa (192,000) Governorates. Recent projections indicate the national workforce will increase to 2.1 million, a further 900,000 persons, by 2020, while in the Amman and Zarqa Governorates it will grow to 1.2 million, equivalent to the entire national workforce in 2001, an increase of over 527,000, to approximately 78% of the national IA/n ri.fnrro Over the last fevv years, Jlrdan has unidertak major re,'orms to pr-mote foreign investment, spur economic growth, and create employment. It has also entered into a number of international agreements to create a platform for growth, in particular: ' Annual Report of Employment and Unemploytnent Survey, Department of Statistics, 2001 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

25 * The 1998 Arab Free Trade Agreement with 10 other Arab countries, under which customs duties and fees will be abolished by 2008; * The European-Mediterranean (Euro-Med) Partnership, permitting duty-free access for Jordanian products to the European Union; * Duty Free access to the United States for Jordanian products from Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZs); and * The 2000 Jordan-USA Free Trade Agreement, under which tariffs on manufactured and agricultural products will be abolished by Transport infrastructure and operations 2 are a key element in the Kingdom's economy, accounting for over 19%3 of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at current prices for the last three years (1999, 2000 and 2001) and contributing at least 10% of GDP annually since Growth in the sector has fluctuated but despite economic recession and regional problems, has continued to grow, in 2000 and 2001 by 7.50/o and 7.3% of GDP respectively. International transit trade is a major foreign exchange earner through the provision of overland transhinment services to Syrian Saudi Arabia, Palestine and Iraq, to which most traffic must transit the Amman-Zarqa area on its way from the Port of Arqb., as showln I, isni. Igre.L. Despite the Importance of the transport sector to the national economy, tre provision of appropriate infrastructure has not kept pace with economic growth and increasing urbanisation. This deficiency now constrains future operation and expansion of both the sector and the Amman-Zarqa region, and it is vital these issues are addressed. Of particular importance are the following: * The rapidly growing population. The population of the Amman-Zarqa conurbation is now over 2.8 million and is expected to exceed 3 million by 2005 and reach nearly 4.5 million by 2020; * The continuing rate of unemployment. For several years the official rate of unemployment has remained high, at just over 15 % (2002, 15.3%) of the availahle lahouir force; * The increasing size of the labour force. The Amman-Zarqa work force is expcr+ed it Increase from 676,000 rn 2)001 t by., )010, a-n t L%J II 1%.I %U % I I SJI I I UJ I II%J 1 I 'J 1 L LI. V /.,'JU V U y LV.' LV, OH U LU L. e-. million by Substantial job creation is therefore required; hi le continuing rapid urbuai Udi expansiiiuii. OIvei t:e pastl 2 years, 1.hi ICLIU Ul UrUIIa to rural population has shifted from 20:80 to 80:20; * The lack of available and less expensive land for future development. The expansion of Zarqa is already restricted by topography to the west and mixed development areas to the north and east. Amman can maintain limited westerly growth for a few years but ultimately topography and the absence of affordable development land will also become a major constraint; * The lack of affordable housinn There is a shortage of low cost housin hbut a surplus of housing for middle-income families. In western Amman, land prices are JD 1550/m22 whereas to the east they are JD 1.5I5/m 2 ; * Constraint:s in the transport sector undermine the trucking industry and its national and international freiyrl trafic operations; 2 Comprising the Transport, Storage and Communications Sector. 3Statistical Yearbook. Department of Statistics,2002. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

26 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update jsyria 7 j ] ~~~IRAQI PALESTINE Iv >.¾_K 7,I f ll A zr~~~~7~ azk j -- SAUDI ARABIA I ALtbI I ( 1- i"" (I / \1 l Aqaba (1 1 SAUDI j IGometg KAQIA I 25 sl Fiqure 2.1 International Overland Routes from Aqaba J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

27 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Uodafe. The lack of adequate road infrastructure to support growing overland import, export and transit traffic. As urbanisation has spread, maior north-south links. such as Yadoudah Road, Hizam Road and the Zarqa Highway, connecting the Desert Highway from Aqaba with international borders, have beome rnngect-1d; * Poorly developed logistic services within the Amman-Zarqa region. The absence Ifa U andni Inin IdiU an LoitcsPr Logistics Prt L to LUU.,Ili accommodate I cl~ thetrcigfe Li ie Li ULiKII ly I IU%=L wlsinraito VVI iiltl 11 I Li cdl IbIL UI visiting the Al Juwaidah Customs Depot imposes significant and unnecessary costs upon both the industry and the urban environment; * The congestion and delays experienced at the Al Juwaidah Customs Depot. Over 110,000 trucks per year transit through the Depot. Increased urbanisation and traffic congestion has resulted in poor operational efficiency and excessive truck idle-time, costing the industry at least JD 0.3 million/year, excessive traffic congestion and1 general environmental degradation. ~~~~~- ArP 04A r A = & irie proposei DC route, 10-25J l<lm east UI Mmman city centlre, is sui' cien 'Ly fliar 'Lo envelope within its zone of influence major suburban population centres such as Sahab. The road will also intersect with the national highways that link Amman and Zarqa with the rest of the Kingdom, and international traffic to and from Syria, Saudi Arabia, Palestine and Iraq that will use it to bypass the country's most densely populated urban area. Given the continulinn importance of the Amman-Zarqa conurbation to the Jordanian economy, the primary objectives of developing the ADC are as follows:. To make less expensive land available for both residential and industrial develonment; * To provide opportunities for continued growth to reduce unemployment; * To facilitate the movement of imports and exports that increasingly rely upon overland transport;.to fadcilitate tlhe movement of transit traffilc between Aqaba and Syria, Saudi Arabia, Palestine and Iraq; * To establish conditions for improved performance of the trucking industry; * To provide for the relocation of the Al-Juwaidah Customs Depot; and * To provide for the development of an Inland Logistics Port. The ADC therefore has a crucial role in improving Jordan's economic performance and the we!l heinn of its nnniipatinn- 2. T.h.e 1C'UsCS D n %a.. An.!an.d IL 0giStiC ffonr4 fp (CDP)ff The existing Al Juwaidah LCusLoms Depot is located at t e Junction of Sah[ab Ro ad and Hizam Road, on a site of approximately 15 ha. All international freight is trucked to the depot to complete customs procedures. However, the increasing volume of traffic is seriously delaying these procedures and causing severe congestion in the vicinity of the Depot. The site does not have the capacity to accommodate the current demand for freight storage, holding areas for imported vehicles, or parking for trucks, thereby creating further congestion, with its consequential impacts on air and noise pollution within and aroiind the Depot. Reocton of: th-e Depot to a site wvithin the ADCt FXlIULdlLtlI I LI l L-J ZJL LU I has been agree' in principle b.y t-he ll~ VILI lii LI I~ 1%L-J" IlOI Li~~ I iy Il pi lilfl Li LI I Customs Authority, the Ministry of Planning, the Ministry of Public Works and Housing, and the Ministry of Finance. Relocation wiii provide a iarger site with improved access, the absence of local congestion, and the opportunity to adopt 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

28 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update systems that improve the co-ordination of clearance procedures with the five main land border crossings and Aqaba port, giving substantial cost savings to both the government and transport operators. In addition, the high value Al Juwaidah site will become available for reuevelopment. The proposal for a new Iniand Logistics Port is perhaps the most signiticant development within the ADC zone of influence and will be a 'landmark project' that will catalyse further investment and development within the area. The concept of developinq a central freight terminal east of Amman to serve north-south and eastwest trade corridors was recommended by the Goods Transport and Trade Facilitation Policy Study in 1i9C6 The main obrective of the development is to further develop Amman as a regional centre for the distribution of consumer and Industrial goods to adjacent domestic and international markets, with the new Inland Port having direct road links to four international borders. The Unified Company for Organised Transport reviewed the organisation and development of the land transport sector in Jordan and identified the following particular problems suffered by the industry: * The poor location and restricted capacity of the Customs Depot; * The dispersed distribution of truck related services and facilities; * The lack of appropriate services for truck drivers; and * Security concerns. After completion of Customs procedures, trucks must be maintained, serviced and fuelled. and their drivers renuire accommodation. rest centres and access to other government services such as passports, work permits and registration. The facilities torp rorrideaths + sekrvce are currentriyi Aisrsed in n,arby, -ifn I L'..J I WV M L~ ii~ VI'.,.'.. MI '..LUI I L,IILI~ Y IJIFpLi 3:*.- III I ui il j Ly, LJI--II iu I J residential, areas that suffer the intrusion of parked heavy goods vehicles and LraElffc congeslion. The random movement of international freight within the urban area, frequently with foreign drivers, is an on-going security problem for authorities responsible for monitoring the movement of goods and foreign nationals. The proposed new Inland Port adjacent to the ADC offers the benefits of: * Adequate space for the efficient movement and storage of freight; * A strategic location in respect of routes to international borders; * Access to and from international routes away from urban areas; * Proximity to Queen Alia International Airport for air cargo; and Access to vehicle and driver services dedicated to the needs Customs Depot and InIand Port- traffic. Provision UfoIUr containers will form a key componentl of'i UL the I'nianu' Port. TdraIIic in containers is estimated to have been 12 0 /o higher in 2001 than in 2000, and 14 0 /% higher in 2002 than in Long-term forecasts predict the movement of goods through the port to nearly double from the present 12.5 million tonnes to 20 million tonnes in zi J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

29 Amman Deveiooment Cormdor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update The World Bank forecasts international regional trade in the Middle East to increase at an annual rate of 4.50/a over the next five years. In forecasting future demand for traffic through the new Customs Depot, a higher growth rate can be expected due to rationalisation and more efficient operation of the Depot, and an annua! growth rate of 6% is anticipated 4 for the first ten years of operation. Longer-term growth is likely to be lower, but to remain at a level of at least 5% per drarnumti. A boost to traffic can be also expected from the rationalisation of existing activities, more effective cooperation with the port ot Aqaba, and greater involvement of transport companies taking advantage of the opportunities offered. The forecast growth in traffic passing through the Inland Port is given in Table 2.2. TABLE 2.2. Forecast Growth in Traffic through the Inland Port Category _Ulnit Customs Depot Trucks 114, ,000 Inland Container Port TEUs 220, ,000 I tuiildi,ner Freigiyt dtatlion - Imports Tonnes 1,287,000 2,608,000 - Exports Tonnes j 433, , The 'Without Pro,ect' Cituation I II; 999U EIA Lddresete 'NI o Ac`on AI[erna[ive' on [he assumption t[at no physical development of the existing road network be undertaken but that population and traffic growth wouid continue to grow to previously predicted levels. For the indicator link roads, which include the Madaba-AI Juwaideh Interchange, Hizam Road, Zarqa Hiqhway and Yaiouz Road, the 1999 assessment clearly indicated they will be nearing, or will have reached capacity, by To the extent it is possibhel the traffic model validated the need for additional capacity along the north-south axis east of Amman. With the passage of time and the continued growthl witvhin tihe TranspoHrt sector, tlhe situation has only luecome more critical. The overall consequences of not constructing the ADC are that urdan expansion wiii continue, land prices will rise, affordable land for business and low cost housing will no longer be available, and the potential for new business and employment opportunities will be constrained. There is already congestion and excessive delay within the existinq Customs Depot, and severe congestion in the adjacent public roads within the surrounding urban area Excessive truck-idle time in respnect nf crtitoms c!earance formalities AIrerA1v costs the Jordanian transport sector some JD 0.3 million/year. There is no space for expgan-sion ~Ap~J of the existingl flacililties a,nd4 the- volum -nceain offeihttrffcil 131J1 I L i LI=I A- I ~IO.IL~ J U tli= Il_ c3ii V'JUI I li~z UI ll icy11ill LIaffi wil VI continue to use the existing road network on which there is no additional capacity. Noise and air pollution fromn heavy traffic transiting thle urdan area wiii continue to increase. 4 Amman Development Corridor-Phase : a S Dar A - fair an artners, June 5 TEU: An international measure of container traffic, expressed as 'Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units'. 6 Section and Table 2.1 in particular J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

30 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update The estimated average daily traffic flows on existing roads from the recent traffic counts and modelling 7 are given in Table TabI! 273 Dailv Traffic Flows on Existing Roads fnr the 'Without Projient' Situatinn l y Traff5 Counts Predicted Flows LnZarqatHighway 52,600 83,594 85,076 97, , ,113 } zarqa Highway _13 Hizam Road 12,000 17,482 J 30,814 39,000 66,350 82,763 qh;;h PRrl I - I 1, 7R, Ii 17-; I 1 RR 4t RTRR A l 7-R Yadoudah Road _-_ _37,916 31,677 43,638 66,350 92,638 Desert Highway J - j - 32,851 J 27,713 J 45,463 j 108,813 The Zarqa Highway is approaching capacity, with Level of Service (LoS) D, where the ability to manoeuvre is restricted due to congestion, reached in Both Yadoudah Road and Hizam Road reach this level by 2018 and LoS F, representing a forceri nr hrpdearinwn in flnw, by Iu ulhliler development of freight Infrastruct.ure atl qab-aa 'is constirained b uy botii topography and space. Use of the scarce flat lands in its container port will intensify. The best way of coping with the future increase in traffic will be to reduce the dwell time of containers in storage, with the port becoming a fast-transit centre in a multi-modal system that moves containers immediately they are discharged to the Inland Logistics Port near Amman, the customer base and major demand centre. Only the joint use of the seaport and the new Inland Port in such an integrated manner will oermit the future handling of large volumes of containers. The Inland Port close to Amman and Zarqa will also serve the rapidly growinr export industries within the Industrial Areas, Industrial Estates, Free Zones and Qualifiying Industrial 'ones of the region Project Summary Matrix In summary of the project needs and objectives, the issues to be addressed throuqh the proposed ADC construction, the actions expected to be triqqered and the indications of achievement are given in Table Economic Update for the Amman Development Corridor. Draft Report. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), December /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

31 Amman Deve/opment Corridor Environmental ImpactAsseSsment UDdate Table 2.4 ADC Project Summary Matrix Sector Concern Issues ADC Triggers Outcorne Indicators T-he population of Ammani-Zarqa is expected to exceed 3 million by 2005;. POPULIATIONl and Areas to the north, west and south are The release of available and cheap land Implementation of municipal Development GRZOWTH Zarqa unsuitaible for urban expansion. for development south east of Amman. Plans, including future holising east of Hizami Populations Road with the ADC providing the transport axis, Further growth along the Zarqa axis is severely restricted. Land The development of low cost housing and Availability Land values in Amrnan and to the west are The use of lande at Jn 15-5/i vwithin industriail development, including new housing REAL ESTATE and hiigh. the ADC rather than JD 15-50/rn 2 west: near the Hizarn RoadJ and Zarca'. Cost and south west of Amman. Increased employment opportunities. Ammani Municipality's Long Term Plan is to LAND USE Future expand eastwards, with the population commercial and induistrial PLANNING Land Use between Hizam Road ancl the ADC forecast developmm ent to be 0.5 million. Implementaticin of municipal Development Absence of ad hoc non-structured development with an inefficient road neltwork. 1-he Amman-Zarqa labour force is 56'/o of national empiloyment. UJp to C perscins are employed in The generation of ur) to 100,000 jobs via inward Employment rnanufacturirig within the ADC zone of influence. Increased employment opportunities to cater for, the growing work force. investment of JD 1 billion over 20 years, at es 0 fwihmyohrieb ot BUSINESS Unemployme!nt is 12.8% and 15.2% for AND Amman and Zarqa respectively. INDUST'RIAL DEVELOPMENT - _ Existing industrial areas within the ADC The genieratior of inward investrnent Uip to JD 1 zone olf influence include the Sahab New QIZs at Flushatta and Al Qastel. billion over 20 years, at least 20% of which imay Industriial Industrial Zone, the Zarqa Free Zone, and New industrial estates at Muwaqqar otherwise be lost. Growth Zarqa Oil Refinery. Qasr Nwidsra Al Hallabat sae and the tmwga, Hasherrite ohrieb Increased efficiency ot through lower transport Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZs) include University Park. costs, improved access and increased _Al Tajamoual: and Al Dulayl. competitiveness. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-601 REV March 2004

32 Arman Deveibjmernt Corridor Environmental Iimoacp'Assessment UPdate Sector Concern Issues ADC Triggers OuLtcorne Indicators Imports are primarily overland and BUSINE:SS Increase! efficiency Foreign in delivery and dispatch destined for to Amman while exports of light Substantial expansion of population and from foreign markets. AND Trade rnanufacturirig originate rnainly from and manufacturing activity. INIDUSITRIAL /Ammari. Improved access to QAIA lor air freight. DE-VELCIPMENT -T (continued) Transit Transit is bbetter ipverlaid Overlai.d transit trai.sit is becoring more connections with borders international as the focus switches Increased from opportunities value added for the services development connected of with break bulk Trwade importa3nt. Aqaba to Ammian. activities and logistics plus; inter-modal transfer. T-here is severe congesticin and excessive truck-idle time. Provision of a new and easily accessible Reduced delays through the provision of a TRANSPORT Al-Juwaidah Delays accrue from the lazck of space and site. modern processing system. Customs operational inefficiency. A larger, better structured and serviced The release real estate valued at JD 10 million Depot 1There is a lack of modern systems facility adequate for the variety of perhaps for low cost housing. technology and efficiently structured surroundings. operations. T-here is a lack of efficient: distribution, Provisiorn of a imodern efficient logistics Trucking operations greatly enhanced by an Logistical COMMU1nicatiOns, and trained transport port near the rnain north-south and eflicient freight consolidations Servicestical and distribution comanagemeniati, and trainedtransport east-west intei-natiorial transit centre. Ser1iceanagemeisoloisti<;cnt,e nearmcorridlors. The generatiorn of utp to 2,000 jobs within the T-here is no logistics centre near Ammrian. Potential for miulti-modal interchange. Arnman/Zarqa area. Reduced idle time and delays due to congested on urban roads. Traffic T'he existing Custorns Depot is located in a Provisiorn of a imodern efficient customs Faster efficient access to the national an ENIVIRONMENT Congestion densely poplilated area suffering poor road facility near the main north-south and international r-oad network, avoiding populated And conditions, traffic congestion, pollution, ancd east-west internatiorial transit urban areas. Pollutioin a poor safety record. corridors. The generation of new jobs within the Arr,man/Zarqa area. JC0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 20014

33 2.3 PROJECT LOCATION AND PROPONENT Project Location Amman Development Corridor (ADC) The alignment of the ADC, shown in Figure 2.2, leaves the Desert Highway approximately 18 km south of Amman city centre and takes a broad curve northwards, east of Sahab, reaching as far out as 13 km from the centre of Amman, to Zarqa, where it intersects with the Zarqa Highway, Zarqa Bypass and Yaiouz Road. The total length of new road is 40 km. NPW rc,,ct-nnc Dponnt and TnlT.nd I nnicfit-c irp-t (frfd) Ile site chosen ly MPWn r 4the relocation of '-he A J I 1 Custm - Depot, currently located at the Sahab Road/Hizam Road intersection, and the development of a new Inland Logistics Port is approximately 20.5 km north of the proposed Desert Highway Interchange in the northeast quadrant of the ADC/Madounah Road intersection. The site is also shown on Figure Administrative Boundaries With the exception of the extreme northern end of the ADC, the Zarqa Through Link (7TL k ) and Zarqam Eastern BypassC (7ZEB), whfichk c'ross intof Zarqa Goeroat, h *-) ~ l... - I -Yv I,,J VV I lil I '.. I Ii i L'.J I H uj J %j.jjv l I l'ji UtA-, Li I~project is primarily located within Amman Governorate, within the Districts of HAmman, Al Jiza, Rujm Al Shami Al Ghilarbiya, Al Muwaqqar, Sahab, Al Qewesmeh and Marka. The northern end of the ZTL falls within the Russeifa District of Zarqa Governorate, while the majority of the ZEB is within the Zarqa Dstrict. The CDP site falls within the Al-Qewesmeh District of Amman Governorate, administered by Greater Amman MuniciDalitv. The administrativ rdivisinn nf thp ADC zone of influennr ic fiirt-her rdicriccuss in Section 3.5 of the present report, with the District boundaries being shown in Fi gure Project Proponent The proponent of the Amman Development Corridor Project is the Government of Jordan through the Ministry of Public Works and Housing, whose contact address is: The Ministry of Public Works and Housinq PO Box 1220 Amman The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan i0269/2-rpt-env-01 REV March 2004

34 Amman Development Corrdor Environmental Impact Assessment Undate [i I I Z-arqa K. Road L Zar 1 (J BYP\ > / g Easte ~ ~~~arqa1yps r W ) S q~~~~~~~~~arqa/htrough Lin4..dl /7~Cor~itract ~ U ZEB/ZTL, otct_ 3 \Interchange -Hizam Road ) Cohtract 2( 1 M~~~~~~~~~~~~ Road ~~adounah fnl X (zfl a S lb / '.Je k~ 7/ Saha R1a / -Madonah- -- K/ Sah!ab Road I-- Interange I / I ) _.' l / Highway Sahab - Muwaqqar ( \ f y~~aaoudah )p. Irt;ruicIdIIYt \ / ~~Road Aeca g \ / Contract 1/ AL North Ksert\ Hiherca \ Kiometres I Queisn A!la Inernatlona Airnn,t ADC Zone of Influence Figure 2.2 Ill692rRPeAENe-0 l 2Li IRI La UJI I0Ia Uarc 20U0I I J RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

35 Amman Deve,opmenrii Corridor En v1iuonmental ImiFuIact Assessri-ment Update Z.4 PROJECT DESCRIPTION Overview The primary elements of ADC construction are also shown on Figure 2.3 and are as.follows: * Contract 1: Desert Highway to south of Madounah Road. Length 18.5 km. * Contract 2: South of Madounah Road to the ZEB/ZTL Interchance. Length 12.5 km. * Contract 3: Zarqa Eastern Bypass. The ZEB/ZTL TInterange 7trqa Wir1k1AyM%. Length 5.60 km. Larqa Through Link. T Ihle ZEB/ZT L in.lerclange to Yajouz Road. Length 3.40 km. These Contracts include: * 7 interchanges: Desert Highway interchange; Sahab-Muwaqqar Interchange; Madounah Road (CDP) Interchange; ZEB/ZTL Interchange; Zarqa Highway Interchange; Yaiouz Road Interchange; Zarqa Bypass Interchange. * 3 smaller interconnections; * 13 Road crossings; * 1. Railway crossing; * Service Roads. Length 50 km. A description of the route for each of the three ADC construction contracts and for the new Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port (CDP) site is given below. A Right of Way (ROW) for road construction of 80 m has been adopted for land acquisition and approved by MPWH. Service roads are provided throughout the full length of Contract 1 and as far as the CDP site on Contract 2. 7 A 7 rnntrart 1 Desert Highway to south of Madounah Road This section of the ADC is located in generally open flat agricultural terrain with little physical constraint. Design geometry is of a high standard comprising fiat gradients and large radius horizontal curves. Embankment heights are governed by drainage requirements, and generally average m. The ADC commences with a directional interchange at the Desert Highway. This illnrtion has been resigneri tn a hinh standarr1 allnwinn fast interrhanne in earh direction. Radii used for ramps are in the range m with two-lane provision J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

36 Amman DeveloDment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Undate throughout. The entire interchange is located on embankment in a flat open agricultural area. Two left-turn ramps rise 8-10 m in embankment over the Desert Highway and cross each other at a skewed grade separation some 250 m east of the Desert Highway. This interchange will be constructed with service road provision. Beyond, the two-lane dual carriageway runs north-eastwards on relatively low embankment within the 80 m ROW, over open unconstrained agricultural land, having a localised shallow cut section between km to 2+050, to and from to Box culverts are provided at low points generally defined by shallow wadis. The alignment rises above the railway line at km Two road crossing overpasses are located at stations and 6+300, linking Tuneib to Yadoudeh and Thuhaybah to Al Lubban respectively. The alignment continues on embankment to cross the Nuqeirah to Rujm Al Shami Road at km 9+290, where the crossing road is retained as an underpass below the ADC. Some localized wadi channel diversion is required at this point. Northeastwards, the ADC rises up over the existing Sahab Highway at km The proposed connection is via a full cloverleaf interchange for which the existing road will require local widening. From the Sahab Highway, the alignment quickly enters more hilly terrain requiring gradients of 6-70/o and cut and fill of 16 m and 9 m respectively. At km the alignment reaches the highest point at an elevation of 895 m, following a continuous climb from its start (km 0+000). At km the alignment rapidly drops from the higher undulating section of the hills at a gradient of 7.00/o, to continue in flat to rolling terrain from km in the ridge foothills before cutting through a large knoll at km , the northern limit of Contract Contract 2. South of Madounah Road to the ZEB/ZTL Interchange This section of the ADC is predominantly located in open land and comprises mostly marginal agricultural or barren, rock-strewn wastelands away from village communities. The road geometry is generally good but some difficult mountainous areas have forced a lowering of standards, particularly of vertical alignments. Cut and fill sections are quite large in some areas and a fair proportion of the route is in difficult sidelong ground. Drainage requirements, being consistent with the terrain type, are substantial. From the knoll at the northern end of Contract 1, the ADC alignment falls to a low point at km after which it continues in generally flat gradient towards the village of Al Mnakher. Embankment heights are at 4-6 m and the exiting Al Mnakher to Al Khashafeh road is provided with an underpass at km The road continues northwards skirting Al Mnakher Village and heading into rolling to hilly agricultural land. The existing Madounah Road, the site of the CDP, is crossed at km Horizontal and vertical alignments are quite good over this section with cut and fill generally reaching 2-4 m, although in some cases cut and fill exceeds 6 m. Culverts are required quite frequently because of the rolling topography. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

37 Amman Deveopment Corridor EIvirunmenta[ ImpiactAssessmient UDdate The alignment begins to climb again into difficult hilly to mountainous terrain at km encountering high cut and fill of up to m with gradients of /o. Having crossed the Al Madounah to Al Beida road at km 4+400, the alignment reaches the second highest point of m at km and from that point drops in sidelong ground via valleys and saddle formations towards Wadi Al Ush. EarthVworks w'll be quite extensive and In some cases quite difficult, especially deep cuts in sidelong ground. The section from km to km is particularly difficult having a gradient of 7.0% and a 750 m horizontai curve at the bottom end. A very high embankment, m, is required on entry to Wadi Al Ush from which the alignment then hugs the southern side of the valley. Through Wadi Al Ush, the ADC is located on the southern side of the valley, initially high on the valley side and then as it progresses, rcoser to the Warii Al slh flnnd levels on the approach to the Zarqa Highway. The horizontal alignment commonly uses rmaii -ons,stent- w Aik A desigin speed i I I- k/,, a-d general,y- -hs- 4l-l4- WmII..J.I~5II VV ILlIL '..III 0F1,;ALI W..I ±iji. NI Ii/1 ii II u ~-I~I c oj yii l ocl IIIY II11 L vertical alignment. From the start of the route at Wadi Al Ush, the vertical alignment remains high up the side of the valley before dropping down at 50/a to run closer to the alignment and level of the wadi bed. A series of cuts and fills in sidelong ground are required with drainage culverts necessary at regular intervals along the alignment Contract 3. Zarna Eastern Bypnas ane 7 Zrqa Trough Link 2waarqa raern Bypass This section of the ADC commences at the southern end of the ZEB/ZTL interchange and extends 5.60 km to join the Zarqa Highway. At the crossing of the mainline, the southern 1 km of the Zarqa Through Link, a viaduct structure is proposed to avoid substantial fill of about 16 m to overcome topoaraohic constraints. The alignment continues to the north with a relatively flat vertical alignment npcrpsitating some localized cut and fill sections. At some locations, limited wadi protection is required on embankments that would otherwise slip into Ah..>;.A4 th wsvaul bucu. The norizontal and verticai alignments are severely constrained by topograpny over the first 3.0 km rising at 6.5% and descending 5%. The alignment then runs over hilly open ground passing firstly over a wadi and then the Military College Road (The Prince Hashim Ben Al-Hussein School For Special Operations) to turn left beneath HT lines and around another fenced military area. The alignment continues north-westwards in hilly open cground towards the Zarqa Hiahwav to which it connects with a directional two ramps interchange. Due to these constraints, the horizontal alignment was marked by some relatively sma'l ra,ui, 364J5UT.0'n C,IL some locatliuiion, Ir:LeUIInily Ca Udilgl spd U OU 8 ilk/li LU be adopted. Zarqa Through Link This section extends north of the ZEB/ZTL interchange to the Yajouz Road, a distance of 4.40 km. The alignment cuts through a localised high area before rising 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

38 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update to pass over the Zarqa Highway, to which it is connected via a full cloverleaf interchange. IIhe newv I II~ roadu iau II~VV wvl'l VYIII pass over LI i the LII Z.cIL_ larqa River [\II at cl km rih rn -Tm±.IJ 7 with VYILI I ~JVIJLU a viaduc... L.LU iil alul bridge separated by a fill area supported by two edge retaining walls to avoid hitting a developed area by a high embankment. At station two ramps rise to connect the Zarqa Through Link to the existing Yajouz Road, where minor improvement to the connecting points is required. The horizontal alignment is partly curvilinear with relatively small radii of m and relatively short straiaht transitional elements between. The vertical alignment is practically flat with some substantial cut and fill of approximately 8 mnrl 1 1 r r ul lu -F4LV I 2..5 Design Stanudaruds The ADC has been designed as a high-speed dual carriageway w-ith a design speed of 100 km/h for the majority of the route, although some sections will have reduced design speeds of 80 or 90 km/h depending on the terrain. The standard cross section qenerally comprises of a four lane divided carriaqeway with 3.66 m wide lanes and a median width of 4.5 m. A New Jersey barrier is to be placed centrally in the median to provide safe epnaratinn nf nnnn-,ng traffir mnvements. Dlesign pa rametrsnfn hie beek-n - - t,,-na +.,.,.o I ic,.; Onal -Ier,e,Io 4 ;f, Al LWI F J01 IQ all ii=l~i _ I a IIC LJ JUZCI U VJII LI IC UclppII%.ULIIJI IVLI 1IIILCI~I IILILJIIGJI IxIJu III PUl Mashrek Al Arabi 8 Agreement and the latest version of AASHTO 9 as summarised in Table 2.5. Whilst a Right of Way (ROW) of 60m proved adequate for the ARR, the MPWH have required that this be extended 80m for the ADC to allow for service roads along certain segments of the route in both flat and rolling terrain without the need for retainina structures. Then o,eki +kctiv of nroi-,rinn service rorads ic t-o% fnriliftat be-tor acrres 1-hrouighniIut i-kth I f.. -V %fj.si % -J V.1 V -_ta j - I -t¼ t ~, J I- - - I L4.. 4'L~.Ut 4~.J.J I.I43 LI-*LL ADC without having to permit local traffic access to the new highway. The provision of seiviee [adsu I IUIUs su,,cienit spcue lfr future utiiilties du creates a u-uier zone between the ADC and adjacent land users. The service roads consist of two lane carriageways with verges on each side, and vertical alignment that closely follows the existing or planned finished levels of the adjacent land parcels. The geometric design parameters for the service roads are summarised in Table 2.6. Table 2.5 Parameter Design Speed, V Minimum Radius, R on Mainline Geometric Design Criteria for the ADC Design Criteria 100 km/h level and rolling terrain 8_U-90 km/n mountainous terrain 36mfrV10k/ 230 m for V=90 km/h A document of the United Nations Economic and Sociai Councii for West Asia (ESCvvA) 9 A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets issued by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officers. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

39 Amman Deve;iopmert Corridor Envfronrmentai irmpact Assessment Update Parameter -Design Criteria Hon Ramps I 230 m f'or V=OU Kmh/Fl 125m for V=60 km/h on Loops Radius w ith Normal Crown andll without Super-elevation 60m for V=40 km/h 3,000 m Maximum Grade 7.0% viaxi mum Graae Length Graae 4%/6 Lengtn=280m Grade 5% Length=210m Gr-3-d e6ol I e-ng-k= 1 7-m Minimium Graedp _Grade 70%/ n f-n -0o.3 Range of Vertical Curvature, K, Crest V = 100 km/h V = 90 km/h V = 80 km/h Sag V = 100 km/h V = 90 km/h [ V = 80 km/h Normal Cross Fall Rate 2.0% Max,mum. Superelevation Rlate 8.0%/ noh u ye.ljjs 1SV11J I XLC I IV /O Maximum Relative Gradient for Profile hptwppn Ftlnp nfpaivementa;nrd PG-L KLne ILane Width Main Road & 2-Lane Ramps 3.65m 1-Lane Ramps and Loops 5.Om 2-Lane Ramps 7.3m Length=150m 1:222 for V=100 km/h 1 4dnfeor\/=CIO kem/h idth 1:200 for V=80 km/h Shoulder Width on Main Road Kignt Side 3.0m Left Side 1.2m taken from median width ShoiuUlder VY Wldt lull on Raps aidu LoUUps Right Side 2.5m I epeftirde 1.2m Median Width I 4.5m including Concrete Barrier On Bridqes and Critical Cut and Fill Areas! m Table 2.6 Geometric Design Criteria for Service Rnads Parameter E Design Criteria IDesign Speed, V km/h Maximum Grade Level Terrain : 7.0% ~~~~~~~~~~~~M R 111 i ingterin :i 10.0%I Mountainous Terrain: 15.0%0/ [I Mhnimu- Grade I -.3%- Minimum Vertical Curvature K; ICrest 3-51 Sag 4-8l Normal Cross Fall Rate 2.0%l Maximum Super-elevation Rate _4.0% _l _ Maximum Relative Gradient for Profile I l between Edge of Pavement and PGL. 11:143 I Lane Width I 3.5m verge Widthl Right Side 3.Om JSide J 1.5m l J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

40 Amman Deveiloment Corridor EnivirolUfInmenIta!d- In As fes,ct LIUud[ie The New Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port (CDP) The site of the new CDP is located near the southern end of the ADC Contract 2 a!ieinmennt- At- t-hen nrecsentc time, nnix! a Pren-Feascihi!ityi cir10 hasc hbn rnmnlp!ted-, which primarily covered economic justification and site selection. The site MPWH finally selected was not one ofi those consuidueredu In the repo.t, a,jthiloughiu Ile advantages of the selected site still apply. The study utilised a planning horizon of 10 years to assess the scale and organisation of the CDP, from 2003 to From a preliminary schedule of accommodation requirements provided by the Amman Customs Authority, the expected land requirements for the new Customs Depot are estimated to be 50 ha in 2003, rising to 89 ha in 2013, divided between the facilities shown on Table 2.7. Table 2.7 Expected Land Requirements for thk Ne.^:AIIi Cutos d epot Land Requirements (ha) Built Development (m 2 ) CUSTOM D TI-ns-pection Areas 9% 0 II ,000-70,000 f Of fie , ,000 Warehouses ,400 15,000 Offices ,000 12,000- Infrastructure Totals , _346,0 613,400 Most of the activities to be accommodated within the Inland Logistics Port are at present concentrated informally around the existing Customs Depot or dispersed in privatelv oderated facilities within the Amman urban area. The obiective of the new Port will be to consolidate these activities within a single site adjacent to the new ri iei-jmce ncnni- Again, the Customs Authority has provided a schedule of accommorudation needs, the land required being estimated at 165 ha in 2003 and 305 ha in 2013, divided as shown in Table 2.8. Table 2.8 Expected Land Requirements for the Inland Logistics Port INlAND PORT Land Requirements tna) l Built Development (m2) 2003 l Truck Waiting , ,000 Car Parkinq Container Port , ,000 Container Freight StdLIon 1 l 20.0 L.U iuu,0uuu iuu,000 l Commercial Warehouses l 15.0 l 30.0 l 86, ,000 l Vehicle Servicing l 37, ,000 Offices I , Hotel and Shopping [ ,000 ] 30,000 Otner Faciiities i.u l.u l 0,000 liu, Included in Amman Development Corridor-Phase 1: Land Use Study. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), June J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

41 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Infrastructure I..... _. I _ Totals ,092,900 2,181,900 The total land requirement for the CDP is therefore 215 ha in 2003 and 394 ha in A schematic layout of the CDP is shown in Figure 2.3. To allow for future expansion beyond 2013, it as assumed the final area that needs to be Dotentiallv available is some 500 ha, or 5 km 2. The chosen site meets this requirement. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

42 Amrnran Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update F ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~L-2 Stor-agEo Yards E 77:23 Ciustorns Depot _ Offices, Warethouse and Parkirlg /ZI Irspection Areas Inland Port MM Contairier Freight Sitation E2ZContainer Port E~~~27~~~'77 ~ ~ ~ ~ E Commercial Facilities (Vehicle servicing, commercial warehouses a3nd other facilities.) F/ 10:01~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Areas wvith slopes over 5% suitable for a ix ],73 E olther commercial facilities incliding I 1E J ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~hontels aind sthopping 1 77 I _ I i**1 :Madounah Road ADC Main Entry & Exit Figure 2.3 Schematic Layout of the CDP Site J02(59/2-RPT-EAIV-01 REV March 2004

43 POLICY AND I FEwRAI FKAMt.WUr%K

44 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update IE1CTON 3 P0LmY AmND LEUAL FRMEWRUKRm 3.1 INTRODUCTION This section provides an tii-ine o%f t-he exisinri nrpoicyw and Ie framewoatrk, under which ADC and CDP construction will be implemented. The emphasis in this documentl is on Environmental Assessment. T he LandU Acquisition and Resettiement Plan (LARP) contains a self-standing description of the framework and procedures under which the LARP will be implemented. Section 3.2 provides a brief overview of the general legislative framework related to the Environment, followed by a review of the status of EIA requirements in Jordan. rprtion 3.3 deals with the institutionni framework for the environmental sector, identifying the Ministry of Environment and other governmental and nongovernmental agencies with an inte res In Lit; eviriuio meilnl 1U Va I ILlI may IICIve responsibilities relating to the management of the EIA process or contribute to its review and impiementation. Section 3.4 outlines the approach adopted in the preparation of the present Environmental Assessment in the context of existing legislative and institutional framework and indicates the future stages in the project appraisal process. Section, 3.5 provides additional background in the area of primary concern, that of Land Use Plan lning and Urban Development. 3.2 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK International Legislation The Kingdom of Jordan is a signatory to a number of international laws. treaties. conventions and protocols aimed at protecting the environment. Those of most rplpvance to the present proposals, either during construction or subsequent operation, are listed in Table Existing Jordanian Legislation Laws, Regulations, By-Laws, Instructions and Orders that by design or effect have influenced the use of the environment or its protection from degradation go back to 1927 and are the responsibility of a number of Ministries and other governmental organisations. It has been estimated there are nearly 200 articles of legislation dealing with the environment, the most relevant of which are listed in Table 3.2. The first draft of a National Environmrent P.rotection Law was prepared by the Department of Environment within the then Ministry of Municipalities and Rural /AMiirs and tlhie Environment in 1982I, andiu suusequentl UraiLs were Issueu it collaboration with the Higher Council of Science and Technology, other national institutions and environmental NGOs. This process culminated in the enactment of Environmental Protection Law, No. 12 of 1995 (EPL). J0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

45 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmentai Imnact Assessment Update Table 3.1 International Environmental Legislation Title of Agreement Date Implemented International Agreement of Flora Protection Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna I Convention for the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites I International Convention for the Protection of Wetlands (Ramsar) Protocol for the Amendment of the Ramsar Convention Convention on the Early Warning of Nuclear Accidents lonventi)nn on Astance in the case of Niirlucer Acrirdpnt or I Con~~pntion -. ~--..- _. ' Radiological Emergency CoAnvPntioAn on thp PrntrCti.n of thp 07onp I ayvr (Vinn; i?vq nr 19Rq Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal) j ConventiU1 on t.e Trans-Bound[ary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel) CovU IV n LU o I UIU 1oki.C LJIVeIiLy 1..LVV.L- Convention on Climate Change Convention to Combat Desertification Convention on the Protection of Miqrant Species of Wild Animals Convention for the Protection of Migrant Afro-Eurasian Water Fowl Not yet in force riulvpirt Ull DIUIUYIL1cItLY Sa,et LC.egnId) d Agreement on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Agreement on Prior Inform Consent (PIC) Procedures for certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade Agreement to Prevent Emissions Affecting the Climate (Kyoto) NUL yei In IUrce Not yet in force Not yet in force [ Not yet in force Table 3.2 Environmental Legislation Prepared Prior to Law No. 12 of A _General and Cross-Sector Legislation Town and Country Planning Law No. 79/1966 Management of Natural Resources Law No. 12/1968 Public Health Law No. 21/1971 Responsible Authority Ministry of Municipalities l Natural Resources Authority Ministry of Health Agriculture Lawv 'Nio. 2-0/119,73 Ministry of Agriculture B Water Resources and Sunniv Legislation [ Responsible Authority Mini,n,g B-L,aw NIo NIratura Resources Authorit l Ground Water Monitoring By-Law No. 26/1977 Drinking Water Instructions 1981 Industrial Zones Corporation Law No. 59/1985 Water Authority Law No. 18/1988 Water Authority Water Authority Free Zone Corporation Water Authority C Wastewater and Solid Waste Collection and Disposal Legislation Responsible Authority Prevention of Pollution and Solid Waste Collection No. 1/ Municipalities %AI-.I.-.- A.,4-k,-.-;-., I -... N 1 I, %AI-..-,-..4L.-.4. vvacil MUL 101 ILY LOvv 'do. ±0U. U/ VV alc MULIIUI ILY Sewage By-Law No. 66/1994 Industrial/Commercial W/water to the Public Sewers 1/1998 Water Authority J Water Authority 10269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

46 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update D Air Quality and Noise Municipalities Law No. 29/1955 Munitoring/Organcipalties I..ra. it i*u~~~~~jijlhiui Legislation T Responsible Authority 1 Markets By-Law 33/l961 Municipalities Mfublic.jtjttu ijhiljliii.... Ira rt...loljy~~~~~~lj ~ ~ ~ ~ -I.. Iii 113U1 y '..i~.1 IICCI- Mining By-Law No. 131/1966 Natural Resources Authority Prevention of Pollution and Solid Waste Collection No. 1/1978 Traffic Law No. 14/1984 Industrial Zones Corporation Law No. 59/1985 E Municipalities 1 General Security Free Zone Corporation Public Health and Safety Legislation [ Responsible Authority Handicraft and Industries Law No. 16/1953 Municipalities Law No. 29/1955 Ministry of Health Muniipalites Civil Defence Law No. 12/1959 Civil Defence l Agriculture Law No. 20/1973 Civil Defence Order No. 1/1994 Storage of Gas Cylinders Civil Defence Order No. 2/1994 Transport of Chemicals Agriculture Ministry Civil Defence Civil Defence Safe Management/Disposal of Radioactive Waste No. 1/ 199,7 I Minisy of Eng y F Lanfnd lica Planninn_ A AA...:... Legislation Responsible Authority RA A.. I1f-& Vi IMICaI iagy1ement IL MAdmin. ol Gov. Properties Law N'o. 17/ 19/7 IMi.inistry of rinance Building and Organization of the City Amman No. 67/1979 Building, Cities and Villages Organization By-law No. 19/1985 Public Housing and Urban Development Law No. 28/1992 Greater Amman Municipality Greater Amman Municipality Public Housina and Urban D.C. G Soil and Agricultural Land Legislation ] Responsible Authority Manaqement & Admin. of Gov. Properties Law No. 17/ Ministrv of Finance Civil Defence Order No. 1/1993 The Protection of Forests Civil Defence H Nature Conservation and Bio-Diversity Legislation Responsible Authority 1 Woods and Forest Law 1927 (Updated 1951) Ministry of Agriculture l a in.1/1952 -on"te Grazing of GoatLslMistyo LdLvv 'dou..1.0/ 1:-) Oi LII 1.Jd111011Odb sty of gcu.rl MYlILUILU[t Law on Hunting, No.28/1957 (updated 1996) Municipalities Protection of Birds and Wild Life By-Law No. 113/1973 RSCN Decision No. 1/1990, for Cattle farms T Ministry of Agriculture Decision No. 2/1990, for Sheep farms Ministry of Agriculture DeiionNo 3/1990,) fo-rdrabbitfarms Ministry~ of giutr Decision No. 4/ 1990 for Poultry Farms Civil Defence Order No. 1/1993, for the Protection of Forests Ministry of Agriculture J Civil Defence I Historical, Cultural and Archaeological Sites Legislation Quarries By-Law No. 8/1971 Law of Antiquities No. 21/1988 Responsible Authority Natural Resources Authority Ministry of Tourism 30269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

47 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update The main provisions of the EPL were as follows: * The establishment of a public organisation called the General Corporation for Environmental Protection (GCEP) within the Ministry of Municipalities, Rural Affairs and the Environment; * The establishment of a fund called the Environmental Protection Fund, to be managed and disbursed by GCEP for environmental protection purposes, with inrome cominn from loral and foreign rdonntions a well as from national, bilateral, and multilateral sources; and * The- -IFb,hmn of 3igher Council fo r Environmentali Protection (u, rc'p). The i995 EPL also sets out a number of general provisions against harmful environmental activities, under which GCEP was assigned a regulatory enforcement role. In January 2003, the Government of Jordan established the Ministry of Environment' and took over all the previous responsibilities and staff of both GCEP and HCEP. A new EPL was introduced, currently titled Temporary Law No. 1 for 2003, hibit thic hac yent- to him rai-ifieri hby DPrliamont. An iinoiffic-iai Enrg!iskh t-ranncllni-;r, of this EPL, prepared by the Ministry, is presented as Appendix A to the present EIA UpUate. Like thle I 995 EPLFL tahe I 2003 cpl is only a f araework under VV I By-Laws, Regulations, Directives and other environmental legislation are prepared. With the passing of the new EDL, the previous Law will be '...abolished, provided that the regulations issued in accordance therewith shall remain effective until they have been amended, or cancelled, or substituted.' 2 Hence all previous By-laws, Regulations, Directives, Standards and other enactments remain unaltered, and in all cases the Ministrv has taken over all the responsibilities previously assigned to GCEP and HCEP. Legislation enacted by GCEP under the 1995 EPL and other regulations prepared under the same law or the 2003 Temporary Law, the new EPL, but awaiting ratification are listed in Table 3.3. Table 3.3 Environmental Legislation Prepared After Law No. 12 of A. Legislation in Force l Regulation of the Environmental Protection Fund Regulation for Financial and Administrative Organisation of Environmental Projects Financed by Donator Authorities Regulation for Controlling and Preventing noise Reguiation for Serv,ces Fee regaring L HaLzIULId oiiu and aiiiiui VWastLe Regulation for Controlling the Use of Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer By Law for the Protection of Coasts and Marine Waters Agricultural Law No. 44 (Forests, grazing, wildlife protection, etc.) National Bio-Diversity Strategy and Action Plan B. Legislation Awaiting Ratification Law on Soil Protection Law on Management of Solid Wastes Law on clean Air Regulation for Establishing and Managing Protected Areas and National Parks Law on Confining Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emanation AL the samie time, the Ministry of Municipaities, Rural Affairs and the Environrient was changed to the Ministry of Municipal Affairs. 2 Temporary Law No. 1 for 2003 (the new EPL). Article /01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

48 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Law on Water Protection Regulation for Livestock and Poultry Farms, Olive Mills and Slaughterhouses Directions for Hazardous Waste Management and Handling Regulation of Environmental Pollution Control by means of Pesticides. Regulation for the Control of Vehicle Emission Pollution Law on Environmental Impact Assessment Environmenta! Assessment I egiscation and Proredures Proceulures fiovr EnvironmentaL'IrmpaL Im ssessment in JordCan vivere iii IQUL%U Uby UG.Lr under Article 15 of the 1995 EPL and completed by the Ministry under Article 4 of the new EPL 3. Although the EIA Law stiii awaits ratification, tne proceaures are already being applied to all new projects. The essential elements of these procedures are summarized in Table 3.4. The approval of an EIA is a pre-requisite for any subsequent license or permit by any or all other relevant authorities that may be renuired orior to construction. Because the ADC project and the origina EIA pre-date the new EP' and EIA procedures 4, there was no opportunity to undergo Initial Filing and Scoping 5 under tlhe procedures. This notwithstanding, the presenlt EIA Update has been submitted to the Ministry of Environment for Technical Evaluation and Decision. As determined by World Bank guidelines, the ADC project has been designated 'Category A', that is a project requiring a full Environmental Assessment due to the significant and diverse impacts likely to be associated with its construction. In the absence of legally enforceable EIA regulations and procedures within Jordan, the 1999 Assessment was undertaken in arrnrdanrcp with the Bank's Oenratlona! Policies and Directives, and subsequently received formal approved from both the Table 3.4 Summary of Jordanian EIA Procedures ct3ge A l;,;. Initial Filing Project Proponent completes a Project Information Form (PIF) to inform the Ministry of the intended project. Ministry reviews the PIF and determines if an EIA is required. The decision is publicly displayed for 2 WeeKS. Minictry cci issc nmlki hinrlinri riirldaner oin the cronp nf the AsePscmPnt- Scoping * Proponent prepares a ToR, after public consultation if so instructed. * Ministry review and approves ToR. TerhnicAl Evaluation Complete EIA is submitted to the Technical Evaluation Committee who: Evaluate its general conformity to the ToR; Evaluate the methodologies used, the scientific validity and legal value of the evidence presented; Evaluate the compatibility of residual impacts with respect to environmental riultelltiuo, sualcii1clitb UdVlolUp1IIIenL, LdLIIUCdlU, and othei re,eren. * Committee report finding to Director General. 3 The new EIA procedures were prepared under Agenda 21 and originally issued as Appendix 1 to the Agenda 21 Report. 4And also pre-date the Ministry of Environment. 5 Formal Scoping sessinns for the 1 QQ FTA were iinrprtakpn indepennlpntlv J0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

49 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Imoact Assessment Update Director General reviews Committee's report and publicly displays his 1 Decision UtCIsIUn ror 2 weeks. and * If no objection is received, decision is notified to Proponent within 45 days. Approval After this period, or f no decision is posted, the ETA i is deemed to have Pbeen accepted. (If the EIA is rejected, Proponent has 15 days to appeal to the Environmental Protection Council). toii *Annrnova of an ETA is linked to the imn1pmentatorn of thp FMP andi reonnrtinn Mo g { th results of monitoring.. The present EIA Update continues to comply with these procedures, while also attempting to apply the draft National Environmental Impact Assessment for Jordan outlined in Table 3.4 above. Given these national requirements are not yet enshrined in Law and as the Bank's requirements are generally more stringent than those of the Ministry, the Bank's requirements have taken priority with appropriate additions to satisfy the new national requirements. This Environmental Assessment has been undertaken with particular consideration of World Bank Policies and Directives, of which the following are of particular relevance to the present project: * Operational Directive Environmental Assessment, January 1999; *.J Uatin Poicies 4t.ut4. iniatural ]auitats, June 2001i * Operational Directive Involuntary Resettlement, December 2001; * Operational Policies Cuiturai Property, August 1999; and In general, the EA considers all relevant natural and social aspects in an integrated manner, taking account of variations in project and country conditions, the overall policy framework, national legislation and institutional capabilities. Natural Habitats have been identified and studied through two specially commissioned ecozogical surveys by the PRoyal Society for the Conservation of Nature, the first for the ADC during the Feasibility Study and updated in 2003, the second f0r tile CD' site in Involuntary Resettlement has been addressed through the preparation of a Land and Resettlement Plan (LARP), which includes, in the Bank's terminology, a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP). Originally prepared in 1999, this has also been updated because of the need to acquire some 406 ha of land from nearly 1900 separate owners, and to resettle 29 households, comprising 194 individuals. The investigation of archaeological and cultural sites is a well-developed procedure in Jordan an tihe t urvciirxsc undr1 L-taken h e, DpImn - y-ii--- or,-f Ant4 iquities I---LL fo rh-d-k btkt I II LI f1 IL'LLIL I. %J L.JVLI I LI11C....I LJLJI LI U L L..LI L..J LII4LILIX.. DI ADC and CDP fulfil the requirements of the Bank's Cultural Property Policy. 3.3 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK Central Government Agencies As is evident from Table 3.2, responsibility for environmental issues has previously ueen taken buy a wide number of ministries, departments and other central organisations. In time, the new Ministry of Environment will broaden its duties to ]0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

50 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uodate assume overall control of all aspects of environmental protection and management, including enforcement. Hnwever, for the present time t-he institiitiona! framework remains somewhat fragmented and the role of those organisations most closely involved VIL I issues of relevance to tl A project is outlined buuelow. Ministry of Environment (MoE) The essential provision of the new Environmental Protection Law is exemplified by Article 3A, which states: 'The Ministry shall be considered as the competent authority for the protection of environment in the Kingdom, and the official and national authorities shall be bound to implement the instructions and resolutions issued under the provisions of this law and the regulations issued in accordance therewith, under penalty of legal responsibility provided for therein and in any other leqislation.' A major rhanpe hetween the activities of c,cfp/fhcfp and that of the Ministrv is that the former primarily concerned itself with the promotion of environmental protection, whe reask the +ka M;initr a to, +-- l a- c strk o -ngr and p--ct- roi in HI %JL~-LLIL I, VI I~_l ~-Ua Li 1;I'M 11ZL Y11. ~I Ul la3 LW. I IlU Vki- LI II ILJ1.l I :)LI %41 IV-I CI IUl HI %JUILl V%- I i.jlqi1 II enforcement. The Ministry has the added responsibility to: 'enhance relations between the Kingdom and the Arab, regional and international sta tes a nd o rga ~LCLe~C71U nis--)at-io,7s (1- yiii3c7ilji.bii in res I 3/JLL p-e t ofl 21 -a,z'a Ill1II~ 11rs LlILIILIIC O - Co,,cer,7i,7 th iep p,--resra, P3I VCJLILJII ofth (21 Lila environment... 6 At the present time the Ministry, with a staff of just c.140 is seriously underresourced, but is nevertheless progressing a broad range of issues. The development of capacity and procedures is being assisted by a number of external agencies, primarily the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) who are currently supporting or planninc the proiects listed in Table 3.5. Table 3.5 UNDP Projects Implemented through the MoE I Ongong Proects UN Framework Convention on Climate Change UN Convention to Combat Desertification National Capacity Self-Assessment Flcoming LI Mojects Building Capacity of the Ministry of Environment Localised Sustainable Development Water Harvesting in Rural Areas for Poverty Alleviation German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), who funded capacity building projects with GCEP, including the development of the National Environmental Action Plan, have no ongoing projects at the present time, but hope to provide assistance to the Ministry in the near future. The current organisation of the Ministry is shown in Figure Temporary Law No. 1 for 2003 (the new EPL). Article 4 Clause L. J0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

51 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update I Minister of Environment I I: e IUI~ v- J.±? Ministry of Environment Organisation Chart 30269/01 -RPT-ENV-01 REV O 3-8 March 2004

52 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MPWH) At the time of the previous EIA, MPWH had no effective environmental management or planning capacity. To rectify this, an Environmental Section was created in 19Q9 within the Directorate of Highway Studies. The Section oversees the environmental assessment of all new trunk. roaud schliemes throughout the K1I iyuui g d In U Ul IUneI Ltkes site inspections during construction to ensure EMPs are being appropriately implemented. It is also involved in the landscape pianning of new scnemes. Although currently limited to two graduate engineers, this limited resource is supported by highway engineers and others in the Ministry who have been trained in environmental awareness. The Section works closely with the Ministry of Environment. reviewing ETA Terms of Reference and reports before passing them to the Ministry for formal approval. The Section has an important role in ioradina-in environmen! m-irtt e whb-oh Ari-k inhouse and external consultants' design teams and with funding agencies. For the presen.l CiA Update, one or bolh oi.lhie atectllon sla'i have been present at a'l meetings with the Ministry, the World Bank, Arab Fund and European Investment Bank, thereby ensuring environmental issues have been adequately discussed and any concerns are subsequently addressed. It is expected the Section will have a significant role in the construction of the ADC, either from within the Ministry or through secondment to the Project Implementation Unit (PTI) to he estah1irhedr to oversee the management of the three separate construction contracts. Since the Section is the only environmental unitw- -iin MPDAWH, it is also expecteda t-o ae ;-v i-nvlved in the plann;ng, design UlJ lit. VYIL. III ll i VV I I~ it. to Ulaw. L%~J Lj~- ~LjLJciII) III LJ IVzLI III #-I I Ic I 1 IJ U~Iz I and construction stages of the CDP. These projects provide the opportunity to build capacity within the Section to the benefit of 1%th the present project and the future work of the Ministry. To this end, appropriate provision has been included in the Environmental Management Plan, presented in Section 11, 12 and 13 of the present report. Natural Resources Authority (NRA) The NRA was established in 1965 within the Ministry of Energy and Mineral RDae-sources. Law NIo. 12 af rne.gul-a it- I- - n- re-n-ibi ities, ich include in relation to the ADC project: * Geological mapping and assessment; * Mineral resources exploitation policy; * Licensing and monitoring of mines and quarries; and *Investment T1I~L ~ L~ promotion IIILV II111IId~~IIIdIII 1inrs n1 ex1ottin The Authority's approval wiii be needed for any Borrow Pits construction contractors wish to open along the ADC alignment. Jordanian Institute for Standards and Metrology (JISM) A component of the Ministry of Tndiustrv and Tradre the 1nrr1an Tnstitulte for Standards and Metrology (]ISM) is charged with the development of a national systemr of stand a rads -n n Ud ea-ral ant on international practice with the a -i-f 3~3L 1)1 I ~LcI I icii ~ ci I cli IJIJUJ LJci3lUJ VI I II IL%I IiLU I ci Q' c ULIL VILI I LIl~ 1c ill VI protecting the health, environment and safety of the Kingdom and its population, J0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

53 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update and to ensure Jordanian products meet international standards. The Institute is also responsible for the accreditation of all types of laboratories throuchout the Kingdom. A wide range of standards has been developed and those most relevant to the present pr Ject are iisteu in TI cie 3. Table 3.6 Relevant Jordanian Standards JS 431:1985 Storage of Hazardous Materials JS 200:1987 Mineral Waters JS iou52:1998 Motor Vehicie Emissions JS 1054:1998 Motor Vehicle Emissions - Diesel Engines I.C 1Afl..1. I Environment L8 Managemento Cystels - CLi io JS 1404:1998 Environment Management Systems - General Principles IS 1410:1998 Ctiidelines for Environmental Auditinn - General JS 1411:1998 Guidelines for Environmental Auditing - Audit Procedures JS 1412:1998 Guidelines for Environmental Auditing - Environmental Auditors JS 703:1990 Air Pollutants for Gasoline-engined Vehicles JS 202:1991 Industrial Wastewater JS 893:1995 Treated Domestic Wastewater JS 1140:1996 Ambient Air Quality Standards J- 114J:1996 Use of Sewage Sludge In Agriculture JS 286:1997 Drinking Water ]S 287:1998 Sampling of DrrinLin Water JS 1189:1999 Air Pollutants from Stationary Sources Other Central Agencies Other central agencies concerned with particular aspects of environmental management include individual Departments of the following: * Ministry of Agriculture; * Ministry of Health; * Ministry of Interior; * Ministry of Planning; * Ministry of Tourism; * Ministry of Water and Irrigation. The Ministry of Tourism's Department of Antiquities (DAJ) is responsible for asscessing the imnact nf a! nrnirectc nn the Kingidnm's rirh ArchAePonnirc; histnric _ -.. I- -- _-, -_ - J -- _ -. -,,zi--, =1 **'1r,- -I- -- I _ and cultural heritage resources, and has undertaken surveys for both the ADC Regional and Municipai Institutions No less important in environmental management are the regional local authorities, which include semi-autonomous bodies such as the Jordan Valley Authority and the Aqaba Regional Authority. The municipalities also have an important role in the management of urban environments, but with the exception of the Greater Amman Municipality, financial limitations often restrict effective action /01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

54 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update Research Institutions This governmental structure is supported by a number of quasi-autonomous research organisations annr :nacadmic i itutian with-k a s ernvrnm t emphasis. These include: Royal Scientific Society (RSS) The RSS is a research institute of international repute that provides a substantial body of research across a wide range of fields. Environmental activities within the RSS are undertaken by the Environmental Research Centre (ERC), which provides scientific and technical advisory services to the public and private sectors, and promotes terhnonogicra change in different environmental areas through its specialised laboratories and services. The ERC comprises three primary Divisions: VVU1L Water %I.UcI _uniy LILy,n Air cii S..eU Quality; I Ly~~II and EnvironmentaMnge IVIV IuI--a! I0 anagemei III I nt L i L -I. current urn L 'el's Ld Uof competence are as follows: * Water and Wastewater Treatment; * Water fi AnAIx/cic andi Accseccmenf-; * Water Demand Management; M*ir (QuaIlty Management anldl Control; * Ambient Air Quality Assessment; * Stack Emissions Measurement; * Air Pollution Dispersion Modelling; * Cleaner Production; * Environmental Management Systems to ISO 1400; * Environmental Impact Assessment; * Ha7arrdous- and SoWlir Waste Mananement; antl * Specialised Technical Training. The RSS-ERC is the only organisation in Jordan resourced to undertake ambient noise and air quality monitoring. Royal Jordanian Geographic Centre (RJGC) The RJGC provide mapping and GIS services to the public and private sector, and thereby the basic spatial referencinq system for all environment related activities and research. The RJGC also has a potentially important role in the use of Remote Sensing for environm.ntal monitnring. The D I(-r' knc rt- r^%,ara l!n t-l r,k r,.. -4k-, 4--;i-,-p- IF.~ 4-k,- A rlrf Thel I has H'd aerial photogrl%j1jlap h IIa an U ll1lillc Imagery HUHor use on Li le MU%- Study. University of Jordan There are three units at the University of Jordan that are particularly active in environmental and associated issues: Department of Biological Sciences. Studies and research on the biogenetic diversity and genetic resources of Jordan. Centre for Water and Environmental Research and Studies. Focuses on water related issues in the agricultural sector /01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

55 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Technical Consultations and Studies Centre. Provides training in a wide range of environmental fields and in resource manacgement. Centre for Strategic Studies Undertakes training and research in the social sciences. III e CentL"re 1foUr StLratI egilc Studies hias uniueidrtakien LI sc L,IUCLUoII UII Ic. sur for tue re-location of the Al-Juwaidah Customs Depot reported in Section 5 of the present report. Yarmouk University The Department of Earth Sciences and the Environment provides formal education at undergraduate and nost graduate level and uindertakes research in nenlogy and related areas of relevance to environmental studies Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) The two organizations highlighted below may be considered as the primary NGOs but the potential for others, including community-based organizations, is substantial. Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature (RSCN) The PqSN has playvd a nrp-pminent- rnle in enxvirnnmental mnnagement In Jordan since its establishment in The Society's Mission is to: 'Conserve wildlife and habitats, and to integrate conservation with economic develodment while promoting wider nublic s;unnort for the protection of the natural environment'. The Society has particular concerns with the establishment and management of Wildlif,e Reserves, using authority delegated from the Ministry of Agriculture to supervise reserves and enforce hunting regulations. It is also active in raising environmental awareness and has an international standing reinforced by its strong links to agencies such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The RSCN has reviewed the ecoloqical survey from the 1999 EIA and is contracted to undertake the ecological assessment of the CDP site as soon as approval to proceed is aiven by the Proiect ProDonent. Jord,an EviromanEaI So,rcity (17ES) ThIe JES was esluislieu in 1988 to audur-ess environmentai concerns within the context of, and in accordance with, national priorities and to raise the level of environmental awareness among all strata of Jordanian society. Today, it comprises 73 corporate and over 4000 individual members who join toqether to promote the protection of the environment and the sustainable use of resources. It has committees covering Environmental Protection, Pollution Prevention, Environmental Planning, Environmental Policy, Law and Administration, Ecology, Forestry, Water and Environmental Awareness and Education /01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

56 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update In addition to a central office in Amman. the Society has 24 local branches throughout the Kingdom, including, within the ADC zone of influence, Zarqa, Sahab and Rusaifah. Branch acfivities generally mirror those nationally, although it is noteworthy that the Sahab Branch participates in meetings of the Industrial Estates [[orporation, one of *he organisations likely to have a suus.lan.lal input into fulure new developments in the vicinity of the ADC. JES's current projects include: * Awareness Project in Water; * Biodiversity Project; * Biogas Project; * Environmental Education Database Programme; * Environmental health Project; * Global Environmental Facility/Small Grants Programme; * Integrated Test Management Project; * King Hussein Environmental Management Training Programme; * Merdirnl Wasct Mannagmennt- * National Environmental Information Programme and Education; Recycling Project; * Rhus Forest and Greenbelt Project; and * Water Efficiency and Public Information for Action. The JES also new training for tutors to develop human resources and build institutional capacity on the followinq topics: * Environmental Impact Assessment; * Environmental Audit; * Environmental Reporting; * Public Awareness; * Environmental Law; and * Rapid Appraisal Skills for Environmental Health. Other Environmental NGOs Other principal environmental NGOs include the Jordan Network for Environment Friendly Industry, the Jordan Society for Desertification Control and Badia Development and the Friends of the Environment Society. In the field of Archaeology there are a number of prominent NGOs including the American Centre of Oriental Research, the Friends of Archaeology, the British Institute in Amman for Archaeology and History, and the Institut Francais d'archeologie du Poche Orient. The work of these agencies is supported by other NGOs, particularly in the social context, Including hl Ile 'ueen AIlia Fund andu LIe II'Jour EI Hussein Foundatio 0 I. Community-base organisations also operate throughout the country, primarily in social welfare and community support. J0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

57 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Summary The environmental framework in Jordan has been fragmented and lacking coordination for man" years. As a result, the 19Q9 EIA was prepared in accordance with World Bank procedures rather than local requirements. Nevertheless, a Ministry of Environment has now been established and under its mandate has become... the competent authority for the protection of environment in the Kingdom... The Project Proponent, his consultants, contractors and others now recognise this reality. The absence of any over-riding responsibility for the environment within central and other agencies can- with hindsight, be viewed positively. Paralel efforts among a wide range of organisations, often with international non-governmental support, hans creauted an lal-ge cadre of pl-01fesaslon-11al in Jordan with an appreciation of the value and requirements of Environmental Assessment, and of impact mitigation. throughout the public and private sectors Hereafter, the Ministry must be encouraged to utilise its designated powers to ensure the ADC project is successfully implemented to the benefit of the Jordanian people and their environment. 'A AP ROJET ENJIVTDnMM TAI ADDDATCAI CDAME%AWfODV 3.4.i rnational Framework Previously, in the absence of legally enforceable guidelines, the principal sources of county specific guidance were the National Environment Strategy 7 and the National Environmental Action Plan 8. These documents 9 guided the appraisal and subsequent approval by GCEP of the 1999 EIA. Since that time, the percept7in of the importance and value of environmental appraisal has increased exponentially among politicians, project proponents, lundnlul gi agecie sl, engineir CIIIU the LIand geecia piuubic.. M MinistrI,UIy UdUdleaeU LU te Li Environment has now been established and the new Environmental Impact Assessment requirements and procedures, despite not yet being enshrined in Law, have been brought into routine use Project Environmental Appraisal Programme The proiect environmental appraisal programme for the ADC comprises two principal components, Environmental Assessment and Information Participation and Consultation Programme. 7 Prepared by the Department of Environment at the former Ministry of Municipalities, Rural Affairs and the Environment in 1991 in cooperation with IUCN and USAID. 8 Prepared by an inter-ministry committee in cooperation with the Worid Bank. 9 Both the NEAP and the NES were incorporated within the Agenda 21 Report for Jordan, from which has come the new EIA procedures. J0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

58 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uodate Environmental Assessment Following the presentation of the 1999 EIA, the alignment of the ADC was further uevelopeu to )etailed rd",esi g Stage a nd impact mitigationl o I L.Ju rem i I ets incorporated within Tender Documents for construction. Following approval of the earlier EIA by both the World Bank and GCEP, the decision was made to update the Assessment to take account of the issues discussed in Section 1 of the present report. During this process, further Missions by funding agencies, including two from the World Bank dealing specifically with the content of the nresent Update. have been undertaken. In ai t,i,oi;n toj % finai reieiv.mai bl Ith W.rid BankL andir otheknr fiunding aigenc-iesm, LIthe present report will also be subject to the newly introduced appraisal procedures of tie Ministry ofi Environment. Information Participation and Consultation Programme This programme, undertaken in 1999, had three components: * Scoping sessions; * Thematic seminars; and * Public exhibitions. For each component, five tasks were undertaken: * Visits to concerned parties to introduce the project; * Collection of information and site visits; * Preparation of preliminary information materials; * Implementation of structured meetinqs for focus qroups; and. Reporting. All elements of the programme were completed and previously reported 10. A similar programme is planned in respect of the proposals for the new Customs Depot and inland Logistics Port as soon as approval to proceed has been given by the Project Proponent. Comparison between World Bank and Local EA Procedures The comparison between World Bank Operational Procedures OP 4.01 and the recently introduced Ministry of Environment procedures is summarised in Table Pre-Feasibility Study for Amman Ring Road, Volume 3 and 4. Dar Al-Handasah (Sair and Partners), September 1998E and 1999 EV A Vo3ume RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 3-1t5 March 2004

59 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Table 3.7 Comparison of World Bank and MoE Environmental Assessment g Wu~vvrid BanK ministry ot Environmeni I Public Consultation B n Decides on Category A, B or C. Application (PIF) publicly displayed. At least twice; Before ToR finalised and Ministry decides if EIA required. on completion of Draft EIA. Consultation needed to determine ToR. Disclosure Procedure Affected groups to De informed. MoE approves and dispiays I or, Draft EIA available for public inspection. Draft EIA available for public inspection. Tmp.ementat.*n Report on compliance with EMP, the EIA approval linked to implementation of status of mitioation measuresq and the mitination prnredurps and receipt of results of monitoring. approved monitoring results. Executive Summary. Executive Summary. Polircy, Iega* ann 2,* lvni*rtrti,v, liscusslni of issues ralsed during Framework. consultation, with legal background. Proiect Description. Project Description. Baseline Data. EIA Methodology and assessment of Environmental Impacts and mitigation. impacts. Content Analysis of Alternatives. Environmental impacts. Environmental Management Plan - Mitigation Plan. mitigation, monitoring, capacity building Environmental Management Plan - and programme. Monitoring, capacity building and Appendlces: List ol rpreparers, program me. References, Tables and associated Appendices: Details of component papers. stuidls, and of anaiv-yi and assessment The information required for the approval of a project is essentially the same for both the Bank and the Ministry. The former require somewhat more proactivixe Public Consultation, while the Ministry require a shorter main report, with details of the st-udles unuelrt ak en, dat-a analyses anad assessment contained i pedcs 3.5 PROJECT PLANNING FRAMEWORK This section of the report provides an overview of the planning process relevant to the ADC Project Municipal Administration Municipal administration in Jordan is provided by: * Governorates and their Districts, and * Municipalities and their Districts. Covernorates, headedc hv a Go,nvernnr annninte-di hb the Kingi t-hrnuiih the Minitrxy of the Interior (MoI), are the executive authority for the implementation of central ~UV ~-I lii I II government I ;IIL poiisa 1 J%Ji ~ i~ ~ ~ h ~ oa ~ ee. -v Governorates anu ILtheir Dist-ricts a re I %lq Ut JL Li I 1- IV~ ij.ji izv; C; i 1ViHH0 ~ ~ C iii LiL L ~ d responsible to the MoI for public security, the provision of services outside the municipality areas, and some regionai pianning. Municipalities and their Districts are responsible to the Ministry of Municipal Affairs (MMA) for municipal administration and land use planning /01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

60 Amman Deveopoment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update The Greater Amman Municipality has exceptional powers for planning, project implementation and direct access to financial support from central government. The Mayor of Greater Amman is appointed by the King and holds Ministerial rank. Governorate District boundaries are not coincidental with Municipality or Muncip 'IUI ili~jiily lty Dist-ri DJistI IL c-t- bou ndariies an' LJVIUd there are some I ~ diu LiII ai 40 government I I I~ corporation- or tu UVIiiIIIL LIJVdLIVI lb VI authorities providing services or co-ordinating functions. This presents problems in correlating census and other statistical data with physical development within municipalities. The principal legislation under which development projects are implemented are listed in Table 3.8. Table 3.8 Principal Project Planning and Implementation Legislation. Local Government Framework Law No. 29, 1955 Town and Village Planning Law No. 69,1966 Free Zone Corporation, Law No. 39,1976 Expropriation of Land for Public Uses Law, 1980 Land Assembly for Subdivision Plans Law No. 9, 1984 Zoning Ordinance. Planning and Building Bylaw (Amman Municipality) 1984 Zoning Ordinance. Ministry of Municipalities and Rural Affairs, 1985 Local Government Law Amendments, Law No. 2,1987 Housing and UrDan Deveiopment Corporation, Law No. 28, 1992 Natural Resources Investment and Development Corporation, Law No. 37, 2000 Hoi-tin and mnri Urban Deveopmnt Corporation, I aw No Local Government Law Amendments, Law No. 73,2001 Housing and Urban Development Corporation. Law No Within the framework of Law 29 of 1955 (Amended), municipalities were allocated a wide ranqe of functions and central government now expects them to almost autonomously supply a wide range of public services and stimulate growth, Penpriealv in smaler communities cimiiltaneously however, many major municipal functions, such as water supply and sewerage, electricity, education, health and eer I ergenicy services, hiave been ceded to ministri es, pecial anie C 0 r 1 t Li e pr IVaLt sector. The most significant public service involving major budgetary expenditure that continues to be provided by all municipalities are the construction and maintenance of local roads, and solid waste collection and disposal. Other municipality functions are largely regulatory, including planning and building control. The MMA is responsible for local government administration outside Greater Amm?n_ and1 controls the imnlpementatinn f nlanninn legiislation regulations and standards throughout the country. Through its Department of Regional Planning, it 1 controls t-ke prep3-rat i on of regional plans, and authorises and cont-rols all UaVU LVI IL VIa Li1% Ji C: CJI LIII J I ijiii 1 10 i, I IU ULil V ii V L i development outside planning areas and in those regional planning areas that do not have approved land use plans Municipal Administration within the ADC The majority of the ADC and its zone of influence falls within Amman Governorate, with a small area to the north within Zarqa Governorate. and within the followino Governorate Districts, as shown in Figure 3.2: 10269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

61 Amman Development Corrmdor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update Amman Governorate Marka District Al Quewesmeh District Amman District Sahab District Al Muwaaqar District Rujom Al Shami Al Gharbiya District Al Jiza District Zarqa Governorate Zarqa District Russaifa District The role and responsibilities of Governorates do not normally affect planning policy and implementation, except when the boundaries of a municipality or village are to ue moduifeu. Approximately 66% of the ADC zone of influence lies within Greater Amman Municipality, 5%/o within Zarqa Municipality, and the remainder within nine smaller municipalities: Sahab Salem Al Laban Rujom Al Shami Al Tuneiu Thuheibah Al GhIarbliyah Thuheibah Al Sharkiyah Al Nuqeirah Zamalat Al Ulyah Of these, Sahab, Salem, Ai Laban and Rujom Al Shami are wholly within the ADC zone of influence while others are partially within it, as shown in Figure The Existing Planning System The Town and VillAne Planninc I aw No. 6e9 of t966 nrovides the structure of the planning system and requires the preparation of four levels of development plan Regional Plans Master Plans * Subdivision Plans Regional Plans The Ministry of Municipal Affairs has delegated responsibility for the preparation of the Plan for the Middle Region of the Kingdom" to Greater Amman Municipality. A special planning department was established but although a report" 2 describing existing data has been published, no regional plans have been approved. Indeed, there is an absence of coordinated regional planning guidance for the ADC and its zone of influence. " The Governorates of Amman, Zarqa, Madaba and Balqa, 12 Land Use Plan for the Middle Region Preliminary Report, September /01 -RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

62 Amman Development Corridor Envirental imyact Assessment U t r~~~~~~~~~~~mr % ~~~~~~ N t w?~~~~~~zarqa) ;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- ORATE 1 L f X ~~~~~~~~~Al Qu wsmeh)x I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Al AlJizamh/N N~~Oh/1 2M qar/ \-R REV{ 1 /N- 3N 1 Marchq200

63 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update N I ~ Zarqa J r~~~~~~~~ \, Y Greater Amman I),Ž Xft/ r' Municipality / /~ ~ ~ 1f ] -OM I j~~~~! J'00a/////% '\') ( /nwuneloan zthuheibah\, 1 ~YJ l GarbyahAl Sharkiya))hy I, I 'NO/ \V-v Nfl Kilometres Figure 3.3 Municipal Boundaries J0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

64 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update Master Plans The Greater Amman Comprehensive Development Plan 13 is the only strategic Master PIa prepared for the Capital. Preseed d in 1988, it was designed to accommodate urban development expected up to the year However, regional conilict resulted in substantial andu unexpected, Iln-migration during the iate i980's and early 1990's. Longer-term development proposals were rapidly implemented to satisfy short-term demands. The capacity of the Plan has been absorbed in terms of the overall land areas converted to urban development, but not in terms of the area's capacity to accommodate new development. The urgent demand for new urban development combined with uncontrolled land speculation resulted in fragmented implementation that left many areas vacant. No complete Master Plan guidance yet exists for the ADC and its zone of influence. Local Plans In the absence of Regional and Master Plans, guidance beyond the present planning system is based upon Local Plans prepared by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs for smaller Municipalities, and by larger Municipalities, including Greater Amman Municipality. These define the areas subject to zoning regulations, allocations for local roads, reservations for public facilities and utility services, and whprp development is not permitted. There are twelve approved local municipal plans within the ADC, covering pjprilimately 3,336 [la, or some 10u/o fi the area. Reskidential development will cover over 75 % of the planned areas, with two plans devoted to industrial development, the Sahab industrial Estate and the Al Tajamouat Qualifying Industrial Zone. Subdivision Plans Following approval of I ocal Plans, Subdiviion Plans are prepared by the local planning authority or landowners and are subject to the approval of the local planni comlmli,i S l t e, Uate.rl VVIIIc.hl l iiuji Vu UI -ots are registered withl ItLIe D" e pairt mle n IL of Lands and Survey who then become responsible for control over all future land transactions. Land owners within an approved Plan area can apply for building permits, which are usually granted even when no infrastructure services are available. The infrastructure authorities are then required to provide services in isolated, or recently subdivided areas, with no regard to the availability of existing services, or their own on-going development programmes. Throughout the ADC there is evidence of subdivided but undeveloped areas outside I f%fnr DI il r, nn LoJcUaIl I Ulr eu. 13 Greater Amman Comprehensive Development Plan, Joint Technical Team: Greater Amman Municipality and Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners), J0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

65 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Land Assembly The Planning Parcellation within Municipality Areas is governed by Law No. 11 of 1968 and amended by LawAI No.9 Of 1984, which allow Municipal Councils to declare 'Subdivision Areas' where land assembly can be carried out in accordance with C_ouncils' rplans. This procedure enables Municipalities to assemble all private and publicly owned land within a defined area, to prepare Subdivision Plans, and re-allocate land to the owners in proportion to their original ownership. It also allows special provision for the acquisition of land required for the followinq: * Roads, car parks, public gardens, pedestrian bridges, markets and other public infrastructure;. Public and municipal buildings, places of worship, schools, health centres, hospitals, antiquity sites, art centres and any other public facilities; * Water, sewage and drainage networks; and * Buildings that are required to be demolished or preserved. However, this provision is little used, as implementation is long and complicated. Zoning Zoning Ordinances control the use of land, building volume and height, plot coverage, set backs and parking requirements. There are residential, commercial and industrial zones, and outside Greater Amman, agricultural and special development zones. Residential zones include different categories of Standard Residential zones, Popula r and Green Residential Zones. Commercial zones include Central, Linear and Local Commercial Zones. Industrial zones include General and Light Industrial Zones rand Workshop Zones. Special Development Zones may cover a variety of uses except residential or industrial. Full details of the zoning regulations have previously been reported Land Expropriation The 1980 Law on the Expropriation of Land for Public Uses allows municipal auithorities to exnronriate at no cost un to 2? 1 ; 0 of the nart nf any plot neerdre tn open or widen roads, or for public housing projects within an approved Local Plan or SubivisAioin ~4JS V IJ.. II P!an. I JI Tf -1 t-he L1. -._L waho!e1 VIJ o'f them - I.- rp!oti.i~t needsi I-_ *t L..J to 1.1 be -. taknl,, LUMPLI, 1L copnstonl.jii I U I'J 132 payable on the whole area. Full compensation also has to be paid to the landowner _C I C - _ I - - i J - : C _-- - -_ Ifr al, Uther types U1 project. LdsUb iniltendeu for expropriation may be defined within approved Local Plans, but if expropriation is not completed within 7 years the ownership reverts to the original landowner. With the large number of plots to be acquired for the implementation of the ADC, the World Bank were concerned the '250/o rule' would unfairly impact upon large numbers of Project Affected Persons (PAPs). Given the local, regional and national importance of the proiect, the Government decided this rule should not be imposed in respect of the ADC route, and that every landowner would be fully compensated 14 Amman Development Corridor-Phase 1: Land Use Study. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), June /01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

66 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update for the acquired portion of his property. A special meeting of the Cabinet was called to formally approve this decision 5. In the event, some 450/o of plots, 223 out of 498, will have less than 250/o of their area acquired, while 550/% will loose more than 25% of their area. In Ii addton, UUILIU, the LIl~~I~~i proposals f0r u IIU!and dliuiiliui acquisition under uii~ the -e prjt projec', Lfully fu lly-elle Uecrbedtf if] i the 1999 LARP and re-presented in the present LARP Update, includes provision for added transparency of the existing national procedures. Of particular significance are the following: * Additional provision for the posting of formal notices at local centres; * Establishment of a Community Liaison Orrice (CLO) to be based within MPWH to provide the prime point of contact for the PAPs; * Representatives of the PAP community attached to the CLO, to be responsible for the internal monitoring of the LARP implementation; and Planning Problems There are niumber of disparities between current planning legislation and the practice and administration of land use planning and planning control within the A I`_There are three potentially significant areas of concern: * The lack of formally approved plans; * The relationship between approved plans, subdivision permits, building permits, and occupancy permits, and in particular, unlicensed development and the postfacto licensing of unauthorised development; * The extent to which the objectives of land use planning are being thwarted by thp dpvelonment nrocess anr by uinnlanned1 devplnnment. There is no overall programme for the phasing of development at a icvci to which the individual infrastructure agencies could link their sector programmes, nor any framework for the co-ordination of District activities. The legislation for a water supply authority gives sole responsibility for the planning and construction of water and sewerage projects throughout the Kingdom to a single agency. This conflicts with the administrative roles allocated in the legislation on local qovernment and on planninq and creates major problems of phasinq and control development. The reservation of land for public uses allowed for in the planning legislation is conditrf+io%%ned ~Wll I -lull I u by/ "L Li then LI 1 I expfropriat-ion L ^f M I W..qI 114LILJWI I legs!tinmtha I%~l o~i~lu LI JI I LI ILJI. limitso I LO~ the Li II_ resrvaiopeio I ~ I ~ V ULIV.I I VlZolI ilju for J ul land not actually used for the intended purpose to 7 years. At the end of this period, the reservali O Is cdnceiied and the site's designated iand use changes to a non-public use. The planning for and supervision of industrial development are responsibilities shared for different planning and economic reasons by departments within the Ministries of Planninq, Trade and Industry, and Municipal Affairs, as well as with regional and local planning committees. 15 Cabinet letter No to MPWH dated 16 th June /01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

67 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update The existing planning system is also characterised by gaps and omissions. Examples of these shortcomings are: * Legislation states that programming and implementation phasing should be built into land use plans but no attempt has been made to do so;. Legislation does not establish methods of controlling the implementation of phasing proposals; * Once a land use nlan establishes a use for a narticrilar nlot. the owner may develop it whenever he wishes. This makes it difficult to delay development in 1.4IL..L4 VVI.`I`-. LI IL. LI I IIL.LULJ 11/.. IWIJ IJIIII L4LI %L. I%.LL ' FI Jpi V I 3.JI I% l U%J'J1; IIVJL I VI '.J 1IUq- 1-JI facilities in the short term;. The limitation of reservation of land for public purposes for a period not exceeding 7 years makes the reservation of specific sites in areas where development is only long-term nearly impossible; * The lack of supervision capabilities amongst local planning authorities has led to innumerable instances of illegal construction or change of use which seriously undermines the obiective of land use planning; * Established procedures of plan initiation, preparation and approval are characterised by slow routines with only limited opportunity for public participation in setting standards and contributing to the planning of the local en lvir LI InIm ein t. raci ULROLIio n i I ILedU LU LI e submission Ul ULbJtiLLIUII LU Ospets of the Plan which would result in damage to the individual's personal property or in reduced income or capital. There is little opportunity to question the authorities overall planning concept. The location of major land uses within and close to the Amman Development Corridor and over much of its zone of influence have evolved without the guidance and control of a Regional or Master Plan. There is no clear, functional relationshin between the location of housing areas and employment areas; Local and Subdivision Plans have been approved in response to pressure from landowners, and Industrial Estates have been located where the availability of inexpensive land is the prime criteria for silt eileclioi. The resuit is ad rdygmented distribution of iand use, with poor transport connections and limited infrastructure services. Work journeys are otten long and public transport inetficient. Lax enforcement of existing planning controls combined with the approval of widely dispersed Subdivision Plans not only makes the existing situation more difficult, but risks perpetuating the problems indefinitely. Land holdings within the Development Corridor are predominantly in private owinerchip. XAhilct- p!ot- sizesc andr chapes vamry wide!y, t1hp rma,ority% airnersma!! S""II.l..J ~I I.JL v IIL J I.-L.J V.I y VVIIatIy, -L 'II.u. WIII1I and IL y LI% I I al I. IwIl uii IW. irregular, and the consolidation of properties to create large development sites will be a problem f1or future development. There is therefore an urgent need to regularise the planning and implementation of development projects if the potential benefits of the ADC are to be maximised. A Government-backed Authority or similar organisation to comprehensively plan and control the development that will be induced by the ADC is needed and proposals for this are further pursued in Section 9 of this EIA. J0269/01-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

68 S3, n SI IVOISAHdOIS 3NI13SVS IVi I NN3tNOl^4AN3 V omsmmnmm mnrmmema E

69 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update aecljij' '4 EINV1.E JIIMEI4IHL DHaELLINE IAJP4EJi1'JP BIOPHIYSICAL ISSUES 4.1 INTRODUCTION This section of the EIA outlines the status of the biophysical environment along the ADC aiignment and its zone of influence. The following section, Section 5, discusses the socio-economic issues and the two sections taken together provide the Environmental Baseline Conditions for the project. Section 4.2 summarises the climatic data of relevance to the project, while Section 4.3 gives a brief outline of the geology of the area. Sctrion,~r 4.4 da ji i-he I tpgay, rr' l I I!ands cap and%si!s ta Lif. Section 4.5 covers the ecology and biodiversity, and summarises the status of the main elements of the floral and faunal populations as updated by the Royal Society for Nature Conservation during the present EIA Update. Sections 4.6 and 4.7 describe the water resources of the area, the first identifying the principal features of surface hydrology, the second defining the maior ground water aquifers. Sections 4.8 reviews air quality and noise. Section 4.9 discusses the archaeological and cultural heritage sites within the project area as defined by the DAi from surveys of the road aiignment corridor and CDP site. Finally, Section 4.10 highlights shortcomings in the Baseline data and recommends studies that might be undertaken to improve it. A ) E'l T M ATr In general, Jorudan enjoys a climate characteristic or the Eastern --e-erranean, with hot dry summers and cold wet winters. The ADC spans two recognisable climatic zones, the Steppe Zone and the Cool Desert Zone, as shown in Figure 4.1. The southern part of the Contract 1 alignment is within the Steppe Zone, defined as having less than 300 mm annual rainfall with mean annual temperatures not exceeding 18 0 C. Absolute maximum temperatures are high, exceeding 420C in summer, but mild in winter, with anniiua evaporation from open water in excess of 1.45 m. The northern part of Contract 1 together with Contracts 2 and 3 alignments and the CDP site essentially border the Cool Desert Zone, which is markediy drier and essentially arid, with unreliable annual rainfall usually less than 200 mm. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

70 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update L) ' - r- I.1 C >; \ L /, i, -, - 1 I I I m`an,iza Road /,i [u;" nnrt;d"w2l>l l~i /1) 1't-o1I -~~-~adouhiah 1 oac 1 n - is- Sahab Road I"(-j- > XSahabj I D ESERT /, / 1 STE1HP~ 0S/T I \ /5/niwa 1Yadodah 1il ~~~Saha, / I ~\D 71 / 1It1 M.71-- HigRX/.. IN IDeAertl / UN / Highway\ I Hes {s _ hth Queen Alia International Airpor t Figure 4.1 Climatic Zones 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

71 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update The Kingdom is covered by a network of 31 climate monitoring stations. Of these, 3, listed in Table 4.1, are sufficiently close to the project area to provide relevant information. The most significant climatic parameters for these stations over the ~ j~ ,~I!I A -~ periou Ui their recursu are yiveni [I I duita 4.2. Table 4.1 Climate Stations Relevant to the Project Area Station WMO I Elevation I Latitude I Longitude I Length of 1 Station Reg. No. (m asl) (North) (East) Record;I I Amman Airport ' ' Queen Alia Int. Airport ' ' Zarqa Non-WMO ' ' Table 4.2 Long Term Averages for Primary Climatic Parameters Climatic Parameter A m I OAIA Zarna Mean Annual Maximum Temperature (OC) Mean Annual Temperature (OC) hcliit- Annuinl M2vimiim Temperature( (OC) A4 Al 3. A4ZD Absolute Annual Minimum Temperature (OC) Davs with Minim-m Temneratijre RpInw n oc - I Ri Days with Maximum Temperature Above 35 OC Total Annual Rainfall (mm) Maximum Rainfall in 24 Hours (mm) Total Annual Evaporation (Class A Pan, mm) l Not recorded The climate of the area is therefore not unduly extreme. but there are a number of factors significant to highway and driver safety on fast links through open country. These parameters are listed in Table 4.3 and the long-term Wind Rose for the Amman Airport climate station is shown in Figure 4.2. Rainfall intensities are relatively light and the maximum rainfall in a 24-hour period is as foilows: 1 in 10 ar stnrm 632 mm * 1 in 50 year storm 85 mm ; In 100 year stormll 94 m[ Prevailing winds are, in general, north-westerly during the summer and southwesterly to westerly during the winter. Amman Airport experiences calm conditions 37.8% of the time, while Queen Alia International Airport (QAIA) has calms 31.7% of the time. However, gales are common in the winter and are frequently associated with dust and sandstorms that may reduce visibility to the extent that OATA may rlnroe Aitk^i ink Vn^AlAI ic m~imfh n rmr, fn ll I' in-,,'-.- r -.;+.1, n,.,..c-...-f... A-ILItIhUgh1 sno 11JVV 1 relativivey raei (, IfaII3 are UassocaItLeU VViLII passingiy rpuolar FrontI s that may linger for 2-3 days but rarely longer, during which time there is usually serious disruption to traffic and a spate of accidents. l Jordan Climatoloqical Handbook Ministry of Transport, Department of Meteoroloqy J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

72 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uodate Fog is not uncommon, particularly in the early morning and late evening. The occurrence of iow visibility to the extent it impairs driving is not recorded, but the combined frequency of fog or dust, when visibility is less than 1 km suggests lower visibility, albeit perhaps of short duration, may be frequent. I ~ - A A Amman AirpoRi v l I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~12% % Calm Winds37., l I '..e ~~~~~~~~~3% 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~..." > Wi nd Rose for Amma Wnd Spe ot. t.~a I0269/2-RPT-EN I 1 REV March N~~~~ I I Calmi Winds 37.8% Figure 4.2 Wind Rose for Amman Airport J RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

73 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Table 4.3 Long Term Averages for Project Significant Climatic Events 2 A Total Rainfall (mm) Station F im A M liii ra S O Ni D Year Amman Airport QAIA Zarga o L?ay. VILII w,, Ag; 5, StationA I F -,.A UJ A M I T A _ iararrn AirnnrF 1 1 i1 1 i Q A i n l rn n l n l cz S I0 NI D Yearl l [ QAIA_._. t98t i zarqa ni n o n 2 4 r! 6!36 C Days with Thunderstorm I S t ation W I FI I A I I T_F I A S fo N t D iyear Amman Airport O O Q (AlA U U O U U I U U U U Zarga O O O O O O 1 D Days with Snow I. Station I I F I M A M I I] A S o N D I Amman Airport 1 1 F O f 0 0 F QAIA Zarqa o o o o o o i1o o o o o o E Days wirn Hail j C Yearl O 2 Station- -- ] - F M A M i A S 0 N D Yea LI/A1111dilMI[PUrL I U I I U I U U I U U U J U I U LU LU L QAIA leir ur I u_ 0 I 0 u I 1 Zarq3 0 O O0 0 O T m Ji O T O0 u 0 I _ u 0 I _ u 0 I _ u 0 i _ uj 0 I _ I_ u_ 0 I_ u ui i F Days wirh Fo or Dust 'rvisibiiir i D r_ tviii Kmj Station 1 1 F 1 M A M W W A 1S N D Year F IM1PUIL Ail rpdi I I I I U U ; I F I QAIA Zarqa i O 0 O O O O O O OlOlO3 0 0 G Days with Ground Frost Station M 3 3 A S N D Year Amman Airport o o o 5 QAIA 7j 4 12 _ 0 _ Zarga H Prevailing Wind Direction I Ct;tiri 1 i F IM ^ M 1 1 C n I N I n I Vv:arI I Station - I F,M]A_M M A J_ I I F I A.I I _ t 268 QAIA! 238 I 253 I 276! 286! 275 I 289! 295 I 293 I 286 I 300 I 241! 204! 288 Amman Airport il i I Maximum Wind Gust (knots) _ Station I J F M A M J J [AI S O N D Year Amman Airport QAiA 'u I _5 1_ 2_515_ zarga The number of days have been rounded to the nearest whole day. Rainfall has been rounded to the nearest mm. Monthly and Annual Totals may therefore not tally. Some parameters are based upon a shorter record that the period quoted in Table 4.1. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

74 ArrUrran Develuuonent Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update 4.3 GEOLOGY Stratigraphy and Lithology The project area is located on the East Jordan Limestone Plateau that extends easlwards from tlhe Jordan RiLt Valley Into Saudi Arabia. The stratigraphy predominantly comprises a sequence of calcareous strata of Cretaceous and Tertiary age, as shown in Table 4.4. Table 4.4 Stratigraphic Succession in the Project Area Group Age Formation Primary Lithologies Thickness Tertiary 1 Umm Rijam Cherts, limestones and chalks ] c.25 m Chalky marls with crystalline limestones 1 Muwaqqar ;nri nvnciim m BALQA Al Hisa Phosphatic limestones with marls, and m -R UP Upper che _ Cretaceous Limestones, silicified cherts, chalks and Amman yditoe phshtcad m l l ]Wadi Ghu dra n Chalks with phosphatic and dolomitic m limestones, and cherts _l_i Ac Cir Fossiliferous limestone underlain by m_1 limestone Thinly interbedded chalks, dolomites and I I[,u'yu marls JU- 1 JU m. AsSr +dolomitic A3LUN Middle u I Massive marly and micritic limestonnp l _ 1 m GROUP Cretaceous ummar above dolomitic limestones c.45 m l l I Fuheis Thnyhde h!y i,toe.! m l Naur l 1111CLULI i, es, dolomites aldu IIILI-I U":UUteu c.u180 m Naur J nodular chert c m While these stratigraphic sub-divisions are shown on the most recent mapping, which is incomplete for the ADC3, previous mapping was based upon biostratigraphic rather than lithological subdivisions, which group the formations as shown in Figure 4.3, the only geological map available for the whole of the study area. The correlation between the two stratigraphies is shown in Table 4.5. Throughout much of the proiprt area, Quaterna.rv deposits, comprising recent wadi sediments, alluvial fan debris and aeolian sands overlie the bedrock formations. The surface outcrop of the varying lithologies along the ADC route and on the CDP site are outlined below. The geotechnical characteristics of the strata have been reported separately 4 ' 5. Not surprisingly, there are significant differences between the results of the geotechnical studies and the map shown in Figure The Natural Resources Authority is currently re-mapping the whole of the Kingdom at a published scale of 1:50,000. The ADC spans four separate sheets. Those for Sahab, Madaba and Zarqa have been completed, but a substantial part of the Corridor falls within the Amman sheet, which is still in preparation. 4 Factual Report for Subsurface Investigations for ADC Phase 1. Arab Center for Engineering Studies for Dar Al- Handasah, July Amman Development Corridor Phase 1. Geotechnical Report-Contract 1. Dar Al-Handasah, August 2003.Amman Development Corridor Phase 1. Geotechnical Report-Contract 1. Dar Al-Handasah, August /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

75 Amtnan Development Corricfor Environmefital ImpactAssessment Uodate IOnvrm Tf:.0 r n 9NT I A.Z?E al Zp Z' dt M> A iiip M _Ai 7" _7 Q -'r" -4 T.1; V"_ W, ;,t-"77 Nt Of A ^:I. t LECiEND -POC, U 4 e r -W `2 -j "-A 4 4T'. O.- A?'qM 9; W, J U. Di J. 4 u El :% - wn 4 J, U;S Z F% N'VNOs -'.j -t4;,i 4 2M '.',, -.' I- %, nw q: 'S 4:5 "'Q t I Z: S p", K j12k" I t _< J, so.- M, I VA A S'p DEAC) il\dl 41, SF=A mln- 4L; I4 Skalk lmofn"Oml FigLire 4 3 Geology J RPT-EAW-01 REV 0 March 2004

76 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact- Assessmnent Update Table 4.5 Comparison Between Recognised Formations and Mapped Units Contract I _Group Age Formation Mapped Unit Tertiary Umm Rijam Upper Cherts and Chalks BELQA Muwaqqar Lower Chalks GROUP Upper= - Cretaceous Amman Lower Silicified Limestones l l ~~~~~Wadi Ghudran I Wadi As Sir Upper Limestone Shu'ayb [ AJLUN Middle Shu'ayb Middle Limestones and Marls GROUP Cretaceous..., n m Fuheis In o ni niii oin o Naur This section of the alignment primarily crosses outcrops of the Upper Cretaceous du I Ierary cialks and limesiones. Smail isolated ou[crops of the underlying Wadi As Sir limestones are present towards the Desert Highway, but the area is characterised by little exposure as the bedrock formations are largely covered by a veneer of superficial Quaternary and Recent deposits up to 8 m in thickness. Contracts 2 After a short distance over pnnper Cretarepnis stra Ithe Contnract 2 alignment enters hilly country comprising Wadi As Sir limestones and continues to traverse ifhic forrfir kfr^i inh t if ifcvinf LI 11- I %I II IEU%I%l I U 11 VII IvUL 1ILO IX IytLI I. Contract 3 In the vicinity of the ZEB/ZTR interchange, a major NE-SW fault brings younger strata back into juxtaposition, to occupy the northern alignment of the ADC. The Al Hisa Phosphate Unit outcrops over part of the ZEB route and in the vicinity of the Yaiouz Road intersection. Throughout all three rontrart alignmnents, gentle folding is evident in many exposures, but the dip of the beds is generally near horizontal. The ADC will be constr3l1 uctedu L.JLJLI both I In cuttiyg LLI and aloueman iu emba ~I I I nikmentiib. '3~ULeLI I in Icutig have indicated that slope stability is not of major concern and generally short sections of protection, in the form of grouted rip-rap, have been included in the design wherever investigations has shown it to be required. Fencing to protect against minor falling debris may also be needed in places. The CDP Site The CDP site is primarily underlain by the limestones of the Wadi As Sir Formation Structure and Seismology IeLV.Geote Although the East Jordan Limestone Plateau is itself tectonically stable, it is located adjacent to the regional transform discontinuity that includes the East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba, the Jordan Rift Valley, and Lebanon's Bekaa 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

77 Amman Development Corridor Environmental imnact Assessment Update Valley. The section of this structure through the Middle East is varyingly referred to as the Levant System or the Levant Rift Zone. The primary result is that the area is one of considerable structural cormplexity, having been cut by a large number of generally NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults andu fauiit zones. Field evidence of both f'aulting andi U'Odingl seeni III IULK exposures within the project area. In particular, the northern part of Contract 2 is cut by NW-SE trending tauits, while the ZEB and Z/T L traverse the much larger NE- SW trending Zalqa Fault Zone, as shown in Figure 4.4. Jordan has historically suffered from a number of seismic events and the area remains active. The location of historical earthquakes in the region and details of individual events has previously heen reported 6. Farthnuakes of up to M= 6.27 (felt by all, furniture moved and slight structural damage) have occurred in the Aqaba area, whereas events of M=A-5 (ffelt indoors, doors rattle but no structural damage) are more common in and around Amman. As a result of the Kingdom's susceptibility to seismic events, MPWH's National Building Code divides the Kingdom into three zones based upon the perceived risk from earthquakes and the necessary allowances in structural design to mitigate them. The project area lies wholly within Zone B and the viaducts, bridges, underpasses and other structures on the ADC have been designed in accordance with the requirements of the Code. The Natural Resources Authority (NRA) of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral resources operatle a national network1 of sis monihitrilng st ations and has recently acquired 5 new stations for deployment within the Amman region Mineral Resources Mineral resources within the study area are limited to deposits of phosphate and uranium south of Zarqa, along the Zarqa Fault Zone, and to the quarrying of the Wadi As Sir limestones for construction materials over a wide area west of the Contract 2 alignment, as shown in Figure 4.5. In the area immediately south of Zarqa, the Jordan Phosphate Mining Company took a concession to VVUIN phosiphate andu uranium UdpUsits by both undeirygrunid and open cast mining. The Russeifa Mine operated until 1987, but the quality of the deposits is poor compared with that elsewhere in the Kingdom. The company aiso suffered transport problems and encountered mounting opposition due to the atmospheric pollution caused by their activities. The workings therefore closed and whilst the concession remains in place, discussions held in May 1998 during an earlier phase of the ADC project, confirmed mining would not be reactivated. Discussions with the NRA in 2003 confirm that whilst the company is currently processing previously mined material, no new mining will take place. The company ic preparing nlans for naernni ue of fa the.. sit, Ii I%.ALJLJ iincludiing i and industrial activity. Worked out areas are currently utilized by Greater Amman IMlunicipa,ity 'I or Lhe disposal of solid was.le EIA, Figure 4.4 and Table M is the Mercalli Intensity of Earthquakes, full details of which were given in Appendix D of the 1999 EIA /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

78 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update K,~~~~~Za qa- \!irhwiq - v zam Road =/' 'kv>a.<i<duah Roadj2 -NI~~ AX<~~~~~~~" r I J S.I> t Yadoudah HigSahab y J1/ if /I / 1 / Higwad I ~~ J,- I, _+_ Highwayes Majo North Desert -' Legend u / \ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~Major F~ault Lones IL I North \Minor Pni tt 1 Kilometres 0 5 Fiqure 4.4 Geological Structure 20269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

79 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update A~. X7C>(9 Z6rqa) I-~~~~- L)~~~~~~~~XE A:l- '\r I W- > '- / ] /Desert \\II>eSLfl~'"/ 5 1t QueenAlAizaIneatolAipr ^ ~~~~/ Higha - I ~~Yado dh 1 -r...._ I Highway ~urz~ icij Queen Alia International Aijiport Figure 4.5 Minpra! Rpconirrpe J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

80 Armmr,,an Develooa,Ient Corridor EnvifrUonn,ental I,irnact Assessriment Uridate The area south of the old mining area was a major source of building stone, but extraction is now all for aqqreqates. The NRA has defined an area of some 745 ha for aggregate workings within the ADC zone of influence south of the phosphate mining area. Further south, many private quarrying companies are still operating under license from Greater Amman Municipality, particularly in the Wadi Al Qattar an and U Wad la0u A'% IilsUlh Us areas ra.athough /'%ILI IU l I1 rock- I LN qurie LUC31I IC (3 Ci reiheetl 1 lii M[ ei1 ILIY III-~ie llutedu Lo U uirban U d development, it is likely that the exploitation of these resources will continue for the foreseeable future as construction of the ADC and associated developments will create substantial short-term demand for aggregate materials and on completion will facilitate future quarrying by improving access and product distribution. Quarrying activity in the area during is shown in Table 4.6. Table 4.6 Recent Quarry Production in the area East of Amman Area Quarries 2002 Production Wadi Al Ush 20 2,199,500 m 3 Wadi Al Qattar 7 626,000 m 3 With the national output of building aggregate totalling 12.7 million m 3 for 2002, this represents some 22% of the Kingdom's annual production. The NRA has no accurate calculation of available reserves in the area as the sustainability of the industry is not considered to be at risk. As with the old potash workings, Greater Amman Municipality, who own and nnnr~fnrn,nr~i, i.~a-rne n 4kn ~-n~a a-n A,nl,nna 4. ~a--~f tt-i;a S, A; -.-.,--- operante; severuall quarries In the uanea, use worked=out areas four soid wvastel disposa~l, notably scrapped cars. 4.4 TOPOGRAPHY, LANDFORMS, SOILS AND LAND USE Topography The topography of the project area is shown in Figure 4.6 and slope analysis in Figu I ~ re I~JJI 4.7. I. I Tgtethycary I U II=I-I L LII I~CI iy- I demonstrate IHU H I L L the LI I~ difclyof u I I' I LUL U the LIlI tranover Lr-l I all I UV%= much of the northern route of the ADC and adjacent areas, where steeply incised wadis pose a severe constraint on urbn urban developmenl and the provision of infrastructure services. Contract 1 From an elevation of c.770 m above sea level at its intersection with the Desert Highway, the ADC alignment rises just 20 m over the southernmost 2 km. It then falls hark to r-760 m after 4 km. beyond which it gentlv undu!ates ;t- ra m for a further 8 km. From here, it rises steadily to the Sahab interchange at c. 830 mn, nft-er waickh it sa In risingl Iunati ngi roun,d un-ti..-aal reaching a, steep knoll at III, U.IL'..I VVI II'..Il IL ZILUaY.~ IIaI a~ II'IIIJ U.aIL JIUUI LII II VJI%U IIH U LJIILII I CJCI..iII- C111H HI C the end of the alignment at a height of 920 m. Slopes throughout Contract 1 are primarily less than 5%, although for a distance of c.3 km a short way beyond the Sahab highway, slopes of 5-100/o are present. 8 Annual Report of the Mines and Quarries Directorate. National Resources Authority, /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

81 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update F' ~~~~~~Z'arqa/( ek I KV ) _- C. I v K JJi_'Ua W-IN I Desr- Elvto (Meres I North /Highway\ El],n(800-1 Kilometres/ Fiqure 4.6 General Topography J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

82 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Zaqrna 0 II' + 1/ LX \r i4 nx -JJ 1, "A 1 j W XiM,- TR i. F > i~ NiL' Yh''.!C },rj;yadjo~udah Roadd\, I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I \ 9 l 3#D JVIdjIIdi / 1\... /Sahab.. xj7 r u z z X j j ~~~~~Highway ) / Deserta'-o>~ 4 d r-- Highway{ -I >Tl II DI-, Z!.g^! 10-20% Desert -- ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~2'- - FU 5 V 1-4~~~~~~~~ PdU 'ii 2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0-30 IKil resi > 40% Flgure t./ Slope Analysis 20269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

83 A,,,mman Develuo,,I,ent Corridor E iviron LiienI al,,i pactassessmen---lilt U-dlate Contract 2 Contract 2 continues in undulating terrain at elevations of m, which north of the CDP site becomes highly dissectpe. After some 7 ki, the terrain begins to fall below 800 m and reaches c.620 m at the northern end of the alignment. Over the southern half of the contract slopes continue to be less than 5% but rapidly increase to /o in tne niiiy terrain from c.3 km north of the Madounah Road and continues northwards. Contract 3 Although remaining hillyv elevations drop throughout the Contract 3 alignment, reaching c.590 m at the Zarqa River beneath the ZTL viaduct. Steep slopes continue to the ZEB/ZTL interchange and over the southern ZEB but thereaer rapidly reduce and are generally less than 5% over the northernmost 2-3 km of the MLJA.D route. The CDP Site The CDP site is gently undulating with some isolated hills. Much of the area is at an elevation of m, rising locally 870m on the hiqhest hills, with the majority of slopes less than 5% Landforms The landforms are best described within the framework of the Land Systems analysis carried out for the National Soiis and Land Use Mapping Project. The project area falls within two NSMLUP regions; Region 8, the Northern Highlands Dissected Plateau and Region 11, the Jordan Highlands Plateau. Within the project area, eight separate land units are identified within the ADC as shown in Fiaure The landform, land capability and natural vegetation of each sub-unit is summarised in Table Cross-sections illustrating the various landforms have been previously presented in the 1999 ARR EIA /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

84 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update 10LX 4/)i- Zaraa-- Im7 )' S~~~~~~~~ a > Za'p ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~P I I I'-,,Highwav~f 1 //1 1 ~~~ M~~~~~~H~izam Road IM~ +: tj \, a Mt,,tYadoc ARo/\ douna 7//X I p Road _ SlhabRoad /ahabl l *.~,fyadoudah ~ aiu/ ~~~YAD/i N5/ \ I~~/ F 1-~"- I~~ ~~ K;u--S A1; tr ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ Queen A IUU Il 0 11i 'nteraiolina1 -lul iot Figure 4.8 Land Units 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

85 Amman Development Corridor Envlironmental Impac.t Assessment Undate Table 4.7 Lanclforn, Land Capability and Natural Vegetation for the NSMLUP Land Units I.andforrn Landforrn Characteristics ILand Suitabilityf Natural Vegetation Sub-UJnit Found on the periphery of the Madabaz Plains and The moisture regime is xeric but with less than 300 Peiripheral to the direct impact area, the SUF'A differentiated cinly by greater development of the rnm rainfall is unreliable. Nevertheless agricultural steeper slopes may carry grass cover of (SUFA prolfile, which is undulatincg to rolling, comprising activity is intense on thie deep colluvial soils. Where delgraded Mediterranean species. The history (SUF) rounded hills, valley shoulders and long colluvium uncultivatel, the steeper slopes cairry a grass cover of cultivation suggests areas uncultivated but less mantled slopes. of Mediterranean specieas. now will remain so. Occupies much of the eastern Madabal Plains and Rainfall is generally toci low to support rain fed Part of the transitionral Mediterranean Steppe underlies most of the southern Contract 1 agriculture thouglh it is increasingly apparent that zone. The Poa and Carex spp steppe YADLDA alignment. Typically very flat undulating plaiin grasslands are being ploughe!d up. Where irrigation granssands contain some Mediterranelan spp (YAID) comprisinig fil deep atigvr colluvial/loessic fills rnantling rcetvgtbefde very is present vegetable n flower reccpand and tree crop are being ploughed heavily grazed. up and are These increasing r-angelands ly are low interfluves. production is undertaken. vulnerable to urban development. This is a gently undulating depositional plain of Some 70% has been ploughed for barely and wheat: but with rainfall less than 150 mm, production off t:he valley floors is marginal. Soils are mainly deep and fine textured but a high calcium carbonate ABYAD Quaternary alluvium and loessic materials overlying content promotes capping and slaking that hinders (ABY) the Predominantly Al Hissa and steppe the Muwaqqar grassland -ormations. of Poa It is and a the uptake of trace metals and cause nutrient Carex spp. Denser shrub cover occurs in relatively low energy environment with weak wacli imbalances. The destruction of the natural grass some valleys. incisions and gentle relief. cover has made the fine soil extremely vulnerable to desiccation. Wind erosion and other longer term environmental damage can be expected unless effective larid use management is introduced. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-CG1 REV Mar-ch 2004

86 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Imoact Assessment Update Landform Landform Characteristics Land Suitability Natural Vegetation Sub-Unit This area lies on the periphery of the ADC MUDEISIS alignment. It is a very finely dissected chert The area is intensively grazed with the dominant Grassland steppe with Poa and Carex MUDEISIS olighe watershied Ldfrsec aeret steppe grassland vegetation kept very low to the dominant. Artemesia spp dominant on (DEI) splateau with rshed landforms asical ground. The xeric-aridic moisture regime restricts steeper slopes. Limited threat beyond over subdued, with rounded hills, although occasional cliaint alyfor.gaig sharp ridges are sharp present. ridges are cultivation to valley floors, grazing. Barley is cultivated in valley bottoms, but the Much of Contract 2 traverses this unit. It xeric-aridic transitional moisture, mm, Natural vegetation is heavily'grazed Poa and QIHAT comprises strongly and finely dissected rocks of the severely limits productivity. Carex grassland with Artemesia spp on (HAT) Amman and Muwaqqar Formations that produce The valley alluvium and the colluvial deposits are steeper slopes. Limited threat beyond over steep sided hills with angular crests. suitable for irrigation on slopes less than 10% and grazing. will also support irrigated tree cropping. The area is xeric-aridic with only mm of rainfall. Cultivation is confined to the lower slopes of outwash fans and valley alluvium, but only very NISAB This unit is a dissected plateau on the Belqa poor yields are obtained. Elsewhere are intensively Grassland steppe off the lower slopes of (NIS) limestones and in the vicinity of Zarqa is aligned utilized grasslands. Some 40% of the area is coalesced gravely fans and valley alluvium. along the Zarqa Fault Zone. covered by deep fine loamy soils on gradients of Increasingly significant losses to ploughing. less than 10%, suitable for irrigation. They are largely unaffected by the ADC, which over the area is confined to the flanks of Wadi Al Ush. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

87 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Soils The project area contains the four'broad soils units shown in Figure 4.9. Mafraq liza Soils. Calciorthids with subsidiary Camborthids. These soils are extremely vulnerable to erosion when disturbed and measures to reduce surface flow are advisable. Protection against overgrazing may also be required. If irrigated, salt leaching and modified drainage may be necessary. Zarqa and Al Hussainiya Soils. Clacirothids with subsidiary Camborthids. These are extremely vulnerable to pulverization by heavy machinery, which leads to a decrease in permeability and increased runoff, salinity and erosion. Shallow soils on steeper slopes are particularly vulnerable to erosion. Qasr El Tuba and Zuwait Soils. Calciorthids with subsidiary Torriorthents. Generally poor soils not suited to cultivation, they are vulnerable to overgrazing and erosion when surface vegetation is removed. Irbid Soils. Chromoxererts with subsidiary Haploxeralfs. These are deep, good quality soils that crack when dry and require effective management, especially the maintenance of optimum moisture conditions. They are particularly vulnerable to puddling, which destroys their structure when worked wet with heavy machinery. In some areas these soils have a higher than normal montmorillonite content and strongly exhibit the swelling and shrinking properties of this clay Land Suitability The general suitability for agriculture of each of the NSMLUP land sub-units is also summarised in Table 4.7. Previous studies have undertaken more detailed analysis to determine the suitability of each sub-unit for three classes of arable agriculture: Rain Fed Annual Cropping; Rain Fed Perennial Cropping; and Irrigation. They also analysed their suitability for use as Rangeland. The results have been previously reported" 0. The principal findings were essentially twofold: * That climatic constraints determine that lands east of the Desert Highway are unsuited for rain-fed agriculture but are well suited for irrigation should adequate water resources be available; and * That without irrigation, the areas have substantial value as Rangeland, although this resource is rapidly being lost due to ploughing and, to a lesser extent at the present time, the expansion of urban development EIA Section 4, which includes the results of the Land Suitability Analysis and Land Suitability maps /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

88 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Imoact Assessment Uodate ~~~~~~~~~~ 7 )1 N- _ Zarqa V I Hizam Road ) -7A r-ri t" la KI r' g t.:9-!s\l HUSSAINIYA ''K/'X' _.'-'',h, D' A2X,S'''"A')rt.'.'' /SOILIS // [ <Madounah Road ( ( J Z ~- I'~ -/ - I \_f )-/{, 9 \ jk7 Ssaha Rosad 117 IRBID A TURA i,ighway D ZUWAIT k ffyadwtidah M R.17A SOILS! I \ 11 /SOILS I \ 11 I \\_ A W flcrt\/ fji rte.tres 5 l Queen Alia International Airport Figure 4.9 Soil Units J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

89 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update Existing Land Use Land use throughout the ADC alignment and over much of the surrounding area is lnrrinkl, i nir nilanr,, I -ahg!y kri h f, hgd lie irn.vvriai rnr%n r' i r'i-ir i%ai-% i-r%nr%-rtrmn ri % nnarr en-il IC rfr% -Ikg contro! - t,- y th - F. pei. l.¼j U.J-I act..llviv topoj -, -r.a y ad so!. T I LI. southeast, between the Desert Highway and the Sahab Highway, there has been relatively recentl UeveIopmeniL inl response to conitemporary requirements. The areas to the west tend to contain older, more organic settlements growing in response to their agricultural economies and prevailing topographical constraints. Development in the vicinity of Zarqa and Wadi Al Ush is a mixture of declining aqriculture and qrowinq mixed industry, including salvage and scrap metal recycling yards. More sophisticated activities, including pharmaceuticals, chemicals and metal fabrication are also present, but thpre are nn st-riirt-iirpid ttlements in this part of the Corridor. The most detailed land use survey of the project area dates from , since which the most significant changes have been the result of the implementation of approved municipal zoning plans. Satellite images taken in 2001 and analysed recently 12 do not indicate significant urban development outside the planned areas, except for the consolidation of informal transport and service facilities along the Hizam Road and the extension of residential development at Sahab. A 30 ha site south of the ADC interchange on the Desert Highway has recently devexlled by the Al Teen Isra Private University. IITe exsting use of!and in the pij LJ L CHea I luisiiiidi r A.irn aisu III riyuie 4.1U. From a land use planning perspective, the principal issues are as follows:. The de%c, 1,, n hilc on s a -n-ral recreationae areas, - ii ~ UI %.J;I ul III VUiJIn'... P';I I 3aOU.c Ciiu iiiulau GIU tg I= ~LI ~~U11a1 ICII and the lack of an overall urban landscape and open space structure; * inconsistency in urban development standards due to the flexible interpretation of zoning and building regulations;. The mixture of incompatible uses due to imprecise zoning regulations and, in some locations, illegal development; and * The continued urban expansion onto agricultural lands Overall Landscape Quality In the absence of defined areas of natural beauty, as recognised by the endowment 13 of w csreifi- ci tic any assessment o-f la!acndscanp qai remains, ye s.lu U. I~¼. - Y I.I U I IUJJ¼.LJ 9LJLIU ~_.J¼. ILI%I I II Li LA subjective. It is, however, apparent that the quality of the landscape throughout the project area does not significantly vary. For present purposes, three criteria have been utilised: Tr hkie interest of41: th L1e landscape as refiletedilu by IL. LUIcomIpsItLUIon * The extent to which the landscape has been urbanised or, conversely, the status and structure of the landscape; and The condition of the landscape...1tiel"i G i-naiiiiidi "U,p,f,treeitiive L tivvupmt,va PlIan. LDri V-HaidsIIUd ii (Shiidir adiu r sliie), i Amman Development Corridor-Phase 1. Land Use Study. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) For example, designation as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty or as a Natural Reserve. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

90 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update 11N I, _ G I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 5,~, u Mng/Qayn ]06/--NV0 RE Desertres111ZI ld Am i HigAga 0C422Mmerchi200 \ LYand Ust/ HigI4way~~~~~~77//igur 4.1 / ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ExsigLn s I0612RTAN-1 E 42 Mresidentia

91 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update Desert Highway to Sahab Highway The southern section of the Contract 1 alignment offers only a largely flat, dry, geevra!r!y hi Ifnnf- ag nricti uil-i irdl withrlqc- - 1l-+i it-k obvious srcu or i- nr- Sahab Highway ro vwadi Ush Chemical Factory This section embraces the northern section of Contract 1, all of Contract 2 and the southern parts of Contract 3. North of the Madounah Road, the landscape becomes hilly and offers views overlooking the plain to the south and east towards Sahab and Amman. From a visual perspective, while pleasant and offering some concept of 'wilderness' these hills are not out of the ordinary and do not compare favourably with simi!ar areas Pl!pwhprp in Nnrt-hrn Jnrdann hese are also some cultural values 'Lo bue considered hiiere, derived furom th e relationship between landforms and archaeology, notably in the location of the watchtowers seen on the high points of the Wadi Al Ush interfiuve. There are also other sites of archaeological interest in Wadi Al Ush, but these are largely undeveloped and to an untrained eye, add little aesthetic value to landscape. Zarqa Industrial Area Over much of the Contract 3 alignment, the landscape has been almost wholly degraidd Tt- ic nnrhricdnari% iincirhtly, andt up. J' L - Zarqa Urban Area 1.fA I5~d 7 - ~~ t 7 in urgeni- nered of an nviromernta- c!an LI*JII A..J 5JI I.. I 5 VIIWLiIIIIt.,I IL.tI Again within Contract 3, the landscape here primarily comprises an ad hoc mix of relatively low quality urban development, industrial complexes and utilities. The area affected by the ZTR has little or no residual landscape value. 4.5 ECOLOGY AND BIO-DIVERSITY Ecological surveys throughout the design corridor were undertaken for the 1999 EIA. For the present Update, the these results have been reviewed and a the CDP site surveyed by the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature Bio-Geographical Zones The ADC alignment crosses two main bio-geographical zones. as shown on Fioure The southern half of the Contract 1 alignment falls within the Mediterranean Zone, whi!e the remainderiof the route to Zarqa, inc!uding the CDP site, is within the Irano-Turanian Zone. A third bio-graphical zone occupies wadis. Mediterranean Zone The Mediterranean Zone is not typically represented. The area has been subjected to diverse human impacts over the millennia and cultivation in areas of sufficient rainfall. Floral indicators pinpoint the significant level of degradation its natural habitats have suffered over the last several hundred years /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

92 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update V/ IV /tf>1 7] 771J)\ 'I\ K '9 _ /E 4 ME IRl / /7 "a,. X1W ANIAN t~~~~~~~~~~~~ I I II I I N~ Highway LJ~,Ow [!SK res li r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i Queen Alia International Airport 1\ Figure 4.11 Blo-Geographical Zones j-i J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

93 Amman Deveiloornent Corridor EnvironmentaI impact Assessment Uudate Irano-Turanian Zone The Irano-Turanian Zone is better represented due to its desert character and ability to invade other zones. The area lies under the major commercial and i niu4ustlrial centre of thle ir\in KL gduujorn, andl while many Ifloral andu dfaunal, speclies IIhaV migrated or disappeared, others have adapted and survived. Wadi Systems Seasonal wadi systems are found in both the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian Zones and comprise one of the most degraded habitats in Jordan due to their locations near urban development. A.5I.2' F!ora I lhe blo-geographical zones broadly equate with the natural vegetation zones shown in Figure Mediterranean Non-Forest Vegetation Within the ADC, this is confined to the Mediterranean bio-geographical zone and characterised by remnants of forest species, such as the Hawthorn (Crataegus azara!us), asits -,ni-, ar more fertile. M11any leauinll l sjpice Ul LIsIZ VCetCLaLIVII Ltype' JC IUUI IU III I IC11Ce, suui as, Rhamnus palaestinus, Sarcpoterium spinosum, Asphodeline lutea, and Crataegus azarolus, but due to the high degradation many other species from adjacent drier habitats are also found, including Anabasis syriaca, Noaea mucronata, and Artemisia herba-alba. The species list for Mediterranean Non-Forest vegetation is given in Table 4.8. Steppe Veaetation The Contracts 2 and 3 alignment is primarily under the influence of steppe vegetation. This is confined to the Irano-Turanian bio-geographical zone and is charact1erised bl, Jy tlh I omulin1ianliic Ul UIuuyi IL-LUIC31dlL IoV su L) ILII d VCi IeLy VI grasses and legumes. Soils generally lack fertility and moisture and agriculture has generally not been successful. The CDP site also fails within this vegetation zone. Typical species of this vegetation type are; Artemisisa herba-alba, Retama raetam, Noaea mucronata, and Achillea fragrantissima. Degradation and human impact has led to the invasion of Saharo-Arabian vegetation, such as Hammada sp and Anabasis syriaca. The soecies list for Steppe veaetation is civen in Tabhl 4.9. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

94 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update 4 \ Ll X~~~~~~Hizam oad [17--J- I ii 1: K \L D vm!ixt / I ~ ii )\- I JJ (f! '' Sahab,, AII JRoad / ---. { /. ~Highway\,/ I7>2KX7 7' ; i(yadoud+ah K-J- -- U [ /Desert / W ^ t / Highway I 4es Desert n., mii id internationa Arport i Figure 4.12 Vegetation Zones J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

95 A,mm,, I Ian Develop,mJIent Corriuor ErivirJInmentIal IIrnipact Assessment Uudate Table 4.8 Mediterranean Non-Forest Vegetation Rhamnus palaestinus Crataegus azarolus Carduus nutans Sarcopoterium spinosum Olea europaea* Sinapis arvensis Poa bulbosa Tulipa spp. Ricinus communis Colchicum spp Euphorbia spp. Aegilops ovata Saivia spp. Amygclalus communis Opuntla ricus-indica (cultivated) Avena spp. LDCacLylls yiloicata reyaiu, harmala Asparagus spp. Retama raetam Sorghum halepense Asnhndlis spnn= Erhinonn szpp Trifoliu.m purpunreu.m Geranium spp. Hordeum murinum Silybum marianum Asphodeline lutea Anagallis arvensis Malva parviflora Teucrium polium Ecballium elaterium Ceratonia siliqua* Sarcopoterium spinosum Althaea sectos and others Pinus spp. * Artemisia herba-alba Calycotome villosa Capparis spinosa Geranium tuberosum Cistus spp Anemone coronaria Daphne /inearifoiia G;obularia arabica Ricinus communis Uriginea maritima Cistus villosus Rosmarinus officinalis n)rrhcih nattolia He1ichrvysum sanguineu.m Sa/viatribo/ia Matricaria chamomilla *Introduced species Table 4.9 Irano-Turanian Steppe Vegetation Retama raetam Artemisia herba-alba Anabasis syriaca Noaea mucronata Asphadelus aestivus A. microcarpus Hammada spp. Urginea maritima Ferula communis Salsola spp Crocus spp. Gypsophila arabica Asgalus spinlos.us.5 I ai 101 IA Ixspp. PhionisI syirilca Ba/lota undulata Achillea fragrantisssima Paronychia argentea Thy.mus capitatus Aegi/nops ovata Hordeu.m bulbosum Papaverrhoeas,and others Fauna Amphibians The only amnhibian thought to be present is the Green Toad (Bu.fo irdis). The main reptiies recorded in tne vicinity of the ADU, listed in Table inciuding the (DP site, are Table 4.10 Reptiles Recorded in the Vicinity of the ADC Turkish Gecko Starred Agama Pale Agama Syrian Agama Short-nosed Desert Racer Gold -tailed Skink Ocellated Skink European Chameleon SnaKe-eyedI Lizara Worm Snake Javelin Szand Auoa Large Whip Snake Hemidactylus turcicus Laudakia stel/io Trapelus pallidus Trapelus ruderatus Mesalina brevirostris Eumeces schneider/i Chalcides ocellatus Chamaeleo chamaeleon* upnisops eiegans Typhlops vermicularis L YA JacuIUs Coluber jugularis J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

96 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Updare Spotted Whip Snake Coluber rogersi Coin Snake Colubernummifer Crowned Dwarf Snake Eirenis coronella Diadem Snake Spalerosophis diadema MvieUiterranieand Tortoise Testudo graeca * Levant Fan-footed Gecko Ptyodactylus puiseuxi G~iant Fringe-toed Li~zard Aca~nthodacty!usf~I gradi Robust Fringe-toed Lizard Acanthodactylus robustus Tristram's Spinv-footed Lizard Acanthodactylus tristrami Black-headed Cat Snake Telescopus nigriceps False Horned Viper Pseudocerastes persicus *Species listed under CITES Birds Although many bird species, listed in Table 4.11, are recorded in the vicinity of the ADC, the majority are migratory. Of the 43 species listed, only 11 are resident, while a further 9 are summer breeders that subsequently migrate. Table 4.11 Birds Recorded in the Vicinity of the ADC Steppe Buzzard Buteo buteo vulpinus migrant KestreLICl rfalco tinnuncu!us resident, ncommon migrant Merlin Falco columbarius uncommon winter visitor Hobbv Falco subbuteo uncommon migrant, summer breeder Chukar Alectoris chukar resident Corncrake Crex crex rare migrant Cream-coloured Courser Cursorius cursor migrant, summer breeder Pin-tailed Sandgrouse Pterocles alchata resident, unknown status Turtle Dove Streptopeiia turtur migrant, summer breeder Palm Dove Streptopelia senegalensis resident Ring-necked Parakeet,ut a n residen * Barn Owl Tyto alba resident Long-eared Owl Asio otus uncommon winter visitnr Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus scarce migrant Bee-eater Merops apiaster v. common migrant, summer breeder Roller Coracias garrulus scarce migrant Hoopoe Upupa epops migrant Wryneck -ynx torquilla scarce migrant Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra migrant, v. common winter visitor Short-toed Lark Calandrela brt acydc4tyai v. cmo l igrant Crested Lark Galerida cristata v. common resident Sandq M-in R.inar,ia.rina.r,ia minra;nt Rock Martin Ptyonoprogne fuligula v. common resident Swallow Hirundo rustica migrant Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis winter visitor, migrant Yellow-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus xanthopygos v. common resident Isabelline Wheatear Oenanthe isabellina summer breeder, migrant Finsch's Wheatear Oenanthe flnschii winter visitor Biackbird Iurdus meriuli residuent Fieldfare Turdus pilaris uncommon winter visitor Song Thrush ITu.rdus phnilnmplnz winter visitor Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pal/ida migrant, summer breeder UInrher's Warhb!r Hippolais languida summer breeder, miqrant Garden Warbler Sylvia borin uncommon migrant Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva rare migrant Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca scarce migrant Masked Shrike Lanius nubicus migrant, summer breeder Hooded Crow Covus corone cornix resident House Sparrow Passer domesticus v. common resident J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

97 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs winter visitor Serin Serinus serinus resident, winter visitor Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala migrant, summer breeder Corn Bunting Miliaria calandra winter visitor, summer breeder White Stork Ciconia ciconia migrant, winter visitor Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus migrant Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus migrant, winter visitor Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus resident Steppe Eagle Aquila niaplensis migrant, winter visitor Sand Partridge Ammoperdix heyi resident Crane Grus grus migrant, winter visitor Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis winter visitor ROCK uove Coiumbia livia resident Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto resident LILLIt \JVVI A1thene noctuai resident Swift Apus apus summer breeder, migrant White Wagtail Mntari.Ia a!ba migrantt wintpr vicit!r Bluethroat Luscinia svecica migrant, winter visitor Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros migrant, winter visitor Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus migrant Stonechat Saxicola torquata migrant, winter visitor Scrub Warbler Scotocerca inquieta resident Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca summer breeder, migrant Dlackcap Sylvia arricapiia nmigrant, summer breeder Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata summer breeder, migrant Red-backed Shrike Laiu mi Mo!ui,r an t, wi n t er v i si.t or Greenfinch Carduelis chloris resident, winter visitor * Species listed under CITES Mammals The mammals found in the vicinity are listed in Table Table 4-12 Mammals Rerorded in the Vicinity of the Afn Long-eared Hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus Peter's Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus blasi Tristram's Jird Meriones tristrami Common Badger Meles meles Greater Rat-tailed Bat Rhinopoma microphylium House Mouse Mus musculus Golden Spiny Mouse Acoym,srussatus Black Rat Rattus rattus Palestine Mole Rat Nannospalax leucodon Cape Hare Lepus capensis Marbled-polecat Vormela peregusna Wild Cat Felis silvestris*'** Striped Hyena Hyaena hyaena ** ICape Hare Lepus capensis Grey Hamster Cricetulus migratorius M,Ic, D 1- Al- -,---,1 Fat Sand Rat Psammomys obesus Kuhl's Pipistrelle PiDistrel/us kuhli Red Fox' Vulpes vulpes Asiatic Jackal Canis aureus J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

98 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update Status of Habitats Globally Important Habitats and Ecosystems The ADC does not contain any globally important habitats or ecosystems. Regionally or Nationally Important Habitats Part of the Contract 1 alignment could be considered locally important as it represents the Mediterranean Non-Forest areas in Jordan. Species of Rhamnus palaestinus indicate it was, a hundred or more years aqo, natural Mediterranean forest with Oak, Ceratonia and other species A long term objective of the Forestry Dpnartment ls to refnrest sijrh areas. Lg al - of,s. ab-tat- There are no Nature Reserves or other legally protected areas within the ADC and urban development is encroaching natural and semi-natural areas. Some species are protected due to their inclusion within national legislation or international treaties and conventions. The area is well away from any sites of sdecial ecological value. The CDP site on the ADC is over 60 km from both the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve and the Azraq Wetland Reserve. It is also away from 'eading lines' that ildentif migration routes, and distant from Important Bird Areas (IBAs). The nearest IBAs are Qa' Khannah, 26 km r~iii to U LIhe I~ north- II LI I easlt, ~ I'ada IUdU Da-111sbDan fiu IILU 26LE I krm IL to thi II e west, vel and li the Ie Z)haCumarIIi ~ d lliid and Azraq Reserves. Conservation Practices No conservation practices are exercised in the ADC area apart from the control of hunting and the monitoring of illegal trade in wildlife, to the extent they are controlled and monitored thrnoighout the Kingdom. A - r- o%f -r. L ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 'sn L "e The duiversity of' 4daunal andl UIUloral specles within LI AD I claisolu t LI)oe sites in Jordan is low. The area has been inhabited for millennia, and deforestation, agriculture and overgrazing over the past few centuries has resulted in soil erosion, degradation and the disappearance of species. There is a low diversity in all taxa. The number of birds and plants is relative for the size of the area, and the numbers are normal if not low. Only a few species have local, regional or international status and are listed below. Speclesn V - - reconrdedt as -_' beingi - - bothk -. g!oba!!y J SJ.WW.S,y andl nat-iona!!y J S IW.I IUIIY significant,- 0I1JI III I%UI IL, arei UI% ony1 U..Il 1;,st,ed 11) II L~U inii the highest category in which they are important. Globally Important Species There are no floral or amphibian species of global importance recorded in the vicinity of the ADC. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

99 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Reptiles Two of the reptile species recorded are listed in CITES: Mediterranean Tortoise European Chameleon Testudo graeca Chamaeleo chamaeleon Birds Three of the birds recorded are aloballv sianificant: Corncrake Syrian Serin Pallid Harrier Crex crex Serinus syriacus Circus macrourus Mammals Wild Cat (Felis syivestris) is globaily significant and is listed in CITES. Regional Important Species There are no floral or amphibian species of regional importance recorded in the vicinity of the ADC. There are no species of reptile of regional significance other than those which are also globally important. Birds The following are regionally threatened species as their presence is wholly or largely restricted to the Middle East: viellow-vented Bulbul Finsch's Wheatear Upcher's Warbler Honey Buzzard Sand Partridge rylcnuol,lus1 AnthLopUPy_gosL Oenanthe finschii Hippolais ianguida Pernis apivorus Ammoperdix heyi Tihe numbuer ol migrant species recorded witnin tne ADC is reiativeiy iow ir compared to other sites in the Kingdom. None of the species recorded are known to be using the site constantly. Most species are migrants and do not depend on the project area during migration. Mammals TIe '0luowing mamm,als Itu are conisidyeried e yluhioly.hre.enelld: Asiatir lackal Striped Hyena fa.n.s aureus Hyaena hyaena Nationally ImportanL apedies Plants Many plants are locally important as the source of grazing for Bedu herds, for wildlife and for their medicinal value. For example, Hawthorn (Crataegus azarolus) in such arid areas is considered a major genetic resource for the grafting of fruit trees. On the CDP site, Ephedra (Ephedra alte), a decreasing plant in Jordan has been found in the vicinity of archaeological remains, where it has been protected from 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

100 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update grazing. Protection of these sites will therefore safeguard both cultural heritage and bio-diversity. Amphibians Green Toad (Bufo viridis) numbers are declining due to modern agricultural activities and the use of agrochemicals. Reptiles There are no species of reptile of national significance other than those which are also globally or regionally important. From the species recorded, those considered to be locally importance due to Lelir special stlatus nationally are listed in Tabie 4.i3. Table 4.13 Birds of Local Importance Merlin IAn uncommon winter visitor usually recorded In sn,aii 1 Falco columbarius ]numbers Hobby An uncommon miarant usually recorded sinalv and ad ~ Falco subbuteo J summer breeder recorded in small colonies Long-eared Owl An uncommon winter visitor with an uncertain breeding Asio otus status Nightjar An uncommon migrant whose status needs more Caprimulgus europaeus inspection Roller A scarce migrant with probable summer breeding, whose Coracias garrulus status needs inspection Wryneck - A scarce migrant that is usually recorded singly vyn tflrrqui l,1 Red-Breasted Flycatcher A rare migrant whose status needs more inspection Pin-tailed Sandgrouse Formerly, a common breeder but numbers have Ptero,-;es aichata Idecreased drastically and its status is under inspection in d the country Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis An uncommon winter visitor Mammals IThiie ivliowving mammals are ulnie ressure IfIr I hu i LIlU and agi d practices: Palestine Mole Rat Marbled Polecat Common Badger rnedu I Long-eared Hedgehog Nannospalax leucodon agricultural impacts Vorme,la peregusna Meles meles 'V'ulpes vulipes Hemiechinus auritus UILUIdl 4.6 SURFACE WATER RESOURCES Catchment Characteristics The ADC and its zone of influence lie astride the boundary between two major surface watver catlchmentis, shllown In Flgu re 4t. 1L 3, as follovvs: * Wadi Wala Catchment. nart of thp Dead Sea Drainane Rasin; * Zarqa Catchment, part of the Jordan River Drainage Basin. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

101 Amm,,Ban Develoriment Corridor EnvOlonmentad impact Assessment Update Wadi Wala Catchment The southern part of the Corridor, from a line north of the Sahab Highway, drains south and south-westwards to Wadi Wala, a tributary of Wadi Mujib, which naturally drains to the Dead Sea. Dams have recently been constructed on both wauis to ser-ve the IM LJiLkJ and Southern Ghors l Irrigation ProJect and to provide water for the Arab Potash Company. The Wala Dam provides 5.2 million m 3 /year and the Mujib Dam 42 million m 3 /year. Water flowing from the Wala Dam also contributes to the recharge of the Upper Aquifer. The major catchment drains a large proportion of the Central Jordan, but within the ADC takes flows from the northernmost extension of the Madaba Plain traversed by the southern Contract 1 alignment. where the terrain is generally flat to ro!ling. Slopes are relatively gentle and the surface water environment predominantly of lr%ia W- einergy.... VVI Whlilst III~L thenre LI l~... ls lii 1imit+ed 11 J. roso I-.J II in I51 the~ LIlI- Vl%Il.l -icinity II l of I ;,isol3te IauUI Lz-U hills, l11113k there LI I~IU Ulai -r no major drainage features and in the very flat areas some temporary ponding may occur ai'ler heavy winter rains. Drainage ot the ADC alignment originates from the upper reaches of the catchment where the drainage pattern is dendritic. There are no perennial watercourses and most flow for very short periods each year in direct response to storm events. Not all watercourses flow every year. As is to hp exnprterd in siirh an area, there is little or not arriarte information on discharge quantities or water quality. Water quality measurements taken 20 years ago recorl UdU I L,..J valuesc ai LJvv as3 f.u II0 I/, aiidu 1 diclsiil VVILII LIthe Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) confirm quality remains good quality, although no recent anaiyses nave Deen forthcoming. Zarqa Catchment The central and northern parts of the ADC are drained north and eastwards via Wadi al Ush and Wadi Oattab while Wadi Abdoun and Wadi Sagf Al S-ai drain thp northern end of the ZTL. All four are tributaries of the Zarqa River, which is impondedrlr I~.qJLdII%flfl. byi LI thge..- ~ Ving - -IIJ Ta!a!l * II Darn LUJI I I!oci-ated L¼LL.t southof JJ4 I 'SI then LI It.. Trbidl Li Ulu I ilis som OwJl I L; 45=50 TS-.pJU 1km Noil downstream of the ADC. The dam is utilised for irrigation and other uses in the JUordan IVaiiey. ThIe Z47-arqa r\iver ruec e dradeuu IrUIn lul IInUIII siteuusli eni q=1- route and discharges to the King Talal Reservoir, where the water is mixed with treated effluent from 4 wastewater treatment plants. The iargest, Kirbet Al Samra, which treats most of Amman's sewage, was designed with a capacity of 60 m 3 /day but now receives 165 m 3 /day. Although the water coming from the headwaters in the ADC are likely to be of reasonably good quality, except in the immediate vicinity of Zarqa, the water in the reservoir is of marginal quality and of limited use. Although drainage patterns within the ADC are again predominantly dendritic, the terrain ic mnre nronriinrncri waitjh freqiuent cs-ten cinnsp ricinrg t-r kiger enerr surface water environment. Valleys are well formed and drainage channels often incised. Thils is mostl markled' as the alignmentl approach[es t[1 le where cliffs of 10 m or more have developed. Zarqa nighway, 14 Total Dissolved Solids, a bulk measure of overall water quality reflecting the total ionic concentration of dissolved solids /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

102 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update R., I _ _r 1 I{ N }'_ i 1 1 I '-,-'' Zarqa #,, U 2] k~~~~~~~ i--~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~Iij l, I,l l t + / Highw \zr Wadi[Wala / A \ ~Catchment f f i 11~~ Queen Alia International Airp ort Surface Water Drainage J RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

103 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai imoact Assessment Update Again, there is no relevant data on surface water flows or water quality in the vicinity of the ADC. The ouantitv of water discharoing from the Zarna River into the King Talal Reservoir varies widely, as shown in Table Table 4.14 Zarqa River Discharges to King Talal Reservoir ] Inflow in million m 3 /year There are no perennial watercourses within the ADC, although Wadi Al Ush may contain minimal base flows well into the summer months Spring Discharges Historically, significant spring discharges have been recorded in the vicinity of the ADC% zone of ninf,uence, alt I'ough' none h'ave bueen recordied alonyi tlhe AD'uC alignment. These sites have been previously listed in the 1999 EIA' 5. Although affording major sources of public and private supply in the past, the development ot other underground sources has resulted in a reduction in discharge and they no longer produce large sustainable quantities of water. Within the hilly terrain of the Contract 2 alignment, many springs may be expected to issue for short periods following winter rains at!ocations where infi!tratinn rainfall is arrested by faults and/or marl horizons Surface Water Impoundments In addition to the impoundments cited above, which are too distant from the ADC to merit further discussion, there is one private impoundment within the ADC. This dams Wadi Al Ush some 650 m south of the Zarqa Highway interchange where the riparian owner is retaining flow for the irrigation of adjacent land. The status of this reservoir has never been regularised. Recent discussions with MWI indicated that whilst it remains unlicensed, hence illegal, they are aware of it but consider it a local phenomenon that has no overall effect upon the hydraulic cha~ r~r racerisics orf the catchment- The MWI have proposals for the impoundment of surface water flow in vvadi Al Usn for the artificial recharge of the underling aquifer. A dam was designed in 1998 but never constructed. The-Dutch Government are expected to fund the project, but require flow to be monitored for at least two years before deciding on the need for a full Feasibility study to assess the likely success of the scheme and determine the best location for the impoundment structure EIA Table i0269/2-rpt-env-01 REV March 2004

104 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update 4.7 GROUND WATER RESOURCES Hydrogeology As is common in fractured limestone terrain, ground water recharge areas do not necessarily reflect surface water catchment areas. Hydrogeologicaily, the ADC and its zone of influence fall within two major ground water basins and borders a third, as shown on Figure The stratigraphic succession shown in Table 4.4 translates into the series of aquifers and aquicludes shown in Table The crharacteritics of these Hydrogeological Units are discussed below. Recharge areas within the Amman area for the major aquifers and 1-he wells in the viucinityi- f t-ke ADC are a shown In Figure Table 4.15 Hydrogeological Units [ Age Group Formation Hydrogeological Unit I I I ~~~~~(Superficiall Quaternary Deposits) Quaternar~~' [Jafr Azrag ll SBaDasa nas Shallow Aquifer Sirhan Dana Tertiary I(Basalts) Tertiary Wadi Shallala umm Kijam l _l Muwaqgar Aguitard lamman vvaui Gjudiar alpper IWadi Sir Aqu,f Cretaceous Alun IShu'ayb Aguitard Hummar Lower Aauifer lfuheis Aguitard I N auri Kurnub Subeihi Kurnub Arda'a Deep Aquifer Jurassic Zarqa I Azab T ri s i q J M ain _ Shallow Aquifer The Shallow Aquifer comprises the full sequence of Quaternary and Tertiary strata and volcanics, often below Recent alluvial cover. It is therefore complex with hydrological properties that vary with composition and location. Superficial deposits may be up to 25 m in thickness and oten contain significant quantities of Vwater only during the months following winter rainfall. The volcanic units often contain high quality groundwater that frequently contributes to spring discharge and wadi base flow. They also provide recharge to the underlying limestones of the Umm Rijam Formation, in which the joints and fractures are commonly enlarged by dissolution. i0269/2-rpt-env-01 REV March 2004

105 Amman Development Corridor Env.irrnenta Tmnart Ascsccment U pda.7 /7!~~ F 1,,/ N~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 l a R sta~~ / < V j/ X ; ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~rq Basin / II ^ [ X \ ~~~~~~~Upper Aquifer Recharge ZoneL f ^ 029/2RTEV0 RE* 7 Qas3aMa.rrhBasin >, / ~~~~~Lower Aquifer Recharge Zone l _v N"o"rth, I naimn Aqulifer PRechargZne l Kilometres \Ground Water Basin Boundary1 l~~~~~~~~eas Affected by Wastel ater Pollution 1zi Firiuire 4X14 Ground water Recharge and Wells J02912RP.EN 43 0 REV

106 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update Tn the Northern Azraq Basin. where the aquifer is well develoded. sorina discharge at the centre of the basin is 14 million m 3 /year and aquifer. Permeabilities range between 0.15 and 6.0 in/day arnd mri iifer t-rancmissivity m 2 Ir4y. Grond water quality is reasonable, with TDS values of 230-1,500 mg/i, although it UecUmes incredsiriyiy sdinwith WILw Upper Aquifer WdLt[a s HUM VVdUI SirhandH d[1u W VVdUI lidildiai. The upper aquifer comprises the Wadi Ghudran with Wadi As Sir Formations and is confined by the chalks and marls of the Muwaqqar Formation. This aquifer unit, well exposed in the highlands where it receives direct recharge, is the most important aquifer in the Kingdom. Glrounl wvater movement ils primarilly % LIVIICU LJy LItIh I a diiipu, 0nd Ui generally eastwards, although in places this is significantly modified by major fault zones. Total annual recharge is estimated to be some 336 million m3, or which i70 miiiion m3 is by direct recharge, 143 million m 3 by indirect recharge, and 23 million m 3 is transferred from overlying strata. The majority of wells in the Amman area exploit the Upper Aquifer, in which water levels are frequently at a depth of m. Ground Water quality is hiahlv variable, with TDS values varying from 300-1,800 mg/i, with a tendency to improve with Hdnnph Lower Aqu.ifer The lower aquifer comprises the Hummar limestones confined below the thiniy interbedded Shu'ayb limestones and marls. It is the most important aquifer in the Amman region, although elsewhere productivity is limited. Total annual recharge is estimated to be just 5 million m 3 as the recharge area is restricted to some 20 km 2, from Sukhna around the edges of the Amman-Zarqa syncline. Permeability averages m/day in the Amman area but is much lower elsewherenn. Arteslamn pressuire in ithe synr!ine has4 frequeont!y been adequatef ton maintain discharge. Water quality is generally good, with TDS values in the range mg/l Deep Aquifer The deep aquifer comprises the limestones and cherts of the Naur Formation and the underlying Lower Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic formations. The whole sequence is confined by the overlying thinly bedded limestones and marls of the Fuheis Formation. althouch whether the Naur strata are considered nart of the aquiclude or part of the aquifer depend upon location and the volume of the I JI %.f Ll - U UL1.LI UJ¼LlWlJ I. VV[IWisL tthe upper 30-40t m ou Lile 'aiur LU1omprises LIIILKIy UtddeUUU IImeIstLUIIt, Ltie lower units are marly. Recharge, estimated at 4.5 million m 3 /year is limited to the area of outcrop and the volumes that can be exploited are only adequate tor local supplies. Transmissivity varies little between 3-6 m 2 /day and well yields are often only m 3 /day. Water quality is good, with TDS values averaging 400 mg/i. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

107 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update The underlying formations all have similar hydraulic properties and are considered as a single regional aqpifer. Although recharge is limited by restricted outcrop, the quantities of ground water available are increased by leakage from overlying formations. These deep strata are particularly exploited in the Upper Zarqa Basin, but not within the vicinity of the ADC Groundwater Quality At the time of the 1977 National Water Master Plan (NWMP) the natural quality of the ground waters in the region was fair to good and reasonably consistent, with TDS levels generally in the range of mg/i, occasionally rising to 1,000 mg/i. However since that time there has been a marked deterioration in water quality, especially in the Zarqa Region, where Electrical Conductivity 16 levels at the power station rose from 600 ps/cm in 1977 to 2,300 ps/cm in Over the same period, groundwater from the refinery deteriorated from 460 to 3,300 ps/cm. This deterioration is generally attributed to local over-abstraction, which has resulted in a lowering of aquifer water levels and increased salinities. Contamination from the Amman-Zarqa conurbation is also a major problem due to the previously uncontrolled disposal of wastewaters. The area affected is also shown in Figure This was also recognized in the NWMP, which recommended the establishment of groundwater protection areas in which waste disposal would be prohibited and restrictions applied to particular activities. Ground water vulnerability mapping was undertaken over the area south of Amman in 1999 by the MWI/WAJ in conjunction with the French Geological Survey, and the Higher Committee for Water Resources Protection within MWI is currently assessing the legal and technical issues associated with the introduction of Ground Water Protection Zones Aquifer Recharge It is clear from Figure 4.14 that the recharge area for the Upper Aquifer unit includes both the Amman-Zarqa conurbation and areas of greatest agricultural activity in the region. Urban expansion is primarily viewed as a contamination threat to the underlying aquifers. However, by expanding the urban area eastwards, development is being taken away from the limited recharge areas for the Lower and Deep Aquifers, and much of the ADC alignment, to north of the CDP site. This does not provide significant infiltration for any of the primary aquifers. In the longer term, as new developments create substantial areas of hard standing, runoff coefficients in general will continue to increase within the natural recharge zones Resource Exploitation Jordan is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of available water resources per head of population. Water is severely restricted in some areas, with much of the Capital only receiving water one day each week, although shortages 16 Electrical Conductivity (EC) is a crude measure of water quality commonly used for comparison between different sources. EC values reflect the different rates at which water conducts electricity with different dissolved salt, salinity, content. EC is a similar measure to TDS, with which it can be accurately correlated for individual water sources of the same chemical provenance /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

108 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessmernt Update are mostly overcome by household storage. Nevertheless, distribution is supply-led rather than demand-led, and is there is a shortfall nationally. The overall significance of these resources is put into context within the framework of the National Water Balance shown in Table Table 4.16 Jordan's National Water Balance l l l l Municinal I 477 I R7n I 1f61 l& l( Industrial l l l ~~~~~~~~Jordan valley l 350 l350 l 350 li 350 Southern Ghors I Demand Jra aly.~ iul7_ Irrigation Wadi Araba ~I Hinhl;:lnric?R RQ?Rq osq Disi l l Peace Treaty Allocations JRV Wadis l 175 I I I ~~~~~~~~Nnlrthprn Aniiifprc, di n r,,?r ri A r,,d Groundwater [ Wadi Araba ResorcesDlSi Resources Wastewater Municipal Demand 25% 30% 35% 50% _ Re-Use Total re-use [ 631 I~~~TtIEgc.r~ O ;8 s I-.11 AQlwi7 ~1 I I l=>+shrtfall _1w273l-?~~~03,Ljje407 ^;j -439z!', l Figures in million m 3 /year The wells within the vicinity of the ADC as recorded by MWI in 2003 are also shown on Figure However, much of the data may be quite old, as fieldwork during the 1999 EIA study failed to find the majority of wells then recorded. Only 2 of the 12 wells recorded as being within 600 m of the ADC centreline were found, and only 1 - at Al Mnakher on Contract 1 - is ocrated within the final RnW. Of ihe 4r we!s1 recordedi in 2003, thiir exp!oiftlation of the valriouis aqf identified in Table 4.15 above, their drilled depths, depth to water and salinities are summaristied inr Tale 4.;7. DetaAils of edi individual well are given in Appendix L t the present report. Table 4.17 Summary of Wells Recorded in the Vicinity of the ADC Aquifer j o of Drilled Depth Depth Saly l Shallow l 0 _ m -. l Upper 33 mt U LrUL m mg/i m ost_ov'e'r 3100_m _ Lower I l l JOO m l ;10-00ImI mg/l Deep* m 180 m Not recorded Deep** m 492 m l 2,340 mg/l I Not Recorded! I - _ I - I L */** Exploiting the upper and lower formations of the aquifer respectively 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

109 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Imnact Assessment update Despite the apnarent snread of wells in the area; there is little or no evidence of private wells being used for agricultural activity outside of the main Desert Highway corriadr There is c neg,iiuhe Irently e of ^l: inn th ragkn arlens to IAIMIter kaji I ILJI.I* I I Il L I~ LJ 1.JjLJ~I.1 ILI I UL~I~IJL L.2N. VII VVL-110 III WL -I II I 1UIII LI UlJ ZLI L'. VVUL -LI herds. In all observed cases, water was provided by tanker and no drinking troughs linked to a well were identified. The only major public wells in the ADC zone of influence are in the Qastal area near the Desert Highway. These boreholes are sealed and generally 200 m in depth. 4.8 AIR QUALITY AND NOISE Sources of Air Pollution There are three primary sources of air pollution; point sources, mobile sources and natural sources. The major point sources in the vicinity of the ADC are listed in Table Table 4.18 Major Point Sources of Air Pollution in the Amman Area -Site/Type of Activity Main Poliutants comments Zara PetoleumRefinry CO, C02, H2S, S02 and North of Zarqa, 8 km from the Al Hussein Thermal Power Plant CO, CO 2, H 2 S, SO 2 and NOx North of Zarqa, 8 km from the Adjacent to the ADC. No new Phosphate Mines Dust minina. but dust comes from the processing of stockpiles. Estates in East Amman, Industrial Estates C1 2, F 2, Pb, SO 4 and CO Russeifa, Zarqa and Sahab are all close to the ADC Individual Plants Varies with activity l_l l i- Q 1 4 Asph tdi- Plnsust-, L~LCJ I O II O loji CO, -* r,nd S Major quarries lie adjacent to IL CIIU'COC L~./ '.J 2 CIIU Jfl.. Ithe ADC Solid Waste Incineration CO and CO 2 At Sahab waste tip The mobile sources of air pollution in Jordan are Drimarilv the Kingdom's c. 3S00nnn vehicles, of which some 7 0% are registered within the Amman and Zarqa GoJvernoratesLIL. ThLes generati LI.L I rniccinn of Pb, D associated photochemical reactions. N KJOx, CO., CO.,.# anl The most significant natural sources of air pollution are dust and sand storms that can substantially reduce visibility. The cumulative impact of these sources to date remains relatively minor, but whilst Jordan is fortunate to retain a relatively clean air environment, there are increasinq concerns for the future. Air pollution monitoring in Central Amman, undertaken hetween 1986 and 1990 showed levels of TSP to exceed most international health guidelines. While daily SO 2 levels were generally acceptable, mean annual levels ex eedd i-t guidelihne,- A;A ddrc for- s - )me2/, of t-h year. Conditions in Cenral ~A ~ U U Li I-- 1L IU;-_III IL_a U.'. Ulu %..A.J IVUI ZI11..JI I Z-.J /U VIJ Li I~ IZ; J %- '.LJ UILII I3 I IIL CI Amman have in recent years been sufficiently poor to create a Photochemical Smog. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

110 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmental immact Assessment Update Pollution in Amman is exacerbated by its topographical setting, which prevents disnpersion. and the concerns of the nublic were evident at the Project Scoping sessions, where air quality was defined as an issue of high significance Air Quality Measurements Jordan does not have a network for the continuous monitoring of air quality data, and most available data is project or site specific. The lack Baseline Data is a significant shortcoming in the present Assessment and is addressed by the inclusion of a major ambient air quality monitoring programme prior to construction. Further details of this proqramme are qiven in Section 12.5 of this report. 4.8R. Nnise ThIe review of re.evant, 4i terature -nvailabile in J o r dan suggests -f 1-1 -tnoise i S fnot viewed as c a significant environmental issue, and this is reflected in the absence of a ambient noise monitoring programme. During Project Scoping, noise reiaved impacts appeared to be viewed with very little concern. Conversely, the potential for noise relief was identified at the Zarqa session, perhaps implying some concern over present noise levels. As with air qualitv in the absence of any applicable baseline data, a monitoring programme is proposed prior to construction of the ADC. A f% 5 -rr 'V %r ro A M, - I EU ifti A I IU A P% r'r- &~0 EU A-% flla I %O LLO AND CLULlIMwRML fhieril IMUE IRE;IUILE Background Archaeological remains throughout the Kingdom indicate a human presence extending at least 10,000 years throughout the periods shown in Table Table 4.1q Maior Archaeologiral Periods Represented by Remains in Jnrdan Period l Major Sites l Age 1 Palaeolithic 100,000-14,000 BP l MesoltIithic- lnn I I Annn-R RP l Neolithic Sh'ar Ha Golan, Tell Abu Habil and Tell Esh Shuna 8,000-4,500 BC Chalcolithic 4,500-3,300 BC Bronze Age 3,300-1,200 BC Iron Age T 1, BC Hellenistic I _ BC Nabataen Petra t BC Roman Jerash, Pella, Philadelphia and Umm Queis l_63 BC-234 AD_l Byzantine Madaba, Um El Jamal Crusader/Arabic I Mamiuk Ottoman l l /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

111 Amman Develooment Corridor Envvironmntda; irndact Assesrnent Uodate Sites of Interest along the ADC Consistent with Jordanian and World Bank procedures, all stages of project devefopmerr-nkt a pain rv rerfui attentiln t-o th idtii and, of ^-av 1.I1VI.IJpII.. I IIJUV'. VULII'. ~L4I.IUI UJLLI_ ILIWI LUJ LI1% I 1 IJU%1 L1I IU,LL1%J1 1 UII UIV1JILUJI IU-,U %JI archaeological, historic and cultural heritage sites. Prior to the 1999 EIA, a fieldbased evaluation along tne rull length of the ADC Phase 1 design corridor, 5uu rm either side of the assumed centre line, was funded by the Project Proponent Initially, the Ministry of Tourism's Department of Antiquities of Jordan (DA]) interrogated its Jordan Antiquities Database and Information System (]ADIS) to locate known sites that might be affected by the proiect. This was followed by detailed walkover surveys throughout the corridor to not only determine if any culturai rpecni irces wenre thrpeatnnedi hi it-!so:cn * To understand the evolution of settlement from the Palaeolithic to the late Byzantine periods and investigate the reasons behind the locations selected; * To study the sdatial oroanisation of settlements anrd their rijral counternarts; * To study the function and date of the archaeological remains, especially early,.arrn,s anrixad 1aitchtowrs%A,r; a%na * To understand historical land use and the relationship between the sites and sources of water. The surveys were undertaken between September 1997 and April 1998 by staff from the DA] headed by a senior archaeologist. A special public consultation meeting was held flowing the survey, and the DAJ and national NGOs such as the Friends of Archaeoloqy, have taken an active role in the consultation process. The results of these IIrveys, together with descriptions of the principal characteristics of each site have previously been reported. 1 7 The team surveyed, registered and mapped a total of 43 sites, primarily in the Wadi Al Ush area and near Sahab, covering several periods from the Paiaeolithic to the Present Day. Newly discovered sites included camps, watchtowers, agricultural enclosures and water installations, many with scatterings of flint tools or pottery sherds. Several sites had been previously disturbed by one or more factors, including natural erosion, recent human interference, modern agricultural practices and excavations by ancient site robbers. All 43 sites were subject to risk assessment based upon their likely cultural value and proximity to the provisional road alignment. Of these, 24 were identified to be particularly t hreatened, of w1hich, * None were considered to be at High Risk; * 13 were considered to be at Medium Risk; * 3 were considered to be at Low Risk in relation to their value; and * 8 were considered to be of High Significance but at Low Risk due their likely distance from the alignment. 17 Final Report on the Amman Ring Road, Volume 2 Environmental Impact Assessment, Section Dari Al-Handasah( uo Sh,aoir andnn Parn.nerso), 199.S,z9. Final Report on the Amman Ring Road, Volume 4 Cultural Resources Impact Assessment. Dar AI-Handasah (Shair and Partners), J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

112 Amml/an Develo Im,ent Corridor lii-nmv/lu entall I,pact m Assess-I- -AU-JL There were also 3 cemetery/tomb sites of Recent/Modern origin that were subject to the authority of the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs. For the purposes of the present EIA Update, with nptailpre Depsign now completed, it is only considered necessary to assess those sites remaining within, or in very close p %JIit1Ly i m LtJ, Lthe lflinl 1\W.JVV Assessment of thne nlinai road aiignment conciuded it snould be moved to avoid as many of the sites as possible. The present situation with respect to all 43 sites (shown in red) is illustrated in Figure The apparent linearity of the sites parallel to the ADC alignment reflects the choice of hilltops for ancient and historic settlement while the proposed road takes a lower route along their flanks. Only three of the original 24 threatened sites listed in Table 4.20 now remain within 300 m of the ADr a!lgnment TrA0 C A.20n Archaeollogical Sites Reann ihn30m os&the ADC& A lignmen:- ItII#ELL_.- f.%j P% E L.I~IJI.U 1 L EM=IIIQIIhIII VVILINIIII ;PWW III LIM~ P%L.F%. PIiIU~IE~ 1 I Pottery.. _ I No. Description and Age Size sherds EJI.LdEci irult zl No. & flint tools ADC ROW A round structure of undressed 18 ashlars, the remains of a watchtower. 6 m diameter None 220 m A small structure comprising a single 20 row of sma!! mndrnessed stone b!ocks. A m x A m None-) r m _ Undated Twin nrotective structures of - 30 undressed limestone. Roman and 4 m x 4 m Byzantine I The remains of a village settlement at Kirbet El Manakhir. inhabited from Iron Aae to the Umayyad times and covering an area of some 1 ha, which was the subject of some concern frorn the World Bank at the time of the 1999 study, is now more than 500 m from the alignment It is therefore concluded that no known sites of significant archaeological or historic interest will be affected by ADC construction. Notwithstanding this, it would be wrong to be complacent. Given the large number of sites identified during the Walkover surveys, and the long history of human habitation throughout the Kingdom, it must be expected that new Finds will be unearthed during construction. There are well developed and routinely executed Chance Find procedures in Jordan for informing DA] of discoveries during construction earthworks and making sites vi I-lCe,'or salvage, excavatlion and logging. These procedures have been incorporated within the Tender Documents for construction. Contractors will therefore know what is expected of them and will in turn be expected to ensure their Site Foremen, Supervisors and other staff are aware of these requirements /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

113 Amman DevelopMmaent Cor.ridor En,irnnnment Irnpt Asess.men-ASSt U pdeat K~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ZarqaVp b;~~~~~i ifj.- I Highway7, zxals 2 v _zx ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~J Ir21 (j1ra -\ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~- ; I *36 *2 Hizam Road i A - M~rinii~h3nTr 391* -.~~~~~34 - > / r ~i> a D _ Sahab Road / N (LI ~~~~Sh~ Saa I Higha.54 / Yadoudah 18 \ / Road 8 ~.3,4,5.1/ / / Desert I North Kilometres 1 0i _ Hiha \ Queen Alia International Airport Figure 4.15 Cultural Heritage Sites 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

114 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update Sites of Interest within the CDP Site Immediately following MPWH's decision on the preferred site for the CDP in August ftuu02 203,th Li Ik IA ej~ wvas aginjii IONU ask,ed ~I rv, t-o LU undertakeasuvytidnfynyrceogc, UII LNC N3 a)u Vtui LU) IUt-I LII Y ally Cai U I ld=uiuyiloi remains. The objective of this survey was to reduce the threat to the cultural resources of the area by determining what mitigation measures might best be applied. Its completion so early in the engineering design process has allowed site design to be tailored to prevent their destruction and salvage excavations to be programmed so these works can be completed before construction commences. The survey undertaken over t-he CDP si- t-e rcmprise * Interroqation of the JADIS Database; * Library and Desk Studies; and * Filrd investingtionnq inrludinn a Wa!onvpr survey. Four sites 3iLoc of interest were ildentif1ed, UI III II Sign III cance adu two of Low Significance. Of these four, three were known from the previous investigations, the other being a newiy discovered site. Tne basic detaiis of eacn are given in Table Table 4.21 Archaeological Sites on the CDP Site t e Name NLocation 1 Description Significance Rujum ] 2 A 2-3 storey stone fortification [ Hih Aliviaaounan Trom iron Age ii on a hilltop site.i A large stone structure of rooms 2 Qasr 2 Al-Madounah round a central courtyard, from Iron Age II. Other signs of past High Hg settlement skirt the hilltop site. _l A hilltop is scattered with flint 3 IUJUiII tools dating back to the Low En-Nasle Palaeolithic. I I 4 Rujum Close to Site 3 A small circular undressed stone Low En-Nasle 2 1 e structure of. No pottery or tools. I The three epnarate anratinns of these sites are shown (in hliie) in Figure 4.15 and the descriptions provided by the DA] are reproduced below. Site 1. Rujum El-Madhouna Map No NW UTM Zone. 37 Elevation 820 m asl UTME UTMN PGE PGN Located on the top of a hill of medium heigiht, this site overlooks the surroundina valleys and historic routes from the north, west and east. Accessible only from the east, it comprises,i ihaubtantial rsemi-cnu i 2rp r- s-trexy t ctr-ne ct-ri irt-i ira a rinri c.20 x 25 m. The c.1.5.m thick outer wall, of which six courses are still standing, was UuiLt strong enoughi I tlo provide I VI.ifcation but may hlave collapsed during Lihle 749 or 1927 earthquake /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

115 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Uodate The remains have suffered from the excavation of deep robber pits and a recently bulldozed area has destroyed part of the structure but revealed the cultural posits up to 3 m in height. Extensive investigation of the western part of the stu,r revealed skeletal remains both buried within the structure and scattered on the surfl'ace. From the artefacts and the construction, this site is likely to date from Iron Age II, when its prime purpose would have been defensive. It is likely the structure continued in use throughout the classical periods, especially in Roman and Byzantine times, when it may have served as a watchtower to protect the routes in and out of the Eastern Desert. The DAJ classify this site as Highly Significant, for which a CRM procedure needs to bk e formulated. The basis ofi this vvou'd be ti L he fiencing oif tu LIe s ite andu a suitable buffer zone to prevent damage during and after CDP construction. The layout and circulation within the CDP will need to cater for such a 'no-go! area and access to it by DAJ and other accredited visitors will need to be maintained. Site 2. Qasr El-Madounah Map No NW UTM Zone. 37 Elevation 880 m asl UTME UTMN PGE DPN About 0.J k Im Ruju,,, usout j MiadounahL ls a masive semi-retlldaiuidr structure c.36 x 48 m built of medium-hard limestone blocks on the top and slopes of a rocky hill overlooking adjacent valleys to east, west and south. The only access is from the north, which suggests a natural route once connected the Rujum and Qasr sites. Although both internal and external walls have suffered from robber pits, recent hiilbdzing and natural nhennmena such as rain and earthquakes, the orininai structure comprised rooms opening onto a central courtyard, typical of the Roman aiiu By4zaIILIIne IpJeLUod, VVIcIhl I caini OLIII bje Uetermined. Evidence of extlensive huiluman habitation over the surrounding area is common, with walls and other structures hlaving been revealed by robber pilts and agricultural activity. Several water cisterns surrounding the structure are still used by local farmers. The major period of habitation probably dated back to Iron Age II but because of its proximity to the desert routes, was still occupied in the classical periods. The DAJ also classify this site as Hiqhly Siqnificant, for which a CRM procedure needs to be formulated. Again, the basis would be the fencing of the site and a suiitahle buffer zone to prevent rdamgne duiirinn and after rnp cnsntruiction. The buffer zone will need to be of sufficient extent to enclose the adjacent scattered IremInIUI.I UInI VVULatl Ims.-..syste TLhe JUUL lo CDP an cu'laution I wiv"ii need to such a 'no-go' area and access will need to be maintained. cater for 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

116 Amman Development Corridor EnvironmentalimImact Assessment Uodate Site 3. Rujum En-Nasle 1 Map No NW UTM Zone. 37 Elevation 871 m asl IITME. IA7 UITMNI 3537 PGE PGN Located to the south of the Qasr, this hilltop site contains no structures, human settlement having centred on nearly caves. The areas is, however, scattered with flint tools such as hand axes, blades and scrapers, probably from the Palaeolithic Age. In the absence of any significant structure, and because the remains have suffered from natural ernsinn anri anricu!tfiira! activity, the DAJ classi.fy this site as one of Low Significance. CRM procedures will therefore be limited to salvage excavation priorilu%u to 1.J construclo AJIi~I ILI LI L LLLLJII In ~I LJ coordinatlon I-UI UlI ILiLJ I wlth ILI I the LI I '..AJ Contractor IL LLV VILI with I I~j respect, LL to LU any Il unexpected finds during construction. Site 4. Rujum En-Nasle 2 Map No NW UTM Zone. 37 Elevation 870 m asl Located near Site 3 The site comprises a small circular structure of undressed stone on the top of a prominent hill c.50 m west of Rujum En-Nasle 1. No potter" shards were recovered on or near the site and it is likely the structure served as a watchtower to control IIhe routles in tl 1le nearbiy valleys. The DAJ also classify this site to be of Low Significance, again with CRM procedures limited to salvage excavation prior to construction and coordination with the Contractor in respect of unexpected finds during construction. A-1 n S-I4RTrnMTN(S TN FNVTRnNMFNTAI RASFl TrJF nata LopIhysical baseline Udata is significantly weaklened bu y the ab isence ol informat ion Ul I III three areas: * Ambient noise and air quality data; a ZIIrfacr waliatr fiaa daa and * Ground water quality data. Such weaknesses were also identified in the 1999 EIA. That they are again highlighted four years on illustrates the generai iack of environmentai monitoring in Jordan, a shortcoming that in future years will doubtless be addressed by the new Ministry of Environment Ambient Noise andl Air Quality Data With respect to ambient noise and air quality, there is no ongoing monitoring programrne beyndnn that for project specific purposes. The need to procure such data prior to construction was discussed in the 1999 EIA and highlighted again by a World Bank Mission in October Some 20 sites at which background noise and air quality could usefully be measured have been identified. These include: 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

117 Amman Develonment Corridor Envirounrrental Irf-dCact Assessmnent Upodate * All intersections on the ADC; * All 'sensitive' sites identified by the LARP; and * Intersctinns on YadoIniirih PnAri and Hizam Road. I iuvvever, meaningful IesUlL- c3an Villly Ub oulct1incel IIUIII IfJIIo Ln IIII moitorilnglil. Ill discussion with the Environmental Research Centre at the Royal Scientific Society, the only organisation in jordan adequately resourced to undertake such work, it was clear that results obtained in accordance with internationally recognised procedures could not be made available within the time frame for submission of the EIA Update. It was therefore concluded it would be better to undertake the survey prior to the start of construction. Proposals for the study have therefore been included in the Environmental Monitoring Plan presented in Section 12 of the present report. For the purposes of the present assessment, estimates of noise levels and atmosphteric emibssions Ihave beu-en pruepa-rueud using-. 'rueapidt -miio dlliu~)it~ ILt~liI~IlI~iId~ u~ii JIeJdiU ulily Ulipiii LCIIlu IJIIIUIdIU dlijii~u L recently updated predicted traffic flows. While these results highlight the probable scale and significance of likeiy change arising from the project, they cannot be calibrated against measured values. The values determined, while useful, are therefore only indicative and do not provide a Baseline against which future data can be measured Surface Water Flow Data There is also a lack of data on sur,face water flows, in terms of both quantity and quality. This is, however, not unusual in the Middle East, where watercourses are seasonal and dry up for several months each year. As discussed in Section 4.6 above, the ADC traverses the upper reaches of two surface water catchments. Such areas often have little ability to store water at the surface when the rains recommence and are the first to dry up when the rains end. There are therefore no naturally perennial streams within the proiect area. In such circumstances, it is nnrma! practicetn ro;lridlte the necessary engineering design parameters using established guidelines and empirical formulae. Whilst there is always some concern that such estimates cannot be related to an" measured time-series data, the ADC Design Team have utilised both their local knowledge and long experience of road schemnes in the Kingdom to arrive at design criteria with which they are confident Ground Water Quality Data There is a similar lack of ground water aualitv information for the wells within the vicinity of the ADC ROW. Depth to ground water is at least several tens of metres and it is not experted the road will impact of the corntinued abstraction from wells outside the ROW. Nevertheless, Baseline data against which to measure the severity of any pollution t hat ol dvli esu1 arise) is I neeili1ed,01 U )'I siinilce VVOLI=l MVeIls are reported to be falling and the water becoming more saline. Water quality sampling from wells close to the ROW is therefore included in the Environmental Monitoring Plan presented in Section 12 of this EIA. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

118 w ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE f%nki fltinki e %.#,.fi ILOPI I I %./I'M J SOCIO-ECONOMIC IS ISE I., I=Qo

119 A,,mlman Deveio,,,pment Corriuor Ervioun,,mental I mpa cpt Assessment U,,date ECT1ON EVRN TAL BA E >ELE COND T-ONS: SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES 5.1 INTRODUCTION This Section of the updated EIA provides the socio-economic background to the project. Section 5.2 defines the population nationally and locally, that is likely to be affected by the proiect, its structure, and future growth. Section 5.3 outlines the different types of housing, tenure status, and the availability of public utilities and community services. Section 5.4 provides information on literacy and educational attainment, while Section 5.5 discusses employment, including agricultural employment, and income. Section 5.6 defines the broad pattern of economic activity within the region, identifying significant past trends and commenting on future prospects at sector level. Section 5.7 reviews the transportation system and local access. Section 5.8 summarises the status of public health and the facilities available. Sections 5.9 and 5.10 discuss the roles of women and of young people respectively. Finally, Section 5.11 discusses the findings of the recent socio-economic surveys undertaken for the relocation of the Al Juwaidah Customs Depot.. PODIII ATTnN I=.: National and Rlegional Population The most recent full census of Jordan was undertaken in 1994, when the total population of the Kingdom was calculated to be some 4.14 million, up from 2.13 million in 1979, the year of the preceding census. This represented average annual growth of 4.350/o, a rate extraordinarily influenced by the Gulf Crisis in when around 300,000 expatriates returned to the Kingdom, causing apparent growth to reach 5.30/o. In recent years, the rate of increase has fallen. to /n npr annum for the years , and the urban population is now estimated to be 78.7% of the total. Trends in total population and annual natural growth, as defined by the Department of Statistics (DoS) over the last five decades are shown in Table 5.V1. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

120 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Table 5.1 Historical Trends in Population and Natural Growth Rate I x, I 1... t l_ r. l _ I... Year I Population- I rowtn Kate- uensity- under , , ,132,997 I 3.3% I _ 1 _ 2.8% _ j 45.6% 51.6% ,139, % j _ 41.7% 1 CN\ ~ I A CC-C -Xl I -~Al rn.? I ;997 4,600U, %-/ I 52/km 1 l ,755, %0/ 53/km % ,900,000 [ 3.0% [ 55/km % l I 2.8% I 56/km ,182, %0/ 58/km2 _l ,329,000u 2.8% I t0u/km / Amman and Zarqa Populations The Governorates of Amman and Zarqa are home to 540/o of the Kingdom's population. Of their populations /o and /% respectively are urban. With some 96% of Jordan's land area comprising desert or semi-desert, population densities are much higher than the average of 60 nnrnr-ie/lr 2 with 2)A persons/km 2 in Amman and 205 persons/km 2 in Zarqa. However, by comparison tlese are lower than otler urbn a1eas In the I'Kingdom, such as irbid (586 persons/km 2 ) or Jarash (390 persons/km 2 ). The populations in of the Amman and Zarqa Governorate districts are given in Table 5.2. Table 5.2 Present Population of Amman and Zarqa Governorate Districts Administrative Area Population /o Governorate Total Amman Governorate 2,027, Amman Qasabah 645, Quaismeh 171_,120 9 Al Jami'ah J 245,015 j 12 Wadi As Sir 166,835 8 Sahab 59,930 3 I 1i7ah I Al 4165n 2 Na'ur Zarqa Governorate 838, b Zarqa Qasabah 511, Russeifa 281,655 33_ [ HAschmivyh A Rini I 6 Amman/Zarqa Total 2,865, Nationally, 21.3% of the population is classified as rural, but for Amman and Zarqa Governorates this is reduced to 8. 6 % and 4.7% respectively. ' Figures for from Census Returns. Others from DoS Statistical Yearbooks. Those for 1952 and 1961 pre-date relinquishing sovereignty of the West Bank 2 From Statistical 'r'earbooks and the DoS web site. 3 From the DoS web site. 4 Statistical Yearbook. DoS, 2002 ]0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

121 5.2.3 Directly Affected Populations The local centres of population expected to be directly affected by the ADC are as follows: Khashafiat Al Dabaiba Sahab Raim Al Shami Sharqi Al Abdalia Al Laban Al Tnaib Al Faisalia Raim Al Shami (Tharhi Al Qastal The total number of people residing In these settlements is estimated at 53,000. Much of Russeifa (Pop. 281,655) and significant parts of Zarqa and eastern Amman will also be directly afiected by consequentiai development Population Forecasts and Distribution Current projections indicate the Kingdom's population will increase to 8.3 million by Within the same period, the combined population of Amman and Zarqa Governorates is expected to grow to nearly 4.5 million, as shown in Table 5.3, an increase from 20n2 nf oxvpr 1. millinn T ABIL' i.a nopulation ProJections for Amm..an anduu Zarqa UGovernorates I A_A_ I -2002Population ('000's) 2 ml = Amman Governorate 2,028 2,233 2,527 2,831 3,172 Zarqa Governorate ,045 1,170 1,311 A - IE'0CC I7-4-d A A r%% A AOn 11I11 m I an/lzarila Total,IJUU 2 3, L).J,570 I I [ 40 J,,4uu Kingdom 5,329 5,867 6,638 7,436 8,331 Such an increase will place considerable pressure on land and infrastructure services within the Amman-Zarqa conurbation and its environs. The manner in which this growth is distributed will depend upon a number of factors. includino regional political stability, Government policy, the release of new land for deve!ioinnment,na- r nndrri-i uities in for ermpnirorymnnt. clnt growthi of theconubatilon has generally been towards the southeast, towards the ADC. The limitecl opportunity for expansion northwards and westwards was highlighted in Section 1.i of the present report. The approved Development Plans, including the Greater Amman Long Term Development Plan, continue this expansion with proposals for new industrial zones and residential estates adjacent to the alignment of Contract 1 and the southern section of Contract 2, and east of the existing Hizam Road. These proposals are discussed in more detail in Section 9 of the present report Dr%nmiuair%n Strmi*+uctra Given tile previously identified pre-einenle of the M aind-za-lrqd cnurbation in determining national statistics, it is not surprising that population structure for the capital also refiects the national situation. The age structure ot the population, by percentage, nationally for 1994, 1999 and 20025, and for Amman and Zarqa recently, are shown in Table 5.4. S Employment and Unemployment Survey. DoS, May 2003 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

122 Table 5.4 Age Structure of the Jordanian Population Age Kinygoum I%nGdom ingaom Amman Zarqa ; ;0. A; I ± j 12.4 j I I 11.9 I i j j J 3.1 [ 3.0 j J Z.8 Z ' J I A -I ~-- C~&J~L~~1-J - A A recenil Fa,, InII L.I railte Is refliclteu III LIth PFUIpUILIUI Ul 0-5 year UiUs. A pertinent feature of the statistics is the proportion, 50.40/o nationally and 47.50/o in Amman, of young people 0-20 years of age, compared with those years old, /o nationally and 17.10/o in Amman. The younger group will be seeking employment within the next years, while the older group will be retiring. Clearly, a major job creation programme is required, and schemes such as the ADC and its subsequent developments will attempt to provide the necessary employment. There are more males than females. In 2002, the Male:Female ratio, nationally and for Amman and Zarqa Gnvernorates individuallvy was approximately 52:48. The present situation in respect of different age groups 6 is shown in Table 5.5. Table 5.5 Present Population Age Structure between the Sexes AgeGroup /o Male /% Female Sex Ratio* if i Inf A Inl A I41I I IJ j 4 _ IL Z- t.l±u j J j I I 112 l ( A I l ] I 2.6 I 3.1 I U -UJ [ L i33_ [ 3.6 [ * Number of males per 100 females 6 Statistical Yearbook. DoS, 2002 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

123 Amman Deveionment Corndor Environmental impact Assessment Uodate The proportion of males to females appears to have stabilised during the last decade. The nronortion of females. not necessarilv the total numbers. is oreater than or insignificantly different from that for males between 30 and 60 years of Housenolu Structure The number and size of households within Amman and Zarqa Governorates, as well as nationally, are shown in Table 5.6. Table 5.6 Number and Size of Households 7 Area Households Persons Av. Household Size Amman Governorate 271,b64 1,5/b,Z38! 5.8 persons Zarqa Governorate 101, , persons Kingdom 672,472 4,139, persons Household size in Amman is slightly smaller than elsewhere, perhaps reflecting a greater proportion of s'ingle male migrants anda/ior greater ail Iuence in ItL-lle C.apital. 5.3 HOUSING AND UTILITY SERVICES Housing Stock The mnioritv of residents, more than 95%/n live in either traditional single or double storey houses (Dars) or in apartments, as shown in Table 5.7. Table 5.7 Types of Housing 8 Area [ (ar)] Apartment j Villa [ Barracks Tent Amman Governorate 20% 76%0/ 3.3%0 0.2% 0.5%0/ 7 arn; (-xnvprnnrtp 34/ 4 0/ I C0/n n - o/f n 7 /,. I n f 0/ X Kingdom 44% 53% o 17% 0.3% A very small proportion of people, less than 0.1% in each area and most likely immigrant workers, reside in their place of work. Over 99.50/o of households each live in a single housing unit, with very little multioccupancy, a situation broadly confirmed by a small unstructured survey undertaken during the 1999 EIA study. The majority of housing units, some 61% nationally, are m 2 in size. Zarqa has a s!ightly higher percentage of this size category, while Amman has slightly more units in both the smaller and larger size cat ego-0ri e s. A survey by the Ministry of Planning 9 found only 20/o of housing to be of marginai or temporary quality. Past survey data, for which there is no direct recent equivalent, noted a tendency for the smaller households to occupy the larger dwellings, mainly in the north western and western suburbs of Amman, and vice-versa with the 7 DoS web page 8 DoS web page 9 National Housing Strategy, Ministry of Planning, 1987 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

124 Armmirt-ian Devel'opmrt-ient Corridor Eriv-1frumirrnental urpact Assessment Update smaller units in the eastern suburbs. The relatively high level of occupancy within the smallest units is likely to persist, given family sizes remain relatively large and the population is exceptionally young Tenure Status The tenure status of the residents in Amman, Zarqa and nationally is summarised in Table 5.8. Table 5.8 Tenure Status of Occupants 1 ~,. 1- I,... I I I r Ovwned 1 by l Owned Rented Rente Area H-ea ofif Househol drented Rented Other Household Memher Furnished Unfurnished Amman 51.67% 6.78% 0.93% j 36.42% 4.20% Zarqa I.1-It70 IC Z.87-% 0.19%.31.52%-/ 3.27% Kingdom 59.87% 0 / 7.650/% J /a /a 3.97% Some % of Heads of Households or their immediate relatives own the housing unit they occupy. Perhaps not surprisingly, and probably reflected in almost any capital city in the world. is the hioher nronortion of rented, both furnished and unfurnished, in Amman, reflecting the greater proportion of Expatriate profesionas, csiir1-ent frorm e!sewere in t-ke VKingdomr, an oter tmporary residents. The last full census in 1994 also indicated a very stable housing market, with households moving only infrequently. Some 60 0 /o of residents had lived in their present accommodation for more than 5 years, and 37% of occupants had been in residence for over 10 years. There is nothing to suggest this situation has changed siqnificantly. r5=3=3 IPuhlir Ultilities and SePruirpc Public utilities such as water supply, sewerage, electricity, telephones and solid waste disposal, are provided throughout the Kingdom. Amman and Zarqa are well covered by national standards and the situation with respect to water and sewerage is shown in Table 5.9. Table 5.9 Population Connected to Public Water Supply and Sewerage Area Water Supply Sewerage Amman /4U/4% 97 /0 Zarqa 69% 96% l Kingdom 52% / 94 / The volumes of water supplied for household and municipal purposes increased by.l. -1.t% -L iu in Iii 2001 and by 2).8%/ in 2002, follovving '-!is during.1j..j ci u the drought Li. Z.. years of' I U Ii.1 l I VI V I 9 1 I ui UI 119 LI~U u i ii U In 2002, Amman Governorate received 94.1 million m 3, and Zarqa Governorate 34.4 million m3i. Assuming full connection, this is equivalent to 127 litres/head/day in Amman and 112 1/h/d in Zarqa. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

125 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update The distribution of electrical power is available throughout all the urban areas and elsewhere within the Kinadom. Electricity subscrintions rnljtinplv rise by 4-5%0/ each year. In 1992, there were 568,000 subscribers, in ,000, and in ,000. Aso in 2002, I 6,091 GWs(Ak were rcnsmed /-. o f it- by dm-esiconsumers. Telephones are also widely available in all the populated areas. In 1997, there were 404,333 subscribers to landlines. By 2001, this had risen to 659,472, although the rate of increase has declined since the introduction of mobile services. The number of landline subscribers throughout the Kingdom fell slightly in 2002, to 629,292, of which 359,765 (57%) were in Amman Governorate and 66,560 (10.5%) in Zarqa Governorate. As with elsewhere in the Middle East, mobile lines have become exceedingly JJpopular. All 197 te fi;r yer Y VI VfopaLIUII, LItIere vvere It-J)uU suuscrliuers, UUL this rapidly rose to 118,000 in 1999 and 866,000 in In 2002, this number reached 1,291,000, equivalent to one mobile line for every 4 peopie, or neariy one for every 2 persons between the ages of 15 and 60. The appropriate and environmentally acceptable disposal of solid waste from all sources has been a major problem in Jordan. For the Amman-Zarqa conurbation and surrounding areas. a maior handling and disposal facility was opened in 2000 at Gabawi, some 23 km east of central Amman, with an ultimate capacity of 1.7 millinn tonnsi/yepar in Co.,.,,,unf.'y Z71CFVIGVso Community services encompass a wide variety ot tacilities such as the provision of health care, public transport, postal services and community centres. Across the Kingdom there are 95 hospitals offerinq 9,383 beds, 58% of the hospitals and 65% of the beds being located within the Amman and Zarqa Governorates. Health care nrovision in each nf thesce (nvernnrates is listeri in Tahb! Table 5.10 Health Care Provision in Amman and Zarqa Governorates Facility Amman Zarga All Hospitals 46 9 Beds Government Hospitals 4 2 palth Cpnt-rp~ Beds Health nfrfe Village Clinics Mother and Child Centres TB Centres 1 1 Pharmacies ndenta!['l _inics 18 Miucn of tne neaitn sector in jordan operates witnin tne private sector, aitnougn tne relatively small number of Government (Ministry of Health) hospitals are by far the largest /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

126 AmmanI Develo ment Cor,IuUor En,virlUnmentadl IIIWdpact Assessment UPdate Public transport comprises a variety of local, national and international buses and mini-buses, Servis taxis and private hire taxis. New developments resulting from the ADC, both residential and commercial, can quickly expect to become well served by public transport as soon as operators perceive there is a viable market. Similarly, postal services are provided for ii a,1 major uirubi ad suuribian area:, and these will also expand to meet demand. Community Centres and other municipal facilities such as libraries and cemeteries can also be expected to expand and become more numerous, and will need to be included for in future Development Plans. 5.4 EDUCATION Adult Literacy ln , adult literacy in Jordan was estimated to be 93% for males and 79% for females. Only Lebanon, with 95% and 90% respectively, fared better, with the MENA" 1 average being /o and 5 O 0 /a. By the situation had imdroved. to 95% for males and 860/n for femalesj with nearly equal proportions, 35% of males and 34% of females, reaching secondary education. Similar figures.for literacy are given for Educationafl AEtanment The Kingdom's relatively low rates of illiteracy are matched by its good record on educational attainment. The number of students attending school up to secondary level 12 is shown in Table Table 5.11 School Students up to Secondary Level Nationally Level Male Female Total Kindergarten 50,460 43,094 93,554 Basic Education 607, ,498 1,190,595 Academic secondarv I I I Vocational Secondary T 27,255 16,730 43,985 I Tota_ 746,288 _1 7i_7,_i 96 1 i,463,484 1 Although the number of males slightly exceed females in the early years, significantly more females go on to academic secondary education, while a higher proportion of males opt for some form of vocational training. The overall school population comprises 510/a males and /o females. Given a ration of 52:48 in the population at large, it may be concluded that females have gained equal, if not better, opportunities for junior and secondary education. ' eve:lopent R nepc'o rtj. VIor;A -an-, -e 1" Middle East and North Africa Region 12 Statistical Yearbook. DoS, /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

127 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update The figures cited above also show the high proportion of young people of early school agne and it is to he honped the Government has put in place the resources to allow them to continue education to their natural level of attainment. The situation within the Amman and Zarqa Governorates" 3 is shown in Table Table 5.12 School Students up to Secondary Level in Amman and Zarqa Governorates. Area Male I Female I Total Amman Students 165, , ,015 Zarqa StudentS 90,512 90, ,000 Total 256, , ,015 With Amman having a significantly higher proportion of female students, and Zarqa having almost equal numbers of each, the 51:49 ratio is again applicable, but is reversedr Female:Male. This nerhans suggests there remain fewer educational opportunities for females in rural areas elsewhere in the Kingdom. Going onto university, the numbers of students further equalise. For 2002, there are 67,7i87 male andu 67,300 female students at universities throughout the Kingdom, a ratio of 50.2:49.8. However, far fewer females appear to go on to pursue higher degrees, with 682 males but only 172 females currently pursuing a Ph.D, although this situation may fluctuate widely year-by-year. Some 25,329 Jordanian students are currently enrolled at higher education establishments overseas. ;. 5 EIkA a I- EN A LIMJ A.V EFIIPPLOYINAIE11111 M1111u 1I111%.IVEE Employment The Jordanian labour force was estimated1 4 to be just over 1.2 million in 2001, of which 56% was located within the Amman (484,000) and Zarqa (192,000) Governorates. Recent projections indicate the national workforce will increase to 2.1 million, Or a further 900,000 personnq hv 2n2n0 while in the Amman and Zarqa Governorates it will grow to 1.2 million. This is equivalent to the national workforce Irn ftii 2001, or ar, ^,cea f ovier 52)7,00 ton[ +-- oi3tl of the rnati-n3 J.J.L. VJ II ll kli 'VIC-I.J.It,LJLI LV GIP.JI.JIL II ICIL~I_ I /U /U VJI LI 1L I v u workforce. The national unemployment rate for 2002 is 15.3%, with some 815,300 persons, 14% of the male population and 22%/o of the female population over 15 years of age out-of-work. Nearly 13% live in Amman and 15.2% in Zarqa. 55% of those unemployed are years of age, 34% of the total have been out-of-work for 7-12 months, and 12% for over one year. The romposition of the labour forre' 5 Zarqa is shown in Table between males and.females.for Amman and 13 Statistical Yearbook. DoS, Annual Report of Employment and Unemployment Survey. DoS, Employment and Unemployment Survev. Department of Statistics. DoS! May /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

128 Amman Development Corfidor Environmental imioact Assessrient Update Table 5.13 Composition of the Labour Force in Amman and Zarqa Governorates Transport Sector Age Amman I Zarqa l Age I ~~M I F I T-otal I M I F I Total n- A)A 1 Q A_)_a on 1RR 1 A : I in a j 23.1 [ I j 0.0 = 1.3 Nationally, 10.2% of employed males over 15 years of age work in the Transport sector, but only 3.3% of employed females. In Zarqa, the percentage for males is 10.5%, and in Amman 9. 8 %. Agricultural Sector Tn % nf the 1nrrtaniAn wo1arlkforrc was emnipn!oy in rrricuiture PBy 1 Q98 this had fallen to 7.6%, and continued to decline, dropping to 5.3% in The A ~~i;~lj -l..l.& & A..A..:_ t.1 4 1_ percentaige increase illy bul stedully uuirlng the late 1990s, and Ifo 20UU reached 6.1% of the workforce. As in many other countries, the picture is complicated by the seasonal and casual nature of much employment in the sector, and by the engagement of foreign nationals. The situation in the Amman Governorate from 1998 and nationally for 2002 is shown in Table Table 5.14 Agricultural Sector Employment T 1 1 Permanent Seasonai I Casual Area Year Sex Jordanian Non- _ Jordanian [ Non- Jodan Non- n I Juaia -_ii i I - JVI U _ JU_U ild J_u JUrUd 1, _ J o rd a n ia n r d ll dl M 406 _ 3, ,002_ F M i_ vb I o v M0 o a o l Amman ' + F , M 391 1, , F 10 ± M_ , l 0 1,095 J 1, F 178 I 7 i 1 nn n I n 18 Kincldom ,592 10, ] 580 6,772 _34;44_ 9 l I F I x The majority of permanent agricultural workers, 78 % in Amman and 6 8% nationally in 2002, were Non-Jordanian males. The statistics record that only a small percentage, 10% in Amman and 2 % nationally, are women, but official returns may not fully reflect the involvement of female relatives on a family farm. Dome /.73%UI ofl all agricultural vvorkers are emlo-pluyed on Lcasuial basis. Ul lthese, 87% are male and only 13% women. 74 %, of both groups are Non-Jordanian /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

129 Am,m,a Develop,r,rent Cot,rrduojr I IIIrW MI m IrU L Assessmeni Update Income Average monthly earnings across a!l major occupational groups throughout the Kingdom in 2002 were JD 238 for males and JD 211 for females 1 6. The Public S e ctor paid significant, ybette r, withl averages of' ]DL 2080 and' SD 241 respectively. Equivalent figures for the Private Sector were JD 212 for males and ID 174 for females. Skilled male agricultural workers received on average JD 170/month. There is no equivalent statistic for females. Generally unskilled workers in elementary employment, including unskilled agricultural workers, averaged JD 140/month. In Jordan, as elsewhere in the region, it is common for households to have income from sources other than officia'ly paid employment. Such sources include remittances from family members working overseas, long-term family investments, ollen In land and property, and undeclared occupations. The last full census in 1994 recorded that throughout the Kingdom, only 5 2 % of average household income is obtained through routine employment. The equivalent figures for Amman and Zarqa were 47% and 57% respectively. An insiqht into the importance of second incomes and other sources of income is shown by the results of the LARP socio-economic survey presented in Volume 2 of the present submission. 5.6 REGIONAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY Economic activity rates' 7 only 12.3% for females. average 38.4%, varying between 64.2% for males but Some 36% of workers are employed by the Public Sector, which is often the prime rhoirc nf inh speekrs hbecausi nf the attractive allowances and benefits offered. An average of 7% of all workers are Non-Jordanian, 2% in the Public Sector and 10% in the P)riIvatLe Setor. 5.6.i industrial Activity Industrial production has increased considerably in recent years and businesses have become more efficient, as shown by the two main industrial indices, as follows: 2002 Industrial Production Index: (1994=100) 2002 Industrial Producer's Price Index: 95.6 (1998=100) The Kingdom's domestic exports1 8 in 2001 rose 25.1% over those in 2000, from JD 1,080.8 million to JD 1,351.7 million (US$ 1,512 million to US$ 1,892 million), something of an achievement when exdorts of Phosnhatep. cment- ferti1iser anrd potash, the prime sector, fell by 6.5%. Imports during the same period grew by 16 Statistical Yearbook. DoS, The proportion olfl economically active persons within thl"e population 15 years of age and auove. Statistical Yearbook. DoS, Jordan Export Report. Jordan Export Development and Commercial Centers Corporation, J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

130 Amman Development Corridor Environmenta,rwavit issessment Update 5.40/o, from JD 3,259.4 million to JD 3,434.5 million (US$ 4,563 million to US$ million). The country's Trade Balance Deficit decreased from JD million to JD 1,808.8 million (US$ 2,678 million to US$ 2,532 million). Exports from Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZs) comprised 120/o of total manufacdltu1rue III UUsLial pcoapuilb. ilciiis a eiii di nviiiy export growlthl around 5U0 o r above for the year included clothing, electrical equipment, eggs, jewellery, iron and steel products, aluminium products, ceramics, tobacco, beverages and processed foods. The items that experienced an export decline included soaps, live animals, copper products, leather goods, fruit, animal and vegetable oils, medical instruments, footwear, fertilisers and furniture. There i a mainr concentration of industry, particularly manufacturing, around t-he Amman-Zarqa conurbation. Activity within the ADC zone of influence is primarily concentrated atl " tlhe older centres such as ZL Lar andu along it le uizam r%oau. Of particular note is the Sahab industrial Estate, which is an indication of the form future industrial development in the ADC might follow. The first such estate in Jordan, the Abdullah II Ibn Al Hussein Industrial Estate was established in 1985 on 253 ha within the ADC zone of influence. This area is now fully developed and occupied, housing 390 separate businesses representing 10 industrial sectors. It is viewed as being a great success and to have significantly contributed to the recent growth in the Jordanian economy. The composition of the Sahab Estate, the investment and levels of employment are licste-d in Table Table 5.15 Businesses, Investment and Employment at Sahab Industrial Estate Industrial 1 No. f I Tnvp5tpe I No. of 2 No. of I No. of i Sector J Businesses Capital* Workers Businesses Capital* Worker IFood I 2,515 I l Pharmaceuticals , ,138 Engineering , ,1.0 IRubber Plastics and ,715, ,664 Chemicals , ,341 Textiles , ,809 Furniture 2I z7 30.1U. 776 Packing and , ,933 Leather Cnnrfriirfinn in 'I C;?Q7 q 7t 1 7 [construction in ~~~~~9192 5~~ ~27 ~Total , ,658 *JD million Although 2002 was not quite as successful as businepqep on the estate managed to sell some JD 380 million worth of products, of which 420/o was evnprfed. The kihigest ceiling ectrof-rr was! t-he forid irnrdiuc-ry, at- In mil7,lio, ana S-.-l.'J UtSA i ' J. I' -..f..l l JtL JI Y i j- I L/J.. 11 Li tiat Y, Lit JL L.' ±.aj 11 II IJI I, LU LiI the highest exporting sector was engineering at JD 46.3 million The performance of Lite dliic cient sectors is shilown in T aduie /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

131 Ammi an DeveolU.ment Co,U-6dor En11V11US irionental ImpaJl M AsIsmt0It( LIJUCdLt; Table 5.16 Performance of the Sahab Industrial Estate for 2002 Industrial Sector Sales* Export* E_x_p Sales*_ Export* Export l rood l_ i;7.5 1l 42.8_1_36.4% I Pharmaceuticals Engineering %9 I Plastics and Rubber I 5.9 I % I Chemicals %0/ I Text,,es 1 i.5 1 i5.8 1 :u. z o I Furniture /% Packing and Packaging % Construction s.n 16 3fl n Leather Totai 380.0U [ J_AV. 42%/o *JD million. No figures are published for the Leather companies. The estate is heavily involved in trade movements with Syria and Iraq, and is well placed to benefit from the iiberalisation of trade. Approximately 50% of the workers on the estate commute from Amman, and a further 20% from Zarqa. Elsewhere in the reqion, there are a large number of individual industrial units that will benefit from their proximity to the ADC for the import of raw materials, mainly through Aqaba, and for access to markets. Such companies wl! include the Zarqa Refinery, AL Hussein Power Station, the Fuheis Cement Works, and the many q uarrei I OUJCIIL t L thle Con trlac 2lL aeign C311mentL Arabie Agriculture In each of the last 3 years 19, the agricultural sector has contributed around 3.8%, of GDP at current market prices; down from 5% in 1996 and 8.1% in Much of this decline results from structural change within the industry and it nevertheless remains a key economic activity, with direct and indirect imnarct on foori processing industries, transport and the generation of employment. The inclusion of unstreanm and downmstream!inklages su-h l, me agrikiuincesc anda foda roc n, would have increased the sector's contribution to GDP in 2002 to some 29%. Large investments in irrigation have been made over the last two decades, pal-ticularly biletween I ihe areas unuer UiUIf=ient types Uo LcUps diiu IUI irrigated and non-irrigated agriculture are shown in Table Table 5.17 Areas under Cultivation Nationally Cultivation j Piorl rrnnc l 1 I FAl!,1 i 1,380 l Tree Crops Vegetables 357 [ Total Area l 3,055 2,354 l 2,564 2,606 [Irrigated 788 [ 769 j Ir`rigated 1 2, , ,830 1,857 Figures in 1000 Dunums (lha=10 du) _ '9 1999, 2000 and /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

132 AmmUan Deveiopii-ient Cor,fUdor Er-vi'nrrIWentai[ ImDaci Assessment Update Primary field croos are barley and wheat. which respectivelv cover 620 /o and 310 /o of the field crop area. For the area under tree crops, 730/o is dedicated to olives, which gixve tw-oi hir/incf-c a yeanir anri QO9 to- - rit-riuc The nrim-arxy vegeota-hic are tomatosc which cover 220/o of the area, and potatoes, 100/%. W * - -** * _ - - I.J* I*..- II d ~ L.II~J ti LJ L tj This translates into annual productions for 2002 of the following: Field Crops Tree Crops Vegetables L%II la ±, I /wi%,uu L LUI l I-r,UU' LVUV ton 358,000 torr ns 1,70,000 tons- A8)2000 tons The areas cultivated (planted) vary year-on-year, depending upon factors that include the market price of produce and the availability of water, both rainfall and that pumped for irrigation. The areas under field crops over the last decade for the Amman Governorate and for the Highlands 20 in general is shown in Table Table 5.18 Areas under Field Crops in Amman Governorate and the Hiqhlands Area l l 1997 l 1998 l 1999 l l 2002 Amman Governorate Wihl-a. A-re 1, I IA A) I 1IAO i 1512 i i,4aa 1,783 1,I086 i - i 1' -j- Highlands Irrigation 6.5%0/ 3.2% / 4.2%0/ 3.1%0/ 2.8% 3.0% 4.0% 3.6% 3.2% Figures in 1000 Dunums The proportion of the total cultivated area under field crops that lies within the Amman Governorate is some 26%. For areas under tree crops and vegetables in both Amman and Zarqa, the comparison is as shown in Table Table 5.19 Areas under Tree Crops and Vegetables in Amman and Zarqa Governorates Area 1 Tree Crops 1 Vegetables 1 Amman Governorate 86,862 du 27,808 du 10% of total 8% of total Zarqa Governorate 51,485 du 18,169 du 6% o%f ti-oi! E5%A of to-tia! In thle areas ofi UdIrectL impact fiurom A DLC construction, exciuduin1 a- naicrruw curriour adjacent to the Desert Highway where irrigation is common, agricultural activity is primarily confined to rain-fed cultivation, and then principally to the areas adjacent to the Contract 1 alignment. Given its dependence on climatic conditions, both the areas planted and the level of production vary from year to year. Future prospects for the sector within the ADC corridor are therefore larqely dependent on overcoming climatic constraints through the use of irrigation. However, there are maior conrerns over the excessive use of nrouiind water for irrigation throughout both the Jordan Valley and the Highlands, and future abstraction licences are likely to LSJ be Inn IL.'% I %- L rctd I%LL.L_J. Beyndi%r 1-I'.. y I I II.J the L-I I.. narrow1a I I UI I %fv V corridr4^ L%J I I ILJU.J I nadi-cet U ILJJ LL. I I L 4to LUJ the LI I;_ Deser L.' Zl-I L U,ghw--, I I Itj I I VVC a ', the L I I C depth of wells necessary to exploit sufficient quantities of ground water increases markediy, thus substantially increasing both the capital and operational costs of irrigation. 20 The Highlands area includes Amman but excludes the Jordan Valley, where much of the Kingdom's agricultural activity is concentrated /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

133 5.6.3 Livestock and Poultry Livestock The number of livestock; sheep, goats and cattle, within the Amman Governorate are listed in T1able J.20. Table 5.20 Livestock within Amman Governorate I Stock i 199s I 1gqQ i 19q7 j QQR 1 2 Sheep 506, , , , ,500 Goats ±J`',-JU ;6,0UU00 ;UU,UU0 io3,0uu i i3,000 Cattle 2,600 4,600 no data 8,280 9,250 The total number of livestock increased substantially up to the mid-1990s, but decreased thereafter and now varies year-on-year, again in response to the availability of water. I r n - rf rnnnminni- knxiei ~ ~ e,a i,~4 - - LargeI areas ofi WI IbJeen hvii InlV. IIjILjIIl-LJ pi'. ui LWV III I Lyears, thleiruy redljuci.ng the resource base for livestock. Other significant constraints affecting the livestock industry are as follows: * Traditional patterns of graziing Are hinn modifled. There is a tendency towards settlement, for at least a substantial part of each year, which has led to overgrazing ofi LIhe most easi'y accessibue areas. Th li1 is Is fuiliiier exacerbated uy the cutting of browsing vegetation for fuel;. Available ground water resources are deciining; ieveis are faiiing and salinity increasing. Evidence for this includes the frequent use of tankers to supply stock watering points in Wadi Al Ush and further southwards; * The use of tankers to provide a reliable water supply has in turn led commercial herders and Bedu to extend the periods they keep their stock in a particular area. This increases the risk of overgrazina. which ultimatly contrilbutes to Desertification as plant cover is destroyed and soils become susceptible to wind andr smeasona! wad=i e3rosion. Overall, a damaging cycle has developed. The tendency to concentrate herds beyond sustainable carrying capacity leads to the destruction of rangelands, which in turn further promotes the need to concentrate herds. Notwithstanding that traditional lifestyles have been in decline for a number of years, pastoralism still plays an important role in the local economy, in which four distinct grotups are identified: Nomads Fully nomadic groups that move to a traditional cycle that may take more than one year. Their numbers are declining, but may still constitute 10% of pastoralists, primarily on land east of the ADC zone of influence. Small Herd Owners Generally owning less than 100 head, these are predominantly settled in villages. Their herds are kept in proximity to the village and labour is provided from within the family. Half of the family income may be derived from their herds. and they constitute nerhaps 25-30%/o of naftoralsts 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

134 Amman Deve/orment Coufrrduo nvironmentai impaci Assessment Update Large Herd Owners The most significant group of oastoralists. some 300/o of the total. own larme herds with which they are fully occupied, and operate on a strong commercial basis. In autumn, they move their herds eastwards into the interior, to utilise natural grazing, and return in late spring, to graze on the remnants of harvested crops. The decline in the quantity and quality of available rangeland has forced them to become increasingly dependent upon fodder, which substantially increases their costs. These people are semi-settled and obtain 90% of their income from their herds. Traditional Farmers The remaining 25-30%/o of tnose practicing traditionai iifestyies grow cereais, primarily barley but also some wheat, and olives. Most have a second job, commonly in public service or the Army, and often keep sheep and goats for their own consumption. Poultry The number of poultry raised in Jordan increased continuously throughout the 1990s such that the number of head in 1999 was 1700/o of the 1990 figure 2 1. Over the same~ period, thie production ofi poultry meat more than doubled and egg production increased by almost /o, indicating that broilers were more popular than layers. The recent statistics on poultry production throughout the Kingdom is shown in Table Table 5.21 Poultry Production in Jordan Tp 4 J_1l rlrzdub EI I-CL I Eyyb rlcdub PI ltd1 Cggb HeadU Meat g Broilers 21,000 90,700-24, ,700 23, ,500 - I Layers 6,050 J - 871,000 5,100 - I 761,600 I 5,100 I - I 752,000 lin I1000, 2 in tons nuller I of poultry fiarms Ihave been established II Iwith ADC zone of inf,uene, reflecting the proximity of the urban area, some of which will be directly impacted by ADC construction Tourism Tourism is a key economic sector for the Kingdom, contributing approximately 1O 0 /o of annual GNP and providinq the biggest source of foreign exchange earnings. The sector grew continuously during the 1990s, as indicated by the availability of hotels anrd rnnmsj shown in Tahlp 522 T_ab!e 5.222Ht' Acco-mmodation in "or Aan Facility Hotels Hotel Ronnms 8,083 11, R1 19q 1Rq II Tis growth was a direct result ofl cuo nutinliui normaiiuf[ildaiodllufl inhe regnylu, whrichr rids suffered badly, and continues to do so since the start of the Second Intafada, the 21 Ministry of Agriculture web page. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

135 USA's so-called 'War on Terrorism', and the perception of danger following the recent overthrow of the Iraqi Government. The number of hotels in the Kingdom peaked at 472 in 2001, but fell back in Of the 462 hotels cited above for 2002, 310 (67%) are Classified, of which 221 (71%) ar loc I nou Ama I andi 2HU a re in a rqa. OJI tlhe IL J.2 UnclassifIl ed hotels, 94 (6 2 %) are in Amman and 8 in Zarqa. Amman, as the administrative capital and primary business centre is the major destination for visitors, business and tourists alike. The latter often spend a few days in the city, visiting nearby sites such as Jerash and Madaba before going on to Petra, the Dead Sea, Wadi Rum or Aqaba. Perhaps understandably, Zarqa has little demand for hotels, with more requirements for Unclassified than Classified, reflecting greater demand from visiting workers rather than business leaders and tourists. The level of direct employment in tourism has also fallen for the reasons identified above. In 2000, 23,621 persons were employed in the sector, but this fell to 22,864 in 2001 and to 21,595 in 2002, a decline of nearly 9% over the last two years. Of these employees, 4 8 % work in hotels, 26 % in tourist restaurants, and 12% in tourist and travel agencies. Some jobs are more sensitive to a decline in the numbers of tourists than others. Car rental companies and restaurants have either remained static or slightly increased their employment over this period, a reflection of their internal market orowth not being wholly dependent upon incoming tourists. Conversely, the number of people employed as tourist guides has dropped by 20% since Nevertheless, the future for tourism looks bright, and with much of the required infrastructure in place, the sector could see sustained future growtn once stability returns to the region. In the context of the ADC, the positive impacts on traffic, such as a reduction in congestion, will also benefit tourist coaches in addition to transit trucks, although the longer-term development of eastern Amman. whilst it may include some new hotels, is unlikely to generate any particular benefits for the sector as a whole Transport System Transport infrastructure and operations are a key element in the effective functioninq of the Jordanian economy, internally as well as for external trade. Due to the Kingdom's location, international transit traffic contributes significantly to economic activity and growth. Onnoritnities will be significantly enhanced by moves towards regional integration and co-operation arising from the increased liberalisation of trade, as previously highlighted in Section Withz the exception or some rail export of potasn, virtuaiiy aii transport is by road. The Amman-Zarqa region is vital for the movement of goods, because it provides for internal customs clearance at Al Juwaidah, and lies astride international transit routes to Palestine and Syria. The importance of the trucking industry in handling Jordan's imports and exports is illustrated in Table J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

136 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update Table 5.23 The Movement of Imports and Exoorts by Truck 2 2 IKincidom Value* Gross Weight** Total 3, ,410.2 Imports BIy Truck eg8on.8 i 7/ 2 Amman Region l ByTruck 1,370.6 (730/ 6l,974.5 (99.7%) Knnndom Total Exports s Amman By Truck Region! (610%) 2499r. Totan I By Truck (75%) (99.2%) * in million D i ln thlousanud tons The statistics for total exports from the Kingdom are somewhat distorted Dy tne inclusion of fertilisers, phosphates and potash, which account for 80% of exports passing through Aqaba, and are recorded as being exported by sea rather than by road. However, much of this and all the 20% of commodities passing through the port are taken there by truck. Similarly, the small proportion of airfreight has to be delivered to and collected from the airport by road. In addition, some 3.9 million tons of commodities, valued at 3,309 million JD, passed through Jordan in transit, and ovpr!il the transnnrt sectonr 23 contributed 7. 3 %/o of GDP in ToV as-sist the sector bkie om -1Ie m ore e 4:11ci e n L a ndl alo w lfu' I- II -r1 gr owvth1-, L1h1e pr -o v islonui of the ADC is a long-standing policy objective of the Government. Its alignment is far enough from the centre of the Capital to inciude within its zone of infiuence suburban population centres such Zarqa and Sahab. In addition to providing the catalyst for future development, the new road will link and integrate the existing development routes radiating eastwards from Amman and help to reduce traffic passing through the urban areas. The ADC will also link with national and international highways, and traffic en-route to and from Pa'estine, Syria and Saudi Arabia will be abe to avoild passing through Greater Amman and Zarqa. In summary, the key functional aspects of the ADC are listed below. At a Strategic level, the ADC will: * Facilitate the integration of transportation sub-sectors within a comprehensive approach to development planninq; * * Respond to economic growth, regional co-operation and sector development; CAmplem.nt mnves towards greater regional transport integration. At a Local level, the ADC will: * Divert through traffic, particularly heavy trucks, away from the urban areas of Amman, particularly with the relocation of the Customs Depot and creation of a new Inland Logistics Port adjacent to the new road; * Provide a local bypass taking through traffic away from Sahab and Zarqa; and 22 Statistical Yearbook. DoS, Transport, Storage and Communications 70269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004 (0/.1

137 Amm11an1 Dvevlomentll CoJrridor EnIVIbUIII/IumIt(-l IIJCG bu 1U1 pdate Become a key economic link reducing the costs of access to a range of sectors including transport, industrial activity, agriculture and tourism I neqi ArccFs SO.Ontf-aIt 19 From the Desert Highway to the Sahab Highway, the local area road network is well developed and the ADC will cross existing vehicular accesses on average every 900 m. All existing metalled roads will be retained by the provision of underpasses or overpasses, and the provision of service roads on either side of the ADC will quickly link existing unmetalled and unretained accesses to adjacent crossings. North of the Sahab Highway, the area is largely undeveloped except for narrow orrriadrs fronting t-he exising roa,ae Muck o. f t-h - aces -- ~.AJl is vlauna.- 4-rc-I, I IUJ%JI 0 II.JI ILII I~J Li Il ~i.;; I 'JLILa. I JI I LA JI I L Iq LLU I.> VIC] UI IZUi IOLt- U Li CLNMS developed along the routes preferred by local residents. Again, all metalled roads will retained and the provision of service roads wiii both raciiitate access to crossing points and generally improve the ability to access the area. Contract 2 With the exception of the southern part of Contract 2, as far as the CDP site, to which service roads will be provided on either side of the ADC, the alignment passes through hilly terrain where access is limited toia few unsurfaced tracks. The main route, at present unsurfaced over much of its length, will be retained and II IoJV majr LI rack,s C N either ~ILI II s.de ~iue of I the LII i alignment iy I ~ LVIII~ will remain dliujiiopen. Contract 3 Again, service roads will not be provided but all major local routes will be retained. Within the Zarqa urban area, there will be substantial disruption in the vicinity of the various interchanges, all users will be significantly inconvenienced during the neriod of construction. but each existing access will he retained, alheit with some diversion. 5.8 PUBLIC HIEALElH The availability of health care provision nationally and within Amman and Zarqa Governorates has been reviewed in Section above. The overall health of the nation with respect to the occurrence of reportable infections and diseases throuqhout the Kincdom24 is summarised in Table Statistical Yearbooks, Dos,1998 and 2002 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

138 Amman Development Com,idor EltviroUnmental hmpact AssessmentIU ULJ0daL Table 5.24 Reported Infections and Epidemic Diseases Disease f [ [ 2000 ] Typhoid & Paratyphoid ] 109 [ [ Dysenterv I 526 I I I 963 I I 493 Hepatitis Mv,easles 490 i i i5 32 i i 4 Chicken Pox Mumps C Whoooina Couah t Meningitis ScarietrFever I LI J 25 1 lb J 28 I7 Brucellosiss l German Measles T26 Leshmania I r, 1r 1 c1 Scabies Venereoiogicai 9 I 6 1 U i I b l b F3 9 F 1 1 Childhood Polio 4 I ' 0 0 No longer recorded Post-Natal Tetanus J 5 j T 4 It has not been possible to undertake statistical analysis to link specific diseases with geographical characteristics 25, but from the tabulated data above, the IoIIUvvIII are apparent:. The occurrence of Typhoid and Paratyphoid, often related to unsanitary living conditions, has fallen significantly, especlly over the last 3 years, but Dysentery, often caused by similar conditions, remains prevalent; T hi e occurrence of' hepatitis hlas Ueen signifcan'lly reduced in recent years; * Childhood diseases such as Chicken Pox and Mumps remain prevalent, although there has been a significant reduction in the occurrence of Measles, Scarlet Fever and German Measles; * Meningitis varies year-on-year. The figures are difficult to interpret, but perhaps show a sliqht increase; and. Other reportable infections have remained at the same level of occurrence or have shown a low rate of decline over the last decade. Throughout the K rigdom there are me 40 ln births-k each An a cm r only 47 deaths. Life expectancy is 68.6 years for men and 71.1 years for women 2 6. Infant mortality is 25 per 1,000 live bilthi, L di I ldl ImrLta,ty 4 per 0u,UUu live births. 25 Ch3 racterisl-ics such as air pollution, access to sanit3tion, an, piped wa er,hosn,icm,racmbatn OLL 31L U1 0 I jjiuji I L03L 3IIL.LLII I U jiju VYLC I ILU3II1 I~p L UlI,LI U ll LU thereof. 26 WHO web page 10269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

139 Amman Development Cor,idor EriVIfUInvironmenta;I Iii-uacti AssessIentI UpUdait 5.9 THE ROLE OF WOMEN The right of women to work and participate in the development process without hindrance or discriminat,ion are imposes by the Personal Status Law, the Penalty Law, and by Ministry of Labour directives that exclude women from certain occupations 27 on thre grounds of personal safety. ls enshrined in Jordanian iaw, aoilughk some limitalons The ability of woman to attain equal status in educational opportunities has been discussed in Section above. In the workplace, their lesser status in respect of average earnings, and higher unemployment than their male counterdarts has also been discussed. Overall, women make up only 20.60/o of the Jordanian workforce; for the maijor occupational groups, 30% in the Public Sector, including 37% of Government employees, and 18%/o in the Private Sector. Whilst men are most likely to be unemployeu if theyy have not compled scu'ar[ educauliu[,. ~ ~ ~ ~ women ~ ~ are ~ only -- most likely to be employed is they have completed college education. The years many Jordanian women spend in education is one of the main factors that has led to an increase in the age at which they get married. In 2002, /o of women getting married were over 20 years of aqe, while nearly 300/a were over 25. The pressure on girls to marry first cousins has been considerahly relaxed in recent years. Once very common in rural communities and tribal groups, to guarantee the retention of farmily wealth, such as land and cattle, within a patrilineal structure, the practice is now actively discouraged and has fallen out of favour as women have uecome UeLLer educated. There are, however, factors that may still be perceived to restrict women's participation, primarily the persistent general view that a woman's primary role is in the home, and whilst they may work outside for the first few years of their adult life, perhaps an increasinq few years, the home is where they will eventually end up. Such an argument is usually supported by the view that education is not necessary for wompn, although given their high educational attainment, this has already been discredited throughout much of the Kingdom. While young Jordanian women enjoy virtual equality with men, the opportunities they are afforded to develop their educationai and cultural capabilities, and their income and political participation, are much lower once they graduate. The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is an attempt to measure the opportunities for women in terms of their earned income and participation in the professional workforce. Jordan's GEM in ranked it 97 out of 102 countries, reflecting the predominant role of men in public and political life. Nevertheless, it is estimated that women, including those only workinn in fhe home, are primarily responsible for awareness and education, and frequently -, - l A 0/. -r r, n 4 +-,I f.,.-. I r rl r.^ Irr I. LLUILIVI /l/u Vu lilill% vl LULCI ICUiIlly IrISurces. 27 Sucl occupations inciude IrucLk Uinving an' handling dangerous Lhemicais. The MoL Dire tives apply Lo employees and not to an owner's own business. 28 Jordan's Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme, 2000 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

140 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update 5.10 THE IMPORTANCE OF YOUNG PEOPLE The Youth of Jordan, those under 29 years of age 29, comprise 69.1% of the [Kingdom's population, and with an average olf 4I00VIV live birliths eachll duay but only 47 deaths, this proportion will continue to grow for the foreseeable future. In making the transition from adolescence to adulthood, from dependence to independence, and from being recipients of society's services to becoming contributors to the Kingdom's economic, political and cultural life, their capacity to contribute and compete in the global economy will determine if Jordan remains a low-middle income country or joins the world's advanced economies 30. Most young Jordanians live in stable families and safe communities, and have unprecedented access to basic healthcare, education, and other serv7'ces. Ecnoic political and social change in a largely urban society affords new opportunities and cliallenges, but also compounds the polential IUr slress andu confusion. Education and training is the most important tactor in determining future qualifications, attitudes, and capabilities, and the well being of Jordanian society. Positive values and productive skills quickly translate into increase productivity and competitiveness and new policies are needed to empower young graduates in factual knowledge, personal values, and intellectual analysis. Securing satisfactory employment at reasonable rates of remuneration is the prime orncrn of ing npenie in the in-reasingiy competitive -ok market. New poflcies I L II IL %l %_JUII I1JI)' LAJIV I IIJILILI VC JVJLJ IiiiNCL. I'4CVV P.vIILIC:., %Jl I I J y% Y JUI 1 I~ JLA%JjJ II LI are needed to promote greater economic self-reliance, reduce traditional dependence upon government jobs, services and subsidies, and provide potentiai entrepreneurs with the assets, opportunities and support to directly partake in the future development of the nation. Young people have a strong desire to participate in decision-making and to end what many perceive to be their marainal role in society. The maiority of young people, urban and rural, enjoy a warm family environment, satisfactory schooling, and relatively smooth entry into the labour market and the assuming of adult responsibilities. Yet values and identities are fast changing. Signs of social stress and alienation 1hiave started to appear andl sociologists speaik ofi value UibiIdLIU. Most institutions perpetuate patriarchal socialisation of the young, thus delaying their development of confidence, seif-esteem and sense of autonomy. Many of them feel caught between traditional patriarchal and communal social values that promote conformity and obedience, and modern, individualistic lifestyles that promote personal initiative, creativity and self-assertion. Work needs to be done by all sectors of society to understand the causes, symptoms, and consequences of the gradual loosening of family ties. The challenge is to f "rmu!ate policies that can maintain the traditiona strengths of the family unit, while also offering the young the freedom they need to develop to their full potential as productulive cilizceiis. The employment opportunities expected to be afforded by ADC deveiopments wiii help meet this challenge and promote the development of young people throughout the region. 29 As defined by the United Nations Development Programme 30 Jordan's Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme, 2000 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

141 .4>-co I- < 4) z 0W IC; l - L I== 10 E

142 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update P 6 UENTIAL T E MP K Am Y I a P A C TS 6.1 INTRODUCTION Thic ctri-ion of the ITA addrescsc the potenti temprary impra-ct t-hat- may b II. Jt1 1J- 'J -I - --'. -f IIL I-- ~3'. -I FIW.. suffered during the period of road construction. S.L I LIUAI L~l. I I jjli ULI )' II I JL.L Li IUlL I a Il) Lj~_ Such impacts are essentially of two types; On-Site impacts arising from the physical construction activity within the Right of Way (ROW), discussed in Section 6.2, and Off-Site impacts arising from related activities undertaken elsewhere, such as at construction camps, fabrication yards and quarries, covered in Section 6.3. Section 6.4 discusses the consumption of aggregate and water resources. Section 6.5 provides a tabulated summary of the potential temporary en lvii roni IeI Ie IntLal ipalcts tlit ma Iy ac c r ue du Ing i th Le I_ n IucI si U Section 6.6 highlights the particular impacts that may be different in scope and magnitude for the CDP. t I of IIe hliu DMCI. 6.2 POTENTIAL ON-SITE IMPACTS Damage to the Landscape Construction sites are inherently unsightly and may impart substantial visual impact until excess spoii and abandoned materials and equipment is cieared away on completion. Other temporary damage to the landscape may accrue from excessive ground clearance beyond the Right of Way (ROW) and other agreed working areas, and from the activities of poorly supervised work gangs who may, for example, trespass onto adjacent property, cut firewood and start fires Reduction in Bio-Diversity The physical earthworks and associated noise, dust and increased human activity sizziolatilu VILI I Lcn ILioL ItLe frequently causes a temporary reductuon In Diversity even where the range of flora and fauna are able to re-establish themselves on completion of work, albeit only over several breeding/growing seasons. Flora populations, unless specifically threatened, are generally more resistant to permanent derogation than fauna. Seeds caught up in stripped topsoil may remain dormant in spoil heaps until re-spread for final landscaping. Vehicle movements beyond the ROW and other agreed working areas, and even unplanned burning, will on!y knock most species back a few seasons or! ess. Bio- Fauna may suffiteir Itiemporary riedutillouns LIIItUUYII Lthe UtesLULLIUon Ul Uenis, UUir[Uws and nests, the clearance of feeding grounds, increased traffic kills, or illegal hunting by off-duty construction workers. Where these reductions are excessive, the impact J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

143 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update may easily become long-term or even permanent. The temporary threats to wildlife on and in nroximitv to construction sites are summarized in Tabie 6.1. Table 6.1 Temporary Threats to WidElife During rrnic*r..io%n Potential Impact T Severity Comments Reduction in mammals and birds Low Primarily due to increased noise, dust and due to aeneral disturbance human activitv Road Kills Low-Moderate Many species are most vulnerable at night Reduction Pollution of habitats, poisoning of mammals Reduction In mammals and birds Moderate ;nrd the death of hirrc ficiinn nn due to poor waste clisposal practices contaminated prey in mammals and birds { 1 capture and trade Capture In species, an tradeinspecies,loss Moderate vulnerable ot dens to capture. and nests Construction makes improves species including egg collection access to remote areas Removal of shrubs and trees for] Hinh Particularly significant where tree and shrub tirewood by construction crews cover is very sparse Hunting of mammals and birds by Wi,,h Particularly significant for species already construction crews J threatened by hunting local residents Disruntinn to Existing Communicatinn Rnutes All existing roads, t-rac fo-ot, herd, Arive trails, and4 W;vild;'ife mv ent and r'.i IZ JaiLII II. IV~UUa Li U%-r..N3 I VJLJLp LI la, I l~l U UI I LIf L~ 013 u YVIUIIIc; mo lvemei IL 0nd foraging patterns in general, that cross the ADC alignment will be subject to disruption, both during and after construction. The permanent impacts on such routes are discussed in Section 7. The temporary impact during the period of construction will primarily be of two types: Complete i but temporary closure and the diversion Ui of di1 tiill; Li * Partial closure, with consequential delays and hold-ups. At the present time, and until the Contractors have agreed detailed Programmes of Work for each of the 3 construction contracts, the exact timing and duration of temporary and partial closures, and the overall impact upon the community, is difficult to assess with any accuracy. It is however, important to distinguish between disrudtion to vehicular and non-vehicular traffic. The impact unon vehicular movement will generally be confined to increases in journey time and the costs asscca,iat-ed wait-h rde!aysc and the i ico Af a lanngr Aiversinnary romei- Tn i-he majority of cases, the overall impact will be one of minor inconvenience. The impacts of disruption and severance on non-vehicular movement are potentially more significant, but less easily quantified. They couid inciude iosses in agricultural productivity and could severely impact rural communities. For example, where animals are utilised for traction and personal transport, movements are not confined to existing roads and tracks, and diversion of such traffic could add substantially to journey times. General animal movements, of both herds and wildlife, are relatively unrestricted.~,across 4athose mparts o%f t-ke AD(' rroiui-e kdit by rinfed agrilture. C. Ih UJlI UJ3a Li IU PULI La %JI Li I%. r-%li11 I.JULJL; i.ilji I III ILJL_J Li Y I Uill II 1~LJ ULJl IL.LUILLUI Lo. -...ILJI I movements will also be hindered during construction and prompt some conflict between herders and contractors, but this could easily be managed. Failure to J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

144 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Uodate provide for these movements during road operation will be much more serious and possibly compromise public safety. 6.2.a Disruption to Existing Public Utiliticc Tirie potlential impacti s arlsising from Udamage to pubflic utllities and interruption ofu supply are summarised in Table 6.2. Table 6.2 Potential Impact of Disruption to Public Utilities b Utility Nature of Impact Severity High Voltage I interruption ot Supply Severe production loss and public inconvenience Electricity [ Personal Injury Likely death of operator Cables Cost of Repair/Delay to Works Very severe Medium T Interruption of iinn1v SPvpre nmroduction locc and!niihcr inrcnvenienr EVoltage Personal Injury Probable death of or serious injury to operator Cables I Cost of Repair/Delay to Works Severe Low Voltace Interruption of Supply Localised but severe public inconvenience Electricity Personal Injury Possible serious injury to operator Cables rnet of PPnAir/rIfl::u tr Wonrlksc Minnr nradurtinn lncc horf nibhlir inconvnience Regional tinterruption of SupplytSvr production loss and public inconvenience Regional r-ly~ \ -v,. ;... Transmission Personal Injury Probable serious injury to operator Pipelines Cost of Repair/Delay to Works Very Severe itrunk Trunk1Interruption of SuppTy Iepinconvenience Significant production loss and public Distribution Personal Injury Possible injury to operator I Cost of Reoair/Delav to Works Severe Local Interruption of Supply Localised but significant public inconvenience Water Personai injury Unlikely Networks Cost of Repair/Delay to Works Minor Interruption of Supply Major public inconvenience. Severe risk of Regi Interruption of Supply pollution TRugionkl Sewers Personal.In I Probable injury to operator. Major public health T_rulnk Sewers Injury _Personal risk and danger to wildlife Cost of Repair/Delay to Works Severe I Interruption of SUpply Significant public inconvenience. Significant Risk of Primary Local 1 Ollution Sewers Personal Injury Possible risk to operator. Public Health risk Cost of Repair/Delay to Works Significant I Street sewers Interruption of Supply Limited Public inconvenience and House L Personal Injury Unlikely connections I Cost of Repair--/ela to Work -- i -l I [Interruptin of S y Severe disruption to national and international I I ~~~Interruption of SupplyI.. Telephone _ L liii IUI Iid IS Cables Personal Injury Possible injury to operator Cost of Repair/Delay to Works Limited TnI.-rriintinn of qiinniv Extreme disruption to national and international Telecom - -1-r-r - r I telecommunications Cables I Personal Injury Unlikely Cost of Repair/Delay to Works Very Severe 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

145 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Not surprisingly, the ADC crosses several public utilities over its 40 km route. While all cables and pipes will be reconnected or relayed, some disruption to service is probable. The list of known utilities crossings is given in Table Table 6.3 List of Known Utilities Crossing Sites on the ADC Alignment Crossing Point Utility Notes Contract. ADC/Desert Highway Interchange 1 ind-s oiui iy LDeel L I iyw IVVOY C0e U UVV tiowe Lcale 11 kv E-W along ADC _ l l ADC/Desert Highway Interchange Cable runs along east side of Ramp A to Telephone cable. Desert Highway. Line in vicinity Ramp C I of Ramp D uncertain. Mainine l Iverhea povver cable 33 kv 2 Mainline Telephone cable. Mainline Overhead power cable 33 kv ADC/Sahab Highway Interchange Overhead power cable I 11 kv l along exiting sahab Highway Overhead power cable 33 kv ADC/Sahab Highway Interchangen3 Ramp to Tlh b Cable runs along southern side of Mainline eepone cae. Sahab Hiahway. Ramp 4 0=580 to l l l rnntrnat 2 Mainline Telephone cable._l_l Contract 2/ZEB Interchange Ramp A Telephone cable. n_-- n r%. onnl rdal I1 D u- u j Contract 3 - Zarga Eastern Bypass Mainline Overhead power cable Mainline mm sewage pipeline. [Mainline [Overhead power cable Main!ine~ 4+72 i ({;nc r v^^e ieie ZEB/Zarqa Highway Intersection 1500 mm sewage [The line runs along the southern Ramp A u+6u;u p Ipside of *he Zarqa Highway but Ramp B (Underpass) pipelne. may no longer be in use. LtEBLarqa riignway intersection Cable runs along the north side Ramp B to Telephone cable. of Zarqa Highway. Ramn B to 0+650lZ Contract 3 - Zarga Through Link ZTL/Zarqa Highway Interchange Ramp Loop ano l5uu mm sewage Mainline pipeline. liuj 4 A 0+200) 4t 0L+I l l l Ramp Cathodic protection ZTL/Zarqa Highway Interchange station for 1500 mm Loop sabove see foi 500_mm_l_ l l0269/2-1 REV. 6-4 March 20sewer04ove RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

146 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Crossing Point Utility Notes ZTL/Zarqa Highway Interchange Ramp to Loop to mm water pipeline. Both iines run aiong tne nortnern Mainline mm water pipeline. side of the Zarqa Highway. Loop to 0+050rn Ramp to l ZTL/Zarqa Highway Interchange Ramp Mainline mm sewage pipeline. Ramp Cable runs east along Zarqa ZTL/Zarqa Highway Interchange Highway from buildings within Loop Telephone cable Loop 1 and will become Ramp to redundant when these buildings ZTL/Zarqa Highway Interchange Ramp' 1 r 0+700% 200 mm sewage pipeline. Mainline Telephone cable. ] Crossing point is at overpass. Mainline mm sewage Beneath Viaduct. Mainline mm sewage pipeline. Beneath Viaduct. ZTL/Yaiouz Road Interchanqe Ramp A Mainline mm water pipeline. Line runs within railway corridor. jramp B j l_l l TI /Y.iouz, Road interchange l Ramp A 0+280lll Mainline mm water pipeline. Line runs within railway corridor. Ramp B k f-i l ZT./aJou'Road Interchangelll L/ rajouuz Road ±IdY I I Ramp A Mainline l 400 mm sewage pipeline. Line runs within railway corridor. Ramp B ZTL/Yajouz Road Interchange Cabie runs along the south side Ramp A Telephone cable of Yajouz Road, with a spur lramp B to laa'-11 crssn Ramp \11 B atu+20tht -j4 l l runs east along the north side. Details of all these services have been obtained from the utility providers and are fully catered for in the Detailed Design. However, record drawings of utility services in Jordan are not always accurate. There are also likely to be a number of unrecorded small diameter water and sewage pipes and buried low voltage electricity cables. Therefore the location of all services will need to be investigated and their accurate location confirmed by further investigation and trial pitting ahead of construction Ar-cc Road rnnctruction The I ec o n Ltractor may need to Lbuild temporary access roads uring the construction period. Since different contractors will have differing ideas as to how they wish to service their works, it is not possible to define the need for temporary roads with accuracy. Notwithstanding this, the need for special access and haul roads has been discussed with the ADC Design Team and their view is that access to the Contract 1 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

147 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update and Contract 3 alignment is adequate and new roads will not be necessary. For Contract 2. there are fewer existina access points but the terrain is difficult and thp Contractor is likely to access the area from either end. It is therefore considered primrna ry acces ton a!! parts of Fhe a!iirg,nmenti! be1 vla exisingpifri routes,nd tof whelnre they V. - -ii A y ' Al U. - *.i -I I"..II I L L VI J. V~. w ^II. L. IJ i II I~I J LII. L%J VY I U_ I. % L-Il meet the ADC and thereafter north or south along the defined ROW. Notwithstanding this, there remains the possibility a Contractor will want to create a new access, perhaps from an aggregate quarry to cut haul times. If incorrectly constructed or routed, access roads, which it is assumed will remain unsurfaced, may have a number of general impacts, including: * Loss of productive land and disruption of its management; * Damage to natural habitats; * Destruction of natural vegetation; * Damage to private property; * Damage or destruction of archaeological and cultural sites; and * Damage to utilities. Each kilometre of access road of lrm width w of land from other uses. albeit temporarily, foreclose 1 ha More specific concerns include the potential for increasing erosion and sedimentation, and for the generation of dust and its potential affect on archaeological remains. If an access road is left on completion of construction and not maintained, it will act as a surface drainage channel and localised changes to the drainage pattern may occur. Similarly, unsurfaced roads are often susceptible to very high rates of erosion and sediment generation. The potential threat from an abandoned access road will depend on its profile and Li IteU L.'LIII LII Li I ICaU. LII I I I y I II s. I. Soi in l the I vicinity of the ADC are known Io bl vulnerable to pulverisation and will turn to a fine powdery dust in summer. Dust abatement will therefore be required on construction access roads Soil and Water Pollution The risk of soil pollution during construction of the ADC is relatively minor, and generally limited to areas around bitumen coating plants, fuel storage tanks and similar facilities. Of potentially greater concern is the potential for spillages of chpmicrkl and hydronarbon products to pollute watercourses and infiltrate into the underlying aquifers. The provision of appropriate storage facilities for chemicals, in accordance with manufacturers recommendations, and for fuei, within bunded areas, and the immediate reporting and prompt incident response are essential to keep impacts to manageable proportions. Should pollution occur, it is unlikely to be of a magnitude that will seriously affect the present land uses adjacent to the ROW Drainacie, Erosion, Turbidity and Sediment Load Temnora;ry rdislocatinn of eisviting drarinrinag patterns ic inoxvitable rlurineg road construction as cut and fill operations are undertaken. Adverse environmental impacts may Include the f0uilowing: J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

148 Amman Deveiooment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update. Ponding, causing a threat to public health and safety, a concentration of animals, and damage to surrounding soils and vegetation: * Localised raising of shallow water tables, increasing the risk of pollution and new * In extreme cases, flooding upstream of the construction activities causing damage to land, crops and property. In the vicinity of existing watercourses and in the higher energy environments of Wadi Al Ush, increased rates of erosion and sedimentation may be the most serious potential impact. Increased erosion may be caused by various activities, the primary of which are: * installation of temporary discharge points, particularly in areas of substantial cut and fill, resulting in increased erosion where incorrectly located or designed;. Clearance of vegetation cover, particularly from steep slopes with friable soils, where exposure is over a long period and work is undertaken in the rainy season; * Cut and fill activities in unstable areas where the material is prone to erosion. Although not generally expected, there is some potential for slumping within the narrow and well-defined valley of Wadl Al Ush. Elsewhere, newly cut slopes and laid embankments are often very susceptible to erosion. Particular care will be r eqluii Au whiiere cuttings intierlcepti pel-chiel watiieu r tab3ildies, spirings C1IU ULd oiter subsurface drainage features; and * Aggregate, fiii and spoil heaps stored pending re-use are also nigniy susceptible to erosion due their loose and unconsolidated nature Disposal of Surplus Materials The estimated quantities of Cut and Fill for thp earthworks on each of thp three ADC construction contracts is shown in Table 6.4. Table 6.4 Estimated Quantities of Cut and Fill for ADC Earthworks l Cut Fill Surplus/Deficit C 1 889,00 nn I 2,400,000 I ci i nn-51 Contract 2 1,838,000 1,061, ,000 Contract 3 - ZEB 1,217, , ,000 l I - ZTL J 447,000 j 725,000 [ -278,000 Totals 4,391,000 5,076,000 [ -685,000 Contracts 1 and 2 each have substantial misbalances in the volumes of cut gennrate-gd andi fill i-o hbe emnlpaced rnti-rac-t 1 requirasc the im,rn-.rf- of some 1. million m3, primarily for the construction of interchange ramps, whereas Contract 2 is expected to generale an excess Of nearly 800OUUU mi.,ur1lfdl 3 is antlcipated to have a small surplus of excavated material, some 50,000 m 3. The figures for Contract 2 are less accurate than for Contracts 1 and 3. The Contract 2 volumes include provisional figures for a section of 4.5. km in the vicinity of the Madounah Road interchanqe at the CDP site which is still under design. Also, since Contract 2 traverses hilly terrain, any small adjustments in the alignment during rnnstriuctinn coiilri significantly affect the quantities of Cut and Fill materials generated and requirecl. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

149 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update However, the simple balance of Cut and Fill quantities is based upon three gross assumotions: That all Cut materials are suitable for re-use as Fill; That the three contracts will be undertaken concurrently;. That it will be economic to move surplus Cut to sections of the 40 km road where there is a deficit of Fill. None of these assumptions may be valid and the overall hbaanrp wi!! be of little value if any one of them does not hold. From geotechnical investigations it is expected much of the Cut from Contract 1 will not be suitable for re-use. Even if Contracts i and 2 are executed concurrently and agreement for material storage and transfer can be made between the two different Contractors, the transport of material excavated from Wadi Al Ush to a site to be filled adjacent to the Desert Highway, while environmentally desirable, may be uneconomic, particularly in the large quantities that will be required. Nevertheless, the transfer of excavated material between contracts is the recommended odtion. Should this not be practical, there are extensive existing quarries west of the Contract 2 alignment from where additional Fill material can be obtained. It is Li lere Ihrfr Li riie cons ~ii sdee d ere Li -here Ie wil'l I be LYii little IU IL M requirement I I-LJUIIt Liie I for BorwPi-s oul UI i uvv rilb, since I the Lli 'au! IldU distance to suitable Borrow areas is similar to that to the existing quarries. Where excess Cut or material unsuitable for re-use is to be disposed of, it will be deposited in abandoned workings in the same area as the operation quarries, either in pits reserved such inert materials or at sites where cover material is required, in accordance with the current waste disposal practices of Greater Amman. The potential to move materials both ways on Contract 1, non-reusable cut going nrr+kh%a1mrac- arsri ca i iitaklp fl! frrorri eitkhr the qai orer- r^.- 2. ing I%JI LI IV LJ.JJ L IL..6`1L4l LtI.. liii I I %JII I %-ILI It... Li IL_ %jjuui I ILIoZ t.j1 %%JI l til %L e. LJUII I~) southwards, will make the economics of materials transport much more feasible Noise and Air Pollution Certain levels of noise and dust pollution are unavoidable at construction sites and some elevation of background levels is normally acceptable for limited periods. Excessive noise, particularly when experienced continuously, outside normal working hours and on rest days, can be a nuisance to both workers and the public. In extreme cases, it mav become a health hazard. Typical noise emiczoinns for plant and equipment likely to be deployed in the construction are listed in Table 6.5. Table 6.5 Noise Emission Levels for Various Types of Construction Plant T Distance between Plant Typical International Excess Tvne of P!ant I ~and Observeir Standard l., 5m l 20m 50m Day J Night Day Night Loader i l 55 l - l 15 Grader 190 t l Vibration Roller l 75 l 55 I 11 BuI IIdoz7er lsprayer l 87 l 75 l 67 l 75 l 55 l 12 l Generator j /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

150 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Impact Drill Impact Piling No Piling 7 - Concrete Mixer Concrete Pump Pneumatic Hammer Figures in db(a) Night operations will therefore exceed standards and day operations will be uniformly excessive up to a distance of 20 m. Only the noisiest operations are likely to produce excessive levels at 50 m. In the case of dust, excessive emission levels may affect the value of crops adjacent to the ROW and create a general nuisance within a broad corridor adjacent to the road. This is expected to be more of a problem on the Contract 1 alignment than elsewhere. Construction activities will enhance the already high noise and dust levels in the vicinity of the ZTL and ZEB Demolition The Ministry of Supplies stores and office complex on the Old Zarqa Road are solid structures that are likely to take considerable time and effort to demolish. During demolition the noise and dust emissions will be very significant. Similarly, the site will be dangerous and measures will be required to minimize public access and threats to workers' health and safety. This site, and others where less substantial structures are to be demolished, will generate substantial quantities of waste material. If this cannot be re-used, it will be disposed in the old quarries west of the Contract 2 alignment, in accordance with present waste disposal practices in Greater Amman Use of Explosives It is possible some limited use will need to be made of explosives on Contracts 2 and 3. The areas likely to be affected are largely uninhabited and in some areas already exposed to extensive use of explosives for quarrying. Project impacts will therefore be limited. If explosives are to be used, measures for their safe storage, protection and use in accordance with standard procedures will be implemented by contractors Public Safety Given the scale of construction required for completion of the ADC, the risk to public safety, in both physical extent and the types of risk posed, will be substantial. The most serious threats will be in the vicinity of new interchanges and existing road crossings, where the ROW will be most accessible. Areas of most danger to the public will include: * Where heavy plant and equipment are moving in and out of Contractors' yards; * The sites of excavations, particularly before they are stabilized;. Where heavy plant and equipment are moving around interchange and road crossing sites; J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

151 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Undate * At Borrow Pits, aggregate crushing and coating plants; * At storage areas for constructionr chemicals, fuel and surplus spoil. There will also be an increased risk of traffic accidents where diversions from established routes are imposed or altered without adequate warning. There will also be the potential for the unauthorised use of the ROW for local access and at night Workers' Safety All construction sites are inherently unsafe. The substantial risks to public safety discussed above are limited by the occasional and casual acquaintance the public will generally have with the proposed construction activity. For those employed on the project, the risks are more varied and omnipresent. However, the risks to workers on construction sites are well understood and documented, and providing normal, internationally accepted Health and Safety procedures are followed, they are easily minimised. 6.3 POTENTIAL OFF-SITE IMPACTS Construction Camps For the execution of the ADC Works, the following types of construction camp are likely to be required for each of the three contracts: * A Main Camp, the operational centre of each contract, with prefabricated offices and parking areas for the administration and technical staff of the Main Contractor, any Joint Venture Partners, specialist sub-contractors, and the Supervising Engineer. This will also include areas for materials testing and storage, and equipment cleaning and maintenance. Although contractors will be asked to maximise the employment of people from the project affected areas, the final workforce is likely to be a mix of locals, Jordanians from outside the area, and Non-Jordanians. The need for residential accommodation is likely to be relatively minor;. Construction Yards, comprising rock crushing and screening plant, pre-cast concrete yards, asphalt and concrete batching plants; * Satellite Camps, additional areas for equipment cleaning and material storage;. Temporary Camps may be needed at specific sites such as bridge crossings, where there will be a short-term concentration of equipment, materials and labour. A variety of adverse environmental impacts will result from these camps. Access and Construction Traffic Ease of access to and from the site will be a fundamental requirement and proximity to an existing road will be a pre-requisite for selecting the Main Camp and Construction Yard locations. All points of contact between construction and existing traffic will potentially give rise to accident black spots due to the large number of turning movements by construction traffic, its relatively low speed, and the possible damage to the road surface from the increased flow, from heavy traffic, and from the deposition of mud, chippings, oil and other foreign matter. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

152 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Access to the ROW [s likely to.,require the use of local roads not generally considered suitable for-heavy vehicles, which may result in damage to the road surface and, perhaps, to structures, delays to non-construction traffic, and an increased risk of accidents. Such impacts will be greatest on the ROW south ofpthe Sahab Highway on Contract 1, and in Wadi Al Ush on Contracts 2 and 3. Satellite camps are likely to be located within the ROW or at sites designated for other construction facilities and will be serviced from within the ROW. The principal potential impacts will therefore be from access to and from the primary access routes. Temporary camps are likely to be located within or immediately adjacent to the ROW and have little or no impact on existing traffic. Consumption of Water A significant adverse impact of construction camps is the consumption of water. A medium-sized concrete batching plant producing, say 400 m 3 /day, would require some 100 m 3 /day of water. Multiple use of the same site would push consumption proportionately higher. Total daily demand, including the Main Camp, could exceed 750 m 3 /day, the equivalent of supplying a population of 7,500 with 100 I/h/day. Pollution Construction camps are major sources of a variety of polluting materials, including: * Sewage from offices, accommodation blocks and canteens; * Wastewater containing high suspended solids; * Oil residues and industrial fluids from the washing of plant and vehicles; * Waste oil, grease and de-greasing solvents from vehicle and plant servicing; and. Solid waste, including paper, discarded packaging and crates, redundant plant, used tyres, and broken or failed concrete products The major threat of pollution will be to surface and ground waters from the effluent produced by cleaning vehicles and plant with industrial detergents and solvents. There will also be some risk from the accidental spillage of, and/or leakage from industrial materials stored on site, primarily fuel, other hydrocarbon products and construction chemicals such as concrete accelerators and hardeners. Notwithstanding such a range of risks, all are relatively easily mitigated through effective management. The most substantial source of pollution from construction camps is therefore likely to be dust, noise and sediment load in surface watercourses Other Sites Other Off-Site areas will include any Borrow Pits and those from where aggregate and other materials are supplied by third parties. Borrow pits will only be permitted where there is no alternative local source of material, and then only in accordance with the permitting procedures of the Natural Resources Authority, the application of which will need to include viable reinstatement and after use proposals /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

153 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update Aagreaate and other construction materials to be obtained from suppliers and locations outside the direct control of the contractors should only be sought from comnniec a!roeady regicisered nn iancnsie tor I m ri-ni, t-he reumicit-e ativitisc annr who are able to satisfy the requirements imposed on such sites in the El I UEnvironmental Management Plan. 6.4 RESOURCE CONSUMPTION Agaregate Resources Significant aggregate resources will be used in the nrroi,- for ro=a sub-baem and as the primary constituent of concrete. The estimated quantities for each of the primar&y usfor each ol tle LthIree contracts are given in Ta,e 6.6. Table 6.6 Estimated Aggregate Use on the ADC K ~~~I _ - I A Tntal Natuiral Aggregate Bituminous Structural Agrgte Stone Sub-Base Concrete Concrete A Use Rip Rap Contract 1 360, ,000 47, ,500 10,500 Contract 3 - ZEB 76,000 26,500 21, ,000 7, i z2 caa Io -)AA I )0 I Arm 7C -7nm = I_ I 7,0 ZTL_ 53,500 10,008, ,200 Totals 696,500 j 218,700 _108,700 _860,200 21,100 } Figures in m 3. 'Assuming 1 m 3 concrete requires 0.5 m 3 aggregate. The figures for Contract 2 are provision pending final design of the alignment. In addition, some 21,000 m 3 of natural stone will be required as Riprap for slope stability, 50% of it on Contract 1. As previously discussed in Section above, the area west of the Contract 2 alignment already contains 27 quarries producing some 2.8 million m 3 /year of aggregate. Present estimates on the basis on Draft Detailed Design suggest the volume reauired for the ADC, assuming a 3 year construction period will be less than 300,000 m 3 each year, or approximately 10% of the annual production of the uiiarripe in the vicinity of the ADr alinnmpnt. AA1k;IS ;+. is-- A 4_ VVI III'L il IIkely tliat eix1t Iiistinj pro uulction at th LI 0s e Lurrie s se ecte UtLo Lu ppl.jly ti Ie ADC contracts will be temporarily increased to meet demand, no new long-term extraction sites ror aggregates will need to be developed The existing quarries are conveniently located to serve the project. Transport costs are likely to be low on Contracts 2 and 3, and there will be minimal interaction with non-project traffic on roads that are at present generally lightly trafficked. With the iuxtaposition of the quarries and the ADC ROW, routing of trucks through residential areas will be avoided and the impact from noise and dust negligible. The principal threat from quarry traffic will be the risk of accidents due to the I UIIUVVIIIY.. Increased heavy vehicular traffic on certain sections of the existing primary network and some local roads; ]0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

154 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update * The increase in HGV turning movements and the implications for the free flow of existing traffic: and * Foreign matter such as mud and loose chippings being deposited on roads Fill Materials As shown in Table 6.4 above, substantial additional quantities of Fill will be required on Contracts 1. Not only are Fill volumes nearly three times those of Cut volumes, geotechnical investigations have shown the Cut materials not to be suitable for reuse. Some 1.5 million m 3 of fill will therefore need to be imported for Contract 1. However, a surplus of over 750,000 m 3 of Cut will be generated on Contract 2, and all effnrts rhnioiu hi- mrrie t-n facrlitatp the iip nf this 1n htoibanrc t-hp (Contracts 1 anri 3 deficit. Assuming the two Contracts are sufficiently concurrent and the Contractors can coordinate their earthworks operations, the balance of the additional Fiii requirement, some 780,000 m 3, will be supplied from the existing quarries, these being as near as any potential Borrow areas to the alignment Water Resources The use of water resources for construction processing has previously been highlighted in Section above. To this must hi ardidedr the need for water in the compaction of fill. On the assumption that water required for compaction is approximately 10% by weight of the fill, the water that wuiii be required on eacn ot the three construction contracts is given in Table 6.7. Table 6.7 Use of Water in the Compaction of Fill Fill Fill Water Dust Total Water Vo!ume ~~~~~~~~~~ We,.L, We* Conro Us* Contract 1 2,400,000 3,840, ,000 38, ,400 contract 2 1,Ubl,UUU 1,698,0uu 169,800 16, ,780 Contract 3 - ZEB 890,000 1,424, ,400 14,240 9a Af - ZTL 725,000 1,160, ,000 11,600. Totals 5,076,000 m 3 8,122,000 t 812,200 t 81,220 t 893,420 m 3 *Assuming 1 m3 = 1.6 tonne (t) **Assuming 1 kg water is 1 litre by volume. The total requirement for water for the emplacement of fill is therefore just under 0.9 million M 3, equivalent to just over 800 m 3 /day throughout a 3 year construction period, or just under 22 m 3 /m of new road Haulage Obtaining aggregate and water resources, and collecting and disposing of Cut and Fill materials will necessitate substantial haulage. Preliminary calculations have been based on the estimates for the surplus/deficit of Cut and Fill materials, the estimates for aggregate use, and the use of water for the compaction of Fill given in Tables 6.4, 6.6 and 6.7 respectively. All aggregate is J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

155 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update assumed to come from the existing quarries adjacent to the northern end of Contract 2: water is assumed to come from either Zarna or Sahabh and fill materials over and above those provided by cut on the same contract, will come frormv Borroiw Dit-s %At,i-khn A k'm of +the ArD aligne.-d II WJI I I WlJ'J I '.VY I I LZI VY ILIIII I T INI I I W.I LI Ii. fll.%-. U [- ~I illi I~l. IL. lnol Included in tlhe eslimarles ls L-le transporl of Cut material to fill areas within the same contract, nor for the transport of water for purposes other than fill compaction and associated dust suppression. On the basis that aggregate and fill materials will be hauled in trucks of 20 m 3 capacity and water will be hauled in 20 m3 tankers, the estimated haulage distances for these materials on each of the three contracts is shown in Table 6.8. Table 6.8 Estimated Haulage Distances for Selected Construction Materials Cut and Fill Aggregates Water Total km X Contract 1 604, , ,000 1,608,000 Contract 2 304,000 _ 120, , ,000 Contract 3 24,000 54,000 56, ,000 Totals 932,00 840,000 bo6b,00 2,378,000 The number of truck movements is estimated at some 495,000, of which nearly 60% are on Contract 1, 3 0% on Contract 2, and only 10% on Contract 3. On the basis of a truck consuming fuel at the rate of 300 1/1000 kmi the overall fuel consumption for this haulage throughout all three contracts will be just over 700,000 l. DIepenluing on th ll e availauility of sitles, Lie lu iuity in oultiniiiy pet IIIII.bi, diiu LIlth costs of excavation and processing, it is possible the Contract 1 Contractor may prefer to develop Borrow Pits rather than haul aggregate from the existing quarries or fill materials from Contract SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL ADC TEMPORARY IMPACTS A summary of the potential risk from temporary environmental impacts during the periodl of const-ruction of the AD Mrls prov ided in Takle Table 6.9 Summary of Potential Temporary Impacts for the ADC I Issue I Potential Temnnorarv Risk or Tmnpat I Risk Destruction of natural vegetation Minor l Landscape I uamage to naturai habitats, especiaiiy wadi systems Moderate LDanmdagp Destruction of productive lands Minor Damage to private property Minor Damane to cultural & historical resources Hunting Distribution of resident species Mrate Moderate Moderate Ecology and Destruction of habitats Moderate Bio-Diversity Egg collection and hunting of birds on Contract 2 High l Disturbance to migrant birds Minor J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

156 Amman Development Corndor Environmentai impact Assessment Update Issue Potential Temporary Risk or Impact Risk Archaeo'ogIc I Damage to of know%an sites I Minnr and Cultural Sites Destruction of unknown sites Moderate Existing udsiocation due to remporary closure and diversion oft Moderate Communities existing roads, stock routes and footpaths _ interruption of suppiy Utilities Personal injury See Table 6.2. Cost of repair work. Destruction of natural veaetation Damage to natural habitats Destruction of productive iandi Access and Road Disruption Of productive landm Minor-Moderate. Cnnstnrutinn Disruption of productive land management; VariPs on InrAtinn Damage to private property Damane to archaeoiogical and criltiiral rprniirrps; Damage to public utilities Soil and Water Poiiution due to temporary activities Minor Pollution Pollution at Construction Camps, etc. Moderate Ponding Minor Drainage, Erosion Rise In water tbhle Not exprted and Sediment Load Upstream flooding Not expected Erosion and increase in watercourse sediment loading I High in Wadi Al Ush Surplus Spoil Excess fill from excavations and cuts Minor Noise pollution from construction machinery Minor. Moderate at Air nniit-inn fr-om connstriuctinn machiner/ I sensitive sites Noise and Air 7 l Dust on access/haul roads Moderate-High Dust from cut and fill operations aepending on weather Public Safety General construction activity Traffic at construction camps xdeen excavatiorns c Heavy equipment movement and operation Fuel and chemicals storage Changes in existing roads l l 1High H High_ Demolition Public and Worker's safety High I Use nf xpninoivsc Pu hiir ani Wnrker's safietyi Water use at construction camps Moderate Resource I Use of aggregate resources I Moderate Consumption Water use for construction Moderate-High [Haulage [Moderate-High The proposed mitigation of the potential impacts identified above is discussed in el I L. J- -)ectl-ion 1-1 of Lthe present report. High High l 6.6 POTENTIAL TEMPORARY IMPACTS AT THE CDP SITE Many of the impacts discussed above will also accrue during construction of the relocated Customs Depot and new Inland Logistics Port. However, since the CDP wai!ll invo!veo t-he delve!onmenf of a cinnlge vert larnie cit-, rather than a narrwa liniear structure running through the countryside, the scale and severity of individual 70269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

157 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Updare impacts will be different. Whilst many impacts, such as damage to the landscape and the destruction of habitats. may be considered to be temporary in respect of the ADC, their effect over a single large development site is likely to be far more nermannnt. IIe sche II mi IIe remi I] aii CocpuIL IandPILLCI staue dc IU nlciy qucl tiili IfLLIUc I Un o I AfJeLLpteU IIm CpcLtL can therefore be included in the present report. The possible nature of temporary impacts during CDP construction and how they may differ from those during ADC construction are summarised in Table Issue Ecology and Bio-Diversity Table 6.10 Possible CDP Temporary Impacts Possible Temporary Risk or Impact Archaeological Cultural & historical resources have been identified at an early stage and will be 1 and Cultural Sites taken into account during site iayout and engineering design. Utilities What little infrastructure there is will be diverted if needed in the future. Access and Road All access roads off the Madounah Road, and all construction activities, including Contu.tI UaLIUII ol CIIps, are AexIpUected to be within L e conflines oi ti'le site. Soil and Water Pollution Whilst there will be sianificant ootential for nollution. the limited *ratrhment arep and number of watercourses will aid the provision of adequate protection. Drainage Erosion Natural drainage over the site and its immediate vicinity will be replaced with Drainage, Erosion artificial drainage. The extensive earthworks throughout the site will generate and Sediment runoff with a high sediment ioad and may be concentrared at few discnarge Load j points, with possibility of increased erosion. Surplus Spoil Noise and Air Public Safety Cut and Fill quantities can be expected to balance. [I ne area is extremeiy sparseiy uninhabited. Noise and air quality pollution N during construction will essentially be limited to the confines of the site. The site can be cordoned off in such a manner that unauthorised public access will be barred. No maior diversions of the existing road network are likely There wiii also be impacts resulting from the relocation of the Customs Depot that affect the present employees of the Depot at Al Juwaidah, the businesses in the vicinity, and the residents in the area. Once vacated, the high value urban site, extending to some 15 ha, will be redeveloped and it is likely that many impacts, particularly in respect of the loss of customer base and facilities will be made good or even improved. However, the extent to which the impacts will be temporary or permanent will largely depend upon the nature of the redevelopment and the way in which new occupiers are able to interact with the businesses that remain. At LIe presentll L tii LI e, o redui evelopm I III IL t pla Ins b IadVe UI I pr epari e, and so Id das is known the future use of the site has not been seriously discussed. For the proposes of the present report, the impacts of relocation affecting the communities at Al Juwaidah are considered to be largely permanent, and are therefore discussed in detail in Section /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

158 POTENTIAL PERMANENT IRAD A'Tr IIVI w I"%%.# I s

159 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment UPdate SEC TON 7 POTENITAL PERMANNEN.T DMPACTS 7.1 INTRODUCTION This Section deals with the permnnt imnat-c t-ha- may nnfpontiai! construction of the Amman Development Corridor'. reisit- from t-h Section 7.2 discusses the take of productive agricultural land and the loss of agricultural production, expressing the anticipated impacts in monetary value. Section 7.3 details the overall land take, including residential and non-residential assets, while Section 7.4 discusses population displacement and business relocation, and Section 7.5, severance of existing routes and communities. Sections 7.6, 7.7 and 7.8 outlines the potential impact upon the bio-physical environment, specifically, drainage and. rolon ei- -n bio-diversity, a nd %-; IVII I I I %.;II IU1IU~%-_ -I uii cl alv l, k_u v~ y ai u ujiv-uiv~iz WLY, Ci iu archaeological and cultural heritage. Section 7.9 provides a tabulated summary of the potential permanent environmental impacts that may accrue from the ADC. Finally, Section 7.10 discusses the impacts that may accrue at the CDP site and at Al Juwaidah as a result of the relocation of the existing Customs DeDot. 7.2 IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION Three sources of impact on productive agriculture along the alignment of the ADC can be expected: Leteri,iLsati7n of productive Iand; * Interference with, or modification to, land management; and * Destruction of farm infrastructure. The existing agricultural activities along the corridor are essentially two-fold; rainfed arable cultivation and permanent tree crops Rain Fed Arable Lands Approximately 187 ha of rain fed arable land will be acquired from some 213 separately registered plots along the Contracts 1 and 2 alignments, as shown in Tablle 7.1. 'Muclh of Sections 7.2, 7.3 andu 7.4 are a summiidi ary of the findings of the Land Acquisition and Resettlemient Pian (LARP), which contains a full description and discussion of these issues and is presented as Volume 2 to the present submission. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

160 A-mmt)an Deve;orpment Corridor EnrviroFinmentadi ririact Assessment Update I W.i ~ Ii - W The area rf {anrd forecl Table 7.1 Affected Rain Fed Agricultural Land Area No. ot Plots Total Affected Area] Contract 1 j ha Contract 2 Z ha Contract 3 - ZEB 0 0 ZTL 0 0 Total ha hb yk Dith ig-,itf Wayi wai!! be g tha-k -n Itu -la fly LrI.-, ii'9i-ll W.I VVUY~ VVIII UJ- - ~(J~ LIIHUHI I 1-1~ UJLLIUJI HUHILJ take because some areas will be withdrawn from production at the owners' discretion due to impaired access. These areas are generaiiy smaii and a nominai value of 5% of arable land take is considered to be a practical estimate. Foreclosed land external to the ROW is therefore expected to be some 9.4 ha. Taken together, nearly 200 ha of land under rain fed production will be lost. Using data provided by the Department of Agriculture on the farming systems of the region, crop yields and market prices, the monetary value of lost annual production to rain fed arable.farmers is estimated to be some JD 64,500 per annum, although this will vary substantially year-by-year with the quality of rain. Taken over twenty years, the impact due to lost production will amount, as shown in Table 7.2, to a Net Present Vaiue (NPV) 2 of some JD 499,300 discounted at 12%. At constant prices this equates to some JD 1.5 million. Table 7.2 Estimated Rain Fed Arable Crop Losses Production Construction Year I III Toa zd*... y Total -3 JD 64,487.4 ] D JD 65, JD 64,487.4 JD JD 65, JD 64,487.4 JD644.9 I 65, Yr. Losses 1 1 NPV at 12%0 [I I I 4,3Juu At constant prices JD 1,498,000 To these costs must be added an indicative cost for losses adjacent to the ROW during construction, resulting from accidental damage and dust. Since the contractors are required to mitigate such impacts, this loss has been set at just 1% of annual lost production for each of the assumed construction years, equivalent to JD 645 per annum. While the calculations contained in this and followino sections are hased on inventory surveys of the actual farmlands affected, the actual levels of production Uachieved Uare not0+ tuakzen into- anccount Uand coasts vare ge-nerated Ifor an 'average' hectare of each type of farmland impacted. They are intended only to provide estimates of the potential production losses. In addition to the actual losses of productive land, increased farm operation costs will be imposed by severance. In most cases these will only affect the larger, mechanised farms, and will primarily be related to additional time and vehicle 2 Net Present Value calculations were presented in the 1999 EIA, Appendix G. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

161 Amrmnan Develoorrment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update operating costs. Smaller farms of less than 10 ha are unlikely to have their management operations badly affected by severance, since in cases of strong severance, plots may not be viable to cultivate and field consolidation will be required. 722Permanent C"rops Some 25 plots of tree crops have been identified as being affected by the ADC. Total acquisition requirements, shown in Table 7.3, are for some 29.9 ha, including an allowance for plot fragmentation. Table 7.3 Affected Areas Under Perennial Crops Area No. of Plots Total Affected Area Contract ha [Contract 2 7 j 6.4 ha Contract 3-7FER h a [ZZTR ha Total ha I ie estimated tlolal numuer ol afftected trees Is shlown in TaUle 7.4 Table 7.4 Affected Number of Trees _ Cont Areactruit I I _ Non Irrigated Non Irrigated ~~~nthartotal Contract r4 Contract L._UI LI LL LJ -- LLI l _ ZTL _l The trees affected are typically mature and fruit bearing, using relatively unsophisticated hose based irrigation systems. The production values are approximate because they assume constant yields before and throughout productive life and, for the purposes of the present study, have been taken at peak production. The annual production losses attributable to the project, listed in Table 7-5; total nearly ID 169.j500. enuivalnt to an NPV of ID 1 31 mi!iion when discounted at 12% and JD 3.9 million at constant prices. Table 7.5 Estimated Permanent Crop Losses Year Production Construction Total Year ~~~~~Loss DamageToa -3 JD 169,416 JD 1,694 JD 171,110-2 JD 169,416 JD 1,694 JD 171,110-1 JD 169,416 JD 1,694 JD 171, JD 169,416 JD 1,694 JD 171, Yr. Losses l 1 l NPV at 12%. ll J,1,0 At constant prices I JD 3,935,500 j _ l Since all trees and vines are assumed to be productive, the calculated losses may be slightly exaggerated since they do not allow for any decline in production with age or loss due to replacement. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

162 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update Total Production Losses Total costs due to the project from the take of productive lands ac NIPV/ Hicrniinteld at 12% are approximately JD 1.8 million, just under JD 5.5 million at constant prices. Less tangible social costs are noul estiimateud. The areas given above over which agricultural production will be lost exclude some 80 ha of range land, for which no attempt to value the productivity has been made. 7.3 LAND ACQUISITION AND PROPERTY TAKE Land Take The total acquisition requirement based on the ADC Detailed Design with an 80 m ROW is ha, made up as shown in Table 7.6. Table 7.6 Total Land Take Within the Right of Way - I Length [ Area Contract I 18.5 km ha Contract km [ ha Contract 3 - ZEB 5.6 km 60.5 ha ZTL 3.4 km 51.0 ha Total 40.0 km ha These ars onny reflect lands r lwithin the PROWA. The actual acquisition requirement may be slightly greater depending on the nature of the impact on individual plots. For example, resiudual landis may lue so small or ofi a shcape tlhia renuders LIthem Uo limited value to the existing owners and users, and thus may also need to be acquired. This is considered to be the case for 85 plots. As shown in Table 7.7, the additional lands required would increase the required take by some 1.7 ha. Table 7.7 Potential Additional Land Take Residual Lands of No Use [ Severed Lands of No Use Area Affected Affected TTotal Area Plots Area Plots Area [Contract ha ha 0.74 hal Contract 2 r ha 3 n 11 ha i 0.22 ha Contract 3 - ZEB ha ha 0.24 ha ZTL L 16.i nai ii u.4u na u0.51 na Total ha ha T 1.71 ha 1 There are a number of areas within the ROW, hetween plots, wdis andi road, hbut outside plot boundaries, that are Government owned and may be considered to be availablk a- no chargek Over the tkhre ADC contracts, these areas total s o me 1 5.r LVJIIKAWM.. LJL I l'.j LILI '. WV I LI 1L V II rl.'l. L.LJI ILlU LJL LiI ~j L LULI U L LJ..J ha. There are also plots under the ownership of Greater Amman Municipality (16.9 ha on Contract 1) and the Jordanian Army (40.7 ha on Contract 3) that are also deemed to be available without having to be acquired. These areas total just over J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

163 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update 73 ha, approximately 18% of the total land acquisition requirement, and reduce the expected purchase requirement to iust less than 335 ha as indicated in Table 7.8. Tabhl 7.8 Total Land to be Acquired Contract 1 Contract 2 Contract 3 - ZEB ZTL Total Total Area to be Acquired ha ha 19.9 ha 48.4 ha ha Land belonging to tribes or under community ownership Is ciqasif,-i a e under private ownership and no definitive distinction of such lands has proved possible. Some 41 plots with a Lotal area of nearly 55 ha is thought to be involvea, 63%/o of this area on Contract 1. Two areas, both on Contract 3, have been identified where ownership is disputed or is under final settlement and their legal status will require further investigation durinq acquisition. These areas comprise some 28.4 ha on the ZTL and 40.7 ha on the ZEB Property and Asset Take Residential Units A total of 40 plots containing residential structures of various descriptions, as listed in Table 9.9, are directly affected by the project. One additional plot contains Bedouin tents and the plot owners of a further 17 plots claimed the presence of a residential structure where none was found during the asset survey. Table 7.9 Affected Residential Plots I Residential Structuire Affected i Residential Structure Unaffected No.. Total -.Total Plot N Total Total Plot P ots io Affecred Area I Plots i Piot X Affected I Area I ~Area Area Affected i Area Area Affected UIIL[dLL 3 [ 27.6 lhi [.7 hl 31% / [id l 4.7 ha -2/o Contract ha 1.1 ha 46% ha 9.3 ha 13%0/ Contract 3 ZEB ha 0.1 ha 0.6% ZTL 14 i17.2 ha 7.3 ha 42% na 3.0 na 39%/o Total ha 17.1 ha J ha ha Of the 40 confirmed sites, the residential unit is directly affected in only 19 of these. Non-Residential Structures and Other Assets As would be expected, due to the largely rural nature of the area through which the AC passes, th Lie buding/asset take is relatively low. A number of non-residential and non-commercial structures will also need to be acquired, as indicated in Table /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

164 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Table 7.10 Take of Infrastructure and Non-Residential Structures Store Showrom Chcken Water Fences Walls Gates Store Showroom Chicken Wells or Areas Areas Houses Tanks Contract 1 1,262 m 841 m m 2 0 1,116 m 2 3 Contract mj 0 j ml 0 237m 1m Contract 3 ZEB ZTL 2,116 m 3,037 m m 2 600m Total 3,738 m 3,878 m ma 600 m j 1,353 m[ 6 Of the 6 water wells and tanks, only one is a well, located at Al Mnakher on the Contract 1 alignment. This supplies a 2.4 ha plot, of which only 10%, inrruding the well, will be acquired. The residual land will therefore continue in use and the well IA!i!I needil f-t him rgpnlracd 7.4 POPULATION DISPLACEMENT AND BUSINESS RELOCATION Population Displacement A total of 29 residential units on 19 olots will need to be acquired. This will necessitate resettlement of 29 households, approximately 194 persons. Guard houses that double as residential units for less than 10 guards will also be acquired. A number of immigrant Egyptian and Iraqi farm workers are resident on affected sites. The precise niumberl Business Relocation [emiais 'Lo LUe c o nf'irm red, but is thought to be around 75. Direct project impacts on commercial establishments are confined to five locations, one qeneral amenity store, a furniture show room, and three chicken farm, all on the alignment of the Zarqa Through Link on Contract 3. The general store (Plot reference ) is an owner occupied shop and reshui reuideta -LIOHa Li un IL. it. r'il~hhhlv A lternative locati-ons fo:r such an activity may bde readily found Li Jl.LIU ~HH IV ~ OH OLiL IL>' I O' U H eo ii l ouluh within the local area, on the CDP site or, if desired, further a field. Al-Najah Furniture (Plot reference ) is a three-storey building with a ground floor furniture showroom. It employed seven staff during the asset survey in 1998, including the owners and since the company sells most of its products on instalments, has large sums tied up in loans. The owners therefore have a requirement to remain in operation within the immediate area of their existing location. Production units at 3 chicken farms will need to be demolished, the impact of which iaib kas sm i ;in Tbkle VVHHH V%- Ua 3.4 IUHHHJ u l`~%ji H3a IH H U1HJI%; /.±±. At all three farms, the demolished structures could be reconstructed on the residual land or at other suitable sites in the area. The adverse impacts on egg laying of traffic noise have not been quantified but may be sufficient to warrant relocation if the operators wish to remain in business. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

165 Amman Development Corrdor Environmental Impact Assessment Update K t i _.. Table 7.11 Impact on Affected Chicken Farms I I _ Contract Jl.. C _ ontract _ z _ L _ ontracd _ z No onrct onrc 2cntatPlot NO. or Owners 2 il Owners in Residence Yes Yes Yes Plot Use Chicken Farm only Diversified Family Farm Diversified Family Farm Total Land Talke 10,120 m 2 (44%h m 2 (330/) j m 2 ( /o) Residual Area 12,632 m 2 7,762 m 2 8,384 m 2 Demolition and -arm Duiiaings and Farm Buildings. F-arm Duiiaings and Severance r siden cnveree. No severance. rese 7.5 SEVERANCE Severance in the context of the ADC may impact in one of three ways: * Severance of existing communications links; * Severance of rural communities; and * Severance of individual properties Severance of Existing Communications Links The modification of existing pedestrian, vehicular and other routes ma" seriously impact the existing circulation within the ADC zone of influence. There are a numuer ol may be altered. small settlements presently linked buy a local area access network thal Existing Vehicular Links Properties in Wadi Al Ush towards the northern end of Contract 2 are served by a single surfaced carriageway running alongside the wadi and passing through the inrdijstrial area= Tf nprmanentlv sevprere no immediately obviouis altprnative alignment is available. The area contains at its southernmost extremity a chemical p'antf F4 U I I - that LI IUJ i- I. 10 entirely L;I ill IIIL;I Y d-pndent '.._J on this road for access. Other sit-es thka+. COUIA 1 J~i II..L;;I IL %JII LI II~ a VLJ U I GII L I.LIl LI 11 L U U be U isolated include a chicken farm, a community of some houses, and a number of individual houses. These properties are not otherwise affected by the project and it is therefore vital this link remains open or is acceptably re-routed. There are a number of predominantly east-west links across the ADC ROW over the Contract 1 alignment and the southern half of Contract 2. Two surfaced roads lead to Sahab from areas north and south of the Sahab-Muwaqqar Hiqhway The route from Al Mnakher to Khashafia is not heavily trafficked but provides all weather access to Sahah ancd on to Amman= A1ternative ronutes ar of a much lower standlardl and their forced use would represent a major loss of amenity. The sheep market on the north-eastern outskirts of Sahab is a source of considerable animal movement from Faisaiiyah and other centres east of the Contract 1 alignment. Maintenance of the direct route from Fasiasliyah, while not essential, will keep animal movement away from the Sahab-Muwaqqar Highway and in particular from the proposed Sahab interchange. Links to and from the village of Dheybah are also potentially severed. A complex pattern of cross-links is 70269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

166 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Uodate also present throughout the southern half of the Contract 1 alignment north of the Desert Hinhwav Interchance. It is therefore Important that existing metal led.ro~ads ar reandadete underpasses or overpasses provided at the ADC crossings. Unsurfaced roads will link into tl[he ADC ser vice [oads, and many may be expected to fail into disuse once the benefits of the service roads with adequate crossing points become obvious. Existing Pedestrian Links Pedestrian access is an often under estimated element of Highway design, which has serious consequences usually reflected in increased accidents. Although the Anc is predominant!y inter-urban and will require relatively few pedestrian crossing points, there are a few specific requirements. At Zarqa, the profile of the ZTR on Contract 3 is such that pedestrian movement will be adversely affected. Within the residential area beyond the Zarqa Highway Interchange, complete severance of the area may be expected unless provisions are incorporated into the ADC design. Relocation of the existing local road to a new bridge would provide sufficient cross access. There is only limited pedestrian movement in the immediate vicinity of the proposed Zarqa Highway Interchange, although the industrial area junction is a well iicd pfirlk iu Inri CM- fstla own nnint fnr nipihbi itranc,nrf- TIn t-km fu -it. i- probable -- "-- ' -' -' I 1 itl. Ii.SJLJ t II I.- Jp.u A.I LI I_.III l LIMJ., il. to IJIODJLJ IJC such activity will migrate to the new interchange and, if left unmanaged, will adversely impactl roadu operation. A similar problem would arise at the Yajouz Interchange, although the retention of existing movement along Yajouz Road should minimise the impact upon the existing circulation. Elsewhere, the biggest concern is at the Desert Highway Interchange. Designed as a reiativeiv high speed, free flow semi-directional interchange that will aid traffic flow and limit the potential for vehicle-only accidents, there is a risk it will also become.i Ia I piclk\ up and IU sl UUVVI I IL ouii tun L CI ImpVI o,juljii%t L. Animal Husbandry- Trail's Livestock are an integral part of farming practice within the ADC zone of influence and their movement to market, to feeding grounds and to watering points needs to be maintained. The denial of access is likely to lead to vandalism of protective fences and forced entry to the hinhwav- with consequential danger to livestock, herders and vehicle drivers. Animals scrambling up embankments will cause substantial damage to 3LJ I IULJL; V~L.;INLULIVIILJI %,VI LI IF;%LJL Z_LJ I I IUJLq-;iIUI, VVII lhui I Li Ul%NIy U ~I L~ III I Iy a I IU erosion. The introduction of mud and faeces onto the carriageway will also pose some hazard, as will dead animals killed in previous accidents if not quickly cieared. The provision of dedicated crossing points may not be without adverse impact. The concentration of animals around such crossings will probably exceed the carrying capacity of land and destroy the vegetation cover, disturb the soil and initiate 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

167 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Upaate erosion. If not sited with community agreement, such crossings may become the subiert of severe disturhance hetween different use groups and generate arguments over access to adjacent grazing and water. Overall, the presence of large numbers of livestock will place extraordinary demands on those responsible for the maintenance of protective fencing aiong the length of the ADC if accidental entry onto the road by animals is to be prevented. This may require the establishmnent of specific maintenance procedures and long term monitoring of the efficacy of the various fencing materials available Severance of Rural Communities Nn rural community is physically cut by t-hp AnDr anrd there is no rirriimst-ance in which the links between two halves of a community need to be re-established. Notwithstanding this, it is clear there are a number of dispersed houses and activities in the vicinity of the Desert Highway at the southern end of Contract 1 whose links may be adversely affected by the ADC alignment Severance of Individual Properties Some properties in Wadi Al Ush on Contract 2 ootentiallv have their access to the public road network severed. The Military Area at the northern end of the ZEB on Contrart 3 wa.il hav it-c arrcc i-to the exvici-inri rrori sevred Thee acce wal!i I t* 1. 4'..I.VI II IL. V -. I- V..- L -d~ LI. I- -fl ".3L l, I I -. 2'.. V.I ¼.' I I I...3¼ ¼..¼.33¼. VV clearly have to be restored, although it remains uncertain that the Military will rmino CI t li L h- s site after the: tadc,lu is cn.ullted. U 7.6 DRAINAGE AND EROSION Although the Contract 1 alignment traverses a largelv flat low enerav environment. the soils are extremely vulnerable to erosion once the ground cover is removed or rills become established. The clearance of ground cover will nee -n be mnrfi-itilariy carefully monitored and slopes regraded and planted as quickly as possible. The area of main concern in respect of drainage and erosion is Wadi Al Ush, where the alignment of Contract 2 has necessitated the empiacement of a iarge number of culverts to maintain natural drainage and the hydrological character of the area. Subsequent to the 1999 EIA, the ADC alignment was moved westwards in the vicinity of the private impolindment. The alignment alternative then being considered would have reauired demolition of this small dam, but in the Final Design the impoundment is unaffected. Along the tributaries of Wadi Al Ush the two areas of concern previously identified [lave eachl ueen auuresseu: Where the alignment is on embankment, the tnnnnraphv is such that water will pond behind it. This may inadvertently create water holes for sheep that result in occaslonal cnnrationn,r And d m3g n_r -- t-o, tnt4/-, - a/ dmg t-o I II i.ji.li%iuivii Ii %.AJI %C L~I il JLii.Ji I ii IU Uci I IICJyC Li.. LIIC 1c IIV lv I.J Iii I I IIL Cli IU/ Ul UCII I iciuc: LU the embankment. Sufficient cross drainage will be needed to eliminate the risk of significant ponding, and ensure the design prevents discharge being erosive. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

168 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Where the alignment is in CLit, the internal drainage system will need to ensure excessive lenaths are not collected and discharoed in a manner that will be erosive. The collection and discharge of runoff in these areas may affect the cultural and arcllaeology resources ol Lile region. Care will thereliure be needed to ensure sites even a few hundred metres from the ROW are not affected by wadi flows enhanced by ADC drainage. 7.7 ECOLOGY AND BIO-DIVERSITY The ecology and blo-diversity of the area will largely rer onr been completed, the sites cleared of debris, and the re-settled animal and bird Inhabitants buecome accustlomedui to thre steady flow and background noise of traffic. There will inevitably be some birds and animals killed on the road. Perhaps the most significant permanent impact will be the opening up of previously poorly accessed areas to hunting, trapping, egg collecting and plant removal. However, given the extent of already approved local Development Plans, the 'Without Proiect' srenarin wniilrl envinge development of the area east of Amman. The area will therefore be opened up, even without the ADC to provide a central tiransporjtl s1jinei1. IndeJLedU, LI IAD' % rl.' o I e in 1- catalysing effiectyive fluture planning throughout the area may be viewed as a positive impact, affording the opportunity for 'green' corridors, as well as large public recreational and 'natural' areas to be incorporated into future development. 7.8 ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES The potential impact of road drainage enhancing watercourse flow to the extent it Ad 3 archaeological sites has already keen u noted. I iouv 3 ai LI IOcI ~ LI JiL3 I I0 Oi 0 U ILU. L~I Since no known archaeological, historic or cultural heritage site is now within the ROW, and there are well-practiced procedures for dealing with Chance Finds, any permanent impact as a direct result of ADC construction is likely to be minimal. However, as with ecology and bio-diversity, the opening up of otherwise relatively inaccessible sites may increase the theft of artefacts and the removal of structural remains. As development proceeds over the years, the DAJ in conjunction with any central plaig U ULrIItIILY 0 tel LIo zn LAC of influence and the voalrious muni ipail authorities will need to determine the appropriate level of protection for the sites identified in Section 4.9. Future development budgets will need to make provision for excavation, logging, fencing and other potential impact mitigation measures. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REVO 7-10 March 2004

169 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update 7.9 SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL ADC PERMANENT IMPACTS A summary of the potential risk from permanent environmental impacts from the proje c is provide U4 in Ta I_IA 7 IJI UJCL Iz,uVIl uviu: 1 OUI /ul * Table 7.12 Summary of Potentiai Permanent impacts for the ADc [ Tccie [ Potential Temporary Rilj or Tmpact f Risl Rain Fed Arable Land Loss of iand, foreciosure and ioss of farm resources, produce and livelihood Minor losses regionally. Locally, production is primarily winter feed Production Perennial Crops Minor losses regionally and Losses Loss of produce, income and livelihood locally Range Land Potentially major in context of Loss of large areas with long term impact upon ADC future development. Minor the pastoral economy in respect of absolute production Mr)rf1rAti- qni )nnf ha not Loss of rain fed agricultural land Mut1 o be 200 lot Land heavily used will be lost Acquisition Loss of grazing land MiInoUU IULocIIY sever. Some and 95_ha to be lost Propet.y Loss of residentiai buiidings Mocderate Take Loss of non-residential structures Minor Loss of other assets Minor l l 1 H 20 nlhni h~~~~~~~~~~~oderaeho!dsto iqihnlrkc seere-housed.se 1n hi- rp-he,i irzpdr Population Population Displacement Moderate, but severe for those And affected Business 5 business unite to be relocated. Displacement Business Relocation Minor. but severe for those affectedl Severance of exkitino iitilitipc I Mnr1pr;f- h,,t Pzilv mitingted l Severance of existing communication links 1 Major if links not re-established l~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~d lc J,constructionl Severance l l I Severance of rural communities Minor Severance of individual properties Wadi Al Ush only. Major if links I ~~~~~~~~~~~~not rp-ectahlishedi Major, but easily mitigated DrAindnp Interception of natural clrainage I through design And ffuf ti Erosion Increased erosion and sediment loading from I Major, but easily mitigated road drainage, exposed cuts and embankments through design 75 Birds and1 -anima! kl!!ed by traffic Minor. Most birds and animals l lco~gy egg f will quickly adapt d Ecology Major. 'G-en' areas needtob Bio-Diversity Area opened up to hunting, trapping, egg collecting and plant removal included in future Developm~ent Plans ancd laws need to beh enforced. K Remains arrected by existing watercourses Minor. Adequate drainage for the Archaeological operating under revised flow regimes road has been designed. and Area opened up to site vandalism, looting and Moderate. Protect sites and I Cultural destruction enforce laws Sites { Ees Sites outside the ADC affected by future Major. Allow for site protection in {development future Development Plans /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

170 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update The proposed mitigation of the potential impacts identified above is discussed in Section 11 of the present report POSSIBLE PERMANENT IMPACTS AT THE CDP Permanent impacts in respect of the relocation of the Al Juwaidah Customs Depot and construction of a new Inland Logistics Port on a single site adjacent to the ADC fall into two important categories: * Those suffered at the CDP site as a direct result of its development; and * Those suffered by the employees of the existing Customs Depot, its users, the businesses in the vicinity, and the residents of Al Juwaidah Impacts at the CDP Site As with temnorary imnnart_ many of the permanent imparts discussed above for the ADC will also result at the CDP site. Since the project involves the development oj a oil e Ig I )llar Li Kt Ih %cuaqe UaI severity of paricular impacts wvill ue Ud4ifei rent. Some of the impacts that were temporary in respect of the ADC are likely to be permanent at the CDP Site. The scheme remains at Conceptual stage and no quantification of expected impacts can be undertaken, but the possible scope and nature of permanent impacts accruing at the CDP site are summarised in Table Issue Landscane Damage Bio-Diversity Bio-Diersity Disruption to Public Utilities Existing Communities Land Acquisition and Property Take Displacement Displacement Archaeological and Cultural Sites Soil and Water ruiiultio Drainage, Erosion and Sediment Load Noise and Air Table 7.13 Possible CDP Permanent Impacts Possible Temporary Risk or Impact Since the CDP will ultimately he located on a 5 km 2 site damage to thp landscape will be permanent. E ahabitats within the site wiii be destroyed and there wiii be no opportunity for recovery. Affected species that are able will need to establish themselves in adjacent areas. There are few existing utility services on the site. Construction will include completely new infrastructure services. Existina communities will be relocated. Tracks. paths and the movement of herds will be re-routed around the site and any watering points re-located. I ne site comprises some 260 separate piots. Tne majority will be acquired in their entirety. Loss of livelihood may be more significant than severance. The limited population businesses. will be resettled. Mitigation There are is likely to few, if any, include priority non-agricultural employment at the CDP. Cultural & historical resources have been identified at an early stage and will be taken into account during site layout and enaineering desion. J Whilst there will be significant potential for pollution, the limited catchment area diand numiuer of watercourses will aid the provision of adequate protection. Natural drainage over the site and its immediate vicinity will be replaced with artificial drainage. Some watercourses may receive contributions from 'hosing down' operations and rainfall will be more concentrated. Since the area is extremely sparsely uninhabited. Noise and air quality pollution will essentially he limited to the confines of the site. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-0I REV O 7-12 March 2004

171 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Issue Public Safety PulIC Safety Possible Temporary Risk or Impact ThI,Ve nadlure UI thle siie will require a high level ofi s t Lhha unaul1uhtseu public access and movement of goods will be barred. Because the CDP will be developed on a single large site, some 5 km 2 at its ultimate, the impacts on landowners and users will be easier to define. For the majority of affected land, whole plots will generally be acquired, with relatively few instances of plot severance as experienced for the ADC. Indeed, the layout of the new facilities will he such that even along the houinrdaries of the site- where some severance would be expected, this will be minimised wherever possible. The procedures for assessing the impacts of the proposed development are following those applied to the ADC, with a full socio-economic survey of tne affected population followed by extensive Public Consultation and the preparation of a separate Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan (LARP) that will comprise Volume 3 of the present submission. MPWH were naturally been keen to keep their intentions confidential until such time as they are formally approved by the Cabinet, as only after this can land acquisition proceed wmithout encountering speculative price increases. The l APP surveys and assessments were therefore 'on-hold' throughout most of the present EIA Update. ~~~ A NI ~~~~~11A 11 A -. Cabinet gave its approval lour tl hle project on 23rd NI'dUovember 20j andu perissioniiiul for the survey to proceed was given in January The results will be fully reported in March To date, the socio-economic survey of PAPs and asset survey have been completed and the data is currently being analysed. The total number of affected plots is 247 of which 60% comprise empty land, while a further 30% are tilled in preparation for nlanting rain-fed cereals. The remaining 100/n of plots contain assets. which include 11 residential structures; 7 single rooms and guardhouses of less than 50m 2, 1 with an area of 50- loom 2 in area, 2 larger than 100 i 2, and 1 of unknown sze. No wells or boreholes exploiting ground water resources are affected Impacts at Al Juwaidah At the existing Al Juwaidah Depot, three primary populations will potentially be severely impacted by its proposed relocation to a site some 15 km eastwards: * Customs officials and others who work at the Depot; * The proprietors and employees of businesses in the vicinity of the Depot; and * Local residents. Socio-economic surveys have been undertaken in all three populations and the results are reported below. Employees and Others Working at the Depot Employees of the Customs Authority and others whose regular place of work is the existing Depot at Al Juwaidah number some 130 persons. In addition to Customs officials, a number of other Government departments have staff based there to deal with a wide variety of issues including trade, finance, hazardous materials, prohibited goods, health, animal welfare, immigration and internal security /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

172 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update In addition. a number of shiddina. handina and clearance aaents. insurance brokers and other private sector employees directly engaged in Customs procedures consider the Depot to be their routine place of employment. /,I!so WiltIIn tie ailllfcteu population Ial 1 I em IbUei VI o LI Ime g It I al puubiil c WI U VIIL LI thit Depot to clear their own goods and lorry drivers for whom passing through the Depot is a routine of tneir empioyment. Relocation of the Depot to a site adjacent to the ADC will potentially impose severe impacts on all these qroups. Public and private sector employees will have further to travel to and from work, effectively lengthening their working day and increasing their travel. osts Se.ondarv impacts minht inrliude disruption to their socia! Wives, such as working further from regular places of worship, or being unable to drop chilreon ac- ern=.roueo fo- wor. Where the kuskanda is t,. -k main source of.a _I IIILII ~ I LIIJJIU%A L1 1 U'LJLo I,J VVI.JIr \. VV I I1=I 1 Li 11= I IU Lil IU I LIK fl i l~ill a vu C I household income, his extended absence each day will put added pressure and responsibility on his wife In respect of child rearing and househoid management. The survey undertaken at the Customs Depot included 121 persons. Of these 57 ( 47 %) were Government employees, 33 ( 27 %) were representatives of shipping, clearance and insurance brokers and others for whom the Depot is their regular place of work, and 31 (26%) customers and other users of the Depot. GnPurnmPnt Fmnlnvyps.JVI I Ie 70hU I taifi IIgI iiii II Le positive advantages of relocation, it three primarily expectations: Improved storage, parking and cargo inspection facilities (31%); TImproved orrgnii-ionrn woi,a1rkrlingr pr,-o ures (r)')/o); and * Reduced pressure of work and quicker clearance of goods (17%). The other 30% highlighted negative aspects, primarily associated with increased time, effort and cost of travelling to and from the new location. Some 48% of staff live 7-12 km from Al Juwaidah and already bear significant travel costs. As was expected, newer employees with less than 5 years service more stronqly reflected positive aspects of relocation, particularly the opportunities to adopt modern crearance procediire anr other technological changes. However, these respondents also forcefully expressed concerns about travel time and cost. Brokers and Customers Of this sample population, 4 4 % consider the present site to be suited to its purpose, but 19% consider that relocation is necessary. Nearly 60% of the group considered relocation km eastwards would affect their day-to-day dealing with the Depot, of which one-third thought the affect would be positive, two-thirds neqative /o considered relocation would increase the time and cost of travelling to and from work. Notwithstanding this, a similar proportion, 67%, considered relocation would ofier better offiices andi serl-vi Is e more modu erin 0C or gan iidsia tion and I II I pruveu clearance procedures /2-RPT-ENV-01 REVO 7-14 March 2004

173 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Uodate Members of the Dublic who visit the dedot to clear their own coods are likely to suffer little from relocation. If they are not using the services of a Clearance Agent, it- i lii they olre nnx reat the exemciser at most a fewi, times a year. Whilst they will have to travel further to the new CDP, the improvement in facilities with modern clearance proceuures may more tlihlan offset any uisadvantages. Lorry drivers may also be affected little. Foreign drivers and those from elsewhere in the Kingdom will no longer have to negotiate the congested roads of Al Juwaidah and at the CDP will be afforded a range of services they at present have to venture into the urban areas to find. New Customs procedures will reduce the time they and their vehicles are idle and passage to their final destination will be significantly easier- Such advantanes will also be importance to the transport sector as a whole. *Tknrn rlrh,nr. n,knrn. k.. i sn;r An'.--, ~.~,k TC 4-4.j ITIhoJs di Ive-I D vvwihios hiomuei b II IC; IAmman may bu e impactied more. If they lilie their journeys for an overnight or weekend stay with their families, shorter clearance time may make this impossibie without taking their own time rather than that of their employers. The location of the CDP will also increase the distance they have to travel to and from their vehicle, so reducing their time at home. Businesses in the Vicinity of the Depot A number of businesses along sections of Yadoudah Road, Hizam Road and adjarent to the Middel Fast Roundabout in t-he virinity nf the evist-inei recu-tms Depot are, to varying degrees, dependant upon the employees and visitors to the Depot 1 ur a propot ilon oft tielir customer buase. An initial census identified some 181 separate enterprises, of which some 40 were permanently closed or had gone out of business, perhaps reflecting their poor economic viability, even with their proximity to the Customs Depot, in the current poor economic climate. During the subsequent survey, tarqeted a 100% sample, a further 25 enterprises were either closed throughout the period of the survey or their owners refused to nartake. A total of 11 6 enterprises, whose areas nf artivity are listed in Table 7.14, provided survey information that was successfully verified. Table 7.14 Businesses in the Vicinity of the Al Juwaidah Customs Depot Type of Business Number Ristcrheripes rstauiirantsc andi fd sta!s l 3llc Groceries, convenience stores and supermarkets _21_l Snipping, ciearance, and insurance brokers 17 Construction materials, equipment and services 12 Automotive Repair and servicing _12_l _tr_rira_ equipment a4nrd crx/ircs2 Agricultural equipmenit and services 4 Hotels _2_l Sports and social centres 2 Commercial services 2 Spcaitstores and services7 Of tne individuals interviewed, 510/o were proprietors and 49% employees. Nearly 3 0 % of the businesses had no particular reason to be located either in Al Juwaidah J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

174 Amman DeveloPment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Updare or in close proximity to the Customs Depot. Indeed, only 700/o of owners thought the current location of their oremises to be suited to their business. A similar percentage of shop owners thought their location had a positive effect on their rcustomer ~U4LLI base, whekreasc 30% thought- theyt owed9r` nothking tor their proximity% ii..i JL~~ VS ~- - -J. --,Li Li L~.. L ~- i. y W-JVV¼¼ iliii L i V¼Ii ijf -J.iiI y LSJ either Juwaidah or the Depot. Almost the same results were obtained with respect Lo.hie pterceiveu ipiuildciilto U.he lti RLdIl UdU. With regard to the removal ot the Customs Depot, 58% ot businesses thought they would stay where they were, whereas 1 60 /o said they would follow the Depot to its new location if facilities to do so were made available. 120/o thought they might move to another location altoqether or wanted to think the prospect over once the decision to relocate the Depot had been taken. 280/o of respondents suggested that business might improve with Depot relocation due to rel4uced4 I-rafLicL noise a-nd conuge st I i IUJ dii 50lonLlI, 7U LI Iught trade vvu'd iiim'uve with redevelopment of the Customs site. Perhaps surprisingly, the survey results do not clearly indicate which types of businesses would be most impacted by relocation of the Depot. Clearly, those that depend upon it most are likely to be food outlets, brokerage services and automotive repair workshops, whereas businesses taking a brighter view would be those who might benefit from a quieter working environment with reduced air pollution and traffic congestion. Residents of Al Juwaidah Although there are few residential properties fronting the main roads through Al juwaidah, two areas of housing, primarily apartment blocks, set back from the main thoroughfare were identified during a site visit with one of the World Bank missioners as being sufficiently close to the Depot and adjacent shops and businesses to potentially be adversely impacted by the relocation. Verified resnonses were obtained from interviews with an adult memher of 5 separate households over the two residential areas. The majority of respondents, o93o/% IAIwere iaware of the-kn prence of t-he C('I Drepo~ t~ - in t-ke -, b-u- -- I,, 1 1 0/. a.1. IU, VV%..I ¼ UJVVLI%. VI. Li1% reported having a member of the family working or dealing with the Depot. IV i ¼iI¼L ) I It.1%; S-...L ULI I1O L/L.pI.JL Ill LI IV. UJIlq.C, LJUL UlIIIy L..4 /U Nearly all, 98%, of respondents considered the shops and services on the main thoroughfare to be significant to their lives, and 62%/o of these fami-les said they used these shops almost daily. However, the residents surveyed were very dissatisfied with the present state of the local environment. The primary concerns expressed were as follows: * Poor access from the main road (33%); * Traffic noise ( 6 9 %); * Danger to children (86%); * Risk of floods and landslides (35%); * Air pollution (71%); and * Traffic congestion (60%n/). tor 70269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

175 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update In general, the majority of residents thought they would be better off not having the Customs Depot in their neighbourhood, but perhaps did not fully appreciate the potential impact upon local businesses and services Redevelopment at Al Juwaidah As a result of the relocation of the Al Juwaidah Depot, a valuable site extending to some 15 ha on the eastern outskirts of the Amman urban area and close to the major road network will become available for redevelopment. The site has been frequented by heavy transport and contained, albeit temporarily, a wide variety of goods over the years the Depot has been operating, and will be assumed to be contaminated from oil leaks- fuel and other sni!l!aes. However, such contamination is unlikely to be extreme and providing the underlying soils and any FW -W. ~ I 1. ' WVV./ I'J.HI1 VV1.L1.1 ~1.1 1%.. -..J11 UI.4 L~L -U J LiIM1. OIL%_ , L ~ 1 13 unlikely to be any significant limitation on its future use. The possibilities for future use currently appear to be two-fold; either light industrial and commercial, or low cost residential. With commercial development, the site could make a significant contribution to the local and regional economy and provide opportunities for additional employment that are badly needed in the area. Such development will offset the loss of customer base of local shops and businesses resulting from the loss of the Customs Depot. If the site is to be deve!oped.for residential use, the priority would seem to be for low-cost housing, which would compliment other residential areas planned in the vicinity of the Hizam -4ad anda for which there ls a dl;-e shortage In Amman. [xuciu ~I UHHV V II~I I LI[ I~I~1 Ull 1 HIL I I iiiii While the area will be relieved of heavy trucks, the main thoroughrare is likeiy to become, de facto an inner bypass. Knowing that there are few heavy lorries and reduced congestion will encourage car drivers who have usually avoided it to use it rather than taking a more central route through Amman. The generation of such traffic will also help revitalise the customer base for local shops and businesses. Whatever the Government finally decides, it is to be hoped part of the area will be cst acide for a nipihlic par k, enortc fcilitigec or ot-her rec-reat-inai ue This waouii1 --. JsS.J I 4~lI.S~ -1~~ _11..L *I- I ~... L~H1.1 1IJ... I I *I. VV%JtJH1. both enhance the new development and supply facilities presently lacking in the existing co, o m HuH ilty Summary of Potentiai ILmpacts at Al Juwaidah A summary of the potential impacts at Al Juwaidah in respect of the relocation of the existing Customs Depot is given in Table /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

176 Amman DeveioPment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Table 7.15 Summary of Potential Impacts at Al Juwaidah Affeltyed Potential Negative Impact Potential Positive Impacts At the existing Customs Depot Additional time and cost for travel 1mproworking conditions to and from the workplace Government Reducedpr timp availahie to) visit.. Simplified working procedures family or friends._ Employees Rduced time to visit local facilities l Reduced pressure of work Increased pressure on partners tol Improved security manage home and family Private Sector Additional travel time and cost to I Improved office and other facilities Employees and from the workplace Simplified clearance procedures General Public 1 Longer and more expensive Improved reception and waiting facilities I Users iourney to CDP I Simplifiled clearance procedures ~~~If If Amman, resident less in able to Avoidance of urban traffic conditions Lorry time home visis Drivers Shorter home visits due to Improved access to facilities resident in Amman, less able to..... l reduced waiting time [Reduced waiting time Tn RiBcinesses in the wirinity of the Depot Partial or total loss of customer Reduced traffic congestion, noise and air Owners~ ~ Ubae poiiution Owners vde Opportunitv to develop new customer base I Potential need to relocate from 'new' traffic and redevelopment of Depot site Empoyees [Less customers risks loss of job Reduced traffic congestion, noise and air Employee Less cstomers sks los of Job pollution I To Residents of Al Juwaidah Loss of shops and other local amenities Reduced traffic congestion, noise and air pollution [ NecessitY to drive or take Improved and safer pedestrian access Lranlsport when visitig the Uur instead of walking to the Depot along the main thoroughfare To the Transport Sectorl To the Transport Sector 1 Simplified clearance procedures Reduced truck idle time l l im proved security The proposed mitigation of the potential negative impacts identified above is discussed in Section 11 of the present report. i0269/2-rpt-env-01 REV March 2004

177 I t < < 1-- i Zl C.) ;Z 01 <t 01

178 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update SECTuN' 8 POTENTIAL OPERAA1uNAL IMPACTS 8.1 INTRODUCTION This Section of the EIA Update discusses the p-kn t4-ei FnvIon-e impacts that may accrue during the operation of the ADC, and includes an overview ui Lie oppo[iiunities for environmertas enhancement. Section 8.2 summarises the results of recent traffic surveys undertaken in October 2003 and the predicted flows determined from modelling. Sections 8.3 to 8.9 discuss the potential impacts under 7 broad headings: Noise. Vibration, Air Quality, Energy Budget, Safety, Soil and Water Pollution, and MaintPnance. S. eclion provides a tabulated summary of' the potentlal operational environmental impacts that may accrue from the project. 8.2 TRAFFIC FORECASTS The traffic data used for all traffic related assessments have been derived from the mnodeiinn of traffir survey rdlata rnliperted in 0rto-bhr 2003 The basic data are given in Tables 8.1 and 8.2. Table 8.1 Average Daily Traffic Flow: 'Without Project' Case Location ADT ~~~~~ LoS ADT LoS ADT LoS Zarqa Highway 97,438 D 115,500 j D ] 132,113 E Hizam Road [ 39,000 C J 66,350 JD 82,763 F Sahab Road 23,18 R I 4,3 IC r 61,738 Yadoudah Road 43,638 C 66,350 D 92,638 F Desert Highway 27,713_[ A 45,463 [ B 108,813 E Los: Leve ol sc SerVice Table 8.2D Aver--- Dai'y Traffic Flow: 'With411 Project' Case I ~~~~~~~~~l&jil. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~v~~~~~ii;iit ii 7 I U HI I IJ V N MLII V I JJ~LL ~ Location [ ara Highway 94338jADT LoS ADT LoS j ADT LoS IZaroa Hiahwav D D 1137 Rh3 F Hizam Road ] 34,338 ] B 54,125 C 68,325 C Sahab Road 20,738 j A 34,875 B 60,825 D Yadoudah Road 42,138J C j 57,313 1 D 87,925 LE Deert Highway 2747rl A 5R n13 RI 1 11R n75 r The "With Project" traffic flows predicted for the ADC areas are shown in Table 8.3. J0269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

179 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Table 8.3 Average Daily Traffic Flows for the ADC Location [ 2028 ""UI I'll OI.II.LI.)VULI IU ILvUU O0IU u OU,IJUU Contract 1, North 12,000 32,000 74,500 Contract 2 11,300 27,000 62,750 Contract 3, ZEB 5,750 9,500 14,000 Contract 3, ZTL (SuthI) 5,500 23,250 48,500 Contract 3, ZTL (North) 14,500! 28,250 I NOISE Discussions with GCEP and other concerned agencies during the 1999 EIA study and more recently with MoE confirm there is no definitive methodology established in Jordan for the estimation of noise benefits and adverse impacts in relation to road and other projects and no specific standards for noise. The ADC is a road of regional significance that may be expected to have a number UI Ubis wl Vitin thl Amman urbian area, par ticularly those routes curren.lly utilised by long-haul transit traffic to Northern Palestine and Syria. However, these benefits are almost impossible to quantify and in central Amman, any release of road space is likely to be quickly filled by existing vehicles, albeit that the traffic mix may change. The analysis of noise is therefore confined to assessing the following: * T he impact upon existing roads expected to benerit from tne ADC; * The impact on sites along the ADC alignment; * The impact on specifically identified 'sensitive' sites. The existing roads expected to benefit from the construction of the ADC are: Desert Highway Yadoudah Road Sahab Highway Hizam Road Zarqa Highway Zarqa Bypass There are 5 'sensitive' sites identified along the ADC alignment, which are: Al Usra University on the Desert highway East and West Cemeteries at the Sahab Interchange Zarqa College Zarqa Mosque Zarqa Schools The approach utilised in this Update is the same as that used in the original EIA and for Public Consultation exercises in the UK in respect of inter=urban roads. This seeks to identify the numbers of individuals likely to experience an increase or UdLcreas ini exposure LUo noise. rureucsls for longer than 5 years may have little environmental significance given the extent of new development and urban expansion expected to take place over the areas adjacent to the ADC. J0269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

180 Amman DeveloPment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uodate Around 95 properties are located within 300 m of the ADC centre line, of which 82 are along the alionment of Contract 1- 'WI nlder UK gui I indes i cn n o c-mpensation is onry pay3ble where the 10 I 0f18 hr) - noise JI i.j~i jix lj _1..J I1,S.J %III I'IILLI.II I ViIIly VU. c UJ 1% -i VVI I%-I% LIl~ L.LV.LV 111) J Iivi~ level exceeds 68 db(a), where the level is greater than 1 db(a) higher than it was previously. From the 1999 assessment, only 2 properties on Contract i wouid be entitled to compensation. Nevertheless, the changes in ambient noise in the vicinity of the ADC will be of considerable nuisance to the affected populations. The general conclusions drawn from a worldwide range of survey data is that most people can distinguish a change of 1 db(a) in a pure and continuous sound but changes in the average level of a fluctuating sound, such as traffic noise, are not so readily perceived. UK surveys of national exposure to background traffic noise concluded that general long term issat isfaliuii 1, nisue levels tuo VIhich pte0pe h1alve UecoUime dllustomed, Wda nut experienced until L10 levels were at least 3 db(a) apart. This broadly equates to halving or doubling the traffic load. Shorter term changes, to which people had not become accustomed, of less than 3 db(a) were distinguished. On the basis of this data, all residential properties within 300 m, qenerally c.260 m either side of the ROW, will suffer, assuming noise levels of 55 db(a). The adoptions of UK compensation criteria in respect of the sensitive sites listed in Section above would result in only i property, the mosque on the ZTL, qualifying, although the cemeteries, particularly the West Cemetery, also warrant mitigating measures. The change in predicted ambient noise ieveis for tnese sites based on the 1999 results are given in Table 8.4. Table 8.4 Predicted Changes in Noise Levels at Sensitive Sites [Noise Reduced by >1 db(a) No Significant Change [Noise Increased by >1 db(a) Al Usra University (-0.62) East Cemetery (+9.15) l None one l ~~~~~Zarqa College School 1 (-0.12) (+0.79) 1'N-e MosqueL Cremety (+6.42)LU1 (+15 96) Zarqa School 2 (+0.78) Figures in db(a). Q A ItITRDATTnAU VIUration due to tra,ic takes the form oi a low f'requency uisturuance that produces physical movement in buildings and their occupants that can be transmitted through the air or the ground. The frequency ot air borne traffic vibration is typically less than 200 Hertz, with the dominant frequencies in Hz. Ground borne vibration, produced by the interaction between wheels and the road surface in typically of lower frequency, 8-20 Hz Buildinn- Considerable research undertaken in ti1 Ur\ thec Lin ec o Lf 1 aio on b.-,-..gl concluded there was little evidence traffic-induced vibration was a source of Various publications of the Transoort and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL). J0269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

181 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update significant damage. Cracking of wall rendering was found at high-exposure sites, heavily trafficked poorly constructed and surfaced roads. but overall it was not possible to isolate traffic as the single cause. Given that poor road condition is the prime factor in determining the susceptibility ol buildings 'Lo tlraffilc vibratlon, a condition tlilatl will notl apply to the ADC, and LIadL no archaeological or historic structural remains are likely to be adversely impacted, no further consideration of the effects of vibration has been undertaken Building Occupants Occupants may be affected by ground borne vibration even if the building they are In remains iinafferted. Thi i generally the rae annng older roads wit-h softened sub-grades and uneven surfaces. Impacts are rarely felt on new roads unless the LiJIlUing is within al VerI y ICVV II ILI C VI ofth Li IC I ivvgay. I vibrations are not expected to be an issue in respect of the ADC. MU-coJI Un lyly, griund U U I ire Air borne vibrations originating from the sounds emitted by vehicle engines and exhaust is a frequent cause of annoyance to people in close proximity to a road. Again referring to studies undertaken in the UK, it has been generally found that for any given increase in traffic noise there is an almost identical increase in vibration. The increase in the population bothered by increased traffic noise is almost identical to that bothered by increased vibration. As a result of these findings, the UK's Department of Transport recommend assessments oi Impacts due to increased vibration use the same Indicators used,'or the assessment of noise, LA hr levels. In the absence of any other standard, analysis in respect of the ADC has followed this approach. Vibration impacts are therefore assumed to be identical to those from noise and thus equally limited. 8.5 AIR QUALITY General Although vehicular air pollution has not yet become a major health issue in either Jordan in general or Amman in particular, it is of concern within the context of the ADC project for three reasons: * It was identified as a issue of concern to some during Public Consultation; * The project may generate impacts in areas defined by G-CEP/MoE as sensitive to air borne pollution;. There may be potential benefits from the reduction of air pollution due to the ADC taking heavy vehicles away from the urban area. Poor air oualitv is already experienced in the Zarqa Basin- where thp lordan Petroleum Refinery, Al Hussein Power Station and Khirbet As Samra Wastewater Tre IL DelntrnI I IUlI IL I IIL SI 2, ), CO.2, hiyldr cjaroi, TSPI I.-Jr NOIu, InIU III Le L.UZarqa urban area, which already suffers both industrial and traffic pollution. The ADC zone of influence is susceptible to natural dust storrms, which aiso iead to a deterioration of air quality. In central Amman, relatively high levels of TSP, SO 2, CO and NOx are J0269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

182 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update experienced, although the degree to which this will be relieved is open to speculation. Elsewhere within the Amman urban area. such as along the Hizam Road, positive impacts attributable to the ADC may be more readily quantified. Specifically, air quality only needs to be addressed if one or more of the following condituions Is likely to result:. There is an overa!l increase or derre-ase in traffir flow anrd henre in t-he emissions over the study area; There ils an increase or decrease in the actual emissions from individual vehicles undertaking the same origin-destination trip under both 'with' and 'without' project conditions;. There is an increase or decrease in the concentration of emissions in areas directly adjacent to populated areas and 'sensitive' sites. From the traffic forecasts presented in Section 8.2, it is clear that overall traffic volumes will be affected and specific sites will be subiect to emissions concentrations Urban Area Benefits The ADC will draw traffic from the urban areas of Amman and Zarqa as well as transit traffic along the north/south and east/west axes and this is expected to improve transportation efficiency in the urban areas as a result of redliurpre congestion. In theory, as speeds increase emissions decrease, resulting in a net improvement in overaii air quaiity tnat wiii in turn transiate into improved neaitn and other related benefits. Such improvements and benefits are expected to be seen primarily along the Hizam Road and in the vicinity of Al Juwaidah. This air quality assessment depends on the estimation of changes in air quality throughout the modelled network. The analysis was carried out with the following assumptions: * Defined levels of vehicle emissions can be determined for the present and future project years. * Traffc ior mesp anri x/ehirip miy can hi nrpreirtlcre * Air quality results are a product of the SATURN traffic model. Definition of Vehicle Pollution Emissions In any raici i!at-ion of t-raffic inc irpe pollution, definition of the values attributed to individual vehicular emissions in a traffic flow is the most contentious aspect since it must incorporate a wide range of specific values to categorise the vehicle fleet, both at present and in the future, namely: * Classification into vehicle fuel types, petrol, diesel, leaded, unleaded; * Classification of fleet by vehicle age and the relationship between vehicle age and emission levels; and, * Classification of the fleet into maintenance categories and the relationship between maintenance and efficiency in combustion and emission load. i0269/1-rpt-env-01 REV March 2004

183 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update TihIIe acir quality assessment approachil is villo'ly asedu upon IL le output statist 1i cls provided by the SATURN traffic model. No air quality field surveys have been conducted. Therefore, this approach provides a general and theoretical indication of the impacts of air quality assessment. D.ete-r,,,ning FLuel (COnsum,,ptiOn In order to estimate the total amount of petrol consumed within the simulated network SATURN uses the following enuation: f = FLPK * d + FLPH* t + FLPPS * sl + FLPSS * s2 where f = fuel consumption in litres d = total travel distance in vehicle-kilometres t = total delayed (idling) vehicle-hours sl = total number of 'primary' or'full' stops at an intersection; e.g. where a vehicle arrives at the end of a queue s2 = total number of 'secondary' stops; e.g. stop-starts while a vehicle moves up in a queue, and the "weighting" parameters as detailed below which have been assigned derfault va!e ia fno!voaiw: * FLPK - Fuel consumption Der Dcu in litres per kilometre = 0.07 * FLPH - Fuel consumption per pcu in litres per hour = 1.20 * FLPPS - Fuel consumption per pcu in litres per primary stop = * FLPSS - Fuel consumption per pcu in litres per secondary stop = These parameters were all chosen as appropriate figures for an 'average' British car in 1981 and are considered applicable in the current study. Determining Emission Statistics Tihe e s Iimatilon of hlarmful emisslions is also an extremely complicated process, botl I in terms of actual emissions (e.g. variations between vehicles) and their ultimate dispersion and chemical reactions. Clearly many of the standard outputs from the traffic model, such as flows and speeds, are important inputs to the prediction of emissions, but equally clearly there are a lot of missing variables such as meteorological Udata. In the estimation of pollutant emissions the traffic model contains procedures for the estimation and display of five standard pollutants: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and lead. The estimation procedures are similar to those used to estimate fuel consumption, i.e. a linear model with explanatory variables of time, distance, primary and secondary stops. Hence the basic equation for the emission of pollutant i from a link is: J0269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

184 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update E' = (a', d + a' 2 t, + a 3tq + a 4 S 1 + a' 5 S 2 ) V where: d is link distance t, is average cruise travel time on the link tq is the time spent "idling" in queues at junctions s, is number of primary stops per vehicie S2 is number of secondary stops per vehicle V is the vehicle flow n1, Ai- are (user-set) roeffiriont-. It needs to be emphasised that the model used is relatively crude and therefore indicative of likely emission impacts in broad terms. Default parameter values for four of the pollutants (excluding C0 2 ) are listed in Table 8.5. Table 8.5 Air Pollutant Default Parameters Primary Type l Kilometres Cruise Hour Idling Hour Stos Type X,XF Grams/PCU Secondary C rn CO l l 2 l AAA N Hydrocarbons [ Lead 0.0 [ 0.36 J l The base calculations are estimates for each of the representative hourly flow groups. A comparison of the 'Do Minimum' and 'Do Something' results are shown below. The primary indicators of the model are Particle Matter (PM10), Nitrogen Oxides (N 2 O), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitric Oxide and Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx) and Lead (Pb). The results detailed in Table 8.6 show that during the AM peak hour, CO and CO 2 are reduced by 1.40/o and 3.80/o and 1.10/% and 3.20/o by 2018 and 2028 respnrtivelyv PM10 in the iurhbn areas i reuiicird hxy QO29 hxy 2. NOv is reduced by 1.30/o by 2028, and Pb by 2.90/o. Overall, emissions, in kilograms, are reduced Lby J.,U Ljy 2028LI. J0269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

185 Amman Development Corridor Environmental ImPact Assessment Update Table 8.6 Air Quality Emissions for the 'Do Nothing' and 'Do Something' Options Kos Kns Kgs 0/ %A 0/, AM PEAK I I I I Ir r I I Do Do Do Do Do Do Difference Difference Difference Minim Jm Sometfhing Minim Jm q Smet-hing Minim um Q-omt-hing- ro 7 r). i 7 AAA 1-) 7 I 1a01A lar 1 r 77Q 1 t R r 11 A _1 A ia O CO 2 6,159 68, ,796} 102, , , NOX 1C, ,67n 1,664A 1 0i I -0. A41 HC 1,340 1,320 2,147 2,117 2,901 2, Pu 6.u 6.u U 12.t 12.U ;.U -2. PM1O To -tal ,4;..- ;;99S ; i.3 -i.i 3.2- IULdI j I~~~~*3~~ ~~O,tA~~ ~ ~~ 4 AL0,alo I L:)D,vuo I 1L1,0.3Q I -I*J I - J. ' I -.5. PEAK PERIOD Do Do Do Do Do Do Difference Difference Difference Minimum V. Mim "'1"::UH S et Lom1[ Mnirnurn 1111-H/ Sorne43ing. co CO 5,6i 0 5,56 9,50 9,4 272 I 224 Z- -U.8%5 -/ -i.7/ -J.7 CO 6 NOX i,i36 i,iji I 1,438 l, 6 6 5} l,632 b-.4% I -U.5%/o -2.0% HC 1, ,666 1,639 2,214 2, % -1.6% -3.6% Pb I % -1.2% -3.0% 2 53,650 82,844 81, , ,846 j -0.6% 4-1.3% -3.2% PM _-0.6% -1.2% _ -3.0% Total 61,723 [ 61,355 J 95,475 94,189 [ 122, , % % PEAK WEEK END Do Do Do Do Do Do Difference Difference Difference _ Minimum Something Minimum 4 Something 4 Minimum Something { CO 4 3, ,070 6, , , , %j -1.7% -2.8% CO , ,649 60, , , , %{ -1.4% -2.3% NOX j 789 j 787 1,182 1,169 j 1,410 1, % j -1.1% j -1.5% HC ,152 1,133 1,665 1, % -1.6% -2.8% Pb % -1.4% -2.3% PM % -1.4% -2.3% Total 37,505 37,071 [ 69,375 68,382 95,672 93, /o [ 1.4% -2.3% OFF PEAK Do Do Do Do Do Do Difference Difference Difference _ Minimum Something Minimum Something Minimum 4 Something [ CO 1,748 1,736 3, ,207 4,657 4, % -1.7%0/ -3.3% CO 2 19,609 19,478 34,049 33,603 45,541 44, % -1.3% -2.5% NOX % -0.8% -1.1% HC % L -1.7%/ -3.2% Pb % -1.5% -2.3% PM J [ % -1.5% -2.3% TOTAL 22,182 22,033 38,699 38,179 51,988 50, % -1.3%/ -2.5% J0269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

186 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update 8.6 SAFETY Accidents The number of accidents in Jordan continues to increase, despite a slight reduction in The 1999 EIA recorded the annual increase in trattic accidents between 1992 and 1996 to be an alarming 13% per annum, but this has fallen considerably in recent years, as shown in Table 8.7. Table 8.7 Number and Severity of Accidents Nationwide luu2 l l No. Accidents [ 52,913 52,662 52,796 50,330 43,343 39,005 33,784 l% increase 0.5% l -0.25% ] 4.9% 16.1% T 11.1% %0/ Fataliitiips 75R 7R8I 8 r r Injuries 17,381 18,832 18,842 19,015 17,177 16,259 15,375 Total Casualties t 18,139 t 19,615 l 19,528 j 19,691 l 17,789 [ 16,836 15,927 No. Vehicles 542, , , , , , ,664 0%~inrrpAcpc )Q 9.3 i 12.) 6% % 008% ao% 0 i i 0/ Km Roads /% increase J 0.6% J 0.2% l 0.6%0/ 0.9% l 1.6% 2.1% l l In 2002, 52,913 accidents resulted in 758 fatalities and 17,381 injuries, of which 10% involved pedestrians. The total cost to society was estimated to be in the region of JD 150 million (US$ 210 million). 63% of all accidents in 2002 were in the G,overnorrtsc nf Amman and Zarqa, nerhanp a Airec+ re,flerciorn t-ka- 70%0/. o%f nil J U '.JI UlJ... ~ ~ ~ ~ I '4 a d.~d 'II tj..41ls. I'..I...MI LI1. /%JL vehicles are registered within these areas. In the same year, these Governorates ~~~ ~Afl1 fi -C11 & 1I - also suffitered 49-1/0 oalcasua,ies, ll puosibly reflecting Lhe yerlerfdly slower avergye speeds due to congestion. The major causes of road accidents in 2002 were: * Driving too close to other vehicles 22% * Poor lane discipline 22% * Not stopping at lights or disobeying signs 9 %. Not giving priority to other vehicies 80/a Not giving priority to pedestrians 8% Inappropriate reversing 7% * Excessive speed 3% The 1999 ETA recorded the rate of traffic arcident fatalities as 9/100,000 population in 1990, rising to 12/100,000 in The recent low increase in accidents has now reduced I B.JL~~k.J this t 113 to^ L%J -7/100,000) 1/ J. 'J'J pw% VWJUL 1JI~J. Souain II imilarly, II 1 in II 1996Ir, L 47-4a'ities- I OLaIILIC~ FPV ,000lr 1U 1 'VU vehicles were 18.5, around ten times higher than in most developed countries. With the recent increase in vehicle registrations, this has now dropped to 14jiu,0u0 vehicles, a significant decrease but still very high by international standards. There are a number of roads with particularly poor accident records. One such is Hizam Road, for which the accident figures during 2001 and 2002 are shown in l 2 Statistical Yearbook. DoS 2002 J0269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

187 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Table 8.8. Since the traffic on this route comprises a high proportion of commercial transport, including that visiting the Al Juwaidah Customs Depot, it is perhaps not surprising the road accounts for only 0.74% of Amman's traffic accidents but 1.2% of its rcasuatles. Natinna!!y, then rroard romprices loc tha::n 0.3 qo/rf thin Kinrgdomr's road network, but accounted for 1.3% of national fatalities in With the recent upgradling ofi UIL-le road, this hlas dropped tl V0, illathough the numbuer ouf accidents remains at about the same level. Table 8.8 Number and Severity of Accidents Hizam Road No. Accidents Fatalities Injuries Total Casualties 200i1 254 iu L Other roads with a poor accident record are typically single two-lane hiahwavs that are not designed to handle the mix of traffic, especially heavy trucks, they currently take. The ADr will faci1itate the transfer of heavy traffic from such roads to a higher standard road that will potentially reduce accident rates. With the relocation of the mi )JuVaidah Custorns Depot, muclh ouf the ILheavy traffic will ue taken ouii Hlizam andu oadjoining roads within the eastern sector of the Amman urban area. The new Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port will also provide the opportunity to introduce vigorous monitoring of the truck fleet for vehicle condition, its operation for overloading, driver condition and training, and restrict the nonessential movement of trucks into the urban area. While the majority of accidents are caused by driver error or the actions of pedesatrians i I. andi -.. ~ re!aive!ynk 1 V ' 7 few%a ~ by i7 roa JL'J IU I nfatrcur,thr l1lualj.l U l-u.lji., ~ is lai. LVL II i 3 -eete's U relationship between accidents and design weaknesses, poor road information and similar Id[cL[ors. ithe use of appropriale design standards and signage on the ADC will thus ensure the required standard of safety is met. The future development of the ADC offers opportunities for providing safe and pleasant recreational sites in an area where these are distinctly lacking. To optimise the benefits of these, it will be important to ensure that no part of the ADC, including landscaped and grassed verges, are utilised for recreation. Interchanges are of existing and increasing concern due to their use as public trlnilponrj pic-u1ip. and d4rop-ori:ff points. Operatia - I efflciency is reduced and the risk of accidents increased. The ADC will provide an opportunity for the modification of local tralflc networks In the vicinity of interchanges to accommodate public transport within future land use planning Hazardous Materials The transport of hazardous materials poses a potential risk to people and the environment in the event of an accident. While the ADC will stimulate economic activity within its zone of influence, thpre is no basis for asuiming this waiiii inrrease the overall volume of hazardous materials transported, nor that the nature of such materials will cillange. \everthieless, thlie IAMLJCl ouilers several advcantauglesl tolu hazardous waste transport over existing routes: 30269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

188 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Hazardous materials will be transferred from predominantly urban routes onto a road of hiaher desian standard with much lower volumes of traffic. and thus less potential for accidents;. The potential threat to ground water resources fron the accidental spillage of hazardous materials will be markedly reduced. The nature of the geology over muchi o Lile AD inhibits Ltasissidib5on to underlying aquifers, whereas existing routes pass over aquifers for much of their length. The severity of an accident on the ADC will, with the exception of one in Zarqa, be significantly less that an accident on alternative routes because the ADC will limit the potential for direct contact with the resident population, limit the effects on the transport system elsewhere by minimising delay, and facilitate access by the emergency services, allowing them to better contain and manage arricdents A L t tlh epresent time, thlei IrI ei SIJ no - I I yil respuo se pr1oedure [ f ori I VVc3y aiyi accidents involving hazardous materials in Jordan, nor is there a register of such materials or of companies iicensed to carry tnem. Aiso, there are no specific measures for training drivers and others in handing hazardous materials, both routinely and in the event of an accident. An accident on a remote section of the ADC could therefore result in long delays in the arrival of the appropriate response and thus exacerbate any adverse imoacts. As part of the development planning for the ADC and its zone of influence, and in crnjiinrtlnn with the MoE anri emergencrvcrx/ir, c,speific- ernergenc rnespone procedures need to be developed for effectively dealing with accidents involving potentially h IlazardIuous materials. 8.7 POLLUTION OF WATER RESOURCES Surface Watercourses All watercourses in thoe region are seasonal and there is Iitt!I potential for pollution, since contaminants will be dispersed or captured between flow events. For several years, much of ULI he It ADC will I I have, from 1999I figure, an Average Annual Daily Traffic Flow well below the 20,000 vehicles/day threshold for significant highway pollution from normal runoff following rainfall events. Traffic loads in the 'Without Project' case will be far higher in specific urban areas and thus present a greater threat. Conversely, levels of particulate emission are significant in determining pollutant load and in Jordan these are higher than in Europe or elsewhere due to the hiaher percentage of diesel fuelled vehicles and an older and less well maintained fleet. Also vegeatatiln rovezlr the ADC alignment has little or no ground cover Ground Water, Ir a maoir ront-ro!!inrg farctror in npihioi1,n iuii- rnuch of Two sections of the ADC alignment, the southern section of Contract 1 immediately adjacent to the Desert highway and the northern section of Contract 2 and Contract 3 cross qroundwater recharqe zones. Water levels are deep and the nature of the geological strata does not promote contamination by normal runoff /1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

189 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update 8.8 MAINTENANCE ISSUES Landscape Maintenance The only cause for significant concern in respect of the maintenance of landscape planting is the use of chemical fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides, causing damage to flora and fauna, to the public and to maintenance workers. No particular landscaping site has significant natural value or is particularly vulnerable. Future maintenance procedures will ensure chemicals are used and applied in a controlled manner in accordanre with manijfartuirers' recommendations. The use of chemicals on recreational areas, particularly those attractive to children, and areas where food crops ma" be grown, may pose a special risk, but adherence to normal 'good practice' procedures will again largely mitigate any risk LIla may otherwise exist. Similarly, the same "good practice' procedures applied in respect of the use of protective clothing, equipment use and cleaning and the storage of materials, will substantially any threat to landscape maintenance workers Highway Maintenance Two primary sources of potentially adverse impacts arising from highway malnte ~nance ara rn in,~,efn ws d A r and accidents invo'ving ma-nt.enance work-ers and/or traffic flow modifications during road maintenance. The potential in respect of waste disposal is primarily due to the often heavily contaminated material removed during drain clearance operations, which will need to be disposed of appropriately. Althouah there is no reason to believe maintenance of the ADC will be more prone to accidents than other highways within the Kingdom, the risk of accidents can be great!yx reducedr by/ effectivea prepairatory- p!anningi of aciite, n!uig h I - -Y TV -ItdI vi LALL 7 ILAI I III I J - LJk.L VIt LIk..J L I ' %.I..I LI IL. adequate use of warning signs, and site supervision. 8.9 SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL OPERATIONAL IMPACTS A summary of the potential risk from operational environmental impacts from the project is provided in Table 8.9. J0269/1-RPT-ENV-01 REVO 8-12 March 2004

190 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uodate Table 8.9 Summary of Potential Operational Impacts for the ADC Issue Potential Operational Risk or Impact Risk Noise and Air Quality {Increased nmioen nsa an ADC. Mor. M e route is unppul ihe Increased noise at sensitive sites such Moderate. Relatively few sensitive sites, Traffic Noise as schools and mosques. on which the imnact can he mananed with barriers, etc. Reduced noise on some existing roads. Potentially positive impact in the vicinity of Al Juwaidah Damace to huildinns. I Netnlinihliz { Vibration Disamenity to occupants. Minor. Il Increase in3~ vehi'e emissions. \JCI IG I ClIyf LlIr th s IIeII e UI LI te vvilio UUL Project' situation. Potentially less slow traffic therefnre.fewer Pmiczionnc Air Quality Impaired respiration and other health Negligible. Few sensitive sites along the affects. route. Traffic diverted from densely populated areas, with potentially positive impacts in the vicinity of Al Juwaidah. Energy Use Increase in the overall use of energy. Unknown and probably insignificant. Road Safetv General reduction in the rate of traffic Moderate positive impacts. Iraf Trfi II CCdlilL1111- acident throughout LIIIIUCYI UULoflttrafficfl the region. Accidents Reduced accidents on existing roads. Significant positive impacts' particularly 4 nn t-he Wi,zm Do.- Hazard Reduced risk of accidents. Major positive impact.l Hazardous I away from.j.ct Materials KtingUULlY or hazdrdousr io as away Trom iviajor positive impact. M rthe urban area. r oiiurion of Water Resources Surface Pollution of watercourses by highway Minor Watercourses runoff. l nround Water-- 17Poliution of aquifers. io Maintenance V'O Full ~I I JI II 3. PI-I JUl Landscape Pollution and health impacts from the Minor, but easily avoided through Maintenance use of pesticides and herbicides. standard operating procedures. Hiohwav 1 Disposal of contamninated solid waste. Minor, but easily avoided. Mainteance nance f Increased increasedtaoinscdet.det traffic accidents due to Minor, but easily avoided through Idiversions. standard operating procedures The proposed mitigation of the potential impacts identified above is disrussed in Section 11 of the present report /1-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

191 Icn 11s,Z MD z O *n--x W~ W DU

192 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update.S5ECOMVON 9 UN5DUCOED DE'VELOUPMENT 9.1 INTRODUCTION The Ar-.ran Development-n+ Co%rrido^r wla!udubel illipc av uo h I~ _L. ~ VL.I tjpi I IL.I IL ' Wl I I,i'.j~J VY III UlI Il LJULJPL%LI I ILV IIUV- U 11JJI I 11111JU...L UIJUI I Li IC; areas through which it passes. Patterns of land use may be expected to change rapidly as the demand for development increases iand vaiues. Tnis is cieariy evident from past speculative activity that has raised land prices and resulted in the parcellation ot areas in the vicinity of expected development corridors. The extent to which this impact is positive or negative will be determined by the efficiency of institutional planning and implementation structures. Unlike the ARR; where induced development may have been largely negative, the change in concept of the pronert to one that specificaly aims t creater a corrildor for the development of future socially and environmentally acceptable residential, commercial and industrial expansion requires such development to be viewed much more positively. With an effective and coordinated planning framework, the benefits to be gained from the development of the ADC can be considerable. The Corridor will stimulate investment and employment, help improve marginal investment propositions, and increase the locations available to investors, particularly inward foreign investment. A number of organisations have Droiects that have recently been completed, are under construction, or at an advanced stage of planning. Several of these projects ma" be expected to become ma,or engines for growth within the ADC. 9.2 DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND PROJECTS Municipal and Residential Developments Greater Amman MuniciDalitv Tn accommodate its growing poniiiatinn anri the demand.for low cost housing, the Municipality's Long Term Development Plan anticipates the creation of a 'new city' for 500,000 people over an area of some 400 kn 2, to be developed over a period of 20 years, with its centre 10 km east of the Hizam Road. The ADC will be the strategic highwday serving this area and the Municipality has aiready approved tne initial land use plan, shown in Figure 9.1. The Municipality has recently opened the Ghabawi Landfill, a waste management facility with a life expectancy of 25 years. Although distant from the ADC zone of influence, the site will qenerate substantial through traffic across the ADC; via the recently upgraded Madounah Road, and past the CDP site entrance. Housing and Urban Development Corporation In the short-medium term the Corporation plans to build 35,000 housing units, of which 24,500 (70%) will be low cost housing. It is intended that Amman will be allocated 14,000 (40%) with 6,000 units planned for East Amman. The objective is J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-1 March 2004

193 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update to develop the area between Hizam Road and the ADC by Implementation has started with Amman 2- a low cost housinq scheme of 1 -,Rn units adiacrnt to Hizam Road. Also planned are a low cost housing project at Salem of 2,820 units, and ra,iai rr co nr nityi-%i for 30,000 n peopl on fkt M-ado.n,k D-a U II L,l U II I YVY %. II IIIi IILY I I L I -I N'J,WW JL'J L LI JI~ WIII LI I 1~ UI JIUUWUI L II I NU JLJL. National Resources Investment and Developmenr Corporarion Estabiished in 2000 to plan and channel private investment into the redevelopment of military land, the Corporation has begun redevelopment of a 2,400 ha site south of Zarqa to accommodate some 450,000 people in 75,000 units. Approved Zoning Plans There are twelve approved local municipal plans, listed in Table 9.1, covering an area ol.3,336 Ilia, equivalent Lto 10%L7 of Uille ALDJC area. Residential development will cover more the 75% of the planned areas, with two plans devoted to the development of the Sahab Industrial Estate and Al Tajamouat Qualified Industrial Zone. TABLE 9.1 Approved Local Plans within the Study Area [Approved Local Plan Residential Area Industrial Area jawa 508 Al Juwaidah AAiRagib ISahab 402 In asnarian 80 IKhashafiah North 313 Aodaiiyyan Viiiage 142 Mustanidah ml Beldah Village 327 Al Manakher 44 A, Al MlICI TamuTQ.Z... fii TUCI ll 5l Sahab Industrial Estate 253 Totals 2,573 ha 763 ha The locations of these proposals are shown on Figure Industrial Developments Jordan Industrial Estates Corporation (JIEC) The JIEC, was established under Law No. 34 of 1980 and became a corporate entity with financia' I IIIILIII~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I0~~~~ i and iii ad ministr3tive autonomy LIIIII under 1aL1 Law GJLIV "lo. 59' LJ of 198'O. JIJIy L A joint JIU L L IV It4U ~J 7 UI.LU..J. :. J public-private sector organisation, the Corporation promotes and develops industrial estates, offering serviced sites, and factory buiidings for saie or rent. Businesses on the estates are granted total exemption for 2 years on income and social services taxes, total exemption on buildings and land taxes, and exemption or reductions on municipality taxes. Under the Investment Promotion Law, No.16 of 1995, businesses were further exemdt from taxes on fixed assets and snare oarts. Projects approved by the Investment Committee also enjoy 10 years exemption from *I ti- inromen ~ I.J I aindi - scr%ia! t'.. sexirvic -t - I.t. taxesn LI fl-. I ati I1. raties I JL.. of WJ JI 25r-75%/ C. /k depndnrinrg LI... I L,II I' on WI II thekir LI II...1 location. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-2 March 2004

194 I5:6 N 6 Za rqfii Gdr_eate r Aman i : ~' --. -A. '-, ; --IMunicipality L&Ž s.. >WNi\ I IBoundary (~~~7~~k&J(N ~~~~Ghabawi < 2_-, - /5Jd ah> g ) ~Landfill Site N Ar~,ak Je I \D Hgw /) I II Y K 17 y/ / ' I W I Residential Zone A Desert ; Residential Zone B High wa\ _~ Residential Zone C / \\ / -- Popular Residential - i ' ' Residential (Unspecified) / 1 i - \; _ Green Areas M industry * North i Queen Alia. Quarries Kilometres I nternational & Phosphaie Area 0 \,5 Airport I Land Fill Sites Government Owned Land rlgure 9.1 Greater Amman Municiipalitv Lonq Term Development Plan J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-3 March 2004

195 K -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~V Zarqa =,Jtl -> F:1 I 1,. ~~~~J~~z;rn~~Road,, /.. ff ~ ~a~nahl VY3 / ^^;gindusa ICity y /,/ / 'b I ~~~\ D/,,- 1 a ta b js w ay \ 4 \SaIem In [' 2 g 1S~~~~~~~~~ Residential =, es l l _ Industry 5 tj ~~~~~Queen Alia International Aiqjport _Facilities Goverment Approvnal Lrpoc Figure 9.2 Municipal Plans J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-4 March 2004

196 Amman Development Corrmdor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update The Corporation already owns and operates the 253 ha Abdullah II Ibn Al Hussein Industrial Estate at Sahab, with 385 small and medium industries. at which an investment of nearly JD 920 million (US$ 1,288 million) has created some 14,000 jobs. There are 111 foreign and joint venture companies within the estate, including companies with QIZ status. The estate has its own customs control facilities, which are also useu by nearbiy industries 'Lo avol d tlie presentl congebstion at dal JUwdiUdiI. A 250 ha site has been acquired for a new estate on the Muwaqqar Highway 26 km east of Sahab and another estate of 230 ha is planned at Qasr Al Hallabat, to the north-east of the ADC zone of influence. Free Zones The Free Zone Corporation, estah1ished1 in 1976, is a governmpnt authority with financial and administrative independence, focusing on the development of private secto^r ~~~.Ll.J ~ export Indus-trles int-r-atlonal and transit trade. Th,e Corporation i\.jii- 11 1UULJLI I 13 I IL~_l I IGILIJI IUI I l U LI OH IL LI OU I I %_ '.U U LIUII established the 520 ha Zarqa Free Zone in 1983, the 6.2 ha Sahab Free Zone within the Sahab industrial Estate in 1997, and the 2 ha QAiA Free Zone in A variety of private free zones have also been established. Projects currently under development include joint ventures between the Hashemite University and the American Land Investment Company to create a 150 ha Free Zone for intermediate, light and technical industries, and between the University of Science and Technology and the Jordan QIZ Investment Company to create an 400 ha information technologies and industry estate, on the respective universities' campuses. Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZs) The concept of Qualifying Industrial Zones emanates from a proclamation by US President Clinton in 1996 that extended duty free status to products of the West Bank, Gaza and Qualifying Industrial Zones. QIZs create an unprecedented opportunity for duty-free access to the USA without reciprocal benefits that is only available to lordan and Eovnt. WAithin the ADC zone of Influence, QT7I IrA- v e l n opotnt FUUyIp WYV,U- IEI ipiy I I I~I IIL UIJHVI LU IILI;- for the growing labour force. Cumulative operator investments amounted to JD 109 million II (U$13million' ±J. a I III I) frmatt'of24rccs 11l1 ii LULdII0 VI p1v PUjitL~ U:,u pt LU 'LI' h en l ndo IU a 02 I-Idly L-U/L, employing some 14,000 persons with an investment of JD 8,000 (US$ 11,200) per job created. An investment of JD 34 million (US$ 48 million) is already committed for another 11 projects with a further 8,000 jobs in the pipeline. In addition to the jobs attached directly to each project, there may be up to 10% more within the QIZs providing support services. Exports from QIZs for the first five months of 2002 totalled nearly JD 60 million (US$ 84 million). QIZs are expected to create over iobs and inward investment of ID 1 billion (UJS$ 1 4 hillion) un to 2020n The Al Ta,arino In Tdustria! Znel isc fthe ron!y Indep ent7 QIZwithin-k-t ADC's... SSJL41 r., L JS.I~LS Ll ~ I'... LI I'. Wil ly III.JJ~ U~ L el- VYI LI III I.L I IL._ zone of influence, although there are businesses with QIZ status within the Sahab Indus.Lrial Estate. Al IJIaIamouaL providues a complete range of facilities and services, including customs /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-5 March 2004

197 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Zarqa Refinery Zarqa oil refinery has the capacity to process over 90,000 barrels/day. The ADC will imnrovea I-ho relic+rihiit-inn of eaiso!ine, tliecs andr oti-ker prrodiii-ct nat-iona!!yi Tn response to increasing consumption, there are plans to increase the future capacity of Lhe relfinery to 150,000 barreis/day. Jordan Phosphate Mining Company Open cast and underground mining at the Russeifa mining concession ceased in The company is currently processing previously mined material but has confirmed it does not intend to recommence mining when the present stock piles arp Pxhuis,tpd The site will then hp rdeolnnprd for mixed rocienntial anrd commercial use. Natural Resources Authority The Mines and Quarries Directorate of the NRA are responsible for licensing and monitoring the operation of aggregate quarries over some 745 ha west of the Contract 2 alignment. This area is important locally and nationally, producing some 2 2 % of the Kingdom's aggregate in 2002, and with no apparent limitation on future reserves quarrying is likely to continue to be a significant activity within the ADC zone of influence. The future reinstatement and after-use plans for completed workeingsc are!ik-e! t-n inrhirie rommenrriai ana inrditria!ni dvopminx ntsnihlie industria projects UIngying IdIIU piuposed tur.rie LtADC diiuts zoeui Ul inflluerice are shown on Figure 9.3. A summary of all anticipated corridor development is shown on Figure POTENTIAL PROBLEMS DUE TO UNPLANNED DEVELOPMENT While the achievements and proposals listed above are impressive, they mien c1rxin to highlight the number of separate organisations involved in the future -1 ~ ~ ~ ~ CAL..A MIdevelopment of thle ADC. Even though conceived as a Development Corridor, without an effective planning framework the overall impact could be substantially negative. The types of problems that may be encountered are discussed below Urban Sprawl and Unplanned Development The project will almost certainly promote a tendency for urban sprawl, in particular: * Roadside commercial development in the belief that improved access and visibility will bring customers; * Strip development along primary road corridors provided access to infrastriictuir networks ran be maintained; and * Unplanned residential development, particularly on the flat land adjacent to the Cont ILI ULL ± lji nmn 1 Ig ILI, LI iil 1e q1aily UvIJopedU VI primary transport corridors, the Desert Highway and the ADC. and in close proximity llyo two 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-6 March 2004

198 Amman Develonment Corridor Environmental ImDact Assessment UDdate / Zarqa Oil Hashemite / Al Dulayl ) l l Refinery * University Industdal Park ) ~ [ ~ ~ ~ Vji-~~~~-' /'<~~~~~'~~ TO ) 500~h ha'es 6 tr heoarzarqas' ~~~~7riQasr Al 1Li ;I~.~'~ -o Hallabat 11 zorqa ;5el / I j~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\ ~Industrial Estate 4 /: Jordan,PhosphateA VIt7X <1 9hptt3rnq I ~ K :1 W ~~~ < ~jaimes W / 1 z Mad2ounahe -Hs <,. K /J-$-8\ }TA Cea,s Soaahab c J / fi5 I ltajamouat (OIZ)4!Cl, >/ I \ /7 50 ~~hectgres Sahab,S, Nd'ur } ; W -* \<;u 0 u / \I Roadoua 2n3heurs Al' Mewaqqa Ra / Industiai Fstate (QIZ). \\. / >4\"9t) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~25u heciares W (J Airport1 J { Desert\4 - N - t / g ~~~~Hlghway SZ_N Queen Alia -- ~Al Qastal * I International 400 hiectares North, Sa Kilometres ji5u^tz7_ \ 4 00 hectar-es _ Fiqure 9.3 Industrial Projects J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-7 March 2004

199 Zarqa a ~~~~~~ 7~~~~~~~~~ \J\s 0 ffi5 / ~~~~~~~~Proposed Residenbal jt \xew, +,,7, ~~~~~Proposed industrial w I i \t7 t 5< ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Proposed Institutional*l Z,y-- wh - - ~~~~~~~Proposed inland Port w AN. /\/ k Proposed Business ID / f ~~~~~~~~~~~~~Proposed \ ~~~~~~~~~Approved Residential Development North fiapproved incdusuy_ Commercial - Kilometres lexl:sting Residential _ - ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Land Unwiltable fo. Dve!cpm -, 7 L? 7 Water Pipeline _ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Rail,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~R g. e i It Corridor Development RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-8 March 2004

200 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Such development may outstrip infrastructure capacity and in turn: * Overburden available physical and social infrastructure; * Increase the cost and rate of future service provision; and * Limit the capacity to provide adequate constraints to further development. It is inefficient to plan for the amelioration of adverse impacts such as severance a nd local access outside of a planned framewuorkl. ciuchl amneliloration Vvill be pron-e to interference by landowners and others who may claim exclusive rights to facilitate or limit access to them Land Degradation The soils of the area are extremely vulnerable to pulverisation and erosion once vegetation cover is lost. The absence of develodment guidelines and an urban planning framework will promote inappropriate, ad hoc development that will not function effectively in the relative harsh, dusty and hot environment. 9.a. Uneguated Lan' "se a" Intersecior,s p 3un1regui L U LNU u~ L LIIL ~LIU11.2 Interchanges occupy some 450/o of the total land requirement tor the ADC and their efficient functioning is critical to its successful operation. They are, however, extremely vulnerable and their efficient functioning is easily compromised by a number of different activities. Unrtrstrirtpd ArPScc Provided access to LU the LIIIVVUYId 1ih3 1JL1kJ11UU, 'IIanU in tl hi e 1m111 ImedUILItei VityliILY Ul intersections is relatively unattractive for development. Access to the preferred direction of movement is frequently denied and vehicular access can be difficult. Such sites can be noisy, suffer poor air quality and have little aesthetic appeal. If direct access is permitted, legally or by default, such sites increase in value to the benefit of the owner. Attempts will be made, legally or otherwise, to access the highways and interchanges directly. If this is permitted once, similar development will be stimulated elsewhere and serious traffic management, public safety and nrpotnt-ia!!y%!ega! coflrncerns waiii rinsult TIrca,,spo,-tL AI9LWLIIa0gIY There is an increasing trend throughout the Kingdom For major road interseculuns to act as public transport pick-up and set-down points. This markedly reduces the efficiency of road operation in the vicinity of the interchange and substantially increases the risk of accidents as pedestrians access vehicles or cross the highway to access roads and change buses. Given present trends, it must be assumed the ADC intersections will become public transport faci!ities unless counter measures are taken. Some of the land acquired for the project will iie within the perimeter of interchanges, especially at the Desert Highway and Zarqa Highway, and will be left J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-9 March 2004

201 Amman Deveilopment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment UPdate undeveloped. There will therefore be the tendency for ad hoc use such as coffee and vegetable stalls within the hard shoulder Threat to rc'*itumirni i V'Vi st no archaeological or h1istoric sites are now uirectly threatened by ADC construction, public access to those even some distance for the alignment will be improved or inadvertently provided, either trom the road of from future development. Land use and access controls will be required if full protection of vulnerable sites is to be afforded Social Issues Customary Rights Users The existing tenure system, especially those of the Bedu, may be rapidly overwheimed by induced development. While a formal Plan and pianning procedures may provide full protection for such groups against the aspirations of landowners to maximise the value of their assets, it is likely that any transitional process could be more smoothly accomplished and with less social harm to Customary Rights Users. This issue is more extensively discussed in the Land Acquisition and Development Plan, Volume 2 of the oresent submission. WAit-houit theo nrtortectln of a Plan antd rprroedures, the-i enntire airpa Mi!g bei Ivulnerable ,-- I ~..-L ~ DI LIt.. W... VVill lat. V`.AIIita II.I% JIto ad hoc developments incompatible with surrounding uses. This is often a particular problern wh'ere small, individual land'owners aret pit.. eu dy-di 1 L a -dgain t1 maj d 0r institution, commercial entity or other interests, against whom it is extremely vulnerable unless protected by the powers contained in formal planning documents. Without a formal Plan that has been subject to the full planning process, including Public Consultation, the resultinq development is unlikely to reflect the needs and aspirations of the affected communities. Road User Preferences It is a fundamental premise of the project evaluation process that road users make tileir choices on t.hve basis of vericle operating costs and Journey time. While acceptable for this purpose, it is perhaps too narrow a choice for the ADC, where the characteristics of the majority of the traffic that generate project benefits, long haul traffic to and from Aqaba, may not be usual. Depending upon the journey to be undertaken, it may be that a wider range of factors influence the choice of route, as for example: * Service industries including restaurants, hotels and truck maintenance facilities IIave d ILJF%A.J o IISJI! truc.vk Ir r o HIII ILU I L LAl,\ IWULliZ3 InII IAiman to service th Le needs o the industry. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of the existing Al Juwaidah Customs Depot. if such facilities are not available on the ADC, truck drivers may opt to use existing routes; * Amman may be home to many of the long haul drivers, who may time their journeys to include an overnight stay with their families. Others may simply wish to spend the night in Amman. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-10 March 2004

202 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update Specific Local Issues The Zarqa Through Link will have significant impact opn local traffic on the three main roads, Zarqa Highway, Zarqa Road and Yajouz Road, and on the movement andu linkages bueltween them. The functioning of the local network will there,ore hrave a significant bearing on the functioning of the ADC. 9.4 ADC PLANNING CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT Framework Requirements Many of the potential problems and adverse impacts can be overcome by managing land use cilange andu development through a compreh'iensive planning framework. Implementation of the ADC development will be a long and complex process, aimed at accommodating at least 500,000 people and creating 350,000 -obs within twenty years. There is a general consensus of opinion that a single authority must be identified, which will have the responsibility for planning and managing this. National and international experience helps to define the desirable properties the authority, and the need for an Amman Development Corridor Master Plan, which will be guided by Development Obiectives and mnnitoredrby Performance Indicators, and executed by a single authority. Discussions 1 with development organisations and authorities in Amman, and representatives of the vvoriu Bank, suggest that the Authority established or nominated to manage the Amman Development Corridor will need to:. Be responsible to the Government, either through a ministry or direct to C-abinet; * Be an enabling organisation, with the authority to plan, manage, co-ordinate and promote the ADO; * Provide incentives to consolidate land holdings and promote development; * Engage in partnerships with the private investors; * Generate its own operating finance;. Work in conjunction with, and not replace or assume the powers of, all the existing authorities: * Be required to achieve specific objectives; and PgBe regularly monitored to assess performance against quantifiab!e targets Devellopmen.t 'Corriducor M1ast er rliani The first responsibility of the Authority shouid be the preparation of a comprehensive Land Use and Transportation Master Plan for the ADC to provide long term guidance for the distribution of land uses, transport and infrastructure systems, clearly identifying: * The geographic area of responsibility of the implementing organisation, which will require establishing co-ordination and compatibility with the Greater Amman Long Term Development Plan; Held during the preparation of Amman Development Corridor-Phase 1: Land Use Study. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), June J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REVC 9-11 March 2004

203 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment U.pdate. A phased programme that focuses investment in priority development areas, and reduce widespread land speculation;. Special development areas with incentives to encourage land assembly and large-scale projects. The bu- ro ad planning and dl uevelopmenl Lth obijieicti V I Fee pr e=para tliu1 Io l Li the Development Corridor Master Plan will need to provide for include: * Expansion of the Amman/Zarqa conurbation to 2020 within a socially acceptable nntfforn,frollnnn FJJL. S.J '4 l V, v jisfi'.i U, 1 * A Land Use/Transportation Strategy designed to minimise journeys to and from huomes andu workpiaces; * The widest possible range of employment opportunities and appropriate housing; * Infrastructure services and community facilities to support the phased development; * The most effective and environmentally sensitive distributor road network and public transport system; ncontro!s to curtail land snpri iiftion in planning and the release of land; The promotion of the development objectives to government corporations, private scutuo UO1ialtiondLsul a Ul I I IV 3LCI at The assembly of private land holdings, to form large sites for major public and private projects; * The promotion, financing and implementation of major development projects;. The retention, so far as is possible, of existing development control procedures and regulations Performance Evaluation TI,k nn^ir,,n. n +-kp nr,r.u-n~ia Sknn,,n-. k~, Ii i.+a T I I e I '.JI II ILJI IL I th Lof IIImpJleIIeI. II In org ain isat.i I 1IUU Ube evalualeu on a regular basis. Quantifiable performance indicators should measure progress in achieving targets established by the Master Pian programme. Such indicators couid measure both the success in meeting planning targets (number of homes built and occupied, number of jobs created, quantity of private investment attracted, area of land serviced and developed, etc.), and the impact of the Development Corridor on the existing urban areas of Amman and Zarqa (volumes of traffic on main highway links to the Corridor, volume of work journeys contained within the Corridor, changes in pollution levels within the urban areas etc.) Recommendations Discussion of the various options for the organisation of an implementing authority for tie ADC '-as b-een reported previously'. The essential options were: The reation of a nevw orgnniat-ion; * Extending the powers of an existing organisation; or Comblining IL Ihe powvers of V existing organiscaltuion. All three have virtues and disadvantages. The new Authority shouid be able to combine the powers and experience of existing authorities without undue private sector entrepreneurship. 2 Amman Development Corridor-Phase 1: Land Use Study. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), June /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-12 March 2004

204 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update The recommendation is therefore for an 'umbrella' oroanisation that will incoroorate the active participation of existing stakeholders as well as the present planning and implementing authorities. The existing authorities will retain t-heir present responsibilities, but also become active participants in the operations of an Amman CorrdorDevlopmnt uthrity(aca),within wih LU!! IUUI UmVuIIIItIL tvvpltl (/iuumj*,, WHIII I LH;11U- * Greater Amman Muniripality and the Ministry of Muniripal Affairs will rontinue as the responsible planning authorities; *The Housing,and Urba Dev, elo -pme-,inr,,,,n4t C o rpora0- tio n wit 11 mng I promote new housing; * The jordan industrial Estates Corporation will manage and promote industriai development; * The Jordan Free Zones Authority will manage and promote new Free Zones and QIZs; and * The infrastructure authorities will manage the provision of water, sewerage, electricity and telecommunications services. u. p,,nn..4g anda The new element provided by ACDA is one of strategic planning, coordination and promotion, designed to exploit and enhance existing resources, but with authority to innovate and provuidue a fiexible response to clunlinidiiy IIi maurke KtL cntlons. IThe Authority must be responsible to the Government, preferably directly to Cabinet, to ensure the largest development project undertaken in Jordan has appropriate political support. Notwithst:anding this, the involvement of a private sector development company should not be precluded. The possible organisation of such an Authority is shown in Figure 9.5, and the suggested stepns to establishino it are as follnws: Identify the route of government control, via a ministry or direct to Cabinet; * Appoint a Board of Directors representing the development stakeholders;. Incorporate relevant existing planning and implementing authorities within the operational organisation; - Appoint a qualified private sector organisation to provide technical and management support and nominate a Development Manager to provide the link UetwIeen political UdIrectLIon andu implementati0iili reqiu1ir1tements;l, adl U. Define the powers, objectives, responsibilities and powers of the Corporation, and its relationship with existing organisations; Depending upon its success, the Authority might have its area of responsibility extended as other sections of the Ring Road are constructed in the future /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-13 March 2004

205 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Uodate P M SEC DM BoD LJ LXi Li LAi Liii II i Li OR RAOR R OOR RnR PM DM Sec BoD Prime Minister, Chairman of the Board of Directors Development Manager Secretariat to the Development Manager Board of Directors Minister of Interior Minister of Finance Minister of Planning Minister of Transport Minister of Public Works and Housing Minster of Municipal Affairs Mayor of Greater Amman Infrastructure Authorities 1 Department of Greater Amman Municipality 2 Department of the Ministry of Municipal Affairs 3 Department of the Ministry of Public Works and Housing 4 Department of the Housing and Urban Development Corporation a D-epartLment of' the Jordan Ind'ustrial Estates Corporation 6 Department of the Jordan Free Zones Corporation 7 InfratrturerP Auithorities including the Water Authority of Jordan, Jordan Electric Power Company, and the Telecommunication Authority OR Other Responsibilities of the nominated organisations forming ACDA mm ar a lcl n Figure 9.5 o r riudo r rdi eveilopmei uth["io rity 0Organisati onl I l ha rt J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-14 March 2004

206 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update 9.5 PROVISION OF ADEQUATE INFRASTRUCTURE With the impressive list of development projects and objectives outlined in Section 0 nhabov it is noti- uanreasonable to quest ihn tr -inaility a-nd longrm *Y LJLJJ V ~, IL 10 I I%'L Ul IIiUJ'.I L.U. Ji H ucj'.~~ij IIII ViIJ It UIU ll ' U sustainability with regard to the availability of the necessary resources and infrastructure. Of particular concern are whether the workforce wiii be available to fulfil all the newly created jobs, if there are adequate building material resources to complete all the expected construction, and if infrastructure services, such as water supply, sewerage, solid waste disposal, electricity and telecommunications will be available in sufficient quantities to meet the increased demand Population and Workforce Despite a recent fall in the rate of growth, the population of Jordan's is expected to reaci 8.1 I million 'U 22U 0 o I vv If It.J million wvill reside in the Governorates ofi Amman and Zarqa. Similarly, and within the same time frame, the Kingdom's workforce is expected to reach 2.1 miiiion, with 1.2 miiiion within the two Governorates 3, and increase of 527,000 over 2002 figures. The percentage of the population of Amman that is currently 5-25 years of age and will be seeking employment over the next years is 47.5%. The percentage that is currently years of age and will be expecting to retire over the same period to make way for younger people is only 14%. For several years, the official unemployment rate has remained at around 1 5 %. MUUILional empioyment oppoirunities are therefu're required at ' L[Ihe presentl time andu this need will only increase in the future. It is therefore expected the jobs created by the development of the ADC and the housing that becomes available will readily be filled Building Materials As discussed in Section 9c.22 above. the NRA has set aside an area of some 745 ha for the future working of building aggregate. There are already 27 quarries in the area producing some 2.82 million m 3 /year, over 22,O/ Of the Kingdom's total production. The NRA has no accurate assessment for potential future reserves as they are of suclh a miagnitude as to be fu o LUInlcn I Ler toil[her L[he UUVto[[e[I1CL Ur the industry. It may therefore be assumed that adequate resources of aggregate material for the construction of the ADC and the proposed future developments will be adequate Water Supply Jordan has one of the lowest levels of water resources per head of population in the Iwrlad VYUJI U The III'" U navailnahihi-y VUIIUJL-11ILY of UJI aduaniin- UUU.UjUUJL.. siuipliec for damoms-c, i4urial nd 3cultur3' LV pjiu IVJ JJ Il~I,IIifUu~ stir Ual ii ci-ji iu C.ir i Gilu a uses has long been a major issue and many internationally-funded projects, by the World Bank, UNDP, USAiD, GTZ and others, have concentrated on efficient water use, particularly for irrigation, which accounts for over 70%o of demand. In recent 3 Population and employment figures within the Kingdom have previously been discussed in more detail in Sections 2.2 and 4.2 of the present report /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-15 March 2004

207 Amman Development /11111, L Corr1idor L.5JI 5O~~ F ILJLFILUIVIF L~'5~ V CISJII I~II EniometlmacAss UiII I ai -- nt UDdA- II I iljcill -F_1e_,II,e, t:1 IJ ULJUO years, much effort has been focused upon the use of brackish and marginal quality waters for irriqation in the Jordan Valley 4. UJSATD have recently competed a water resources policy support proiect with the Ministry of Water and Irrigation with the objective of initiating two programs within the AmmannZarqa basin; the sustainable management of upland aquifers, and practical wastewater re-use, the latter also covering the central Jordan Valley. Much of Amman's water originates from the Yamouk River, which run, along the Jordan Syrian border, and several wadis to the south, all of which contribute to the King Abdullah Canal (KAC). Although KAC water is primarily utilised for irrigation, water is taken out at Deir Alla for Amman, at rates that have increased from 9.2 million m3 in 1990 to 41.4 million m 3 in An additional 1 m 3 lsec can also obtained when resources allow, from Wadi Arab Dam, which is primarily fed from niimninn evrxcc watnier frnm t-he KAC uirinn, the wairnt-er montsi-c lawhenn irrigat$ion usage is at its lowest but surface flow greatest. Notwithstanding these resources, public water distribution is supply-led rather than demand-led, and many areas of the Capital receive water on only one or two days each week, with shortages primarily being overcome by household storage and prudent use. To improve the situation, the Water Authority of Jordan (WA]) has entered into Public Private Partnership and established LEMA to operate and maintain Amman's water supply and distribution networks. USAID has recently given JD 50 million (US$ 70 million) for uingrading distribution networks throughout the city and many local NGOs and community-based organisations are involved in ~ _l F¼-;~i 1.F IF wtaei-r Vy. i-nnsepmitinn.f Wl ~. V L~II WW arilnd F publcr 1J O lf &.4~VVU awareness chees While tlhis will make tlhe system more erflcient and reduce unaccounted for water, all assessments of available water resources over the last decade have predicted a situation where unsuppressed demand outstrips supply. Investment is therefore required in new sources, and there are two major regional schemes in particular that are expected to increase the long-term sustainability of supplies to Amman and the ADC zone of influence. fii-a mnman Water ronveyor This project will construct 65L wells t.vio abistract some F ±.J 00 lliiiii III /yeai II thle vicinity of Disi, km WNW of Aqaba and convey it to Amman via a 325 km pipeline. The capital cost of the project is estimated at JD 304 million (US$ 425 million), with recurrent costs JD 13 million (US$ 18 million) each year. 25% of the funding is expected to come from private equity investors and 75% from commercial bank debt under World Bank quarantee, export credits, international finance institutions and Government support. The Government of Libya is funding the procurement of materials.for the transmission pipeline. AIfull I LJI I Feasibility ~C IL)IIILy study LU L VO vvas completed UIU IL U II in 19,wit L:,V [YLI I Detailed LJ LIIU LJ~IIId Design an' U Tend'er I iue Documents submitted in Tenders from BOT operators have been received 4 In particular, Study on Strategic Important Aspects of irrigation Water management in the Jordan Valley. GTZ, 2000, and, FORWARD Study on the Assessment of Water Quality variations in the Jordan Valley. USAID, /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-16 March 2004

208 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update and the two compliant offers are currently undergoing evaluation. It is expected that implementation will commence during A major rcncidratinn is that the transboundary aquifer, shared with Saudi Arabia, is not sustainable, as the scheme will exploit fossil water. The present resources are noti repienished annually, andu are expected to bue exhausted after L25 years. Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal The Trilateral Economic Committee of Jordan, Israel and the USA conceived the idea of a 200 km 'Red-Dead Canal' between Aqaba and the Dead Sea, with the aims of: * Providing sustainable water resources to Jordan, Israel and Palestine; * Stimulating economic development in the southern Jordan Valley;and, * Arresting the decline of water level in the Dead Sea water. The c.400 m fall in elevation from Aqaba to the Dead Sea will be utilised to produce hydroelectric power with which to nnpratei dea1ination plants. The quantity of fresh water the project is expected to produce is 851 million m 3 /year, of which Jordan will -Ic Lv VLi IIlU 5.L0 illiuol II m. A Iuii IasiiHiLYy LtuUy, il IIUUIIIY LnIIVil UI IiLeCHa Assessment, is currently being undertaken. Both these schemes, augmented by the improvements in distribution efficiency to be progressively introduced by LEMA, are expected to make adequate provision for the future expansion of the Amman-Zarqa region, including the ADC and its future development. MWI, through WAJ and LEMA, will need to programme new local storage and treatment facilities and the extension of distribution networks to serve the new developments. This programme should be coordinated with ADCA and inc!iuided in tho A nrd nveoxinmret% - DiPn rdisc-isieda in ctlrorn 9.4 A abov rae-w-erage Despite the suppressed demand for water, sewage collection and disposal has not been without its problems. The first sanitary sewers in Amman were only laid in 1964, when the population was just 0.5 million, and the first treatment facility was built at Ain Ghazal in The 1982 Master Plan for Wastewater Disposal recommended an epncninn of the Ain Ghazal activated sludge treatment plant, and the waste stabilisation ponds at Kirbet As Samra were conceived as a temporary measure while this was being undertaken. Subsequently, the decision was taken to abandon Ain Ghazal. As a result, AMs 5aamra, whyiili Ih ladu commenceu operations at a rate of 68,000 mj-/uday, lts design capacity, soon became overloaded, causing a wide variety of problems such as odour and poor effluent quality, the latter seriously impinging upon the quality of water in the King Talal Reservoir. The Kirbet As Samra plant currently processes some 165,000 m 3 /day, approaching 3 times its design capacity. The Wastewater Master Plan for for the Amman-Zarqa Basin identified the need for new and expanded treatment plans and rnloertion networks, with a Master Plan and Feasibility study 5 completed in 1997 In September 1998, MWI 5 Master Plan and Feasibility Study for the Rehabilitation, Expansion and Development of Existing Wastewater J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-17 March 2004

209 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update prepared BOT documents for a new As Samra treatment plant and the rehabilitation of the East and West Zarqa pumping stations. The Droiect will Drovide adequate sewage treatment for the Amman-Zarqa area up to 2015, develop surface and rirouni wainteigr nrnotecni-inn mreaisroes, n nrr-du-c akn eff!i inn- ci tia-bi! fo%r irrig-tion in the Jordan Valley. The total cost of the project is estimated at JD 105 million (US$ 147 million) of which JD 50 million (US$ 70 million) is coming from USAID, the remainder to be organised by the BOT operator through the private sector. As with water supply, MWI will need to programme the extension of sewage collection networks in coordination with ADCA and in accordance with the previously agreed provisinns of the ADC Development Plan P oi W3:e. Disp1 %OU3 Greater Amman Municipailty have recently opened the Ghabawi solid waste management facilities designed to handle the demands of the next 25 years, based on an input of 800,000 tons in 2000, rising to 1,700,000 tons in The site, shown on Figure 9.1, is located 23 km east of Central Amman and covers an area of some 200 ha. In accordance with its desian criteria. it should be adequate to handle the solid waste generated by the new housing and industrial deve!opmemnts associated wlti-h the ADC lectrici:ty ar,d Telecomm un.ications F- ~IL I ILL au I ILUIIIUIILLIVIIb Eiectrical Power The Kingdom enjoys excellent distribution of electrical power, with % of the population served, a figure that has remained constant since The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources have overall responsibility for the sector and have recent!v entererd into Pijhlir-Private Partnerships to form three sparate trading entities: * The Central Electricity Generating Company; * The National Electrical Power Company; and, * The Jordan Electricity Distribution Company. There is an ongoing programme of upgrading and replacement, and at the current t-ime 1-ho 7trhieZ Ciiiq-S-tat-iorns bc eing rehabilitated. LIlIl I.. LI IS. L. IJ L4 U.JJL...LLJLIWJI I. IS.II 1..1UI I IiLU L~Ui. 9 In 200i, the installeu generating capacity was 8429 GWvvn and growth in the sector is expected to be as shown in Table 9.2. Systems in the Amman-Zarqa basin. USAID, /2-RPT-ENV-01 REVC 9-18 March 2004

210 Arrnrran Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment UDdate Table 9.2 Expected Growth in the Electricity Sector 6 Year T Maximum Load 1 Generating capacity % 1 6.0%0/ % J 3.2% l gn2015 q 24% 2.4% l II Ils expanision allw fiiuvv r uuli UUd estic adrl inuustriai consumption and is expectea to be adequate to serve the currently planned expansion within the ADC zone of influence. Further capacity installation will be undertaken to meet consumer demand as further development proposals are approved. Telecoms nordan is equally well served by telephony services. In 2001, there were almost 630,000 subscribers to land lines, of which 68% were located in the Amman and Zarq3 CG3,ov,ernor3a te s. As elsewhere in the region, the use of mobile telephones has proved very popular and the number of lines reached nearly 1.3 million in 2002, one for every 2 persons between 15 and 60 years of age. The Kingdom prides itself on its ability to adapt to new communication technologies and there is no reason to consider the necessary investment for the extension of services to meet future demand will not be readily available. 6 Annual Report National Electrical Power Company J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C 9-19 March 2004

211 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

212 Amman Developmrrent Corridor Environ0nentai I-pacti Assessent Uudate aerc I i 0 4 0%A lki AUI Ekfr%T' &'l A I'lL r lk r% UN 0 ANAUL'Iu M jr mo LIERNAh 11VEr 10.1 INTRODUCTION The history of the Amman Deve!opmenm t Corridor and the fnrmiuiit-inn of t-he proposals subject to the present environmental assessment have been summarised in Sect I 1.2. Thke Ion investigation oifv a viable rlng RyoaL that would encircie the Amman-Zarqa conurbation was effectively halted with the completion of the Pre- Feasibility study in January Subsequent work has only furthered the proposals for those sections of the road south and east of Amman, from the Desert Highway to the Zarqa Highway, culminating in the final design of the ADC and the preparation of Tender Documents for each of the three construction contracts. To sat-isfy, i-he rgrmiqircrm.ngi- o%f the nresntcg- EIA IUipat-e i ic not necessary J -..JLIJ LI*. - I LI.III J LII. 1 t..t IL. I.L tpi J I. IL 1.3 I ILWL I I'.A3LlY L%i consider all the alternatives studied throughout the whole 'ring'. As recent reports' hiave shown, the ADC represenls a techinically andd financially sustainable development, with no significant risk to its anticipated effectiveness should other sections of the ring be further delayed or not subsequently constructed. If and when other sections are further investigated, new EIA studies will, in any case, be required. The present Analysis of Alternatives therefore concentrates only on the options investigated to arrive at the present prorona!s for cnnst-riuct-inn....cl I VUI.L u ei I ve --- II-r v LVV uo I Iiu l 1Ld I I II-IV,I---- ly Sectio n 10fv..2 briefly reviews two basic development ait"ernatives, namely: A'Do Minimum' option; and * An Alternative Policy option. Since the 'Without Project' case has previously been discussed in Section 2.3 of the presenl report, a 'Do Nothing' ('WiLhout Project' or 'No Action') option is not considered further. Section 10.3 discusses the various alternative alignments to the present ADC route that were investigated. Section 10.4 outlines the considered design options. Section 10.5 summarises the primary features of all the ADC alternatives. Section 10.6 discusses the various locations considered for the new Customs Depot andu nlnandu Logist icls Poro 1L. Design and Financial Feasibility Studies for Amman Ring Road, Sections 1, 2, ZTL and ZEB. Draft Final Report. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners)l, September Amman Development Corridor-Phase 1: Land Use Study. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), June Economic Update for the Amman Development Corridor. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), January /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

213 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update 10.2 ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS 'Do Minimum' Option With an estimated overall construction cost of JD 65.4 million (US$ 91.6, million) and a further JD 29 million (US$ 40.6 million) for land acquisition and compensation for both the ADC and CDP, it might be argued that existing roads could be upgraded at less cost and in less time to achieve the same benefits. The only existing route joining the Desert Highway to Zarqa Highway that might potentially be upgraded is via the Yadoudah Road and Hizam Road. Even a cursory assessment of this route quickly identifies the following difficulties: * These roads pass through difficult terrain; * They are already heavily urbanised; * Existing intersections could not be satisfactorily upgraded; * In certain locations, widening could only be achieved by substantial demolition; * The investment in this option could be difficult to safeguard against side friction. Notwithstanding these difficulties, the overwhelming argument against existing road upgrading is that it would not provide for the promotion and servicing of available low-cost land to the east of Amman, for future industrial, commercial and residential development. This 'Do Minimum' alternative is therefore expensive, highly disruptive and wholly impractical, and would not satisfy the needs and objectives of the ADC project. The previous assessment 2 of the 'Do Minimum' alternative in respect of the full encirclement of the Capital identified the eastern section of the Ring Road, essentially the ADC now proposed for construction, as one of these alternatives. It may therefore be argued that in respect of the full 'ring', the Project Proponent has already opted for a 'Do Minimum' option 'Change of Policy' Options It is possible to question the need for, and the concept of both the original Ring Road and the present ADC by arguing that projected demand need not be met by additional road capacity. The alternatives would be to either leave the need for additional capacity unsatisfied, implying a degree of constraint will be applied to vehicular movement, and/or is to be met by an alternative mode of transport. Modal Substitution The objectives outlined in Section 2.2 make it clear the project is conceived as fulfilling both strategic (national and regional) and local (sub-region, city) functions. No single alternative investment is viewed as being capable of meeting both these aims. The primary alternative, heavy rail, would function predominantly along the existing north-south corridor. The existing line is now barely operational and there are no immediate plans for its upgrading and redevelopment. Movements from east to EIA, Section /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

214 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update west and from south to east and west are not likely to be available in the immediate or medium short term. Plans have been drawn up for a link from Haifa to Sheikh Hussein Bridge and on to Amman and beyond, but recent studies undertaken for the Jordan Valley Authority suggest only the link between Haifa and the bridge may be viable, and even then only by Accordingly, heavy traffic will be forced to continue to travel by road. Since the recent overthrow of the Government of Iraq, the possibility of a rail link from Haifa through Amman, and continuing to Baghdad, has been resurrected. At the present time, the suggestion appears to have been made solely for political expediency and the practicalities of such a project have, so far as can be ascertained, not yet been seriously investigated. At the regional level, the principal concerns are for local and sub-regional, passenger movements for which lighter, more flexible modes may provide a viable alternative. A Feasibility study for a new Light Rail system between Zarqa and Amman was completed by Austria: Rail Engineering in 1996 and recommended it be constructed in three separate sections with a total length of nearly 42 km. This corridor is the most heavily trafficked within the Kingdom and provides the best opportunity for Light Rail development for the next years. Connections to other focal points within the urban area may be planned thereafter. However, the movements accommodated by a Light Rail project are only partly comparable to those projected for the ZEB and ZTL, which facilitates different movements to reduce congestion in Central Amman. These movements include: * From west to north east, the Dead Sea Highway and Wadi As Sir; * In peripheral areas where movements are at present constrained or undertaken by passing through the urban area; * As a future development spine the ADC will act as the primary distributor as well as an inter-urban highway. A similar argument applies to road-based public transport. At present there is no recognisable public transport network. Scheduled bus services have not supplanted Servis taxis as the major public transport mode in Amman, though minibuses operating from major intersections are, with increasing detrimental effect on their operational efficiency, providing some competition. In these circumstances, peripheral and east-west movements will continue to be served through the central urban area. Moreover, there is little to suggest that an effective integrated public transport system could be developed in the shortmedium term, or could provide an adequate service outside the primary corridors. Network Improvements With present resource scarcities and the potential adverse impacts of new road projects self-evident, it is imperative that options to maximise the efficiency of existing infrastructure are investigated. With a few notable exceptions, such as Servis taxis and minibuses, existing road capacity is generally well utilized and driver behaviour, though not good, does not strongly impact upon it. Instances of excessive side friction and lost capacity from physical damage, due to potholes and such like, are similarly limited. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

215 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update It is very unlikely the capacity requirements projected can be obtained from the existing network. There have been a number of projects, primarily interchange improvements, which have improved system efficiency, and further works are planned, but while these may relieve some problems their effects will be localised. While it is clear that some benefits may be gleaned from network efficiency improvements they will not directly substitute for those attributable to the ADC. These can only be addressed by the existing de facto bypass via the Hizam Road that, as analysis indicates, will not be able to cope with projected future traffic loads and cannot be upgraded to function as required except at substantially greater cost and risk. Demand Management Demand management is another possible option. However, vehicle trip levels in Amman, estimated to be trips/capita/day, are quite low and given the absence of alternative modes would not normally provoke demand restraint. In the future, given the pre-existing low density, expansive urban development, relatively low levels of vehicle ownership 3 and income, it is to be expected that as the economy grows, the propensity to make trips will also grow, irrespective of any constraining measures that may be introduced Public Perceptions Participants at the Project Scoping Sessions held in respect of the ARR in 1999 clearly recognised the positive aspects of the proposals. In reviewing the most significant impacts, defined by their ranking as of the highest significance in at least two sessions, 6 of the 13 were found to be positive. A road-based transport perspective remains strong among the public in Amman and the need for the project was only questioned in the context of whether it was the right road to meet the need Summary of Alternative Development Options In summary, the following may be concluded: * There is no single policy alternative that meets all the objectives of the ADC; * Apart from localised bottlenecks, network efficiencies are adequate and can only really be improved at the margins. Whilst there is increasing pressure on the network from a variety of sources, these are not connected with built capacity and may be managed by effective policing; * The level of trip making is low by international standards. Moreover, the forecast numbers of trips, as utilised in the assignment model, include only normal growth and a very limited increase in trips/capita. It would therefore seem unrealistic, and probably inappropriate, for trip making to be constrained as a matter of policy in the near future; and EIA, Figure 10.2 J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

216 Amm,,,,an Deve'opm,,Vent Corriuor EnvirIInmIental Irnact Assessment Uudate There is a strong recoqnition in the community of the Dotential need for and the benefits accruing from the project. Alternatives based on policy or on the development of existing road links are thlerefore not tenable ALTERNATIVE ALIGNMENT OPTIONS Three basic alternative aliqnments for the ADC were considered during the Pre- Feasibility study, with additional options subsequently reviewed in a Supplementary Report 4 Recentlv undated economic analysis 5 confirmed the chosen alignment would provide a reasonable return on investment when assessed as built and operationa' LJpJCI LIIVIULI in III 2008, providaing tiavvu, H' VYIUIIy an Economic Rate of net4-urn 0of I LLV 1 7.4%f) ll Il r at a discount IXL ri ~\LU I VI /.It70 cl auil UIL rate of 120/o. There is therefore a clear economic case for supporting the project irrespective of alignment. The full range of route options subsequently considered in the Feasibility study is shown in Figure 10.1 and the principles behind their definition are outlined below. Desert Hiahwav to Sahab Hiahwav Within the function of the ADr there isca requirement to link between the Desert Highway and the Sahab Highway. The interchange on the Sahab Highway must be locat-ed ei th1-er nort L- or southi- ofa S ahl-ab. Am location to the north would' considerably shorten the ADC but would have a number of adverse consequences:. It would not provide significant relief to the urban area, but will pull traffic fa lrtknr ;n4n 4-ka nrn r,ni-k m-k4-k r 'W ' rn,- LUl Li InIIto IL.II Ll I UrLI Ia tlhan Li away from i;iil, * It would not shorten the journey of transit truck movements from Aqaba to Syria; * It would be substantially more expensive, requiring greater property compensation and the acquisition of relatively expensive land;. It would increase the negative effects of the road in relation to urban areas, particularly severance, noise and air pollution; and * It further exacerbates the two precedinq consequences by limiting the options for any future western sections of the Ring Road through semi-urban areas. To the east of Sahab only two alignments are obvious, between the cemeteries and eas tji LI I Ch.rlstla I II I.0LILJI II I ILtheI Gig oeey e ov I if Last th l e c emeteriles wvoud Involve skii LiIg the residential area of Faisaliyah with the consequent lengthening of the route and would strongly constrain alignment options to the north. So restrictive are these constraints that the alignment between the two cemeteries was fixed for all options. South from Sahab Highway, more than 10 alignment options have been considered, terminating at one of three intersection points, Bi, B2 and B3 shown on Figure Feasibiity Study for AmmanRingRoad. Supp.em.en.tary Saudies. Dr Al ah ( nd Ptners) November Economic Update for the Amman Development Corridor. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), January J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

217 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uodate B1. The routes to the north of the existing Madaba interchange favour east-west traffic and function strongly within the Ring Road concept. Benefits to southern traffic are reduced but even so, the through and transit traffic utilises the Bypass on an almost exclusive basis. Concerns were expressed that the complex pattern of interchanges in the area, the relatively short distance between them, and the comuination oi movements LIIrceU on hleavy trafflic I are 'adr friom1l1 UpLimlIl, dilu LildL the option would be expensive to construct. Land use patterns are typically semi-urban and are more complex than those II.4ILIILA from IIL)ii the urbani LJILar, to the south. Thkey wi"i thus Involve re;iiativciy Igh1I1 acquisition and compensation costs and may also incur substantial but undefined additional external costs that will need to be internalised to the Project. North of B1 on the Yadoudah Roadi land use is more intense and land values increase to the extent that they make alignment definition sufficiently problematic and costly to warrant d L ittle I UI LIti tetl ILion. B2. This most southerly option provides for the easiest access and least costly alignment from Sahab. It is also the alignment that most favours the bypass function for heavy vehicles by shortening journey distances from the south. While some Ring Road function is retained and traffic from Madaba, the Dead Sea Highway and western areas of Amman is attracted, this preference is considerably reduced when only the ADC is constructed. In the context of the Ring Road, the southern option was originally intended to utilise the existing bridge at the Desert Highway (Al Qastal) to continue on to a south-western leg from the Desert Highway to the Dead Sea Highway. This option has now been shelved and any future Ring Road using B2 will utilize alignments of the Desert Highway. IPJ. fi IIZ, Interchange. I- e.jti p e nti CL 3 C LUI -I i 0 UI1 I II S Le -IL -C11 d bu 1utl 0UIULIUI I UULI I U I Li ief I-IdUdUd Alignments connecting further south than B2 were considered in pre-1999 studies but were subsequently excluded as being unsustainable, being too long and expensive, and ultimately restricted to traffic from Aqaba. Even local traffic was not expected to utilise this route. North from Sahab Highway The alignment to the north of the Sahab Highway from the cemetery crossing is UefinedU at a general level Lby topography. In eflflel Lile cloice lies between one oui three wadis, Dl, D2 and D3 on Figure Dl Wadi Al Ush. This central route is a strong bypass oriented option located some 7 km from the existing Hizam Road and isolated in parts by difficult terrain. Over the medium to long term it will also have a significant structural planninq function. In the short term it performs well as a Bypass and traverses readily available, low value land /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

218 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update S~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. UI L 1I 43E 5ON If AV d L -X- AW* >> p -- Ir% l \ l (lulll l I ) /d 1>\\9 Sa~~~~Shab pll adoudah Road. / _~ o~ i * 43 E w X~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~5 N-I- Queen Alia l 1 intematnai lna I Desert\ Airport Highway 51 N Kilometres\ HAlt Figure 10.1 ADC Route Alignments J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

219 Amman Develorment Corridor EnviroU-nrrer, tai impact Assessrrfent Update D2 Wadi Daba'a Dehab. This outer route is a residual alternative from earlier studies that proposed a very long bypass distant from the urban area. This would function in a similar way to the Wadi Al Ush option and crosses less complex terrain- Hnwever it is extremely remote, would have no planning function, and would function only as a bypass for the foreseeable future. D3 Wadi Qattab. This inner route has a strong ring road function acting as a regional distributor and drawing traffic away from Amman. In tne traffic modeiiing exercise, some 20,000 additional vehicles per day (additional over the other options) were projected to use this road. However, this option is relatively expensive, traverses a substantial area of the Russeifa mininq concession area, and is essentially incompatible with draft Development Plans. Zarqa Approaches Options El, E2 and E3, also shown on Figure 10.1, were alignments designed to Lake transit trafi11c to the Zarqa Dypass Lo avoiu a black spot intersection and the Zarqa Highway, already the busiest road in Kingdom. El and E2 were through or,around the industrial area where the choice was either a short and easily engineered route through the industrial area or a longer route on more difficult terrain beyond industrial development. Option E3 traversed very difficult terrain, would have been very expensive and served nnlv a-, hvnaass for transit traffic avoiding the Zarqa Highway and the Zarqa By Pass intersection. Zarqa Urban Area A number of options to take the road either through or around Zarqa were considered. During a Project Scoping session undertaken specifically to review these options, a strong preference was expressed for an ZTL but with E3. The selection of E3 reflected concerns that E2 was too close and would soon be absorbed by urban exdansion. Similarly. durina the Proiect Consultation programme, officials and representatives from affected communities in Zarqa and Sahab repeated' cstressed the need for the ADrC ito be aclated with future urban development. After further study, an acceptable route through the urban area, the ZTL, was identified ALTERNATIVE DESIGN OPTIONS The rroiect was originally tested as a sing!e carriageway farility and found to open at level of service C, under which the ability to manoeuvre within the traffic stream ic icearkiy affnecte biy L the.presnce of -veicles. IU1pgradces, wi all tle associaleu difficulties in construction and traffic delays, would need to begin almost immediately and this basic option was therefore discounted. A number of further refinements were introduced to limit potential negative impact. These included adoption of a policy to limit land take to the minimum Right of Way (ROW) necessary to accommodate the proposed road cross section rather than 10269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

220 Arrmmrnan Devel,ou,,e,nt Corridor Er, vi I-Q t l,-nva.t Ases,-etL Updat apply the standard 100m. The original ROW width was 60 m, but this was later increased to 80 m to accommodate parallel service roads to support future development. Changes were also introduced to adopt the recommendations of the 1999 EIA, 1C,ul1tural '...UILI ai r~~vui FR\esources TI Impact JJJ. StLatement, d~liiiii andu 1U th1-e LII guidelines uuii ~ ~ est-atilisthed LUIIIU IIL i;n th V e I~ 1999z (()7, z LARP SUMMARY OF ADC ALTERNATIVES A summary of the salient features of each of the primary alternatives considered during the development of the present proposals.for the ADC is given in Table /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

221 e Table 10.1 Summary of Analysis of Alternatives for the ADC Poenia _- a _- Plotential Ease of Capital and Suitability to Institutional Training Monitoring Alternative Environmnentl Mitigation Recurrent Local Conditions Requirements Neaeds Requirements i r paict -- - C osts - - _ Moderate. Pirimarlly Proposed Moderate Satisfactory US$ 350 M Good environmental Modierate Moderate plannirig Moderate. Primarily aiir Will MeoewreVodlerate. pwithout pollution, noise Unknown Wider boifficult omeasing Negligible Nil Primarily air and Project and traffic Difcltnkon udrafincraig NlgbeNl noise in urban accidents in areas urbani areas IDo Unknown Unknown Unknown Good, but only a Moderate Moderate Moderate IMinirnum short term solution Change of Unknown Unknown Unknown Poor Negligible Nil As Without Project 0 PolicyV J0269/2'-RPT-EN V-0l REV March 2004

222 Amman Develorm,ent Corridor Environmental Imu,,act Assessment Update 10.6 ALTERNATIVES FOR THE CDP SITE Location Criteria The requirements of a location for the new Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port (CDr) and the evaiuation o seilected site options have previously been repurieu_. The main factors influencing location were: Di..J 1; r c t access to hi g h c apacity i n I IernatLional transporti modles (highways, railways, seaports and airports); Accessibility for domestic export producers; Access to major import consumer markets; Access to customs and related government facilities; Availability of extensive flat land free of development constraints; Availability of infrastructure services (water supply, electricity, sewerage. and telecommunications). The Amman Development Corridor provides an Ideal location for the CDP wvith excellent access to international trade routes, existing and planned industrial areas, Queen Alia International Airport and the Capital. The Corridor is also crossed by the Hijaz Railway, which may be up-graded to become a major freight route in the future, to create a multi-model international freight transport hub. The ADC includes extensive areas of relatively flat land free of development constraints, providing ideal conditions for construction of the required facilities. The Corridor will also provide land for new residential areas to accommodate port and criitoms employeev j and new industrial development that will support rdp activities Land Requirements The Unified Company for Organised Land Transport (UCOLT) depot at Al Qweira north of Aqaba is the only land transport facility in Jordan that resembles an inland port. With a total site area of 110 ha, the depot provides 80 ha ( 7 2 % of the site) to park 6,000 trucks, 15 ha (14%) for vehicle maintenance and servicing, and 15 ha (1 4 %) for administrative and commercial use. The support services to be provided include a leisure centre, petrol filling station, restaurants, driver accommodation anrd snitarv fcrilitiprs Fnpripnrp inrlirctep the dpont ls nrossccy/ iinderiuicsd UCOL prep.jli aredj a F [PIre lminary stu7jl for all IIIIIIU FPItL aiiiu re=i-cated Customs Depot for Amman in 2001, which concentrated on current operational problems, and recommended a total site area of 500 ha, including 50 ha for a new Customs Depot. KN Orient commissioned a Feasibility study for an inland port and new Customs Depot which was completed in May This was also based upon a port site of 500 ha, including 50 ha for the new Customs Depot. 6 Amman Development Corridor-Phase 1. Land Use Study. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), June Section 4. 7 Reorted in Amman Development Corridor-Phase 1. Preliminary Report, Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), February /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

223 ,,,,,,arran Deve,m,,ent Corridor EnvWI r onme ntal limpact Assess'melnt UL,0,date Transport operators suqqest that a 500 ha site for the inland port should devote 50 ha for the new Customs Depot, 5 ha for administration, 5 ha for commercial areas, 10 ha for vphicle maintenance. and 430 ha for storage and narking. A ful Feasibilit std of t-ke rcd khas yet- ok b n-n- kbut is expectet b -%I U I I %;iz UJII li_lly OLUJLJy WJI Li I1.. ~.l I IL140 Y LL LW L.L. U Iu i.j r\lu '.1;I I LAJ U l3 ta p~.t LW LlJ_ awarded shortly. This will provide detailed analysis of the space requirements for all planned activities, access and circulation, and infrastructure services Potential Sites The Preliminary Report identified seven sites within the Amman Development Corridor that could accommodate the long term development of the CDP, each with total area of at least 500 ha. These sites are shown on Figure Three of the identified sites were subsequently considered worthy of further evaluatlino I Site A adiacent to the AirDort Hiahway; * Site B adjacent to the Sahab Highway; and * Site C adjacent to the Madounah Road 8. AU ultii r "sie searc"ii VVwas UIUIL-CIi to LU idily possible dditional sites occupying government owned land and/or large privately owned land holdings within, or in the vicinity of, the ADC. It was concluded that Sites A, B and C fulfill these requirements and they were subsequently subjected to more detailed evaluation on the basis of: * Land cost; * Infrastructure cost; * Potential for expansion; * Potential rail access; * Access to Amman; and * Access to international borders. These criteria provide the basis for a relative evanl'tion of the three sites. Valuhe that were common to all sites were not taken into account. For example on-site InfrastruLture Losts VVere assumed ti LU o e th Ie same for all si-es, butl I I -site infrastructure costs vary according to location. The relative land costs at the three locations, adopted to demonstrate the variation in likeiy acquisition costs, were believed to reflect the current land values. Land Costs The market orices of land within the ADC were originallv surveyed in 1997 but have recently been up-dated to represent current land values/purchase prices in order to give a relative indication of acquisition rrcis for each of t-he ikree site, me fo!wais: * At site A, adiacent to Desert Hiqhwayv land prices are JD 15/m2, hence the total cost for a 500 ha site would be ID 75 million; At site B, adracent to the :AhAh Hilhwa,v nrirce were in 5/m 2 in 25 million for a 500 ha site; and 8Sites 1,6 and 7 respectively in the Preliminary Report J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

224 Amman Development Corridor EnUQned O rndi Lssessrnent Update * At site C, adjacent to the Madounah Road, land prices are JD 2/rM 2, JD 10 million for 500 ha. In.fr-actr,lt,ire norctu ITe nearestl infralstr uclui s ei VIc, "-MILlI ILILy, VVL- 1,tevveI dc IU LseIergI IUI 1=, were assumed to be available at Sahab. The comparative evaluation of the three possible sites was therefore based upon their distance from Sahab. * Site A is 10.5 km from Sahab; * Site B is 2.5 km away; and * SIte C is8 k[m away. Expansion Opportunities The availability of flat land suitable for further development of the CDP is limited close to the Desert Highway, Site A, but virtually unlimited for Sites B and C. The ICtn J HaLRil I IJc IXUIIVVwy la Iiowi I guvv and poori y maintaineud. uovvoever LIhe iine may be upgraded in the future and would become a valuable asset for the Inland Port in respect of the interchange of road and raii freignt. All three sites would require the construction of branch lines, with Site C requiring the longest rail connection. Access to Amman/Zaraa Urban Area The main routes from the inland porf sit-e f-r Amman are all vi m%a,or kaska.c- The Desert Highway/Yadoudah Road, and the Sahab Highway provide the most UirecL routes 'Lo Amman. Access to International Borders The ADC and any future western and northern sections of the Ring Road will provide hiqh speed access to all the main routes to international borders, with Site C having marginally better access to Iraq and Saudi Arabia, and without further extension of the Rina Road. in 0.6. ASite Evauaiitinn m simple evaluadlion matrix IasVVdCUbU to Lsed UdnIIIUItLIae tie reitive [e1iu[ifid[ilc Uo each of the three sites for each of the evaluation criteria. The sites were first ranked for each criteria; Best 15 points, Moderate 10 points, and Poorest 5 points. The ranking score was then multiplied by the value allocated to each criterion. The evaluation criteria were also allocated points to reflect their relative importance, lower points allocated to criteria where the differences between sites were not considered significant, and higher points to the criteria that most influenced site splprtion. The points therphv al1nrater1 to earh rritprinn were as fno!nws: 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

225 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update 1.R l-.,j Zarqa- I-i- 4 I.\.~~~~~~I, Z a '~~~~~~~~~~~IL?),.. ; ~~~~~ ~~Sahab/Pe.rd I-> /ri # 1-v f Lor-ation Ydoah -High>;/ -,Road \ I I _ Deserk- /,r L.1z.* 1/ Highwa/ Queen Alia International Ai)Dort Fiqure 10.2 Alternative CDP Locations J RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

226 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update * Land cost 100 * Infrastructure cost 50 * Potential for expansion 10 apotntia! rail arcc 5 Access to Amman 25 Access ' to international b o rude r s iu The scores for each site is shown in Table Table 10.2 Evaluation of CDP Site Alternatives Criteria ti W eigh ~, ng vv U Vell ; Criteria ^ ne at.wc 'waesi WeiAhSi Site A Site B Site C _and, I V I , 5 Infrastructure Expansion Rail T[ls Amman [ I w.riars I TOTAL ,575 1,925 2,325 The evaluation confirmed Site C on the Madounah Road to be the preferred location for the CDP, offering the lowest cost for acquisition, good opportunities for expansion, good access to Amman, and the best access to international borders. Fu Litler consluderation oui landu In the vicinity of' Site C by IvIrvvn' concluded tnat tne actual location of the CDP should be in the northeast quadrant of the ADC/Madounah Road intersection and that a full cloverieaf interchange would be required. Once this decision was made, in August 2003, a rapid assessment of site topography, drainage and archaeological features was carried out and the original rectangular conceptual layout of the CDP amended to fit the site. Annroval of this site for CDP develonment was givpn by the Cbhinet- nn 23rri November J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

227 44 I I i M PACT MITIGATION

228 A,m,iIII an Deve/o,,ment Corrlidor U Elw Lu nmenta I, act Assess,,IIIIIJOL Iti 11, Ud.tate 1"flT 11,1 4 4 TILUEPACrT &ATrTW,ArT^l%u b7l.kllawji11 A.L AILI11EI%o.l*WjIl.VAA31LWJU INTRODUCTION The proposals for impact mitigation disrussed in this Sertion comprisp nnp eipment in the Environmental Management Plan. The other elements, Environmental Moito II and'j IU InstituJtlon I tji ng.hli,ngicapac Building are presentueu III Sections 12 and 13 respectively. Sections 11.2 to 11.6 propose mitigation measures to address the impacts previously defined in Sections 6 to 9 under six separate groupings: L1.2.. Pre-ClonstructLio 11.3 Construction Impacts: On-Site 11.4 Construction Impacts: Off-Site 11.5 Permanent Impacts 11.6 Operational Impacts Sections 11.7 summarise the mitigation measures proposed in respect of land acquisition and resettlement'. while Section 11-8 nresents a summarv table listing the mitigation measures expected to be required. In addition, a series of Sample Contract Clauses for Environmental Impact MitigationYdi dre given in Appendix C. inclusion of these ciauses in the Tender Documents will enable Tenderers to be explicitly aware of their responsibilities to the environment in general and in respect of the EMP in particular, so enabling them to make the appropriate financial provision at the time of tendering PRE-CONSTRUCTION IMPACT MITIGATION Since the previous EIA in 1999, Detailed Design of the ADC has been completed. As is comluoin on mndly clurslruclion projects, Detailed Design represents a major opportunity to minimise adverse environmental impacts through appropriate route selection and design. This has been the case with the ADC, where six issues identified in the original EIA have been given particular attention; landscape, cultural resources, severance, drainage, slope stability, and safety. ADC design includes proposals for the landscaping of each major intersection. Further landscaping proposals will be incorporated within future Develonment Plans for the Corridor. Careful route selection has ensured the final Right of Way (ROW) does not intercept any known archaeological remains. Careful consideration has also been given to severance and all existing roads crossing the ADC alignment have been retained via underpasses or overpasses. 1 Full details of the Land Acquisition and Resettlement measures are given in Volume 2 of the present submission /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

229 Amm,an Develor,,ment '-III Corridor LUI III I IUUEll Idi I ie VCIUIJI I ICIIL Envr IV Uiti n,,,ental Ui.J l--,--.t Assessm,ent --- at II LaI liiadl -~e IIt Lup.uact: Drainage concerns have primarily related to the ADC alignment through Wadi Al Ush. Althouqh much flatter land was available to the west, the decision to retain the upland route was taken for reasons other than those connected with highway design; primari!v to avoid the area owned hv the lordlan Potash Mininn Company, areas for which Development Plans have already been approved, and disputed lands. The design therefore takes account of the main tributaries to and flo- within Wadi Al Ush, and culverts have been located and sized to minimise the impact of the new road. Also considered in depth have been the measures necessary to ensure slope stability of both natural rock faces in cuttings and the soils used for the construction of embankments. Detailed geotechnical studies have been undertaken throughout the ADC alianment and the DroDerties of various materials throuch which it Dasses assessed. Embankment slope angles, the degree of compaction, the need for rock bolts, wire mesh or shotcrete, and for retaining walls, have a!l been determined by reference to internationally accepted standards. Safety features incorporated at Detailed Design stage have included a median New Jersey Barrier to separate vehicles traveiiing in opposite directions, and the provision of basic infrastructure for future pipeline and cable crossings, and for the future installation of lighting and emergency warning signs. l1.3 rnnstr1rttan TMPArTC: nn-qtte :.3.- : (Ge,,era:l The majority of construction-reiated impacts are temporary and can be mitigated through good construction practice and effective site supervision. The World Bank has published 2 principles on waste management that are applicable to many construction activities. This will be utilised by MPWH, their Supervision Consultants and Contractors Damage to Landscape The Contractors shall exercise care to preserve the natural landscape and shall con onuc IucL LthIeir operatilons 'Li I~I uie LIUI It) so ZU as CIZ to LU prevent PJi vnt:v l anc3 any y Ui 11 Ie eesr dy Uetr-L[ULLIul etucin 1, :LdI crigoi ii iy VI -- defacing of the natural surroundings in the vicinity of the Works. Except where clearing is required for permanent works, for approved construction road access, and for excavation operations, all trees, native shrubbery and vegetation shall be preserved and protected from damage by the Contractors' equipment and operations. No trees shall be cut down outside of the ROW without the specific apdroval of the Enaineer. Tkh mrovemer- nt, o%f rerwiia nd erqi uriipimntrr,- waithin thek DrMAI ROW A ove r Aned fr ftes I.. III.V.I I IWV t..i IL WS.. '..V I LlIL SJ I'.. L V IL ii L '.. X.. V Ui1 WA'.V%-I I '.ULLL.J LJt 11..I ItL U JIJ access shall be performed in a manner that prevents damage to property, productive lands and known archaeological sites. 2 Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook, The World Bank, J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

230 AmmHIIan Develom,,Lent CorridUor Enviru-nmUental lmwact Assessm,ent Uudalte Where unnecessary destruction, scarring or defacing of landscape, natural vegetation or productive lands has occurred, the Contractor shall be responsible for repair, replanting or otherwise correcting at his own expense. On completion of the Works, all surplus equipment and materials shall be removed, and al work areas smoothed and graded in a manner to conform to the natura appearance of the surrounding landscape. Also on completion of construction, landscape planting shall only utilise native species tor the relevant vegetation zones identified in Section These would include Retama raetam and Pistacia atlantica over the southern part of the Contract 1 alignment, and Crataegus azarolus, Rhamnus palaestinus, Retama raetam and Pistacia atlantica over much of Contracts 2 and 3. A fuller discussion of landscaping policy for the project has previously been given Damage to Ecosystems and Wildlife To minimize damage to the ecology of the region and to wildlife, a combination of measures will be required. Specifically the Contractor will be required to: Mirirnicis habitt rcc from crurcti l activ,tles;... I. - I -LLI a LI. II JI - I S...I I~Ll UJ'U.LIW,I I ULL ILl 3 Minimise destruction of nest and den sites; M iinimise the treatl o capture and trade In fauna; Prevent hunting, trapping and egg collecting by construction workers; * Prohibit the collection of firewood from areas outside the ROW; and. Minimise damage to watercourses from gravel extraction, earthworks and improper dumping. These are to be achieved by: * Minnii,cir-ie,u i-nh the m e of f cs tion tra a ngt * Confining traffic to defined routes; * Using only defined and approved liquid and soiid waste disposal sites; * Extracting gravel and other materials only from approved sites; * Educating construction crews on the impact of disturbance and damage to habitats; * Providing construction crews with alternative sources of firewood, or with facilities that does not require them to liqht fires;. Ensuring Terms of Employment include severe penalties for the unnecessary disturbance of envirnnmentally significant sites and hunting; and * Enforcing such penalties. Other aspects of impact mitigation, such as the appropriate storage and disposal of solid and liquid wastes, and the maintenance ou wadi channels, will also mitigate many indirect impacts upon vegetation and wildlife. The Engineer will also ensure contractors are held liable for any non-compliance with Jordanian laws by any staff, including sub-contractors, and ensure protection of key species in line with Jordan's international commitments EIA, Appendix L. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

231 Am,m,an Develop,m,ent Corridor Er,nvUIironmVenULa tl Imp 1JaCt AssessmtI L UvUdat Damage to Archaeological and Cultural Heritage Sites Whilst the final alignment of the ADC avoids all known sites of archaeological and histnrical value, it is nossibhe new remains will be unearthed as -nnstrurtinn proceeds. The selection of camp locations, construction access routes and borrow pit-s wia II lo nee top aoid Lknon sites. HJI LO VV III LJIO%./ I ti.%.s LJLJJ UV. I X I I %JVV II I IL%3.;. Tne Chance F-ind procedures in operation in Jord-an are weii unaerstood DY iocai contractors. They are defined in an Agreement 4 between the MPWH and DAJ and shall be applied to each of the ADC contracts. These procedures shall apply equally to both On-Site and Off-Site activities. If old tombs are found they are most likely to contain the remains of Bedu. In all such cases, consultation with the Ministry for Awqaf and Islamic Affairs, and if they deem it necessary with thie relevant Bedu community, shall be undertaken prior to deciding on what action is required to re-inter the excavated remains. The Contractor shall instruct his workers that archaeological sites adjacent to the ROW are 'out-of-bounds' and shall impose severe penalties for any of his staff, including sub-contractors, found to be looting or otherwise vandalising such sites. Repeated violations of this rule shall render the Contractor liable to fence the affected site at his own expense. Sites of regional importance, such as Qasr Madunah and Kirbet El Manakir, will be inspected for signs of looting and vandalism, and the Contractor would be well advised to make special nrnvisinn fnr their protection at the commencement of his activities. Damage to those sites closest to the ROW, given generally prevailing wind direction towards the west, may su'fer from dust and fumes. DuSt changes the coiour of stonework and the oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid causes it to rapidly deteriorate. Dust and air pollution mitigation measures, discussed in Sections and , may therefore also be important for the protection of archaeological remains. Throughout the period of construction, two types of monitoring of activities in rpenprt nf ArchAennngical and cultural resources will be undertaken; event-specific, such as the demarcation and opening of a borrow pit, and random inspections. A ne 1 ifi n an motring wi-ll be Impo,n-A in respect of Ch ance Finds. r 1 _I.JL IIJ U IU I fj I JI I 1pU VVIII VYIIIill-WIIII "%I I ; O Ut I LI I. I itilu Dislocation oyf Locai Access The Contractor shall undertake a study of local and agricultural access routes along the alignment to determine their significance, including seasonal significance, and shall incorporate his findings into his programme of diversions, with details of all necessary siqnaqe and any temporary works, for approval by the Engineer. In addition, the programme shall also contain details of the timing of the proposed closure, dates of closinn anrd re-opening the route, and of any/ remedila works to make good the original route. 4 Guidelines for Co-ordination at Regional Level. MPWH/DA]. The relevant paragraphs were presented in the 1999EIA, Appendix K /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

232 A.,,,,,an DevelopmIUent Co-rrIiaor. E -L- n mi UCen- I J, OLL Issess,,'ent L-/aLe Damage to Public Utilities Prior to undertaking any works, the Contractor will obtain from the utilities agencies definition and details of all utilities sites within 50 m of the Works These agencies shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following: * The National Electrical Power Company; * * The Jordan Electricity Distribution Company; The Jordan Telecommunications Company; * The Water Authority of Jordan; and * The Municipalities (for sewage). Damage to any utility at a defined site shall be made good to the satisfaction of the responsible agency at the Contractor's cost. Damage to utiiities not defined prior to construction, despite the Contractor having undertaken all reasonable liaison with the responsible agency, shall not be the responsibility of the Contractor. It shall be the responsibility of MPWH to ensure the utilities agencies respond in qood time to the Contractor's requests for information. Contractors shall liase with each of the agencies responsible for the maintenance of utilities that are to be crossed, temporarily diverted or otherwise affected by the Works as to the timing and nature of any disruption of service. Where required by Jorudandian IY, thlie responsib u-le agency saldl be requese by I-MPWVnI to carry out the necessary works, at the time required, at MPHW's cost. The Tender Documents shall contain sufficient information on utilities crossings and responsibility for works to permit the Contractor to include the cost of the works for which he is responsible in his bid Connstructinn Accress Roakdsc Five measures In respect of access roads are proposed: Wherever possible, existina access routes shall be utilised. Where this is not possible, the alignment and profile of new construction access roads shall be subject to the approval of MPWH. In approving the alignment, profile, and ultimately the construction of such roads, the Ministry shall consider their longterm potential use I n c whlei wy I HlH I In I I LI use is Cl ILILipeLdU, Li IC alignment and profile shall be determined taking account of the ease with which they can be reinstated; XAIhr Wh reccss roads orininafte in or fravercs rgscideni-ia! areac th rouesh cail ke I, L IL IJ%- L.J -tj.. - L -IA L A Li IL.. I LILA L'L.II L%A I selected to minimise nuisance and damage to properties, with full regard to pubic safetiy; Dpetails of al nronposel arcress ronars their nperiri of onprat-ion in terms of both the overall contract and daily operations, and the size and loadings of vehicles thkat wai!i use the-m sha!! be smittedto the relevant aut-horities f-r approval; LI11IUAL VYIII %.O-LillI~ II, 31IIIII 3L ililll A tl%l~lj LU LI IC I I V- L ULiI.1ILI~ IVI ~~J V I * All surfaced access roads shall be subiect to road cleaning and unsurfaced roads to dust suppression. A programme for these activities shall be submitted to and approved by the reilevant authorities prior to commencement of the waonrlk; When no lonqer required by the Contractor, construction roads shall either be made impassable to vehicular traffic and the surfaces scarified and left in a Li'... J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

233 Amml iian Developmient Corriuor Envi rn e.ltlld -_I I- - - A-s--,e e- U-)IJcJL condition suitable for natural re-vegetation or the recovery of productive use, or shall be brouqht to a standard deemed necessary by the MPWH. 11=3=R Prevention nf Snil and Water Pnolutinn Tne Contractor snaii oe requirea to perrorm aii nis activities in a manner tnat wiii prevent pollution of the soil by accidental spillage of solid matter, contaminants, debris, and other objectionable pollutants. If a significant spillage does occur, the Contractor shall remove all contaminated soil to a site specified by the Engineer in consultation with the Ministry of Environment for its disposal. Appropriate reolacement material shall be laid. All the costs of pollution remediation shall be borne by the Contractor. Water Pollution The Contractor shall comply with all applicable regulations concerning the control and abatement of water pollution. In addition, Contractors' activitles shall be performed in a manner that will be prevent the entry or accidental spillage of solid matter, contaminants, debris, and other objectionable pollutants and wastes into watercourses, lakes and underground water sources. In the event of a serious sdill or contamination, the Contractor shall immediately notify the Engineer and MPWH. Any remedial works required shall be undertaken as a mnatter of urgency by the Contractor or other specified orga nisation at the Contractor's expense. Failure to notify of such spills will be considered a Breach of [[ontract Prevention of Erosion and Increased Sedimentation Discharge Points All temporary discharge points shall be located, designed and constructed in a manner that will minimise erosion in the receiving channels. Measures may include the placement of drains to avoid cascading, localised lining of receiving channels, and the construction of sufficient discharge points to ensure the flow from any single site is manageable. Dewatering Dewatenrinrg woirksl for fouindatlnsi ad,acnt-ni recociguon -o watercour--- shall be conducted in a manner that will prevent turbid water directly entering watercourses, througi thlile constlruction ofi iintercepting ditches, settling ponds or other appropriate facilities. Where short-term construction work in a watercourse is unavoidable, turbidity levels may bie alowed to Incr ease UI U Li Ibeyd Ito II 1a3y aeptalbui Lu ivirvvn on agreement with the Engineer and the Ministry of Environment. In such cases, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a programme of work detailing any proposed mitigation and the time frame of the required work, for prior approval. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

234 AmmIIIIan Develo mv,ent Corriuor EUIvi,, Onental U In-Liact AssessmLent Update Site Clearance Site clearance shall oniy be undertaken when immediateiy required to permit adherence to the defined Programme of Works. The clearance of extensive areas well in advance of construction shall be avoided. The maximum permitted elapsed time between site clearance and the initiation of construction shall be 3 weeks. All todsoil removed shall be adpropriatelv stored for future use. This applies particularly to the soils removed from the fertile areas of Contract 1. When all requirements.for topsoil in the reinctatement- nf waorkc have ben csaisfied, an" surplus shall be disposed of in a manner determined by the Engineer in consultation VILII the L 'IIeIII[ure's inistry oi /ygricuit Depart.ment IL L of I FUL Forests. Th LrUr s therefore be required to adopt a site clearance procedure that separates topsoil, transport and store topsoil, and possibly to transport excess topsoil to a reuse site, although the latter will normally be the responsibility of the receiving agency. Operations in Unstable Areas When operating in areas of geological instability the Contractor shall exercise nprtim1!ir rerp tn minimisp t-h risl- nf Anriclinp and other macc mogment-c npayinr particula'r attention to: * All 'cut' operations; The density of required drainaae works: and * The nature and types of discharge points, and the potential for erosion. Aggregate, Fill and Spoil, Heaps In general, the on-site storage of excessive quantities of such materials should be avoided. However, where storage is necessary, the Contractor shall ensure heaps and stockpiles are located at sites that they do not permit direct runoff into watercourses and are on land sloping at less than 1.5%. All heaps shall be of a size and stability that will ensure the risk of mass movement during periods of high intensity rainfall is minimized ieposa! of Surp!us Ma ia The disposal of all surplus consulrucl[lon materials and debris shall be carried out in accordance with the regulations stipulated by local authorities. The normal manner of disposal shall include all necessary precautions for minimizing water and air pollution, drainage impedance, the risk of fire, and damage to ecosystems. Surplus earth materials shall be disposed of promptly in order to minimise the time of storage at the construction site and the risk of erosion and sediment discharge. If necessary, such materials may, with the annroval of the Natiral Resonijrres Authority and others, and in agreement with the site owner, be disposed of at the one of the abandoned quarries currently taking such materials near the northern end of the Contract 2 alignment. Where it is known surplus earth materials will be required later in the Programme of Works, they shall be stored in an appropriate manner until needed. Typical reuses of such materials would include: * General landscaping works requiring some artificial sculpting of land surfaces;. Use at interchanges to raise land levels within the area enclosed by access ramps; and J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

235 AmIIman DevelopmVt I0on ent Corriuor Er, v I m e n LaLTrIVIa/tctldA I c s s el,-,1nt- I UP- da tte o Catchment protection measures. To facilitate appropriate disposal, all wastes should be classified in agreement with the Fnnineer and rfisnposed of accordinnlv AI Abtmn L I I LC o. % O Noise from construction activities wiii prirmarily be derived from tne operation of plant and equipment. The Contractor shall ensure all his equipment is fitted with appropriate noise muffling devices that will reduce sound emissions to below those stipulated in Table Table 11.1 Typical Noise Standards for Construction Eauioment Activity Source Day [ Night Earthworks Bulldozer/excavator 75 db(a) 55 db(a) Piling Piling machine 85 db(a) None Structural Concrete mixer/concrete pump /U70 db(a) 55 db(a) Surfacing Roller 70 db(a) L 55 db(a) Equipment not covered- by approved regulations should nevertheless be fitted with appropriate muffling devices in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations. Equipment and vehicles that are excessively noisy in relation to the values in Table 1 1 ~I~.~. I ~. r2i due in t r e%ringrniner -rf,-n - V - S. -. S~.j..~.III. I... ~ I~. LSJ IISIW UII I;I IJ1 UJLI%Jl I %;U 9 J1F1J1 I I; IL UlI other inefficient operating conditions shall not be operated until corrective measures Iave Ueen taken. -%.- 2,i,t-ment, d a tn en orirlr Table 11.2 Typical Standards for Motor Vehicle Noise I r~'ategory I Iii Used for the carriage of goods. Permitted maximum weight doe s n ot e x ceed 3. 5 t ons.ecn gin 1er te ss th 200hpDI 81 db(a) Used for the carriage of goods. Permitted maximum weight Qr: 8 AA exceeds 3.5 tons. Engine less than 200 hp DIN i U )_l I lei for the carriage of goodsn. Permitted maximum -wiehtdoes not exceed 3.5 tons. Engine 200 hp DIN or more (A) The Contractor shall ensure all plant and equipment is located away from noise sensitive areas. In this context loading and unloading operations are particularly important. Where smaller, noisy equipment is in operation it shall be placed behind screening or within a temporary enclosure. Where larger equipment is used within 50 m of properties, the use of proper hoardings of sufficient length and height shall be considered. Such measures will provide some noise attenuation, some visual relief to adiacent land users. and suporess the movement of settlebhle materia!s beyond the construction site. The Contractor shall ensure plant operated intermittently is shut down or throttled down during idle periods. Any pliing operations should be restricted to the hours of and not be undertaken on public or religious holidays. Advance notice of at least one month should also be given to residents or users of properties within 50 m of a piling site J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

236 Armmr-nan Develoorrment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update prior to the commencement of operations. Such notice shall take the form of public notices displayed within affected neighbourhoods. In keeping with standard international regulations the use of diesel driven hammers will not be permitted. All operations other than piling shall be restricted to the hours of rp ermi ssiion tluo exteun d4 periodus of operation I may bd e provided by the EIninIee[ Ur relevant municipality authority but will as a matter of principle only be approved in two circumstances; Where additional working is necessary to maintailn the safety of the site, of site workers, or the public; and Where it can be demonstrated a short period of additional working will provide significant long-term benefits to affected communities. Extended periods of overtime working shall not be permitted except in exceptional cases. The linear nature of the site militates against the provision of noise protection for all adiaient lands that would normai!y be provided by site security measures such as hoardings. However, hoarding or equivalent protection should be provided vh Iie re pir 0 -P e lr Oy f3c3dges are witlin.50.j m of1 a pili nig site. Similar measures shi la Ue considered at off-site facilities in relation to the nature of surrounding land uses Abatement of Air Pollution (Excluding Dust) Contractors shall comply with all applicable regulations concerning the prevention of air pollution in Jordan and with JS1052:1998, JS1054:1998 and JS1140:1999 in particular. In the conduct of construction activities and the onperation nf enuipment, Contractors shall utilize all practical methods and devices to control, prevent and otherwaise miniimize2$rn atosheric- emrissos Specficlly. The methods of handlinq cement and pozzoloid shall include means of eliminating atmospheric discharges; Fniiinment a4nd vphicles showing excessive emissinns of exhaust gases due to poor engine adjustment or other inefficient operating conditions shall not be operated.i unti corrective measures kave been -taken ULLJLI LII %.A.V I AlLIVC lll iuo~ui I iov UCU-1I LONCI 1. * Burning of materials from the clearance of trees, bushes and other combustible matter shall not be permitted, except with the specific approvai of rne Engineer;. No asphaltic concrete or bituminous mixing plant shall emit solid particles in excess of the limits given in Table On commencement of operations, the Contractor shall be expected to meet Standard C, the limits for all new plant. Table 11.3 Limits of Particulate Matter Emissions Source Standard A Standard B Standard C It LatLioUnay I arlil I 0 gmy1/1nil U.-+ yrn'/i'nl gm/nm- Mobile Plant 0.7 gm/nm gm/nm gm/nm Abatement of Dust Contractors shall provide all necessary equipment and means, and shall carry out proper and efficient measures, wherever and as often as necessary, to prevent dust generated by his operations from damaging crops, orchards, and dwellinqs, or causing a public nuisance. Specific dust suppression measures may include: J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

237 AIf-Iman DeveiUoriment Corridor EnviI UIfnmentalln lact Assessment ULJdate * Damping down of sites and access roads; * The provision of water trouqhs at entry and exit points to prevent the carry over of dust emissions from sites; * Use of annropriate hoardinns; * Establishment of, and strict compliance with, speed restrictions for all vehicles operating wlit-hin sites Uanr,d 0n1- unsure-fg-rced access roads; a nd * Covering all vehicles transporting materials likely to give off excessive dust. The Contractor will be held liable for any damage resulting from dust originating from his operations. The cost of dust control shall be included in the Bid Price CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS: OFF-SITE I 1 A. 1 Main. Cmp Selection of Camp Locarion It is assumed the Main Camp for each of the 3 construction contracts will be located within a rural area or on the periphery of existing urban development. The siting of the camps within an urban area is only acceptable at established industrial estates with appropriate access control and should be subiect to normal plannina and operational controls. The selection of the site for the camp will require considerable care and attention. In general 0erms tilhi e IL-e sil shilouldu bue locatled * With easy access to existing primary roads; * Within easy access of the construction sites; * With ready access to existing infrastructure; * Outside known aquifer recharqe zones; and * At a site suitable for its future reuse as a functioning development. Since construction of the camps will foreclose the use of the sites for many subsequent uses and considerable costs will be incurred returning the sites to their original state, land already identified for future development is preferred. Possible ADC Camp Sites It would be preferable if the ADC camps were located on sites that did not need to be returned to their original use, i.e., were already designated for some future development. For Contract 1. a site on the Sahab Industrial Estate is appropriate. Also possible would be an area adjacent to the alignment that would be designated for future industrial developmenti Such areas have been shown previously in Figure 9 A4 Tk CDP site might also be possible, as it will have been acquired by the Government, bul being c.2 Ik[m beyond tlihe nolli'lern limit ofi ConLract i will necessitate substantial additional travel to sites, particularly the two major structures in the Contract, the Desert Highway Interchange and the Sahab Highway Interchange. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

238 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update For Contract 2, the CDP site would be more appropriate, as alternatives adjacent to the alignment are limited by topography. Use of one of the abandoned limestone quarries to the west of the ADC alignment might be possible, but with aquifer material exposed at the cur-face particular attention will need to be paid to the risk of pollution from oil and other materials. For Contract 3, the vicinity of existing development provides the major problem. It may be possible to utilise the Ministry ot Supply site immediately south of Yajouz Road, through which the alignment passes, if sufficient space over and above that needed for construction is available. For all camp locations on open land, the use of Government owned land should be consiiderpd for all three contrarts It Is preferable fror each camp to be connected to an existing piped sewerage system, subject to the approval of the appropriate responsible agency. If no such connection is possible, as is likely to be case, self-contained collection and disposal systems will be required. Prior to installation, the Contractor shall obtain approval for the type of system proposed from the appropriate responsible agency, and for the arrangements for effluent disposal from the MoE. The Contnrrtnr rha!! hp rniiired to submit with his Bid roffer his proposals for the collection and disposal of the waste. Depending on the requirements of the responsible agency, it may be necessary to install a separate system for the collection and disposal of industrial wastewater, which may be subject to a different collection and disposal plan. Where practical, the Contractor shall recover, treat and re-use wastewater. Accidental Spills and Leakage In his Bid Offer, the Contractor shall include a list of the potentially polluting cisihbsrtanc he int-enridc to-ke Lpon ~~ sr cit-e te-r% nbkle MDPAIW t-o co-nl W wh th-k Mo'I Aon J1 Il L'... '.II U LJIN 1-1 V V II LJL/ % J 3UIIaU L VVILI I LI IIC II L_ on the precautionary measures to be taken in terms of both the planning and const'ructi oin of LIie camp and th Ie required procedures,or.hlle storage and handling of such material. It is expected these will include, at a minimum, specific operational requirements such as: 1oDefinition of any mraterials to be isolated from each other; Use of proper protective clothing, equipment by employees; *Definitiion ol proper handling Lechniques; and Other safety requirements, ventilation, fire fighting equipment. However, depending on the advice received, it may also include specific site design criteria, including measures to contain and isolate spills and leakages to specific areas throuqh the use of hard standinqs, internal drainage and the construction of holding tanks 5. 5In general terms and in all matters related to public health and safety it is preferred that the Contractor submit a Community Affairs, Health, Environment and Security (CASHES) Plan for approval to MPWH. ]0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

239 Ammllllan Develop,llent Corridor Elr,AIV I UCIetI ildtiiill I s. elnt L IJU.dLte Solid Waste Disposal It is normal practice for a construction camp to be included in the existing municipal solid waste collectinn and disnosal process From their review of thp materia!s to be stored on site, MPWH should notify Contractors of any solid waste expected to be gner-ated ta-k ma- renqi re spcia h-n-ling - t-at, -and andhncea s-p- ation tj_1~ I UILJLLU LI ILL IIIUY 1%.JUII OF%.;AilUlU I ciujiiii I'j UJIIU LI%rCJLI I CI L, CIIiuI 'i OCIJOICILIUI1I from other waste for collection and disposal. If, however, it is not considered feasible or desirable to incorporate the site into established municipal waste collection systems, it may be possible for the Contractors to sub-contract or carry out themselves the collection and transport of solid waste to an approved landfill site. In such a case the Contractor shall submit a plan of collection delivery procedures, freuienrv, types of material and their level of compaction, and expected volumes to the relevant waste disposal authority for approval Construction Traffic Mitigation of the impacts likely to accrue from construction traffic should primarily take three forms; access control, road cleaning and the definition of approved routes. Access control will require the restriction of turninn movpments to approved access points to and from existing highways and if necessary, the improvement to existing II,unctlon!ayouts~ I..,J I~to ru the~ poenia LIUJ Ithe fo acet Retrcton on timing of use may also be necessary, with construction traffic prohibited, outside specified, superviseu hours. Prior to commencement of the contract the Contractor shall be required to submit to the Engineer for approval:. The location of all work sites, entry and access points, and points of access to the primary road network; * The additional traffic control measures required, such as temporary traffic lights or modified junction layouts; * Proposals for signage; and * The duration of use of the proposed access points. Road cleaning measures will be required to ensure major carriageways are kept in a safe crnnitinn with nil mud and other ma;tpriaic remnxveri reguii!ar1y. AC wit-h arcrcc control, the Contractor shall be required to submit a programme of road cleaning and signage foiur appro v al. If wide or abnormal loads are required to be transported, perhaps from a prefabrication plant, they shall be transported during the early hours of the morning. Appropriate times would be between 2300 and 0500 hours. With such loads it will be necessary for specific obstruction-clear routes to be agreed with the Police and other relevant authorities. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

240 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Operation of Quarries and Other Extraction Sites The use of pre-existing already licensed sites is strongly preferred as this will rpduirn the potential fnr significant environmental damage. However, the prevailing practices of the existing industries may be far from optimum. Any existing quarry proposed to be utiiised f0r hle project sialll tl lerefiore Lbe subjcec t0 II IspctLIUI Iby the MPWH and audited prior to approval of its use. In effect, it may be possible, to use the project to influence existing industries to improve ineir operationai practices through incentive programmes, pre-qualification criteria, and environmental examination. Where it is not possible to use existing sites, the Contractor shall liase with the MoE, NRA and land owners in identifvina suitable alternative sites. In selecting these, the Contractor shall be mindful of the contents of the EMP and avoid any environmenta!!y sensitive areasoand shal seek to minimize adverse impacts on residential areas. In general terms it shall be expected that: Operations at extraction sites be restricted to daylight hours; Noi-se arnd rh ci- chail nro- imn,pc+ on envronmenta!!y or cr%i-iai!y srensni,iea and appropriate dust suppression systems, noise barriers and restriction of operations to times ofl Uovv wind velocitiles sldail be nitilated as required; and. Where on site processing of raw materials, e.g. crushing, washing, is anticipated, the operator shall be obliged to ensure wastewaters do not enter watercourses without control of sediment load, discharge velocity and wastewater quality. Access control for heavy aggregate traffic shall be similar to those for all other construrtifinn traffir rdi-riiscussr in Pctinn above PERMANENT IMPACTS Landscaping To ameliorate the impact on the landscape through which the ADC passes, landscape planting is proposed. At the present time, as agreed with the MPWH, this will be restricted to the major interchanges, but more corridor-wide pronosa!s will be developed during the preparation of future Development Plans. Although the ToR for ADC design did not include any requirement for landscaping, Llhe MPrvnF subsequently requested the need to u aduuresseu with thrie aim ot creating landscaped features at the main interchanges that will be part of their construction. With time, the MPWH, Ministry of Agriculture or the ADC planning authorities will add appropriate planting along the whole road and throughout the ADC zone of influence. The strategy for planting for the major interchanges is to design an attractive soft landscape to complement to the civil works, which will be rnnrrdinatpri rn there is sufficient consistency between the Interchanges to confirm they are all part of the same highway, whilstv allowing variation in thle planting suffiient ILLo give individual identity to each location. Plant selection and mixes will be selected generally for J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

241 medium to low water usage, minimal maintenance, whilst retaining a tidy appearance. Plan arranqements will reflect the qeometrical shapes of the civil works, and similar geometrical patterns. Some Date Palms are proposed with specimens of 5 m clear trunk, at 10 m centres in sinnle rows. Tree groups will be planted at an average spacing of 5 m, and in combination with shrubs in hedges -n -a- - u lmt - are3s Ir, ona. -f f'owerng gro unn covers wil ad,di colour in UJIIU aillulii ~JIV.Up.J ali.jiii 11IIIIL;U UI qo - IILPVI UYUV_ IIUa U %J U I VVIIuI OUU LIU the foreground at road divisions. In total it is envisaged that approximately 50% of the open areas at major interchanges will be planted. Unpianted areas will comprise exposed, graded engineering fill. These areas may show some weed growth and will require occasional cutting, cultivating, or, least desirably, herbicidal spraying. As a more attractive finish a crushed stone mulch could be spread over unplanted areas, but the cost of this is likely to equal or exceed that of planting Productive Losses Given the magnitude of the ADC, productive losses are not particularly high, altho ugh broader, less tangibe costs have nol ueen eslimatedu. Uiven thie extent of agricultural activity in the corridor there were no locations where it was necessary to change the proposed alignment to avoid signiticant agricultural losses. Similarly, avoidance of individual orchards has not been practical as it would have generated substantial additional impacts and costs. With the optimum alignment now fully defined, the only options left to mitigate the impacts of the new road on aqricultural activities, as previously discussed in Section 7, are measures to consolidate plots and the nrovision of annronriate anrd adeaiiate compensation. '. 1 rla Acquisitio.. a..d 111rope41-y. I Details of the land take requirement for tne ADC nas been discussed in Sections 7.2 to 7.4 above. In total, some 406 ha are affected, of which almost 335 ha will have to be acquired, the balance being owned by the Government, Greater Amman Municipality or the Jordanian Army, and considered to be available at no cost. Again in relation to the magnitude of the proiect, relatively few buildings are to be taken. 19 residential properties, 3 for Contract 1, 2 for Contract 2 and 14 for the ZTL on Contract 3. A tonta of 29 households, together comprising 19A individuals, will be offered simple cash compensation. The number of business and commercial plots affected is also small: Two plots at the Sahab Interchange contain Government storage areas and the Vehicle Licensing Centre. In neither will the existing structures be affected and their operational integrity will remain intact. Future access to both sites has been included wvithin the design of the interchange; A plot at the ZEB/ZTL Interchange contains an unlicensed solid waste disposal site; * One plot on the ZEB contains a chicken farm; and * The stores of the Ministry of Supply, immediately south the Yajouz Road Interchange at the northern end of the ZTL. Discussions with the Ministry 6 concluded there was no overriding reason to keep the site. Since it no longer makes uise of the railwayv it couild he better lorated on the national road network close to Zarqa but away from the urban area. A site for the relocation of the 6 Held during the 1999 EIA study. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

242 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Updare stores has already been identified and some small units already established, although the Yaiouz Road site is still being utilised. Further details of the mitigation of land acquisition and property take are given in Section 11.9, and a full discussion of the LARP and compensation arrangements is given Volume of In the I present s u isson Severance All Purpose Crossings Issues relating to the potential severance of community links were clearly identified in the previous EIA and have largely been mitigated by maintainino existing crossings of the ADC alignment at the locations identified in Table Table 11.4 Maintained Crossings of the ADC Contract Location Details Yaddoudah to Tuneb Road Railway Contract Lubban to Thuhaibah Road Rujm Al Shami to Nuqeirah Road Sahab Highway Interchange i+250 Al Knasnafen to Al Mnakner Road Contract Madounal Road/CDP Interchange MI Beda ei to AM IMadounahI Contract Local road 7FR MOw road to Militar, School Local road Contract Zarqa Hinhwav Tnterrhannp ZTL Local road Old Zarqa Road All existing siurfacerd rnari-s are inrliided-r in thp bhnve!ist oiad "n..et.'*d oc1 a-lcnd. Td-w.4;.,du31 Acces A number of local unsurfaced tracks are also crossed by the ADC. The majority of these access agricultural land on the Contract 1 alignment and most will no longer be required for one or more of the following reasons: * The land theii Ls y Ics Ol.U LiinIg aclqlui CU IoI LIt ROW.JVV; * An alternative route, albeit slightly longer, is available; and * Future access will be provided via the ADC service roads. In such cases no underpass or overpass provision for their continued use is proposed. The list of these crossings in given in Table There are no situations in which the only access to a given plot will be severed but the plot itself remains otherwise unaffected. The severance of individual plots and of access to them has been taken into account within the I ADD ]0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

243 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Table 11.5 Unmaintained Crossings of the ADC Contract Location A 8+00.rr t Contract Contract Contract 3 ZEB 1 NZTL3one_ Animal Crossings Animal crossings will be required at selected locations on the Contract 2 alignment where herders' trails are beinq severed, particularly where the ADC is on embankment or in cutting. The general height of culverts is 2 m, adequate for the passage of small animals. Drn~,c b-n FnrI, r. o I I. k, k--- -,A - 1 A4k 4-k-n n nnr.- an 4-k s-an 2 Drovision IJV 13I'JI I frare ILl~~~~~~~~~~~. uil p_i LI M 1 nmshabenmdwihteincorporation il Ji3i i li IJu LJa I IIUU%- VVILlII LI IC IILJ 1.V1JLICaLItJ of VI..JL u II tree zx mil box culverts located adjacent to tracks and wadis to reflect traditional patters of movement. These crossings are located at km 3+700, km io+500, and km on Contract 2. To prevent animals egress the road elsewhere, 1.9 m high wire tension fencing on posts at 10 m centres is provided throughout all three contracts. Pedestrian Crossings and Control Pedestrian access to the new road and interchanges will be also be prevented by LisI fencing. Tyr Ihe existing roalus I C3v mnal 11111have I pedustrlian LIc11L dlu IILd Uo speal provision, such as pavements, has been made in the past. Given the rural nature of the area through which the ADC passes and the design of a high-speed road, substantial pedestrian access will only be required along the service roads, and then only as the Corridor becomes developed. These roads have been left with a wide verge to facilitate the provision of future infrastructure services. As this is installed to serve adiacent developments, the requirement for pedestrian pavements and footbridges will be reviewed and the necessary facilities constructed. Within t-hp nrecsnt pesci-rian nropoals, wa!k1waaysiic arernnl, nrrovuideda along those portions of the service roads located on structures Road Safety Although the ADC is expected to reduce accident rates, the need for additional mitigating action is not precluded. In most countries, incorporation of the economic cost of accidents in social cost benefit analysis is found to justify any number of 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

244 Amman Develop,,,ent Corridor Enviror-nmeneil impact Assessment Update additional road safety measures beyond those required by standard engineering practice. Those included in the Detailed Design of the ADC 7 are as follows:. Provision of a median cnnrrete harrir, anew Jersey Barrier, will run the full length of the ADC mainline. Where interchanges are some distance apart, IintermedIlate coing3 potnts and access from the service roau tl LtI mainlini are to be provided. This is a recent requirement of the Client and the locations of these crossings have yet to be determined and tneir iayout designed. The design criteria will include a high-speed large radii bends; * Provision for the future installation of emergency telephones and an automatic hliuazard vvyining, Ltie lattel a LtraildIY LUIiLUIICU V[iadUbl miessgye systelmi capable of warning of fog, accidents, and speed restrictions via electronic signage. Within the Tender Documents, provision is limited to the civil works, ducting, draw pits and crossings, and MPWH will arrange for system installation at a later date; * Provision of street lighting to reduce accidents at night and at times of reduced visibility. As with the telephones and hazard warning system, the civil works elements of street lighting along the ADC mainline has been included in the Tender Documents. The installation of cables, columns, luminaries and substations will be undertaken by MPWH in conjunction with the appropriate utility authority at a later date. There is no provision for street lighting on service roads as this will be the responsibility of the local municipalities; * Provision of Police parking lay-bys at 5-10 km intervals. High profile policing reduces vehicle speeds and accident rates on high-speed roads. Dedicated laybys and ramps place police vehicles above road level making them a highly visible and effective deterrent. Police parkina on the hard shoulders and elsewhere is inappropriate, probably illegal, dangerous, and sends the wrong message to other road users; and * To avoid delays to traffic and the risk of accidents due to future excavation of the ADC to install new utility services to support the anticipated development of the Corridor, provision for the installation of up\c ducting across the highway at intervals of 1-2 km has been included in the Tender Documents for construction. ii.6. OPERT1IONAL 1IMPALTS Mitigation of Noise General A number of areas along the ADC alignment, identified in Section 8 above, require the provision of noise attenuation rnmeasures to conform to WHO guidelines. However, in considering the need for mitigation, it should be noted that the WHO guidelines are very Iiyuiuus cliu die IIUL ItItL by any of the existing major roads reviewed. The decision to implement noise mitigation measures for the ADC will therefore have wider implications with regard to traffic noise reduction on future projects. In particular it will highlight the need for fundamental policy decisions on the determination of applicable standards and the preferred methods of mitigation. 7 The Tender Documents for Contracts 1, 2 and 3 include for the civil works in respect of Emergency Telephones and Hazard Warning (ducting, draw pits and crossings). MPW&H will arrange for their installation at a later date. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

245 Amman DeveUoriment Corrliuor Environmrenai imdact Assessment U-date Enqineering measures! usually adopted in cases where substantial numbers of properties will benefit, include screening by earth embankments, walls of landscaping, and the use of sound reducing materials, either alone or in combination. A detailed discussion of potential noise abatement measures has been given previously 8 and or"' the salient points in repc of the ACpooasl given below. Embankments Earth embankments provide substantial noise relief, often in excess of 20 db(a), dependinq upon their heiqht, shape and absorptive capacity, but may be unsightly, create a physical barrier, and increase severance. They are best used where the road needs to be visually eliminated, oras part of a landscaping scheme. Embankments may also require substantial additional land take. Walls/Barriers Walls of 1.5 m height or more may Drovide attenuation of un to 20 dr(a) hbut are often unsightly and if used over extensive lengths, induce substantial severance. Less unsightly materials tend to offer Less attenuation. Landscaped Barriers Vegetation to a height of at least 5 m above sound source and in strips of at lepat 40 m will provide nofie attenuation of 5-10 db(a), the maximuim achieved if it is sufficiently dense to eliminate sight between the source and the receptor. Porous Asphalt Porous asphalt surfaces theoretically produce noise attenuation of at least 3 db(a) although greater attenuation may be achieved in practice. However, in the longer term, reductions in attenuation may result from the reduction in pore space by clogging physical compression, particularly on urban roads with slow muviiniy igiii VUIUImIIe LICdiIIL, on uruan IVIdUSwith roads a high proportion of heavy traffic, on roads subject to heavy dirt loads, and where there is infrequent flushing or the design is poor. Re0ocation and Property Tmprowem-r.t Relocation is usually only considered where there are additional factors, such as access severance. Acoustic improvement to building facades is iess costiy but only effective when windows are kept closed. Where residential properties are within 50 m of a new road, relocation may be the preferred by the residents. Proposed Noise Mitigation for Existing Sites Mosque Discussions have taken Dlace with the Ministry of Awnaf anrd NIamic Affairs (MIAI) over the options available for ameliorating impacts at the Mosque towrdsir-i LwJvVl~ ~ then L ~ northekrn ~ I LI '..a endl... S.. w of 1 then Ll ~1 ZTL. S..I ". Their I I I_II vlewi- V IILVV I-) thq LI IUL the,+ LI I~ nois livjia3 -- UiIU n - othker ULi II impacts suffered by the Mosque on Contract 3 will not be sufficient cause for relocalion. IFhe discom,'ori[l andu UdIsameniLy generated is seen to be largely irrelevant to the function of the building and the needs of those at prayer. Exposure will be limited to 5 short periods a day, of which at least two are during periods of relatively low of traffic EIA, Section J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

246 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Imgact Assessment Update Zarqa Schools VW'hiIe the schools are not a suurce of extreme concern, they should be the subject of some attenuation measures and a five metre barrier is proposed. They will also suffer further impact if road construction is eventually continued northwards to complete the full 'ring'. Cemeteries near the Sahab Interchange The cemeteries and the land between them are Government owned, thus providihg the opportunity to establish an extensive and attractive landscaped area that will fulfil the dual benefit of noise attenuation and recreational ridnvelnnmnt Hnwever the Prnioet Prponnent hac renquetedr thic nnt hb included in the present proposals for construction, as he prefers the Ministry of mgriculture undertak' La hie required VVorks on compietion of pui 111 Idi1 Y LUI lbli U nliui 1. In discussion with representatives of the Christian Church, no concern with such provision for attenuation was expressed. Other Seriously Affected Plots The preferred option in these cases is a composite of bunds, planting and fences depending on the actual and final profile of the road and the land take required. If conditions combine to limit such options then fencing alone would be preferred. Proposed Noise Mitigation for New Developments In the longer term specific guidelines should be adopted for new developments along the ODC. 'in Lcbsb o site reduevelopment, set backs from Lhe road should De increased to the minimum limits: Standard Distance rtfa MWAN 60 dlb(kra%) VAIL.JC vvw ') AA I2I0 65 db(a) Transitional 85 m 68 udb(a) UK CIompensat[on Guidelines 50 m New development in the first row of properties adjacent to the ADC should be restricted to non-sensitive uses. Planning regulations should therefore specifically exclude schools, hospitals, libraries and similar public facilities. To reinforce the separation of the road from surrounding land a transitional zone of tree planting should be provided. Tnhho 1 1 A nreosntc a ciummarv nf the noics mitigation nrnrnncaic nn Tahle the indicative attenuation from the 1999 assessment. Table 11.6 Summary of Proposed Noise Mitigation measures f Location Proposal J Comments 1 Noispe air nualitv and ampnitv lnrses rrmhinpd aqrp sufficient to recommend relocation. Open nature of structure prevents the use of insulation. Mosque Barrier The relative position of mosque, where the road is elevated, is such that impacts are already partly mitigated. Further relief may be expected from a l09/ren1 REV March2004barrierwall. J RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

247 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update 1 Planted banks I To be implemented on completion of ADC Cemeteries raise wall construction by the Ministry of Agriculture. Properties Planting ana BtanKS it iand is avaiiadie. it noe, rencing. Set Back 1 S back Is preferred but insulation wil be [Regulated Insulation permissible New Sites Where possible, land owners should be offered New Sites Buffer Planting tree plantinq of appropriate species to provide a buffer between the ADC and new developments. Specified Use ] txciusion of specitned sensitive uses sucn as schools and hospitals. Redevelopment Table 11.7 As above Noise Attenuation Projected for Sensitive Sites Predicted unattenuated Receiver noise level Guideline Proposed Estimated ~~~~~~~Measures attenuation Zarqa Schools m Barrier More than 16 db (A) Mosque m Barrier More than 6 db (A) Cemeteries J Planted bank More than 15 db (A) Mitigation of Air Pollution There is little that can be proposed to mitigate against vehicular exhaust pollution within the project proposals. At the national policy level, measures such as those listed below should be considered: * Introduction of regular vehicular testing; * Incentive taxation policies for relatively non-pollution vehicles; * Tax incentives for the use of cleaner fuels; and * Promotion of higher vehicle occupancies by vehicle sharing. In the local assessment of air quality undertaken during the present EIA study, only the mosque near the northern end of the ZTL on Contract 3 is projected to exceed the specified limits. Because this site is also impacted by noise and general disamenity, the prefierred mitigation wouuiu bde relocation, UUL laiai Udoes not vi the impacts with major concern, and does not favour this option. At this time therefore, no definite mitigation measures are proposed Mitigation of Accidental Spills There are three basic options to prevent or mitigate the impacts of a spill: * Catchment Protection; * Road Engineering; * Non-Site Specific Measures. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

248 Catchment Protection The drainage measures required to minimise the effects of accidental spills are, in general- similar to those repiiired to deal with norma! hinhway run off. Concern has been expressed about the possibility of spilled materials getting into King Talal I\~~I ~.II IA.J4..iLII---I JLIIIIIL FILLtIY.II V JI U.I I ii ILerceptorJ luerms Reevoir. Addiionl catchmen protection works, such as interetrbrs designed to further protect impounded waters against accidental spills are not considered appropriate for the following reasons: * The reservolr Ts a considerable distance from the ADC alignmnent and spilled material would be unlikely to rapidly and directly be transmitted to it DCuning tl -le Ih periods ofi high I'lov needed fouur rapid LItnislionIIIIUll, UIIULIU.i Irdaes fuf all but the most toxic materials would be sufficient to rapidly reduce the potential threat. * In the event of a known spill, it may be assumed that enhanced monitoring of water treatment quality control at the distribution point would be implemented. * In times of low, discontinuous or no flow, the relatively small volume of spilled material in relation to the distance from the reservoir, would seep into the soil; * Unless similar catchment Drotection measures are taken on other roads within the Zarqa catchment, the threat is unlikely to be greatly diminished by ADC monci iroc-. Two alternatives are available; to confine the works to roadside drainage eiannels or alternatively in UoL" these c[annels an' the main stream. However even assuming the measures were confined to the drainage channels they would be unlikely to be much more effective that the basic measures proposed;. Any measures taken to protect the main river channel would be extremely expensive and generate adverse environmental impacts of their own; and. Even if measures were confined to roadside drainaqe channels they would be unlikely to offer much additional mitigation over the basic measures inrornorated into the ADC rdesign IMLJJLI engnll ing 3'JiJLs 1 LU only i ke considered for very small closeduu catchments that are utilised for the supply of potable water and are considered to be under extraordinary threat. Road Engineering The combination of heavy trucks and long downgrades is a significant hazard to road users. Gearinq down and breakinq plus the retarding power of the engine, are sometimes insufficient to hold vehicles in check. Defective or incorrectly adjusted braking systems- driver inexperiencer and the!ark of or unwarrantdri r!lainrce Iinn retarder systems are the primary contributors to brake failure. To overcome such hazards, Arrester Beds or Truck Escape Ramps (TERs) on long steep gradients and where the possibility of damage caused by a runaway vehicle, such as a loaded tanker that would spill its toad if it crashed, is greater than normal, are frequently utilised. The assessment of need and design criteria for such facilities are subject to a wide variety of variables and are therefore not standardised. The Drofile grade elements over the full length of the ADC have been reviewed, particularly in the vicinity of \Aradi Al Ush on Contract 2 where girate are up i in 70/% and on te-k 7ZEB whlkre- th 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

249 Ar-mman Development Corridor Envir-unrren,ta; I-riact Assessmnent Update reach 6.5%, against the UK's Geometric Design Standards and the need to provide TERs found to be unwarranted. Nnn Sitp Sperific Mpasurpes Thern re number of n--n=-n-n.- m ur 4n4 that -s may reduce the threat of accidental spills and improve overall road safety. implemented t Hazardous Load Notification The policy on the notification of hazardous load transport in Jordan is unclear, but is believed to be ineffective. A new policy based on the principles of notification used in Europe should be introduced. Vehicle Inspection Routine vehicle inspections of heavy tr'cks,-c and tankers should be implemented along the ADC and at the new Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port. Driver Condition and Training Occasional checks on driver condition should also be introduced. To avoid such checks being viewed negatively, a consultation exercise with fleet operators should be undertaken to inform them of the purpose of these checks. This will be most easily done in the context of a national programme desiqned to create a database on the transport of hazardous materials in Jordan. Emergency Diagnostic Response An Emergency Diagnostic Response proced urne1u bedeveloped - A-v so n te event of a spill, the quantity and type of spilled material, the immediate hazard to road users and neighbouring resid'ents, and tne measures and materiais needed to clean it up can be determined without delay. Those engaged in this work would also notify the Water Authority and other potentially affected utility providers, adjacent land users and others of the potential hazards caused by the spill and advise on the likely duration of adverse effects. Such a diagnosis and co-ordination procedure would best be implemented by a special team within the emergency services. Others would actually clean up the spill Maintenance Issues Landscape Maintenance The only cause for concern in the maintenance of landscaped areas is the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, but providing they are used in according to manufacturers' recommendations, taking full consideration of application rates and weather conditions, the threat to both ecological systems and the health of users is likely to be minimal. The ADC management team should establish eff.ective materala handling, storage and use procedures and train staff in their application. Environmental Audits should ble unde,a.kenas a Und when 1reqIII 1IIU LJY LI IC IIUL. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

250 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Highway Maintenance The primary sources of any potentially adverse impact from highway maintenance oeprationsa ar esntla!!y as follows: The disposal of waste generated from drain clearance. Such material is likely to be heavily contaminated and appropriate pre-planned disposal procedures will be needed: Accidents involving highway maintenance staff; and * Accidents resulting from traffic floa modifications due to maintenance activities. The potential significance of these impacts will be a direct function of tne quality of the planning and preparation carried out beforehand, the effectiveness of advance warning signs, and the quality of site supervision. There is no reason to believe the risk of maintenance activities creating adverse impacts on the ADC will be any greater that other roads Future Planning Framework As previously discussed in Section 9 above, the change in status of the project to one that specifically aims to create a development corridor for Lutu sociiand environmentally acceptable residential, commercial and industrial expansion requires induced deveiopment to be viewed much more positively than wouid otherwise be the case. With an effective and coordinated planning framework, the benefits to be gained through the stimulation of investment and job creation will be considerable, but as also discussed previously, there needs to be a coordinated response to development activities if these are to be realised. The establishment of the proposedl pi- Ar,rman II~ i, Cnr.ridonr,f- I -- LL Deveoip.ze.nrnt.L I. L Aidutrho,+r%t LI,IWJIIL to L'S tkecnto LMMU %,%JI L 'I oif 'S %I planning piouji II II wt WVVILlIIII 7 the ADC zone of influence under a single entity will do much to mitigate many of he pro[ulems LiaL will otherwlse aise wl1th the present iack of coordinated policy and planning. The Authority will also need to address more local issues to mitigate operational impacts. These will include the following: * Local area land use planning at interchanges and elsewhere to prevent activities along the ADC frontage that induce drivers to stop on the hard shoulder; and. Network planning to accommodate public transport, including the provision interchange facilities a safe distance from interchange locations, with appropriate pedestrian access. With support of other Government departments, the illegality of trading within the AnC ROW and along other maior highways should be widely publicised and both strict and continuous enforcement imposed. Although construction of the ADC will not, as previously discussed in Section 4.9, seriously impact on any known archaeologicai or cuiturai neritage sites, tne operation of the new road, future improvements to the adjoining road network, and the planed development of adjacent land will rapidly make the area in general and such sites in particular much more accessible and vulnerable to looting and J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

251 Arrmman Deveuourruent Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update destruction. The Authority will therefore need to address the requirements of DAJ reqardinq site preservation and protection. nplnite the prpepnce in lordan of internationa!!y renownd r.it-es siirh as Petra, the cultural resource assessment and management process in respect of locally impo I imporan", 4ILI IL sites I L lack-s N, the Li I necessary ~~0 ~ Y strutur -- of+. chck and - aa s It41-teefr recommended that any potentially valuable sites at risk from future corridor development, but not from tne present road construction, the assessment and protection procedures that will need to be developed by the new Authority form the national framework for the treatment of sites on future projects elsewhere in the Kingdom. )LI UL.LUI C: VI l Mk-rZo 0i IU UCOIC1 il I~o Li MI Ci ~I=I 11.7 LAND ACQUISITION AND RESETTLEMENT PLAN (LARP) General The Project Proponent is committed to providing entitlement to persons who lose their land or other property, and to others whose livelihood is directly affected by land acquisition. However, the existing provisions within Jordanian law apply specifically to the acquisition of land and there are numerous other circumstances, such as the loss of income, for which there is no specific entitlements. even though they are warranted. To overcome this for the ADC project, the entitlements under existing legislation hlave been supplementied buy ad U'ItIonal benefits andiu benefit options, and by improving the terms of compensation offered, primarily in respect of lost agricultural produce. The additional benefit options include entitlements to vocational training, employment opportunities and provision for wider use of noncash compensation for land Compensation Options The principal form of compensation will be cash, on the basis of asset replacement cot, h In le- of in--o or for costs i-ncrr.. Other land may Ibe offred-a asri-4-lhti III I 11Ll- %i.j 11 1%iJl I 1L i.ai I.JI '..AJaLa 11 1LUI I- ~U %'.LI IuI10 U Iiay UC VII I ~U OZ 0.IOIII swap, as part of a consolidation programme, or in lieu of cash compensation. Employment opportunities will comprise priority in project employment on the basis of an employment permit system. Women and minors entitled to a permit will be permitted to nominate an alternative person to receive their permit. With this exception, permit holders will not be able to transfer or sell their permits. Access to services such as training will be available on a priority basis if the Project Affected Person (PAP) so desires. At the present time, no compensation packages have been allocated. The options ha1ve, hiowaeve,cir, Ibeein t-kn sibihicr+ of mr ii A cusi r A debate within the af-ectea 1.1vi.. i.,ve. v... i..i.ii Li I... ~W j %J I II Ii...i I i10.ji.ji.. ljji I LJI IV Uq-UCIL ~ V ILI 1ii Li IC III=C LC communities, particularly during the 1999 EIA study, and it may be that once negotiations begin, the desire for cash payments simplifies tne process. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

252 Entitlement Packages In determining entitlements, the intention has been to identify category of loss rather than to categorise the nperson as snme PAPs will suffer more than one Inoss L,,d Ai iandowners losing iand to thne project wiii oe entitiea to casn compensarion. ir the area of loss exceeds 25% of their holding, they will also be entitled to a land swap option if alternative land is available. Cash compensation will be based upon the assessed market value. Stamp Duty and other taxes on the land transfer and registration will, if not waived by the Government, be borne by MPWH. A PAP losing part of his holding, where the residual area is deemed unsuitable for its- nrevini iu se or tnoo expensivex to retui irn t-n a ctat-ei in waihirh it-c nrenvini ic icn rin be maintained, will be compensated for the acquisition of the residual component on thie slaimi e bdasis as the its for tlihe Uand required fo Jr tihe project. VhVYlere I[he residual component from a continuous land holding is less than 0.1 ha, or it is of a shape that renders its continued use impractical, there wiii be an automatic entitlement for the PAP to opt to have it acquired. A PAP losing part of a land holding where the residual component is adversely affected by severance will be compensated following consultation. Assets The owner of a house lost to the project will be entitled to cash compensation based' on the cost of' replacement. If a LtenanLt is in residence, tbey will be provided with cash compensation to a maximum of 5 % of the total compensation package offered for the property. Salvage rights of housing materials shall remain with the original owner. Agricultural infrastructure, such as wells, internal access roads, walls and farm buildings will be compensated at full replacement cost. Loss of Produce Provision for loss of produce is covered by the arrangements for Transitional Support discussed below. Loss of Livelihood In addition to being compensated for project acquired land, owners loosing their entire holding and who have no other sources of income, will be qiven priority work permits as well as priority access to training and employment opportunities. Anyone who loses their employment, such as resident agricultural labourers, will be f,,i% in r-1 %A,ll-ri, r-.n rmni4-- -, n n r i nr -%i nty-c, l-^ 4r F n n~i ni ~, ~.~I ~ gijven1 wr pvv mit 111 an dij puiorit iy access tlo tlining ii..cl aso3ui s V workiers VIJ wh Yo deemed, after consultation, to be significantly affected, will be similarly treated. are 70269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

253 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment UPdate Tenants Any tenant farmer with a legally-valid tenancy will be entitled to part of the cash compensation payable for land acquisition and to compensation for ny improvements to the land they have made, in accordance with the laws of Jordan andu L[t1er terms oi thle tenancy. C ashil compensation will also be payable for standing crops, orchard and other trees. Informal tenants will be entitled to compensation for any land improvements they have made and will be provided with work permits and priority access to credit and training..transit.ional Suppogrt OnIe o U Lte If Un iaien I ItC prl 1J1 Ci piie S o f thli I e Lr\F I- LI CIaL suijppuil soi UUU Ube p'rovided during the transitional period to ensure the standards of livings of PAPs are not adversely affected. To achieve this, the following measures are included in the terms of compensation: Losers of cultivated land will be entitled to cash compensation for a period of up Lo 3 years, or until thiey are abdle to restore thleir ilncom I Ues to Li ItII IfUI rmi eivels, * In order to minimise the period during which the PAPs will be deprived of agriculturai income, they will be permitted to farm the land until it needs to be cleared for construction; Employment opportunities will be provided under the project primarily through employment with the Contractors throuqh the issuance of work permits; and. If, as a result of land acquisition, a PAP is compelled to change his place of residenre anrd/nr his nlpce of business_ he will he rnmpensated for reasonbh1e expenses incurred in undertaking the change Procedural Transparency From discussions held during the original LARP study and Public Consultation sessions, it was quickly realised there was considerable doubt throughout the PAP community that compensation would be applied equally and fairly. To overcome this, the procedures for the implementation of land acquisition and resettlement have been enhanced with the addition of an informal Standinq Committee, made up of members of the PAP community drawn from each of the three construction rontracts. This rommittee; or rommittees if it rierirdedr to have one for earh contract, which will address a wide variety of issues, financial and non-financial, nm1 r+ -km %Ai^r 1Z r%f i-hkm l,rir~~-..rr,iv-r na -kiil uli li L/VLA IE-mv- Li IL. VYLII N, LiiI L. %.J'JVL.I III II%,I IL LiFVJiI ILL.LJ 1-..JIIp.. UILLILI I UI I LE VULY IUULLILJII Committees. If at the end of these procedures the PAP still fells aggrieved, he may still take his case to the Courts in accordance with existing Jordanian law /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

254 Amm,,,,an Devet'orment Corridor Erinvirunmentai impact Assessment Update 11.8 ENVIRONMENTAL ENHANCEMENT MEASURES Measures to enhance the present environment within the area between the ADC and the existing irban areas have pre'v'iousiy been proposed 9 at severa I I. Noise attenuation plantinq, localised dense planting to supplement the barrier effects of land sculpting and earth banks at the cemeteries south of the Sahab interc.hang and e!sewhere;. Buffer zone planting, primarily over the Contract 1 alignment to define clear areas between 3grV 1ILUIUI IlIaU aiiu puote. nti U V IUIII I sil, and to Lprvide some attenuation of noise; * Shelter belt planting, also predominantly on Contract 1, to provide wind breaks. * Landscape corridors to enhance the appearance of new and existing roads;. Borrow Pit restoration, primarily on Contract 1, and quarry landscaping, primarily east of the Contract 2 alignment; and * A sub-regional Recreational Area, with large scale landscaping and planting, to include picnic areas. children's play facilities and oarking. most bhneficially located at a convenient site along the Contract 2 alignment; Elsewhere, the opportunities for direct action are limited but landscaping and other environmental enhancement measures will need LO be Iur`Lrer addressed by the new ACDA during the preparation of the coordinated Development Plan for the ADC zone of influence SUMMARY OF ADC IMPACT MITIGATION A summary of the mitigation measures proposed above for the ADC, together with the likely cots, is given in Table Sample contract clauses for inclusion in the Tender Documents for construction are given in Appendix C to the present report EIA, Appendix L, Landscaping Policy 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

255 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Imroact Assessment UDdate TabIle 11.8 Summary of Impact Mitigation Requirements for the ADC: Impact/IEssue Mitigiation Measure Iesponsibility TComment Pre--Construction Impact Mitigation Landscape Landscaping ait major interchanges Cultural Heritaige. Ali(nment to avoid all known sites. Lanci Ac_ijisiticin Ali( nmeiit to Land -ninirriise Acquisitiopn nijmber of a-ffected Alignment plots. to minimnise _Implemented number of afected plots. during MPWH and Detailed Design. Property Fragmentation Compensation to be paid for unusable residual land. - Design Teamn Comnpensation arrangements Drainage Culverts to be appropriately located and sized. discussed in the LARP Slople Stability Slopes and retaining strluctures to be designed to Slope Stability international standards. - Tern porairy/constr-uction Impact Mitigation_ Movement of equipment and crews to be restricted to predefined routes; Landscape Works to be gradedltloenautride tle Row; Contractor 'Gc,od Practice' only Unnecessary scarring to be remedied at Contractors' - expense. _ Movement of constr-uction traffic at night to be minimised; Movement of equipment and crews restricted lto predefined routes; Ecosystems and Wildlife Onily appirove(i waste disposal sites to be used; Only appirovedi gravel/fill sources to be used; Contractor 'Good Practice' only Crews to be educated on habit:at disturbance; Firewood for crews or alternative facilities to be provided; Crews to be penalised for unnecess3ry disturbance. - DA.) Chance Find procedures to be implemented; CultuLral Hleritage Sts Known sites adjacenrt to lthe RODW oult-of-bounids to crews; Contractor 'Good Practice' Cul e Sites l only Disturbed sites outside ROW to be fenceci at Contractors' and DAJ expense. _ Local Access Study local access, mininmise inconvenience, inform residents local and reinstate on completion Contractor and MPIWH 'Good Practice' only Document all utilities within 5() m of ROW; Contractor, Public Utilities Coordinate works with utility compainies; Damnage MPWH, to and defined utilities to 'Good be repaired Practice' at Contractors' only utility companies _ expense, J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

256 Amman DeyelQopnent Corridor Environmental Imopact Assessment tj date Existing routes to Ibe utilised wherever possible; New access alignmrient and profile t:o be approved; Damage/nuisance in residential areas tc be minimised; Contractor, Construction Access New access Llsage and traffic profiles to be approved; MPWH and 'Good Practice' only All access roa.ds to be kept clean; local authorities New access to be remecliated when no longer required; Retained acciess to be brought to acceptable standard. - All normal measures to avoid spillage to be taken; Contractor Soil Po1llution Contaminated soil to be removed and replaced; and MoE 'Good Practice' only Contractor to remediate incidents at own cost. a ME I All exist:ing regulations to be complied with; Water Pollution All normal mieasuries to avoid spillage to be taiken; Contractor 'Good Practice' only Remedial action to be undertaken as a rnatter of urgency; and MoE _ Incidents to be rernediated at Contractors' expense. Temporary discharge points to minimise erosion; Dewatering vorks to avoid excessive turbidity; Erosion and Any short-term increases in turbidity to be approved; Contractor 'Good Practice' only Seclimentation Site clearance ahead of construction to Ibe restricted; and MoE Care to be taken in potentially unstable areas; All stock piles and soil heaps to rernain stable. - All local regulations to be complied with; Contractor and Surplus Materials Unwanted materials disposed of promptly; I-oca Authorities 'Good Practice' only _ Spoil for late.r use to be appropriately stored. L A o P o All equipment to be fitted with appropriate muffles; Equipment/vehicles in poor condition not to be used; Noise Noisy equipment to be located away froim sensitive! sites; Contractor 'Good F'ractice' only Plant not left to run on idle; Restricted working hours, particularly for piling; Hoardings to be used when piling within 50 m of property - All relevant Jordanian Standards tc be complied with; Cement handling to limit atmospheric discharge; Air olltio (e. DSt) Equipment anid vehiicles in poor conidition not to be used; otatr'odpatc'ol Air Pollut:ion (ex. Dust) IBuirning of debris from ciround clearance! not permitted; ( ontractor 'tood Practice' only All plant: to comply with stanclards for particulate emissioni. Damping down of sites and access roads; Water tiroughs to be provided at entry and exit poiints; Dust Hoardings to be used where approldriate; Contractor 'Good Practice' only Speed limits to be enforced; Vehicle loads likely to ermit dlist to be ccvered /2-RFT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

257 Amman Developrnent Corridor Environmenltjal Imiact Assessment U'date Temporary/Construction Mitigaltion: Off-Site Locationi to be within easy reach ol primary roads, construction sites and utility services; Locationi to be awaiy frorn aquifer recharge zones; Preference to be given to future development sites; If no existing sewerage, appropriaite facilities for Contriactor, Main Carnp collection, treatment and disposal to be installed; IAPWH Separate system to be installed for industrial wastewater; and MloE 'Good Practice' only Pclluting substances to be identified, stored aind handle(i in accordance with manufacturers' and MoE instructions; Proposals for solid wastie disposed to be approved. Treated wastewater to be re-used where possible; Traffic restricted to specified routes; Construc:tion Traffic Access icontrol, including signage, 'to be implemented; Acdjacenit public roiads toi be kept clean; Contractor and MIPWH Ciood Practice only Wide or abnormal loads to be delivered at niciht. _ Priority to be given to the use of existing licensed sites; Borrow pit location, operation and reinstatement to be approved; Quarries Quarry operation restricted to daylight hours; Contractor, Dust and noise to be suppressed as appropriate; NRA 'Good Practice' only Operations to be restricted tc, times of low wind velocities; and MoE Wastewater only discharged to watercourses after sediment load, velocity and quality control; _ Acgregc3te tr3ffic to be subjec:t to access control. Permanent Impact Mitigation Landsceaping to be undertaken by the Ministry of To be contained within Landscape Aciriculture in accordance with the needs of future MvPWFI and MoA fuiture Development Plans _ development of the ADC _ Production Losses Aclequate compensation to Plot be provided; consolidation t:o be considered. MPWFI and DLS Detailed in LARP Aclequate compensation to be provided; Land swaps to be considered; Land AccluisitioDn Qualifying PAPs to have priority in project employment; CLO to provide PAP point-of-contact, advise and MPWFI and DLS Detailed in LARP Severance counsel lin _ Existing surfaced roads to be maintained; Surfaced roaed crossings, Animal crossing to be provided at appropriate locations; MPWFI and animal crossings and Pedestrian pathways to be included on ADC structlures, Design Team footpaths on ADC Further path networks to be included in future[ structures included in developments. Detailed Design _ 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

258 Amman Deyveloj,nent Corridor Environmen,tal Imact Assessment ljpdate Median barrier the full length of the mainline to be pr-ovided; Barrier to allow for crossing of emiergency vehicles; Design Tearn and Included in IDetailed Road Safety Conduits to be provided for future of street lighting M PWHi Design emergency telephones and hazard warning system; Police lay-bys to be provided at 5-10 krn intervals, _ Opierational Impaict Mitigaltion Noise abaternent barriers to be provided adjacent to Sensitive Sites; OsgiTan Noise mitigation barriers to be conisidered for new MPWHI and To be implemented Noise Corridor developments; Ministry of with new corridor New developments adjacent to the ADC to be set back; Mlannins development Sensitive users such as schools, hospitals anid mosques 9a g not to be located within the first row of properties. _ Regular vehicle testing to be introduced; The use! of non-polluting vehicles to be promoted; Government and Recommendation to be Air Pollution Price incentives to be offered for the use of cleaner MPWH considered by Government fuels; Higher vehicle occupancy to be promoted. - Hazardous Load Notification to be introduced; Routine inspiections of vehicles to Ibe introduced; (iovernment and Recommendlation to be Accidental Spills Driver training and checks on driver condition to be MPWH considered by Government introduced; Ernergency Response Diagnostics Unit to be established. Waste materials, including contaminated drain sludge, to Mantnanebe disposed of appropriately; Maintenance Maintenance prog;ammes to be planned and prepared to MPWH Ciood Practice only reduce accidents. Fut:ure Planninig A single Authority future to ADC coordinate development the to planning ble established. and control Government Recommendation considered to by Government be l /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

259 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update IMPACT MITIGATION FOR THE CDP Impact Mitigation at the CDP Site Since many of the impact mitigation measures to be imposed for the ADC represent only 'Good Practice', similar measures wiii also be required for the construction of the new Customs Depot and Inland Logistics Port. The precise boundaries of the site remain to be confirmed, but site layout will be such that plot fragmentation and severance will be minimised. The majority of plots will be acquired in their entirety and the arrangements for PAP identification and compensation will be the same as for the ADC. Given the necessity for a high level of security, particularly in the area of the Customs Depot, ti he Vlhoie site is expected to be walledu andl access on'ly permittedll via controlled entrances and exits. There are believed to be no underground utilities on the site and unsurfaced tracks will, were necessary, be re-routed. Overhead power cables will also be re-routed. All the Contractor's facilities, including his Main Camp and subsidiary services are expected to be located within the confines of the site. Both these facilities and the construction site will be surrounded by hoardinas throuohout the dciratinn of thp works. The control of noise and dusl. will therefore be more easily achieved and all necessar, facilitisc wial immedliate!yx ha avami1ab!ef to dea! waithk potlion inciens lno * l% *...,r III.. VI... I I,.IA '.I ~ LJLJI.AJ'.J% J fvilli JJIJP.l ti.lliii l. 1 public access to those parts of the site under construction will be permitted Impact Mitigation at Al Juwaidah The impacts to be mitigated at Al Juwaidah are primarily socio-economic, suffered by the employees and other users of the existing Customs Depot, the businesses in the vicinity that depend upon the Depot for all or part of its customer base, and the residents of Al Juwaidah, as discussed in Section of the present report. The development of the arrangements for and the appropriate means and levels of compensation, monetar; nr in kinda, and other mn-i.gato4-n ma..,:s wil form a L%JI I ]VII i3uliv.ii1, I I IVI.Ji LQIy YNIl JII MIU iu VLiI I IIILI OLIUi I I1II=Cd.UIt= e ~vvi uiii d major element of the CDP LARP. This is currently in preparation and will comprise Volume 3 of the present submission. A preliminary indication of the types of mitigation that will be recommended is outlined in Table Table 11.9 Possible Mitigation Measures at Al Juwaidah Affected Impact/ITsue I Potential Mitination Measureir community I ' -- -I Employees and Users of the Existing Customs Depot Provision of free transport or supplement to Government Travel to work, time and cost: Less free time; salarv: Reduction in working hours or increased salaries; Employees Disruption of social life. Improvements in working conditions; l l Provision of shops and services on site /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

260 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmenrta imuact Assessment Update Provision of free transport or supplement to salary; Private Sector Private Sector Travel to work, time and cost; Less free time; Reduction in working hours; Improvements in the working environment; Fmnlovppc I- Disruption of social life. Provision of office facilities at reduced rents; Improved productivity with new working practices; Provisuio VI shivps diiu srvices on site. Provision of improved reception/waiting facilities; Users Trave! to Depot. Quicker Customs clearance. Provision of adequate parking facilities; Lorry Drivers Less free time. Provision of shops and services on site; l I Free transport between the CDP and Amman. Owners and Employees of Businesses in the vicinity of the Depot 1 I Provision of comnpnsa;tion for proven losses; Provision of premises on CDP at reduced rents; > customer -base; Provision of rent supplements for businesses Owners r%educed cuslu-1"eeremaining in Al Juwaidah Loss of inco me. Promotion of Al Juwaidah as a business area; Redevelopment of the Depot site to include housing from which to replace customer base. Reduced working hours or loss Provision of compensation for proven losses; Employees of employment; Priority for employment at CDP; tloss of income. J Provision of advice and counselling. Residents of Al Juwaidah Reduced traffic congestion, noise and air pollution; 1 T Residen-s Loss of local shops and Improved pedestrian access and public safety; services Redevelopment of the Depot site to include recreational facilities for families and children. The majority of environmental guidelines for the ADC will be equally applicable to the CDP. Additional site-specific guidelines will be developed as there are found to be necessary during the Design. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

261 w~ -

262 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update cf:rttn 1i 2:NVTRANMFNTA1 MANTTnDTNfr 12.1 LINTRODUCTILON This Section of the EIA Update outlines the proposed Environmental Monitoring Plan for Phase 1 of the ADC. Section 12.2 presents the main Environmental Standards that should be adopted during the implementation of the EMP. Section 12.3 describes the access requirements for monitoring. Section 12.4 details the monitoring of construction sites. Section 12.5 explains the requirements for Environmental Monitoring to provide a quantitative assessment of project actions and operations. Section 12.6 outlines the monitoring that will be undertaken by the Construction Suiperxviszinn Connsu!ta,nts. S e c t1o ns 12 l. 7 out 1ine the reqirmetsfo AnI-nual EnvironmentCall R-po0,.inyg. Cultural Resources and Land Acquisition monitoring are discussed in Sections 12.8 and 12.9 respectively. Section discusses the arrangements for Environmental auditinq, while the final section, 12.11, summarises the requirements for, the reports issued and costs assianed to environmental monitorina ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS A major area of change since submission of the 1999 EIA is that the Jordanian Institute for Standards and Metrology (]ISM) has introduced a number of Standards dealing with Environmental issues. Although legislation to provide the necessary legal backing for some of these Standards is still awaited, it would be prudent to assume this will be forthcoming prior to or shortly after the commencement of construction. The JISM Standards are therefore adopted as the primary reference in developing LI Ir I CU i r 1 ements CII L for monito IS ILJ rin I%. g OI II VVI CItCLI is no spclificl. JorUl dcini I equivalent should other Standards such as those prepared by the EU, World Bank, WHO, etc., or adopted from countries of a similar deveiopment status to Jordan, be used. For the ADC, the Standards and Guidelines used in Malaysia have been used. The principal monitoring Standards for ADC construction and operation are listed in Table Of the JISM Standards, only that for ambient air quality is given. Other relevant standards have been previously listed in Table 3.6 of this ETA J0296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

263 Amman Developmeuit Corridor Environr-UenL, imidac,-t ssestanent Update Table 12.1 Principal Monitoring Standards Ambient Air Quaiity Standards' Pollutant [ A MAC 1 Permitted Excess t 1 hour 0.3 ppm 3 times in 30 consecutive days Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ) l24 hours l0.14 ppm 11 time in 12 months T1 l 1~~~~~~~~~~ year l0.04 ppm Nonel Carbon_Monoxide_(CO) hour 26 ppm 3 times in 30 consecutive days Carbon Monoxide (GO) 8 ho I ;- oseulv Ay Total Suspended Particles 24 hours 260 pg/m 3 3 times in 12 months (TSPj 1 year 75 pg/m- 3 None 1 hour [0.21 ppm 3 times in 30 consecutive days Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) [24 hours 0.08 ppm 3 times in 30 consecutive days l 1year 0.05 ppm lnone 1 Hvdrocen HvronSUlDhide (H,S) 1 hour 0.03 ppm 3 times in 30 consecutive days,., 24 hours 0.01 ppm 3 times in 30 consecutive days Leaa (VD) 3 months 1 pg/m 3 None 1 year 0.5 pg/m 3 None 24~~~~~- hors 12>/m I Iie in 30 consecutive days- Particulate Matter (PM1o) IJU:rIII jl.. 1 year 70 pg/m3 None Ambient Noise Standards 2 j - a:l>-ory - - D,ay I N~igh.i Residential 55 db(a) 45 db(a) comm lercial 1 65o UD(A) I 55 db(a) Industrial l 76 db(a) l 70 db(a) I UI Construction Equipment Noise Limits 3 Activity ~~~~~~~~~ 1 F Da~-y I "I~ Earthworks 1 Bulldozer/excavator 75 db(a) 55 db(a) Piling~~r'111 Piing machinie l 5 B() l Nn Structural Concrete mixer/concrete pump 70 db(a) 55 db(a) qirfarinn Roller 70 dbr(a) 5 r dr(a) Commercial Vehicle Noise Limits 4 Category Limit lusedl for the airriiae of goodrl Permitted mayimulm weinht l A does not exceed 3.5 tons. Engine less than 200 hp DIN ] 81 db(a) Used for the carriage of goods. Permied maximum w t exceeds 3.5 tons. Engine less than 200 hp DIN 8 ) l - 86 db(a I Used 4or Lte LcaIIaye of guuod. rtittiedlltu aimaiium weiigh l does not exceed 3.5 tons. Engine 200 hp DIN or more 88 db(a) Dust & other Emissions by Concrete and Bitumen Mixing Plant' Source "Standard-A l- Standard B I Standard C Stationary Plant 0.5 gm/nm gm/nm gm/nm 3 Mobile Plant 0.7 gm/nm gm/nm gm/nm 3 Mobile plant is defined as that operating for a period not exceeding 24 months and which has a rated production capacity not exceeding 60 ton/hour. Standard C is applicable to all new facilities. i JISM IS 1140: World Bank Health & Safety Guidelines 3 Malaysan Guide-sines AS Malaysian Environmental Quality Act 1994 and Regulations 5 Malaysian Guidelines JAS /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

264 Amman Deve/opment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update 12.3 ACCESS REQUIREMENTS For the proposed programme of both site inspections and monitoring to be efetie %- I e%'.ll i+ taill lbe naraecry IL VV III LJL. I I for IFo, persnnei - -r-s fr-m NADAU and- is A r U ~L I y I I.JI UULLI l.i UII32%LJ PJI- I MU III I%l i '.I II U rir VV I 'I ai Ud I L r1%li %.. Vt.. Z) Project Management Team (PMT), MoE, DA] and other key agencies to have guaranteeu access to all sites related to any component of the project, at all times throughout both construction and subsequent operation. Accordingly, contract documents and operating agreements should incorporate a Clause with intent equivalent to the following: Any Officer or Agent authorised in writing by the MPWH, MoE, DA3, their agents or other organisation for which from time to time it may be necessary, may at any time enter any preimrises whether prescrribed or otherwiise and may: * Examine and inspect equipment, control apparatus, monitorinq instruments or plant; * Take samnles of any material that is emitted. disrharged or drpnnited, or is likely to be, from such premises; * Examine any books, records or documents relating to the per,formace or use of such equipment, apparatus, instruments or plant, or relating to the emission, UibUlahrge or depositl -IrfU- such premises; dfu * Photograph such premises as he considers necessary or make copies of any book, records or documents seen in the course of examination. The PMT will be responsible for liasing with all parties involved in the design and construction of Works, especially the MoE and the three Supervision Consultants, and to advice on all environmental issues, particularly those relating to compliance anrd imnart mifinatlinn 12.4 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORTING For environmental monitoring to be both effective and meaningful to the implementation of the EPM, it will be comprehensively reported to all concerned parties. Maior reports will also be made available for public consultation. The primary levels of reporting will be as follows: * Individual Site Inspection Reports by the PMT; * Individual Site Inspection Reports by the Supervision Consultants, reported at Monthly Contract proqress Meetinqss; * Individual visit reports by the DA] in respect of cultural heritage sites; Oiuarterlv FMP im1pementatfion Repnrts (QPRs) hv the PMT, to incliir1e the rpesu!ts of individual site inspections by both the PMT and Consultants, and of the ei lvii UrIZ;IIL0I LJUCIILY II HUHIILUnglIly. NlneI I sepjaiolra Prsr VViii be issueu LIIItUUIIVUL the three year construction period; * Annual Environmental Reports (AERs) by the PMT, compiling together the previous three QPRs and presenting the inspection and monitoring data from the fourth quarter; and, * Quarterly Monitoring Reports by the MPWH, to present the results of postconstruction operational monitoring. An indicative Table of Contents for the AERs is given in Appendix D. J0296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

265 Amman Developrrent Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update Baseline condition monitoring will be reported separately prior to the commencement of construction. Reporting on LARP implementation will also be undertaken separately. The presentation of the QPRs will form the basis of payments in respect of the r1 II PMT's 1 site sl~ii inpeton Inspect I and iiu ~IClViUI environmental IIJ I 11.I moniorin II IUI IILU)IliyIIIYl repnibiiiltie. ~uiii~ 12.5 SITE INSPECTIONS Obiectives Site Insnctinsn provide.for the day-to-day monitoring of construction activities and sites, and will provide the primary mechanism by which contractors' performance and subsequent sys tem operatiolnu aire C1s eu LU comply with the approupridlte Guidelines, Regulations, etc. Whilst these inspections will primarily be the responsibility of the Supervision Consultants, it is prudent for the PMT to undertake occasional inspections, particularly at 'high-risk' sites such as batching and asphalt plants, to provide a longer-term overview of site condition and to ensure consistency of approach between the three construction contracts Drgnramme ailte inspections sui'oud bue carrieu outl on a regular basis, but not necessarily to a structured pattern. During construction, the recommended minimum programme for PMT inspections is given in Table Table 12.2 Programme for PMT Site Inspections Site Clearance 12 times per year Ddcching and Asphal[ Piants, etc. i2 times per year Camp and Maintenance Facilities 4 times per year on r I a Cnn Ct- rtnn i AH-rif- r -i*;-n o General Constr - Activity 6 tie pe yu To facilitate inspections, a standard checklist 6 will be and used all parties. Relevant persons from each Supervision Consultant will be formally briefed by the PMT as part of the Institutional Strengthening discussed in Section 13 of this report. Areas of forward site clearance and 'high-impact' sites will be inspected monthly. Other maior facilities, such as maintenance depots, materials storage facilities. and construction camps, will be inspected every three months, while a general site inspecrtion wal ha iint-lrt-nl-n Atwirce eacrh year. 4 Repor Each PMT site inspection shall be subject to a report that details location, activities, identifies areas in which the Contractor is non-compliant with the EMP, and proposes remedial action. Copies of these reports shall be circulated to the MPWH, 6 A possible suitable model checklist was given in Appendix N of the 1999 EIA. J0296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

266 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Udat'ae PMT, MoE, and the relevant Consultant and Contractor. Where remedial action is proposed, discussions shall be held with the Consultant and the Contractor to ensure the requirements has been understood and the works put in hand. During the preparation of any or all reports, access will be granted to the more routine and more Z Lfrequent sil tl"e inspectilion recordis retailned by LIthe upeiviiui I Consultant as part of his normal duties. Incorporation of individual site investigation reports into the QPRs and AERs will highlight persistent non-compliance or continued negligence by Contractors and present all supporting documentary evidence Responsibilitv TheA site- Insectlns+n!isedmf above1 wai!! be Iunder+3ken by the Environmentalist within I I. I ~I 1I l Fp~.LIWI II IZL~ ~ L " JJV.. VVYIII LJ~_ US IUl-1 LUINUIw I Li)Y LI II- L.1 I vi 1 L11 I OIL [VLI lii[ the PMT, Terms of Reference for whom are given in Appendix E to the present reporl. However, he Team will also employ an Environmental Specialist or nign calibre on a part-time basis as necessary to assist with the preparation of the major reports, and with training Inspection Costs Financing of the site inspections and their reporting will be from the budget set asire fnr the PMT artivities. Payment fnr site investingtinn sha! hp incrluded in that for each QPR, the cost deemed to include all inspection and reporting activities unuel aken in thlke inteizrim.11 On the basis of one-day field inspection, a half-day pro-forma reporting for individual visit reports, and time to prepare the site inspection element of each QPR, the predicted cost is equivalent to JD 6,000 for each of the nine QPRs, including allowance for secretarial and administrative support, and for the procurement of portable field instruments for the monitoring of stack emissions. It is assumed a vehicle for the use of the PMT Environmentalist will be provided, maintained and fuelled throughout the 3 year constr'io'in period from within the first construction contract to go to tender, for which a Provisional Sum of JD 40,000 will e I included in the TIendUer Documents Post-Construction Inspections Following construction, six-monthly inspections will be undertaken to ensure the safe storage of fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides used to maintain landscape planting. The use and application of these chemicals will also be inspected. The landscape planting itself will be inspected 3 times each year. deoendina upon climatic and growing conditions, to check on the sustainability of the planting. Die back will be identified and replacement planting initiated as necessary. These inspections will be the responsibility of the MPWH Environmental Unit, the cost of whi ici I Is est iimatied at JL) 2U,00. J0296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

267 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Enviromnmental irripact Assessment Update 12.6 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY MONITORING Objectives Having outlined, in Section 11, the mitigation measures to be adopted to minimise potentially negative impacts during construction, their success can oniy be determined via an appropriate monitoring programme. Such a programme should: * Monitor changes in the physical, chemical, biological and social characteristics of * Determine if the identified changes result from project or non-project causes;. Determine the impact of non-compliance with the EMP by contractors, with particular regard to emissions and discharges that contravene EMP-adopted local, national or international standards; * Assess the effectiveness of impact mitigation; and. Highlight areas of concern unforeseen in the EMP and recommend further mitiaation measures. Baseline CondiU'ion Moni.oring Shortcomings in Baseline data have been previously highlighted in Section 4.10 of this report. The lack of ambient air quality and noise data has been a particular issue during the preparation of the present EIA Update, since there is no data aqainst which to measure the expected future positive impacts of the proiect in the vicinity of Hizam Road and elsewhere. It is therefore proposed to undertake a romprehpnzive programme of measurements prior to the commencement of construction at all the sites listed in Table 12.3 and shown in Figures 12.1 and Table 12.3 Locations for Baseline Monitoring Prior to Construction Alignment Location ] Significance Al Usra University Desert Highway Cemeteries Sa hab HinhwAv/ADC' TnfPrrhAnnge Site Sensitive Site Site where change is expected Sensitive Site Site where rha;nnp is Penpeetedi Contract 2 t Madounah Road/ADC Interchange Site Site where change is expected Qasr Madounah Archaeological Site Sensitive Site c r 3ZEB ZEB/ZTL Interchange Site Site where change is expected t Military Complex Sensitive Site Hniou 1 Sensitive Site Zarqa College Sensitive Site l House 2 1 Sensitive Site Contract 3-ZTL Apartment Block Sensitive Site House 3 Sensitive Site Zarqa Schools Sensitive Site Other Sites Yadoudah Hotel Sensitive Site Yadoudah Road Site where change is expected Al Juwaidah Customs Depot Site where change is expected 30296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

268 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update Sahab Road/Hizam Road Junction Site where change is expected M-aounah Road/H-lzarn Ro.ad Jumction Site where change is exp-cted l Hizam Road! Zarqa Bypass Zarqa Highway Site where change is expected J Site where change is expected Site where no change is expected ThrnoIuIhonut ADrn cnr o -nictionn u th e r-co-nd-it-ions a t the 'nther Site-Ps' nnt- dr1icrpent 1n tohe alignment will only change in as much as prevailing traffic conditions change without the presence of tlhe AD. MU% ei i til I Li It Io Ue II IUI IILVI t U agaln immediately prior to the opening of the ADC to define the new Baseline Condition, allowing for the growth in traffic during tne period of ADC construction, against which any benefits attributable to the ADC can be ultimately assessed. The wells in the vicinity of the ADC alignment do not primarily exploit the shallow aquifer, standing water levels average approximately 150 m below ground level, and some water qualitv data is available to characterise baseline conditions in the aquifer. Only one known well is located within the ADC ROW, and this will be nliifeiedrl narl a renp!acmont- waiei drillad 1t-n serven t-ho recirdua!!1na Genrar1 groind water quality monitoring throughout the alignment is therefore not necessary, atiloug Lthe need to monitor ground water at specific sites adjacenl of o'l-t facilities will be reviewed when the locations are known. Baseline monitoring will also include any new wells needed for construction. Where existing weiis are considered to be at risk from off-site construction activity, or new contractors' wells' are in hydraulically-sensitive areas, the monitoring of water quality in vulnerable wells will be added to the monitorinq proqramme. The results of the baseline mnnitorinn will he rnmnrehensivelv repnnrtrid anrd will he incorporated into the EMP so future monitoring results can be compared against.-,,c... Construction Monitoring The monitoring of noise, vibration and air quality at sites along the ADC alignment, including all the identified 'sensitive' sites, will continue throughout the period of construction. Thirteen such sites are proposed, as listed in Table Monitoring of noise, vibration and air quality shall also be undertaken at the Main Camn for each of the three construction contracrts anrd t a further 3 sites per contract at the discretion of the PMT and MoE, these sites to be determined once th Ike CIontractIors' piropos al31isi for cip diiu other sits LII- LIdIe Ithe RWare VV kn own. Some reduction in the overall number of measurements may be possible if sites such as the Zarqa Schools are not included in the programme until construction commences in the vicinity. Similarly, monitoring might cease after the bulk of construction in the vicinity has 'moved on'. In the former case, it is recommended monitoring be implemented throughout construction, as any 'local pre-construction activity' monitoring will add to the availability of baseline data. Once a particular section of road has been completed, it is likely to be used for Contractor's access, nd it-ho neti-1a1ork nf mnniti-rinr, cit-sc will onlyi hom redcirod wait-h t-ho MoE normiccinn 7Constructed in accordance with the MWI current regulations /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

269 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update K ZTL Sites shown on Figure 122rnle Zarqa /( P A Military //w= Gomplex Zarqa / \ r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ig,y fizb/ztl,j%...}.~ \ \ ~Highway ~nt rchange S ~ 7, nzam Roaf I K Madounah Roa Id/ Road Judnction S ljuwaidah haha oadd g-f T ~~Customs Hia 02 ou hroadq Depot ( Junction I /!nterchang i Yadoudah \#t( Yadoudah 'Hotel >~~~~eserthghwayx Road J t 4 / \Sahab Highway ~,liu{inerchnange t / T Al ~~~~Ursa Universit kilo Ires Figure i2.i Sites for Environmental Quality Monitoring 30296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

270 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment /JndMte I e~ I *7Zrqa SchoolI I '.I Apartme nt Block I 296/2-RPT-ENV- IZarqa Q CoElegf lou t 2 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~Fgr 12. -~~~~~~~~~~~~~4 Figure 12.2 Sites for Environmental Qualitv Monitorinca (7T1_ J RPT-ENVO01 REV 0 129March 20.04

271 Amiman Deve,oupm,,ent Corridor Environ,IecI Ea I [ L-L sesi SS ene U'date Table 12.4 Sites to be Monitored During Construction Alignment A Location Contract 1 l Al Usra Universitv Cemeteries l Sahab ldhighwayl Contract 2 Madounah Road/CDP Interchange Contract 3-ZEB ~~~~~ House 1l ZEB/ZTL Interchange Militarv ComDlex Contract 3-ZTL Idrqd L Coilege House 2 Apartment Block l House 3 Mosque Zarqa Schools Depending upon the arrangements for the drainage of both on-site and off-site facilities, discharges to surface watercourses and any vulnerable ground water wells will also be monitored wherever necessary. flnerati fina!i Monr, tt,pin,, rpoust-construction monitloring wvivi primarily compruise th Lle measurement LU InlUise, vibration and air quality for a period of not less than 2 years will be required to measure the operational impacts of the ADC in order to: * Monitor changes in the physical, chemical, biological and social characteristics of the environment; * Determine if the identified changes result from project or non-project causes; * Monitor emissions and discharges and ensure compliance with adopted standards; * Determine the effectiveness of the impact mitigation; and * Provide early warning of any potentially serious long-term problems. Water quality in the private impoundment in Wadi Al Ush shall also be monitored. It is to be hoped monitoring at some sites will be continued on completion of the project renqi ir-n-nl-c iro rdrer tor pro no a lntter I of th-- -r-1 i ing- VI LIJj%...L I %'ji.ji41 %-I I 1I~I IL.O 1II LII 1UJ..I L%J VI VI I I'JLIL; LJI-LL'-I UlI ILJ.I OLLII lull I%J VI LI IC- LJV~I _ I Ull Il t term impacts of such projects in Jordan. The establishment of permanent network would be a significant asset in assessing impacts resulting from future developments within and adjacent to the ADC's zone of influence. Twelve locations, listed in Table 12.5 are recommended for operational monitoring /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

272 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Table 12.5 Sites to be Monitored During Operation A1jgnment Location Al Usra university Contract 1 [ Cemeteries Sahab Highway l Contrart 7 MSahabingh Rn-rl/CDP Tnt-rrhann 1 Contract 3-ZEB Military Complex l I Zarqa Coiiege Contract 3-ZTL FApartment Block Other Sites Mosque Dpsert Hiohwavl Yadoudah Road I Al Juwaidah. Hizam road Parameters to be Monitored and Frequency To establish baseline conditions against which future air quality noise and vibration wai"l be mea,nsu o-off rmeasurement ovf each of i-th pa t Ised ins Tab!e VVIII Li,-. S S.JLI.., %SIt.I%.. I.. L.. I. L~tI WL t.lt.i WI 1 LAI I.% LIUI t.ti. I L.I I IJ 12.7 will be undertaken at each of the 23 sites listed in Table 12.4 above. Any baseline ground water quality monitoring will include those parameters comprising a 'tuli water analyses' under normal Jordanian practice, togetner witn analysis for the presence/absence of hydrocarbons. During the period of construction and the first two years of ADC operation, air quality, noise and vibration, will be monitored on one day every three months. On each of these days. measurements will be collected for a period of one hour. timed to coincide with weekday morning peak traffic flows, as summarised in Table Table 12.6 Summary of Proposed Air Quality, Noise and Vibration Monitoring I l l No. of sites Parameter Unit Frequency Duration During 1 During l l l Construction Operation SO5 2 PPm 7 / I Pb pg/in DM PsrI/m 1 hour during 17 1 TP 1 day every 3 weekday - 12 TSP ~~pg/in 3 ayeer morning172 INOx PPm months p traic CO ppm pedk rwdrl Noise db(a) fll l Vibration VLJ210 _ l Water quality monitoring during construction will include those parameters listed in Tahble notwha1ii-hci-stnrdinri tha- t-heseco r rmiffar fro%m thosce rerquirmei Iindter 7S 202:1991 Industrial Wastewater, to which compliance shall also be monitored. Given there are no perennial watercourses in the vicinity of the ADC, surface water monitoring is unlikely to be required except at the private impoundment on Wadi Al 30296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

273 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Ush. Throughout construction, site drainage outfalls shall be monitored for total suspended solids, chlorine and the oresence of hydrocarbons. Tab!e Simmary nf Prnnncsed 5rnound Wnter Mnnitnrinn I [. No. of sites Parameter Unit Frequency During Construction For surface and ground waters: Hl ltl IpH ph units Conductivity ps/cm Colour TCU Wadi Al Ush Hydrocarbons (presence/absence) pg/i impoundment. Chloride mg/l Wells to be Chiorine mg/i hs conc determined For ground waters: once off-site F aecal '..AJII C 'fr (L._LUIf) L s/ I m' I i1litiis have Total Coliforms cols/100 ml been located Total suspended Solids Dissolved Oxygen mg/i mg/l Because the Drogramme of around water monitorina can only be decided when the location of Contractors' off-site facilities are known, provision for 6 monitoring sites, L- WS W/I I I_.. l%.i ~ W I `,I I... II ' J I.JI L USII. IIl I IIIJ J¼ I L,L4 J I I I II. L..L tiwai. on eac-th of the three rrc-nriucrtirn contrar+ct haes hbee inrc-iauded in t-ke cost+ estimates for monitoring. Complaint Based Monitoring In addition to the proposals for routine monitoring, additional monitoring will be needed to investigate any complaints of excessive noise, dust, and water pollution. Clearly the full extent of such investigations cannot be determined at this time but a contingency sum equating to approximately 10% of the fixed monitoring site costs has been applied o tohe overall programme to accommodate them W Reportil The results from each round of air quality, noise and any water quality monitoring shall be incorporated into each Quarterly EMP Implementation Progress Report (QPR). In respect of this monitoring, these reports shall contain as a minimum: Samp,ling, methoudologuies4c, CLIUIpment1IL L1IILIUba Ion UpUILr, ad1u UL1thr bcialkgiuuinu material, and the empirical results; * Details of any extreme or abnormal events that may nave influenced tne empirical findings; * Analysis of the findings highlighting any changes of significance and discussing the causes of change; * Recommendations on actions to be taken; and * Follow ud on the recommendations of orevious reports. Coplesn of anyt wate.r analysesm wi!! him rirruatd.i ton MWIA. i2.l6.4 Responsibi-lliIty Responsibility for environmental quality monitoring will rest with the PMT, who may choose to undertake it themselves or contract it out to a monitoring contractor. J0296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

274 Amman Development Corrdor Environmental impact Assessment Update At the present time. few organisations in lordan are adequatelv resources to undertake such a programme. The prime exception is the RSS, who are very well equiippeld ito iriaar1-e!ongi_+-terrn csielis - uicing csmi-fixeda st-atirs for rontinuous I.UI, Ft.IJIU3 _ U LL U X Ul I U.J 3. I - II L L..A.J IWII.J I L JI %_ III IIIUJUJLI air quality and noise monitoring, which is both much more than is necessary for the projecl and very expensive. The MoE are also likely to take both an advisory and an approval role in the monitoring programme. In particular, they will wish to be involved in the following: * Preparation of Scopes of Works and ToRs; * Pre-qualification of tenderers; * Provision of technical support in the evaluation of bids; * Review and approve contractors' reports; and * Make recommendations to the PMT for additional and/or remedial works Oualitv Monitorina Costs The II rhenractt - ont-in ic for fhe DMT f-n i inerf-t-l-g i-he requi iired enviro%nrmena!-i S.-,- I L IU* - I LS I AU LUarS 'I IL U 9 UJII t..'.. I VA qity 1i WI II Il LA- I.UJI LjUJUJILY monitoring with their own staff, who will more easily integrate the taking of measurements or samples 'fromi loc IULLationIs along Uon Mthe ADC with L[ iiir Utrher duties along the same alignment. Procurement of the necessary equipment will be included in the PMT budget and experience in the use of portable field equipment will be a consideration in the recruitment of the PMT Environmentalist. Portable air quality and noise equipment is expected to cost around JD 45,000 and a portable water laboratory approximately JD 8,000, including the cost of consumables.for 5 years 8. PTM staff time for 3 years ic estimated at JD 30,000, including reporting. Transport costs for the Environmentalist have already been prvideud for slj t te e I nect LLsaJI io ns. 0 completlion ln ofl constructlion01, Iresp0nsUliUiLy lvi monitoring will be assumed by the MPWH Environmental Unit, whose costs for 2 years are estimated at id 6,000. A further JD 3,000 is also allowed for additional monitoring in the investigation of complaints. The total estimated cost of monitoring is therefore JD 92,000. Assuming the PMT will be paid for the procurement of monitoring equipment as soon as it is obtained, and that a sum of JD 6,000 is paid for the Baseline Monitoring Report prior to construction, the balance of monitoring costs during construction is JD 27,000, equivalent to in 3 nnn for Parh of the nine ORPP MONITORING BY SUPERVISION CONSULTANTS Objectives Monitorinq by the Supervision Consultants will mainly be concerned with those dayto-day environmental issues that are largely restricted to the Contractors' camps, maintenance yards and other facilities. The nrime ohiective will be to ensuire compliance for the operation of individual items of plant and vehicles, and to ensure ther, - U I,,,, - o-4 Vf Ue,Iltk 3 da C n,f prs., A LI I~ ~U~LjU ~ 11J I= I ~L I I U I IL U.~UI I= LYPi I JL_q;U U I q- 8 3 years construction and 2 years operation monitoring. J0296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

275 Amman Deveiooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uvdate Programme The compliance to standards, including JS1054:1998-Motor Vehicle Emissions ff1hoci E=ngines), 7S1 18O:1QQ-A,ir Dnihi-ni-c Fa-nt C,^-inrom ClItiena, Sources, and h L.I.JL I...J, 1lI~%l J..JJ.4. J..' *A.. -t.' l I ILJ L. i (411.. L~LIWIlILJI y J4i L., LiL II% IL... Construction Equipment noise Limits cited in Table 12.1, shall be monitored at intervais not exceeuing 3 monchs. riant with a history of unreliabiilty will be checked at least weekly if the Contractor does not agree to remove it from site. The need for and effectiveness of dust suppression measures employed by the Contractor shall be monitored every day, as will the adequacy of traffic diversion signage and lighting, and security of sites against unauthorised access. Tn rnniiinrtinn with thp CAnfrort-nrcr the rc'nciilt-ant1-c VAill mo%nito-r t-he monthl!y consumption of materials including aggregates, hazardous materials, fuel, water and electuri cit Iy, thle disposal oflo surplus eaitpu.ha materials and ohl ler soulid and ilquio wastes. The Consultants shall also be responsible for monitoring all aspects of Health and Safety on site, including, but not necessarily limited to H&S signage, the availability and use of protective headgear and clothing, the occurrence of accidents and the potential for accidents in relation to general site condition Reporting The three Supervision Consultants shall report the findings of their monitoring in a pro-fuorma i'ormat, Identical foor eacil conslrucllion contlracts, to be submitted at each Monthly Contract Progress Meetings. A substantial proportion of the Consultants' reports will comprise a photographic record of site and activities. This will be particularly important in cases of noncompliance with the EMP requirements, where the Supervision Consultant or the PMT may wish to impose penalties, such as not paying for completed work until repnirpd rpmed1ia! a;rtinn- have been taken. 27 'I A 1e-;pInibillity Each of the three teams of Supervision COFnSuldFILs wiii appoint a suitabiy experienced person to be responsible for environmental issues. This appoinment is not expected to be full time, and the individual could be someone with environmental qualifications employed part-time, or an Engineer with environmental qualifications and/or experience who would combine environmental duties with those of another enqineering discipline. Terms of Reference for this appointment are given in Appendix E to the present report Supervision Costs The costs associated with the supervision of environmental issues by the Consultants will be included within the budget for the supervision of eacn contract. Staff costs, including support, are not expected to exceed JD 10,000 each year, JD 30,000 for each of the three construction contracts, making a total of 90,000 for all three contracts over 3 years /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

276 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update 12.8 ANNUAL ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTS The Annual Environment Reports (AERs) will include the information from the nrn.,tnf r i~ r n fdd r4nnfn -ta,k 4-k,+- frr. n 4-ha ~F-a +,ir-knft.+ft 4k.,. pi VILthre LI 1 e QI 1X0 L%j_LI II;I VILI I Lh I UL I ljl II Lr I m I LUI LI I Quarter of t Lhe year. These reports wiii be prepared by the PMT and will follow the indicative Table of Contents given in Appendix E to the present report. They will circulated to those agencies who received previous reports and other organisations, such as the Ministry of Planning, Ministry of Water and Irrigation and environmental NGOs as considered appropriate. Copies shall also be made available for public consultation. It is expected the PMT will use the services of its part time Environmental Specialist to prepare these rpnni-ts, and the cost is estimated at In 1in nnn g00 e ihr. I L I u I I L-e n-j-o'c Proj-ectL Thle Annual Environmental RIepot.s wili f0r thle basis UI onoi te Environmental Seminar. PruIU r 12.9 CULTURAL RESOURCES MONITORING Although no known sites of archaeological, historic or cultural interest are affected by the ADC alignmpnt, it is prudent to allow.for provisional CRM inputs to deal with any threat to known sites outside the ROW that may be subject to misuse or looting by construction CreIVvs, CnIIU I ii paliuoicular VILI ChIlance Findus, VwiciLhi YIVeIi t:e iuiiy habitation of the area have to be expected. The DA] have well documented and practiced Chance Find procedures with which Jordanian contractors are familiar. International contractors may be less experienced in countries with a rich cultural heritage and the opportunity to explain the DA] requirements is included in the proposals for institutional strengthening discussed in Section 13 of the present repnort Tni rnespect rof M DWAI r.ra4rf coprataion be-twe- t-ha M, -i-nt.n MIA It rion. 11 I L.JIF II VII pv i F`.J"i... `.` w~pt...j LJI 1 L/L V~ I Li 1% lia1l1 Y U IUIL L-Jrl.J UL I Ii.I l level is enshrined in a formal working agreement, under which the Directors of MPWH Dlstrict Offices are nominated as Liaison Officers for direct coordination between their District and the Regional Offices of DA3. The provisions of this agreement have previously been reported 9, but for present purposes the essential elements are reproduced below: a) The DA] Regional Inspector will contact the District Director of MPWH every monthl to receive in,iorriation oni-1 P-rjcLLs under study or being implemented; b) DAJ/CRM Office or DA] Regional Office will conduct site investigations and issue a Cultural resources Impact Assessment, including recommendations for site protection and the estimated sum needed to cover any expenses related to research, surface investigation and excavation; c) Archaeoloqical work will be conducted by DA] in close cooperation with MPWH Project Supervisor, the Contractor and the Engineer in order to avoid de.lays tn the nriprct a3nrd crnnstrucitinn zrhedule; d) If sites are found during construction that were not located during previous archaeological suruiveys, LconstLIULLILJII ImIUst be spll/jpeu, LIIth Le DA] J YIUeioaI 9 Final Report on the Amman Ring Road, Volume 2 Environmental Impact Assessment. Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners), J0296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

277 Amman Deveionment Corridor Environmental imoact Assessment Update Office immediately informed, and the importance of the remains evaluated by a DAJ Inspector; e) The representative of the MPWH District office will notify the DA] Regional Inspector sufficiently in advance of the impendhing opening of borrow pi.ts, quarries, access and detour roads, dumping areas, camps or storage 1aci,LILes, I// dlll'icill, VVILII the UUliIatLiUII_ o U!tiULICZt 9, 1o, 1-t adlu 10 of the Antiquities Law No. 21 of f) If archaeologicai features are found during the removal of structures, rocks or boulders, whose locations have not been identified by DA7, MPWH will instruct the Contractor to stop work and will inform the DA] Regional Office of the discovery. The DA] will evaluate the remains and decide upon the procedures to be taken in the shortest time possible. This agreement will be implemented throughout the construction of the ADC. Since the, maoit f Chance- Flnds will1 first' be ;identified by the construction crews, who LoIL11. I I IL,jwJ L/ Sy wji. L' i u IL`L'.. I 11 il"`~ vv ill II ~L LL 11 aw L'~ ILLI LJ LI IC L'J LLIVI -L I L-I 4 VV_W I I will be briefed to report to the Contractors' Site Foremen, it is proposed the CLLontractor immedia[ely infuorm tihie Supervision conssultdant, who wiii simultaneously inform the PMT and the DAJ. This will reduce the time delay before which the Find is first inspected by DAJ. If, following his initial visit, the DAJ Inspector believes the Find to be of significance and requires the cessation of work to continue, DA]/CRM office, MPWH District Director and PMT should again be informed simultaneously. Known sites of historic interest close to but outside the ROW and near off-site.facilities such as contrctonrs' camps, may be at risk from vandalism or general misuse. Such sites will be included in the site inspections undertaken by the PMT anu th Le DA]% VVII be CIIal I'ed in whk ere eviuence of udainage is IfundU. Copies of all reports on Chance Finds, incidences of vandalism and other site visits undertaken by the DAJ shall be submitted to the PMT for circulation. These reports shall be listed and a summary of CRM activities included in the PMT Annual Environmental Reports. The results of the CRM programme shall be also be rpnorted in the End-of Project Environmental seminar. The cost of PMT inputs to the monitoring of cultural resources is included within 44os Io Li lose f0r s sit~ it-e inspection. II I3J LLiV Thle I I I cos4t L~ of VI rda' L/lf.J Inputs II IUL is I expect, AI ~ L to LV total LVLI JL ID r%3,00 J J,VV, 101 toc_r each11 of the three years throughout all three construction contracts. This allows modest sums for the surface collection of sherds and minor salvage excavation. Additional costs will be incurred if a major site of interest is identified within the ADC ROW, but since all known sites are outside the ROW, this is not expected. 112=10 LAND ACOUISITION MONTTORTNG. Tree_ orm1ris ou f I.and acqu,s,tion monitorlng w ill ke undertaken: I II~ I 113 I IIIU U%LHUJIZILIUII IllVIILV III VIll 0 UIIU I L rii Internal Monitorina of LARP performance with respect to the effectiveness of the processes established and ultimately, the disbursal of compensation; Independent Monitoring of the processes and comrpensation; and, External Monitoring. J0296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

278 Amm,,an Developm,ent /iiiuiioii IL Corridor LU! lull! L~ev~,IJIJ,,c, Evrn,etlI,,,ac LUVII U! lci LCIIId IIIIIUdLL -L~I Ises,n U,,dat e LLIJUOLC Internal Monitoring Internal monitoring of LARP nrmmiinity Liaionn COfficpr (CL) (RPC). implementation will be undertaken by both the anri the Representatives of the PAP comminities The CLO and his support staff will: * Facilitate the work of the external and independent monitors through effective ricnrri Lkeninel and the nrennratlnn of nperiarloi Drniictr- Drogrscs Dnr%re,rs and, , -'. 4t JLi,I. - j I II!. I--, I~JI.. J I- - ]IJ ~ w LJI IA, * Monitor the progress of LARP implementation against predetermined pefourmance targets. The RPC will: * Drn%V1A aly a rn ingu Of I ADP DrIU4-- d C c diffl U11cu'ties and c ncerns- Can, * Ensure PAP concerns are adequately addressed by the CLO. The CLO and the RPC will jointly: * Ensure payments are made to the correct individual and as in the compensation agreement, a nd othier enti i tlementi s aire l a so m ade avalda,ui' e ci UI I IIeU independent Monitoring It is proposed to appoint an individual of high standing to act as an Independent Monitor, whose primary objectives will be: * To review compensation negotiation procedures to ensure all PAPs are receiving adequate support and appropriate advice from the CLO, and some are not disadvantaged by poor performance of the CLO or his staff; * To monitor response of the PAP community to the LARP procedures and to recommend any appropriate imdrovements: * To ensure appropriate compensation is paid on a timely basis. * Tn respond to complaints received over late or delayed payments or concerns over negotiation; and * Tro review th"e decisior,s ofi Lle CIompensation I RevIlew BrUoard anudi, If necessary, observe their proceedings. The Independent Monitor shall have the right to access all documentation held in a PAP file and to review any case he/she wishes. The Monitor will report to the MPWH, MoP and Funding Agencies. On completion of LARP implementation, the Independent Monitor shall prepare a report summarising his activities and presenting his comments on the procedures, highlighting any shortcomings to be overcome fnr other large construction projects in Jordan External Monitoring Progress in the implementation and monitoring of the LARP and associated mitigation measures will be reviewed as a key element of project supervision missions undertaken by the World Bank and other Fundinq Aqencies. These missions would include field review of implementation efforts and identification of 30296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

279 Amman Development Corridor Environmentat imrnact Assessment Update problems, which may occur. Review of LARP implementation will also be included in the Mid-Term Review and the Implementation Completion Report, which are prepared for all World Bank supported projects LARP Reporting The reporting structure for the LARP is discussed in detail in Section 8 of Volume 2 of the present submission For the first 3 months from the Date of Loan Effectiveness, the CLO will present a written monthly report on a contract-by-contract basis to the World Bank and other Funding Agencies as appropriate. For the second 4 months, the CLO will report to the Compensation review Board (CRB) month!y nnd in wa,rit-ing t the -II MAuning A i- I -nth-ks. For the remainder of the LARP implementation period, the CLO will report to tne CRB every 6 weeks and to the Funding Agencies in writing every 6 months. The written reports submitted to the Funding Agencies will contain summaries of the following on a contract-by-contract basis: 1. Progress on Land Acquisition; 2. Progress on the Disbursement of Compensation to PAPs; 3. Progress on the Acquisition of Residential Structures; 4. Progress on Acquisition of Non-Residential Structures; 5. issues Arising on Compensation Agreement and Disbursement; 6. Issues Arising in respect of Vulnerable Groups; 7. Community Liaison Activities; 8. The Management of Potential Risks, 9. Other issues on which the CLO wishes to report, 10. Summary of LARP Activities throughout the ADC An indicative format for these Progress Reports is given in Appendix E to Volume 2 of the present submission LARP Monitoring Costs The costs of internal and independent monitoring costs are included within the financial provisions.for I RP implementation and as such are separate from environmental costs. The external monitoring costs will be covered by the Funding Agece within their buadget fo r project, implementation. /%en Ies V it II Li LI I LJ UUU L HUH U ji L HIIIJ~ I IL L~ LIUI ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING No specific provision is made for Environmental Audits. The PMT will de facto audit the reports of the Supervision Consultants, and the MoE will effectively audit those of the PMT, inciuding th. Annual Environmental Report, which with the PMT Environmental Monitoring Reports will be made available for public consultation. Although the Funding Agencies are unlikely to undertake formal auditing, future missions during the period of construction will include members responsible for environmental issues. J0296/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

280 Amman Development Corridor Environmenral impacr Assessmenr UDdate SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REQUIREMENTS A ciimmarxy of enviirnnme'nta-! I I ~ ~~~7 -JS -IH mronit-rinri H**~I~ rnnnrt-inn HH. I -HH i I~~ and1 r-r-,ci-c J-4H L - Ht - ic vixenn LA _M i -. I - p. in ntabl! HV H -.. I -JH 1 I - w. and a full list of the environmental quality monitoring requirements is given in Table 1n.9 Table 12.8 Summary of Environmental Monitoring Reporting and costs Activity Reports Im ementation Estimated Costs R--- -t Individual Visit Transport from first Reoorts PMT ~~~*to J 40,000. n'ritn PM reporting to Other costs covered I Site Inspections Summary Reports MPWH by a payment of JD ntract. for each contract C_--"~n QPR.% Other costs to every 6 months Total Csu t: cll 940rm0 PMT EMP _Total_Cost:_JD_94_000 Budget. Equipment ID 53,000-. Transport Covered above. PMT reporting to Pre-Construction JD 87,000 to Environmental PMDTAI- -. nm,i JD 6,000 PMT EMP Quality Quarterly Reports.,. Construction budget. Monitoring Watler Quoali't Covered by a JD 6,000 to analyses t I of I _ -. payment ot JD 3,U(U MPWH budget for each QPR. P7ost- ru LLAJ Construction ILi Ul-LIUI JD 6,000 Totai Cost: ir) 9 0nnn Monitoring by Included in Monthly Supervision I JD 10;000 per I To each Supervision Construction consultants contract per year. Supervision Consultants Progress Reports reporting to PMT Total Cost: JD 90,000 contract Annua. I Annual Reports for [PMT renortinc to ID 10,000 ner vpar 1 To PMT FMP Reporting eachcontract MPWH and MoE Total Cost: 30,000 budget Cultural Resources n C Individual 'Chance DAJ reporting to JD 3,000 per year for all three contracts To PMT EMP Monitoring Find' Reports PMT together budget Total Cost: 9,000 PMT and Land acco.r... IIl¼J4H U -n... Acquisition LARP Monitor reporting Included in LARP To PMT LARP Monuisitoring imdlementation to MPWH. implementation costs budget Monitoring requirements FA Missioners _ l reporting to FA s 1ost- Internal MPWH 1 MPW I D 1000 per year for I To.. -_ ounstructun l Reports l trpullifly Lu Iirvvnrl 2years I Maintenance Inspections _ P Director of roads j_years_ _Budget Total Cost _JD 317, /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

281 Amman Developrnent orridr ienvironment-al Imnact As3sessment 0odate irable 12.9 FuLll List of" Environmental Quality Monitolring Requireimenits Project Phase Category IndlicatorS EXpertise Locati on Rsniii Method Duration siae ot Frequency Purpose RequirecdRsosblt siae oi Baselirne Th 3stsIse n Portable air, Over 1 hour, Air T Quality eiebcgon SC2, Pb, PM14 eore 1, TSP, ThualityesI i and noisele Itokrocoinciderce and NCix and CO ~~~~~~~~Table 12.4 and shown equipmentyn nofs wth AMncd 1 tirrie prior 'to Ccinditions against Environrnentalisi: with and NClx and CO ~~~in Figures 12.1 and a dlmnto peak taffi Conitionsib construction whilch to assess expenriece 12.2ise of field Nonise pproved patrfi on Amben N2semanufacture project Impacts imonitoring flows - The Wladi Al Llsh PH, Conductivity, Impoujndment: and Pm- Colour, vulnerable wells ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.1D 54,0100 CoPre uctionr Hydrocarbons, ~ ~ ~ vunrbewlsmpwh ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~mainly~~~~(ail ConstrLiction ~Chloride atnd Chlorine adjacent to off-site AWWA, WHO or To define background and PMT Rescourcedpuca) equipment Baselrine Water uality(not facilities other apprcivedpucae Water Quality ~~~~~~~~~Vulnerable wells standards cif apial) 1 cntuto tinrie prior to Coinditions hc oass against Environmnentalist: xeineo il with Conditions Faecal Coliforms (E.cohi) located adjacent to sarrnpling anid prcaleosruton w chto impacts Total Coliforms moneitoring and analysi off-site facilities aneilysis rjc mat oioigadaayi Total Suspended Solids The V/adi Al Llsh Dissolved Oxygen Impoujndment: All arase, botlli on and Visual and Site Clearance off site, to be cleared Descriptive, (Not 12 times each as part of ADC against a applicable) year construction Check List Visual and T nuecmlac niomnaitwt General Co.nstruction All sites associated Descriptive, (Not 6 tirries each wth emp,r generalc Enirxperene liof site Acitivity with ADC construction against a applicable) year sita M gndadsof alo construction andit Site Inspectior. Check List Practice' and that inspectionracice' andthat Batchng ad Ashalt All batching, aisphalt Visial and Plantchin Health aet ancd Aphl Safety are and awareness other processing of Health Des;criptive, (Not 12 timnes each adequately provided and Safety Plants, etc ~~~~plants; age'inst a applicable) year foir. requirements Check List Campand aintnanc Allcoritrucicincamp Facilities Visujal and ~all coiantruecnancam Camp Descriptive, and Maintenance and nsaintenance (Not agaiinst 4 timres each a applicable) year Facilities ~~~~facilities Check List ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Portable air Over 1 hour, NOx and CO ~~~~Table Conditions 12.2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~manufacture ConstrLiction ConstrLic Airt Qalit S02 Pb Mc S, The 13 sites listed in quzility and noise Air Quality to coincide EeToassthRexpeoriecedo 12.5 and shown equlipment of il I with AM Everymiagnitude of any Envirornnentalist with Amrbient Noise in. Fiue 21ad approved peak traffic motsp roject I mpa ct mno n ito rin g flows MspectiWnranandWH Pa P T JDTgJ494,00 The Wladi Al LJsh PH, ID 29,0010 Conduc-tivity, Impotrindmenl: and (equipment Colour, Hydrocarbcins, vulneirable wells AW A H rmpwih and PMT purchased Wate Quaity Chloride arid Chlorine adjacerit to off-site AWWAh apore WH (NtEe oasestetesourced Pre- Water Quality - ~~~~~~~~facilities teraproedtoassessthde Efay!nvironmientalist with Construction) Conditions FeaCoiVulnerable wells 'aclclforms (E.cofl)sailnad stanidards of (Notcab Everyth 3xeec project Impactexrineofel o il Total Colifc.rms ~off-site facilities analysis Total suspended Solids The Wadi Al LJsh Dissolved Oxygen ImpoLundmentl An-yof the Environm-ental At or ~n the vicinit of' - Quality pa rameters. listed To alstsfr fully investigate whihy all Resourced As appropriate for Investigation abov, depending cormplaints ijponthe and to Eniom tastwh Complaint abovhe, dauepo teniguo specific complaint has parameter ben oioe As necessary As necessary provide prpit thia basis for iiain Evrnetlswih experience of field MPWH and PMT jd 3,000 Investigation the nature of the been received begmntrdand/opriatemptig aton m'onitorinrg and ainalysis L corn plain an / rcnte s co J RJPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

282 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Imnact Assessment Upodate Project EXepertise Reponsibility Estimated Cost Phase Category Indlicators Location Method Dur-ation Frequency Purpose RequireclRe ConstrLJction CnrtoscmpiceExperiericed site (contnued)contractowtsadrds sompilnemp Contract Alstso an(i EMP with Standards All sites Primnarily of V sual an(i Descri ptive,comply Te ensure Contractors supervisor with Supervision reqluiremenits. Low construction endn d d ecitv, wiilh On-going Daily iawareness of StandrdsvndsEPnaniron9ent00an Contract Supervision numbers of in]uries to project related activity against a SadrsadEP evrimna n oslat WC rkers. Che-ck Ust requirements Health and SafelyCoslat js~sues All vulnerable sites As shiown to Te ensure no knowvn The lack 01' disturbance of ajcntoteac Visual and (Not be necessary' st sdstre l known sites ajcntoheac Descriptive applicable) by past st sdsubda Culturali ROW disturbances result of construction Heritag e For every Finid Tc ensure all n-ew ~~~~~~~DA] Inspector MPWH and DA] JO 9,00(1 The documrentationi of All previously unknown DA tnaddaj deem Finids are r-ecorded in Chance Finids rema ns unearthed DArostadards As necessary wotyf acrdneihda during constniction requirements ~~~~~~investigation The early identification of All lanids to be(t Tc provide early CZommuniity Liaison acquisition probleens acquired undler the Internal ( bncntnuus wanngdffppiepeeantaied is project fte monitoring MW n M applicable) difficulties fth Iersiiaie ncluded in PRAP community LARP The effectiveness- f- Over 200 dlays To review the Land acqthueffetivenpoess iif d Allrist eideedit (o spread acquisitioni procedures Person ef 'High mplementation Acquisiion ofcompensationacquired under the Ineedn Ntthrotughout sod ensure their Standingc Acquisition within the ofsbucompenstio MPWH project monitonng applicable) the dluration of efificiency and Communi1ty - - ~~~acquisition _ tran5sparency _ - The overall efficiency of All lanids to be ExenlDuring As required by To ensure the adoptedinlddwti acqluisition and acquired undler the Fudig the Funding poeue ofr -nigaec udn resettlement project monitoring Agency Aece to Funding Agency, Iissioners Agencies Funding Agency mission Agrifs requirements costs The sies 2 iste in Portable air, Over 1 hour, To assess operation AirQuality SC' 2, Pb, Pl'1 10, TSP, Air Qualityx Th 2stslse an n COTable quaility and noise 12.6 to coincide and shown Eey3Impacts,mincludingh Enesourcedtlstwt Conditions Amtbient Nos in Figures 12.1 and elimnof wtam monelhs urban env ronment eaxperience of field Dise ~~12.2 approved peak traffic resulting from the monitoring - manufacture flows pr oject- The Vladi Al Lish PH, Conductivity, Impoundment and the Colour, Hydrocarbons, Chloride and Chlorine nearest wells downstream iif road AWWA, WHO or Resourced MW I,0 Water Quality draina3ge outfalls other approved (NtEey6Tasssnylc Eviom tlstwh Condit ons Faecal Coliforms (E.coli) dow nstream ofroad stanpling aifd applicable) months teirm project impac.its experience of field Toctal Colifeirms dontemo od sriln idmonitoring and ainalysis drainalge outfalls anzilysis Post- Toctal suspended Solids The Wladi Al Llsh ConstrLuction Dissolved Oxygen ImpouindmentL The security of chemicals All MFIWH ADC To ensure the safe usedforthemaitennce maintenance facilities Visual Inspection 1 day Every 6 storage of chemicails Healt and f aisdcfrpte mlaintenanc Where such mraterials of sites ymonths in accordance with Health and of landscape planting are stored stalndard procedures E-xperienced Health and MW- Safety ~The methods of use and Throughout the ADC Visujal inspection Everen6userof themicals SaeyIspco aplplication of wherever sucn of rnaintenaince I day months us acordacheicawithjo200 horticultural chemicals chew cals are used crews mnh codnewt D200 standard procedures All sites subject to 3 timres eachladcprwt landscape planting year, dictated To ensure the planted experiencer wifthe Landscape The sustainiability of under the project, isainpcon dyby climatic ariaas are m-aintained exeinde ifwthe landscape planting including the planting Viia npcin Idyconditions arid and that any die-back 1 aintengance ofypubli to mitigate noilse at the girowing Is replacee marneas c o ub L _I the Sahab cemneteries I _ I _I seasons Iir a J RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

283 l ~UTION i I U L STRENGTHENING

284 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update &-%r-lrmr-ra- a. -k N T.a *6~. a.% a INTRODUCTION This Section of the EIA comprises the third and final part of the Environmental Management Plan and diicriiss the institutional strengthening and capacity building required to effectively implement the ADC project in general, and the illpactol imatmitigati-on II L~LU I and a U enirnena 1=1 lviii ll ltz ILcil.0 moioigreurdb I I IUI IILUI li ly I t=ljuli tu Uy acin DULLL)i lbii l an d U /1 I i I particular. Section 13.2 outlines the proposed institutional structure through which the project will be constructed and discusses the requirement for the building of capacity within the concerned organisations. Section 13.3 presents orooosals for trainino within the nroiect management structure, while Section 13.4 discusses external training to enable other orr,anieationn andi inriiiri 121e noti- rire+%iy connecte wlth im ea to benefitfrom the lessons learnt during ADC planning, design and execution. Section 13.5 summaries the proposals for institutional strengthening and gives an estimate of their cost ADC IMPLEMENTATION STRUCTURE The structure proposed for the implementation of the ADC and the supervision of construction is shown in Figure Each of the thr ee construction contracts, 1, 2 and 3, funded by the Arab Fund, the World Bank and the European Investment Bank respectively, will be awarded to different supervision consultants and construction contractors. The Project Proponent, the Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MPWH), will establish a Project Management Team (PMT) to manage and oversee all aspects of the project. The staffing of the PMT will include a Community Liaison Officer (CLO) to deal with a!! issuesn reltinn ton!antd aricqisioirn anrd resett!ement,i anrl who% wal be appolntedl J f. -. ~I -II JI I~ I J - -C t t. 9 L J - ti -. t t. I E -.E E.I It,~ ~ E I 1.. IY I Et VIII le U.. VY L J SI I I L..t from within MPWH's current manpower resources. Full details of the CLO's responsibilities Care pruesented in tihe Land tacqluisition and l\st=t=i_ementll ricanl. ithe original proposal of the 1999 EIA that CLO staff should be located in local municipality offices, where they would be more appropriately placed to deal with day-to-day issues affecting the PAP community, has been dropped. In respect of environmental issues, the PMT will be responsible for the execution of the Environmental Management Plan. Staffing will include a suitably qualified and experienced Environmentalist with annronriate stunnnrt staff whn will iindprt-ap the all monitoring and reporting, contracting out specific elements as necessary. The PMDT w.ill also reta-in the serv7cs of a part-t.ime Eromn Speca'is to, as-- I Ii VVIi U1 J I.J1%LLJii LI is..j%..1 V il.s.a.j1 LU UJI L Liii is. L.i lvii ' 11Ji ii 11i LU1.J ~ i~i LV assistl the Environmentalist and his team with the preparation of major reports, with 1 Presented as volume 2 of the present submission /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

285 Amman Develooment Corridor Envlronmental Impact Assessment Update training, and to generally provide Expert Opinion. While the PMT environmental staff will work closely with the Ministry of Environment they will not cirricmvent the responsibilities of the MoE, who under Article 3A of the 2003 EPL are... the r-nmnmff- athoriy-h.u-i,lr t-he H e r of erverorv,mriir 2 and under Jordnia l-w tlljlrii - - ly 'W L~II Vl LW S.~ILIL,II I L/I '..livii.'ii I II I ~LIL I. (4 Il IU UI lulji JUl LU II 1101I ICJVV are legally responsible for ensuring the EMP is implemented in accordance with the approveu proposals. Each of the three Supervision Consultants will also include an individual identified to be responsible for environmental issues. This will not be a full time appointment, but will either be achieved through the part time employment of an Environmental Specialist or by assigninq the responsibility to a full time member of the team who would be qualified to combine environmental duties with other aspects of ronstrutiroin qiintrvi-linn. Th I ee i implemni I I e I tation Ln structure issues is illustrated in Figure Pf/or L.AD i_implementatiion IIIin Ur tofiviiui ii ivo eailci -Ministry Ministry of Public Works I nofit and Housina I Environment I I Department of ADC ADC Antiquities Project Management Team 1 Supervision ] Supervision Supervision CsUILUI:nL CjOnsuIalt - Consul.an. Contract 1 Contract 2 Contract 3 Contractor Contractor-] Contractor Contract 1 Contract 2 Contract 3 Formal communication Informal communication Fiaure 13.1 ADC Implementation Structure The PMT is expected to be accommodated within the offices of the MPWH and Terms of Reference for the PMT Environmentalist and for those members of the supervision teams responsible for environmental issues is given in Appendix E to the present report. The PMT will maintain close liaison with a number of governmental and nongovernmental organisations, as recourse needs to be made to their individual areas 2 The full text of this EPL Article is given in Section of the present report. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

286 Amman Deveiopment Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Update of responsibility and expertise. In addition to the Ministry of Environment and Deoartment of Antiquities. shown on Fioure these will inc!ude hbut not necessarily be limited to, the Natural Resources Authority, the Department of Lands and SurvBeys, and all local municipalities and utility providers. nn a/c l - mn im i=i ntm r iii i n C-m * nflai iii. 1 j+~ nr xil t lueally, tile Environmental Section o1 ivirvvm woulud ue seconded to tne PMT bout its limited staff resources are likely to be fully occupied with other Ministry work being executed concurrently with the ADC. Notwithstanding this, ADC construction represents a major opportunity to build capacity in this Section. The Ministry is therefore expected to appoint new staff to be seconded to PMT, who, having received appropriate 'on-the-iob' traininq and experience, will go on to fulfil a similar role for the Ministry on future projects. Figure 13.1 also shows a link between the Contractors for Contracts 1 and 2. This is to permit, L if p Ki; HIIIL, 1 II ---propri3te, UppiL ICIJ coordination.ililliu ii in II the LiI~11IU production l L LiUI an' IU use of''cut' LO an' du 'fill' lii between the two contracts, as discussed in Section above TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR ADC IMPLEMENTATION Local Training All MPWH and PMT staff assnciated1 with the nroiect- together with staff of the Supervision Consultants and Contractors, will need to be made sensitive to the requirements the Lof 'nvirometa ManagemetI lai (L'P) ai tu LIle Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan (LARP), and the social background to the project. This will be achieved hrough a one-day seminar, presented by the PMT and given by either the team's Environmentalist or part time Environmental Specialist. Concerned parties from other Government departments, organisations and environmental NGOs could also be invited to attend, with the dual aim of obtaining their comments on the proposed implementation procedures and allowing the Ministry to-promote the vigorous procedures that have been introduced for the first time in Jordan. In addition, a half-day course on environmental awareness with specific reference 4-,.o 4-4.,- A r', 1-;.... i. - l r.-~ffat. re C - ~ AL_ r_. Li lhe ADC construction will be given by LI LTo stalu 01 LI ISupe[rvisioU Consultant and the Contractor at the commencement of each contract, and repeated at intervals as new or repiacement appointments are made. For tne purpose of costing, it is assumed this course will be repeated every 6 months, i.e. held 5 times during the course of a 3 year construction contract. On completion of the ADC implementation, the PMT will present a 2-day seminar to review the results of its activities throuahout the period of construction and initial operational monitoring. The most beneficial timing for this would be 6-12 months after the opening of the ADC. Included in this seminar, which should be supporfed by appropriate documentation, would include the following: For environmental issues: * The scope of PMT environmental activities; * Technical and managerial methodologies adopted; * Summaries of all activities, including site inspection, environmental auditing and environmental monitoring results, and traininq; * Cultural Resources Management and the DAJ's Chance Find procedures; J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

287 AmmIIIJan Deve/,llment Corriuor ErnvirL-nmenLVal if-ijdact Assessment Update * The advantages, disadvantages and lessons learnt from the chosen method of proiect implementation from the differing perspectives of MPWH, MoE, the supervision consultants and the contractors; * The value of PMT environmental inputs by comparing expectations against achievements; T lessons nhe learnt; * Proposals for addressing environmental issues on future large construction projects in Jordan. For land acquisition and social issues: * The scope of PMT land acquisition and social activities; * Technical and managerial methodologies adopted; * Summaries of all activities. includina discussion of the issues most freqnuentlv raised by the Public, and training; * The advantages, disadvantages and lessons learnt from the c method of project implementation from the differing perspectives of MPWH, supervision conslujibuli L dil thie LUtILFdLLUrs; DLS, the * The value of community liaison and PAP representation by comparing expectations against achievements; * The lessons learnt; * Proposals for addressing land acquisition and resettlement issues on future large construction proiects in Jordan. Staff from MPWH- PMT- MonF DAI; DL S anrd nthers involved in nrnioct will nartlak in this presentation. Invitees should include other staff from these organisations, from C ntu 1-11to, C,t,Oa C0-lasuitants n,nd not involved in t ADC A -e f."i.rom othiler Government agencies and from environmental NGOs External Training As mentioned, the opportunity should be taken to promote the vigorous procedures of Environmental Management adopted for the first time in Jordan, through the training of a wide variety of Government dedartment. municipalitv and NGO staff. Topics for which the ADC provides a significant milestone and from which experience shou!d be drawn for the benefit of a"! concerned Incde tri -k fro!owngaa,: * * Public Consultation in Project Design; Land Use Planning and Urban Transport Policy; * Monitorina Urban Transoort Pollution * Urban Noise and Air Quality Control; * Cultural Heritage Management on Construction Projects; * Socio-Economic Impact Assessment; m*ssigning Monetary Vdalues tluio Environmental andu Social issues In Cos.-benefi t Analysis. Such training will do much to inform those who are likely to be involved in the development of the ADC zone of influence in the years following completion of the presently proposed road construction. If the proposed Amman Corridnr Devlnopmpnt Authority or similar organisation to promote ADC development is set up during the currency of road construction, its salfi I a'so attn dllu the Lexternal training. as ai. is eapecelu, IL. I IVLn, LItI IULUIre training needs of the organisation will need to include similar topics. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

288 Amman Deveiooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Training for Post-Construction Monitoring On completion of construction and of the work of the PMT, members of the MPWH Environmental Unit will assume responsibility for the post-construction monitoring of air quality and noise. If not trained during construction, On-the-Job training will be given during the later PMT monitoring rounds. The cost of the trainer will already be covered within the PMT budget, and those of the trainees within normal MPWH budgets. No additional training costs will therefore accrue to the ADC project SUMMARY OF INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING REQUIREMENTS A summary of the training required to achieve the institutional strengthening and capacity building discussed alove are listied in Ira ble I.L 1. Tabie 13.1 Summary of Training Requirements I F ti~~ I I - -- I Fntimatiarf~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ T raining Course I Recipients Duration - ost Trainina for ADC Im alerentation EMP and LARP MPWH and PMT staff, and those 1 IEMP and LARP Provisions and Iconcerned from other Government I1dyIJ 0 Procedures departments, organisations and NGOsI Environmental Project a MoE staff and non-seconded MPWH 2 days ]D 2,000 Management Environment staff l 2,0 [Environmental Awareness and All supervision consultants and Half day l l Accountaoiiity contractors staff Reeatea twie yearly Invited parties to whom a review of End-of Project Seminars environmental and community 2 x 2 days JD 9,000 liaison activities miqht be relevant Total Cost of ADC Training I 3D 15,000 Possible External Training Topics in Project Management well represented by "ihe wi To be of. I As Provisinal undertaken for the ADC and municipalities, NGOs and others A Provisional renresenting milestones in likelv to he involved in the future appropriate Sum of _-- - o te topic 1,0 project implementation in development of the ADC JD 12,000 Jordan is proposed. The time of both for course preparation and delivery, except in respect of the Endof Project Seminar, will be covered from the PMT budget. No allowance has been made for the time of attendees, and the costs given above are essentially for the preparation of course materlal and, Wh[ere dpprupriale, for venue hire. Any external training will be subcontracted to protessional trainers or training institutions. Within Jordan, in addition to academic institutions, trainers can be obtained via the Jordan Environment Society, other NGOs such as UNDP and GTZ, from orqanisations such the RSS or RSCN, or from Government departments such as the MWI and DA] /2-RPT-ENV-01 REVO 13-5 March 2004

289 4 A 14 CONSULTATION

290 Amman uevelorimient Corridor Envfiro n td,,,enta; I(M!acd Ct b!iiw)l Uodate ECFT ON ;4 A ifliv IT LAI %IW T'%rIhA A TfVaJ I A ur%wmrmo O A IrWrLI AND CONSULTATION PROGRAMME 14.1 INTRODUCTION An extensive Information, Participation and Consultation (IPC) Programme for the ADC has been undertaken in four phases, as follows: -ri ~I ~OlILJIL-.copingI -4.~U I lur\ve *Pre-Feasibility ccoin cesin and R`e"v1iew; * Feasibility Stage Thematic Seminars, a further Scoping Session, Public Exhibitions and EIA Review; * Census and socio-economic survey of Project Affected Persons; and, * Socio-economic surveys, Scoping and Public Exhibition for the CDP, and EIA Update Review. Each of these four phases is discussed in Sections 14.2 to PHASE 1 PROGRAMME The first phase of IPC activity was undertaken during the Pre-Feasibility studies' and comprised 3 Scoping Sessions and 1 Scoping Review Meeting. The Scoping sessions were held in Amman, Zarqa and Fuheis, and attracted more than 220 attendees, as listed in Table Areas of Prime Concern Three areas of prime concern were identified for different Working Groups at each of' t he SDc opi n g ' Seions:- - - * Natural and Phvyira! Fnvirnnment; * Land Acquisition and Resettlement; and - C. 1 I4l I r. I knrit.~n.srnrl I Ir ork', Tee-, IA_. 1- ull-ur- K:lay 1 l, al -l IU %J1 LUI, I Issues. The Impacts defiiined by each group were trien classified, grouped, allocated a significance rating and tabulated to give an Impact Identification Matrix 2. In total, the nine groups identified some 300 issues, although as might be expected, many were, directly or in part, duplicated. The combined matrices produced for each section were considered to reflect the views and opinions of all the participants, but to ensure these had been correctly interpreted, some were presented at the Review Meeting for clarification. The issues derived from these sessions that had a direct bearinn nn thp ADC are rsjmmarised hplow. Pre-Feasibility Study for Amman Ring Road, Volumes 3 & 4. Dar Al Handasah (Shair and Partners), June EIA, Appendix P J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

291 Amr-nan Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment U(pdate Natural and Physical Environment Land Use: Improved access will encourage changes in land use and further loss of agricultural and range land. For Contracts 1 and 2 of the ADC 3, the participants in the Zarqa Scoping Session identified potentially positive impacts from industrial development in aril d areas reducing pirtessure on IareasI more I nt V t cl d. ThI Ifere VVws concern that pollution of agricultural crops by dust during construction and subsequent vehicle movement would reduce produce quality and potentiaily generate a threat to public health. Water Resources: Two water issues were of concern; the first relating to water demand during construction and for subsequent deveiopments, tne second to potential changes in flow patterns, potentially reducing ground water recharge and causing flooding and soil erosion. Ploll'utio..: ThIie negative Impacts of increased air pollution during construction, and from subsequent vehicle exhaust emissions within previously rural areas were also raised. Conversely, the benefits of reducing urban air pollution by removing heavy traffic from residential areas were also identified. Land Acquisition and Resettlement Land acauisition and resettlement issues wprp a cauis of murh ronnern anrd several factors; the present land compensation laws, historical mistrust between land owners aknd!oca! authokrit-iges t-rlba! LI va!ue I LJ and I IA LIL the '. sense Jl- of W.i identity- IU%LI~IIL ~ attached U LLcJI...I IU to LLI 1-nd c IU,IU combined to make these discussions the most controversial. Specific issues auuresseu included: Planning: The uncontrolled expansion of Amman and associated increased costs of services and unplanned development. Environment: Changes in land value and use will promote the loss of agricultural land and natural areas, and negatively impact upon wildlife and landscape. Econo.c:rChngen in landl va!uesm wi!! af,fect difp,pfern group of owners unequally. It will improve the value of some lands and reduce that of others, creating new oppor tunities, but also potentially causing damage to businesses. Current compensation law does not have the flexibility to deal with complex situations caused by different values and cannot deal with individual cases on their own merits. Small landowners feel threatened over the loss of land or change of use induced by the road. The Plenary Sessions generated additional comments and concerns, often strongly expressed, as summarised below: * The existing land acquisition compensation law is not fair. Particular concern was expressed over the 25% 'free land' rule and the payment of compensation at 'present' value rather than at the enhanced values after construction. 3 The original review of the IPC Programme, 1999 EIA, Section 13, was written in the context of ARR Sections 1 and 2, whereas the present Update refers to ADC Contracts 1,2 and 3. For the purposes of the present review of cornments Lull ll~~ I received 0L0IV~U fro 'lull' I IPp,-icpats irl- 1)0 LILA1O L,ILI itl is adequate ULUL to 1. record luiul that 101 Contract LIIlOI 1 an' IULI~~UI~ the southern I1010 half of Contract UII 2 of the ADC are roughly equivalent to ARR Section 1, while the northern half of Contract 2 and Contract 3 equate to ARR Section 2. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

292 Amman DeveloPment Corridor Envirouenrur IentldrLact Assessment Uudate Public consultation should be undertaken at all stages of the project and public concerns should be taken into account during design, construction and subsequent operation; a The political and financia! imrnications of the project as reflected in additional Government borrowing, and its effect on Balance of Payments, should be Li loroughuiiy assesseu; * Resettlement issues should be carefully studied to reduce social impact; * There is the need to promote investment and the servicing of existing industries, particularly in the areas adjacent to Contracts 1 and 2, and * Measures should be taken to minimise accidents and disruption to economic and social patterns of life during construction. Cultural Heritaae and Urbanisation Historical and Touri Tssues: Sites should be identified a appropriate preventive and mitigation measures determined. Contract 3 could change regional and local touristic values by scarringy dllaitive iandscdpes. Local Community members and NGOs were strongly aware of this and stressed the need to avoid such areas, to design the road in harmony with the environment, and to use natural screening with native trees. Urban and Social Issues: Issues raised differed between areas. In respect of Contracts i and 2, local community leaders reflected positive views in reiation to increased opportunities for social interaction, employment, improved access and better transport Findings and Recommendations One of the more significant findings of the sessions, clearly illustrated by the ranking of the most significant impacts 4, was the general recognition of the potential benefits of the project. With one exception, the high number of responses calling for other capital investments,hb, th distriutin U1 respurlses wds Uroadly that expected. For planning purposes, the Consultants identified three issues from the Review that would have most bearing on the development of the Environmental Management Plan.. Issues relating to involuntary resettlement did not appear to be viewed by participants as a major concern, in the context of which, four key points emerged: - Resettlement was not viewed as a direct project cost; - The existing regulations on resettlement were viewed as inadequate; - There was perceived to be no need to monitor resettlement, even with monitoring of other issues strongly identified as a preferred mitigation option; and - Information, research and consultation was ignored as a mitigation option. Overall, this would seem to suggest a somewhat sanguine view of resettlement. Whether this was a function of understanding that little or no resettlement EIA, Table EIA, Table /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

293 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai impact Assessment Upodae would be necessary, and therefore not a pressing issue, or was a correct interpretation of the broader view, could not be determined. * Notwithstanding this, project monitoring occupied a relatively strong position in the perception of participants, especially with regard to the natural environment. * Participants were generally of the view that there was sufficient existing legislation to manage project impacts provided it was effectively enforced. This was well illustrated in respect of land use and urban development, where for 8 of the 13 issues, enforcement, institutional reform or capacity strengthening was identified as a mitigation option. IA D.1ACC 2 )3 DDndIDAMM= The second phase of the ipc programme was undertaken during the 1999 Feasibility Study and comprised: * Two Thematic Seminars on issues of particular concern, cultural resources and socio-econimie, I IRas-AI-Ain and U SI cahab rutespectively; * A second Scoping Session at Zarqa to discuss two new components, the ZEB and ZTL, and the results of the 1998 session; * Project exhibitions, at Zarqa and Sahab, to which the public were invited through the media; * An Environmental Impact Assessment Review Meetinq held in the offices of General Corporation for Environmental Protection (GCEP) in Amman. The Technical Sessions and ZEB/ZTR Scoping Session attracted over 130 attendees, waihiei 1 ta npeoip vicis-it t-ke twao ehib,los VY II1¼ 4 *T j a.. *JL... LllP.. LVV'...N Ij^11W L.IW113. T he ls'ls oui atlendees to these events are given in Tabies 14.2 and i Thematic Seminars Cultural Resources Seminar The main objectives of this seminar were to:. Provide the archaeological community with information on the project and its present status; * Present the findings of the survey work that had been carried out; and * Discuss and receive comments on the initial Mitigation Plan proposed by the Archaeological Study and propose any other measures that participants felt were necessa rv T Ihe achi eve L ese o bjj,esl, glc31 Y gr Uups wver e idei If ieu LIII UUYIgI LUIIUILdLIUII with the main Jordanian archaeological NGO, the Friends of Archaeology, and others, who provided lists of agencies and individuals who should attend the seminar and who may contribute to the Mitigation Plan. The participants were each given a brief document on the background to the project and the Study, and a DAJ Cultural Resources Manager gave a presentation. There was aeneral consensus that sites should hp classified hoth in terms of their significance as archaeological and/or heritage sites, as well as in respect of the risk J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

294 Amman Develou,,,ent Corridor Environmental imuact Assessment U,,date imposed by the project. The following were identified as important factors in classifving sites and determining options for impact mitigation: * Cultural sites may not only be archaeological, but also sites of social and historic heritage of the communities; * Classification of site significance should not only consider the site as an individual entity, but rather as part of a broader entity that several sites might constitute: * Attention should be given to the total visual aspect of sites and the overall landscape to which sites contribute should not be disturbed; * The hope was expressed that sites affected by the project would be covered ailer they had been documented, rather than relocaling or destroying them; ano * There is a need for further assessment of the sites, since excavation may reveal a different view of the significance of a site. Socio-Economic Seminar The main objectives of this seminar were to: * Present an overview of the project and of the Public Participation and Consultation Programme. * Provide the local community with information on the Socio-Economic Study, its methodology and findings; and * Discuss and receive comments on the initial proposals for socio-economic impact mitigation; The target group 'or thue seminarid VVwas iudentifieu U1hroUY[h IYGjUs diu the IVIUIHILIdcillLy of Sahab. The principal conclusions were as follows:. Participants recommended expediting project implementation as they all bel._iq_ ILved was I VILAI'I th Lifo are * A committee on which the local community was represented should look into the compensation of affected individuals and groups;. The community should be provided with consultations during the transition period of resettlement; * The employment of local labour should be maximised; Service utilities should be repaired if damaged during construction; * Safe access should be provided for the affected communities; * Trees should be planted along the road alignment; * Create a link between the communities, MPWH and the Social Security Package (SSP) Programme at the Ministry of Planning, to serve the objectives of the project and the development aspects; * Formally approve and publish, prior to project implementation, land use plans to control ad hoc development and land speculation; * Initiate the new road with the vision of comprehensive development; * Create a mechanism for follow-up and evaluation of compensation, acquisition and future development; and * Study the compensation law Zarqa Scoping Session The main objectives of this session were to: 70269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

295 Amman Development Corridor Environmentai Impact Assessment Update. Present an overview of the Public participation and Consultation Programme conducted under the Pre-Feasibilitv and Feasibility studies: and. Follow up the first scoping session held in October 1997 and to present the prgeferren id a!ignmnt*i opt-ionn, askring nnrtlcipnnti Ito ls thei possm ib!ejin imrpantcts ini the light of the new information provided. The target group for the session was identified through NGOs, the Municipality and the Chamber of Commerce of Zarqa. The principal comments of the participants included:. The Zarqa Through Link was important as it will decrease traffic congestion inside the city and allow for better distribution;. Many participants believed the Zarqa Eastern Bypass should take the more easterly rout option, where it would serve expected future development; The Zarqa Development Plan should be taken into consideration in deciding the final route;. The proiect should learn from previous experiences and mistakes in regard to access, lighting, service areas, safety, and other issues; and Participants had questions on the compensation law in respect of the '25%,/o rule' and on road tolls Sahab and Zarqa Exhibitions In order to provide information to as many stakeholders as possible, public exhibitions were held in Sahab and Zarqa. They were announced in the local Press and display boards were prepared in both Arabic and English to cover the background to the project, its status, the preferred alignment and the various alternativep that hadr heen cnnsirdererl Attendee in!dn me~r,, mbe-r of the Municipality, local dignitaries, the general r~l~ii¼l~~ I I..AJ¼JI I~III~ I LJI VI LI II- 1-i I I Lil, I L I uy IILI IE LlIE E l public, and representatives from NGOs and private sector organisations EIA Review Meeting The review meeting for the EIA was jointly organised by MPWH and GCEP to bring together key representatives of project stakeholders, Government departments, NGOs, municipality officers and the potential Droiect financiers, to review the Assessment findings and recommendations, and to contribute to the development of the final Mitigation Plan. 25 indiviiduals representing 13 different agencies attended, as listed in Table The consultants provided a broad overview of the project, a summary of the Technical and Economic Feasibility Report, and a review of the EIA findings. Participants limited subsequent discussion to the following issues:. The emergency procedures associated with the road and accessibility to emergency fac-cil'itie-s; * The extent of the landscaping proposals; * Maintenance of access to properties; * The need for planning in the immediate vicinity of the road alignment; and * The impact upon drainage patterns and proposals to minimise erosion /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

296 AmIIman Develorviment Corrldor Envirou,,,enta;l Imoat Assess,,,ent Uridate The lack of an Ecological Survey was viewed to be a significant shortcoming and was considered necessary if the Environmental Assessment was to be considered complete. This study was subsequently undertaken. Beyond this, most interest centred on the st;tait of the proiect and the extent to which the recommendations of the EIA report would be incorporated into engineering design and Contract documentati on The matrix produced to identify the overall mitigation strategy for priority issues, as discussed at the Review meeting, is given in Table PHASE 3 - PAP CENSUS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY The Project Affected Persons (PAPs) census and socio-economic survey to identify f-k -~ F.,4n -4. -fl 4-- A.nin A4kA- n -n-;ii* A 1- tlhose aif,fecltu e IU t LU creatce I a database oif potentilally impactedu plots were completed in September Details of the owners, users, and all physical structures and other assets within each plot were surveyed, documented and entered in the database. The Terms of Reference for this work had previously been defined 6, the basic elements having been drawn from the results of the public consultation and information programme undertaken during the Pre-Feasibility and Feasibility studies. Four types of community consultation meetings were held: * Meetings with representatives of local government, Mayors, elected members of LIthe II UHIILIVOIILIes aidii %ojvri I I III raimiii I0an, Z..arIqa, SaiIhab and MUHAUaUdaba. Thiese were organised at an early stage to facilitate local authority support and to establish initial contacts;. Meetings with representatives of communities in villages and scattered settlements along the route alignment, with separate meetings for women members of each community;. Meetings with concerned government officials, women's' leaders, representatives of NGOs and Army officials; and * Meetings with tribal and family leaders that have a high number of land holdings and tribal ties within the proiert aff.ertedr areas than LMore 25 metig weehl uring t1he survey, abiout llailf bueing Specifically for women in the directly affected communities. Community-based meetings helped trhe survey team obtaln information on PAPs, and the communities to Detter understand the objectives of the survey. On the basis of the original 60 m Right of Way (ROW), the total number of affected plots was 418, for which there were, as detailed in the Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan (LARP) 7, 1544 owners and an additional 57 users. In August 2002, the IAPP was uinated to take account of MPWH's decision to extend the ROW to 80 and any changes in ownership over the intervening four 6 Feasibility Study for the Amman Ring Road Phase 1, Volume 3, Appendix A. Dar and Handasah (Shair and Partners), September Final Report for Amman Ring Road, Volume 3 and Appendices A-G. Dar Al-Handash (Shair and Partners) September /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

297 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update years. The number of affected plots was reported 8 there were 1776 affected owners. to have risen to 467, for which As part of the present EIA Update, the I APP has again been updated to take account of minor, but numerous changes in the final land acquisition requirements on completion of Detailed Design. The f'inal requirements, with up-to-date estimates of compensation requirements, are given in Volume 2 of the present submission PHASE 4 - PUBLIC CONSULTATION FOR THE CDP AND EIA UPDATE REVIEW Public consultation in respect of the relocation of the Al Juwaidah Customs Depot and the development of a new inland logistics port is generaiiy roliowing tre structure of that undertaken for the ADC PAP Census and Socio-Economic Surveys at the CDP Site Following formal adproval of the proposed CDP develodment by the Cabinet on 23rd November 2003, the necessary work to identify the owners and uses of the lands to be acquired was niit in hand. A census and socio-economic survey of the Project Affected Persons on the new CDP site, primarily the landowners and existing users, Ihas recently bueen completied. Tiri e results will bue useu tluo deiine tle CDP LARIP, which will be presented as Volume 3 of the present submission, in the same format the ADC LARP. The CDP LARP wiii be available during March With the PAP community now fully identified and informed of the Government's intention to purchase their land, a Public Exhibition and Scoping session for the CDP site is currently being prepared and is expected to be held in Amman during March DAD Su y a Al 1uhKA,^aA Clearly, the most affcted Lucomunitieb LU be irmipacted by the relocatlion of the existing Al Juwaidah Customs Depot are those associated with the present facilities. Three separate project affected communities were identified:.cfrff -.JLtClI n4a Alr.-+ir+ I c rvf ^f 4-kno Mrpm-; I Ul 1 U l KI GL_L UJOJI J 1J1 Li IG L_1%J..JV L, Service providers that operate in the vicinity; and * Local residents. A socio-economic survey encompassing all three communities was entrusted to the Centre for Strategic Studies at the University of Jordan and undertaken during September and October 2003 on the premise that the CDP was to be located km from Al Juwaidah, without divulqinq the exact location of the proposed site. In total, nearly 300 valid questionnaires from structured, semi-structured and randomly sampled.fare-to-fare interviews were returned. 8 Deign and Financial Feasibility Studies for Amman Ring Road. Draft Final Report. Dar al-handasah (Shair and Partners), September /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

298 Armrmrran Deve,ourrmen Corridor Erlviro,,nrrentaL lmpact Assessrrnent Update Depot Staff and Direct Users This group included: * Employees of the Customs Authority;. Other Government employees, representing other aspects of import/export permitting, such as security, health and agriculture;. Representatives of shiorina and clearance agencies; insurance hrokers and others whose routine place of work is the Depot, although they may have offices * The general public who visit the Depot to clear their personal goods. This group provided 121 valid responses, of which 57 were from employees of the Depot. Business and Service Providers Over the years, many businesses have been established to benefit from the proximity of the Dlpt.n These nrimarilv include the offrics nf freirght- fnrwanrdesrc vehicle repair workshops and food outlets. Prior to the survey, a census identified 1L81 separate ent eir I I sj S Ces Ii the immediate VILIIlLY VI Lio LILJUL LIlhL mayhave 111ot It wholly or largely dependent upon it for their customers. During the subsequent survey, 40 of these businesses were found to have already ceased trading or their premises were permanently closed, and a total of 116 valid questionnaires were returned for this group. Local Residents Two areas of residential development were irln-ifi to be iufihi c to t Depot to somehow be influenced by it relocation and any consequential impact upon adujjacent busineses. A t0tal Of 55 valld responses was obtained from this group. The results of all three surveys have previously been summarised in Section of the present report EIA Update Review Following submission of the Draft Final EIA Update, it will be formally presented to the Ministry of Environment Approvals Committee, whose members represent a wide range of interests and who may invite other parties to attend as they feel would ap be rlte. ii his pi e-resentation an' the Review is expected to be completed during March Ubee 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

299 Table 14.1 Attendees at the Pre-Feasibility Scoping Sessions Amman coping Session Abdulla Abu Awali Jehad Adham Vera Khasho Dennis Forrneau Munther Bseiso Abdullah Muqattash Amiad Said Michael Jordanou Munir Adgham Nabii Ghawi Peter Speight William Sharples Brigitte Baumer Yasin Al Zu'bi Mahmoud Akram Al Tal Fernando Garcia De los Fayos Husni Olama Khawla Fayyad Mu'taz Al Taher Salim iad'oun Ibrahim Ghandour Hazem Fatayer Irfan S. Arar Brigitte Baumer Mohammad ismail Adel Zureikat Ghaleb Masarweh Zaid Al Kilani Mohammad Ayesh Rania Abddei Khaieq Ziyad Alawneh Suheir Jaradat Ali Hussein Daifalla Al Abadi Feryal Nu'airmi Tharwat Ziad Abbas Kalbouneh Ahmad Abu Hijleh Abdel Fattahi Toukan Nizar Al Abedi Tareq Ashour Walid Abdel Wahab Fairouz Mas'oud Mahmud Abu Setta Mahmoud Abdel Mo'tty Munth'ler Bselso Abdulla Telfah Mohammad Khabshura Khaled Khamaiseh Yousef Batshoun Abdei M aj;id A i Kat,a, n, Ahlam E'wais Ahmad Zu'bi Bashir Jaghbeer Habes Abu Innab Imabe Rabuhina Aqaba Region Authority Arab Engineers Association British Embassy - ODA Commercial Attache/French Embassy Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Dar Ai-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) GTZ/German Agency for Technical Co-operation EIA Unit/Al Azraq Project jordan Engineers Association European Commission Delegation Facilitation Team Facilitation Team Facilitation Team Forwarders Association Syndicate - Chairman Friends of Environment Society General Union for Voluntary Societies Greater Amman Municipality GTZ/German Agency for Technical Co-operation jordan Armed Forces/Royal Engineering Force Japanese International Co-operation Agency (iica) JETT Jordan Express Tourist Transport Co. Jordan Institution for Standards and Metrology Jordan Environmental Society jordan Environmental Society Jordan Environmental Society Jordan News Aaencv "PETRA" Jordan Television Jordan Television Jordan Television Jordan Television Jordan Water Authority/Ministry of Water and Irrigation Jordanian Society for the Control of Desertification jordanian Society for the Prevention of Road Accidents Jordanian Society for the Prevention of Road Accidents Jordanian Society for the Prevention of Road Accidents Al Esra' University Middle Region Development - Director Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources Ministry of Health Ministry of Higher Education Ministry of Planning Ministry of Planning nistry of Public Works ana Housing Ministry of Public Works and Housing Ministry of Public Works and Housing Ministry of Public Works and Housing Ministry of Public Works and Housing Ministry of Public Works and Housing tillall ira,,, p.o. rim- 1130L Y I Ul AV VuL,,L I 3Cli IU fivu-u11l Mohammad Hamdan Ministry of Public Works and Housing Mohammad Ma'ay'a Ministry of Public Works and Housing Sami Halasah Ministry of Public Works and Housing Tayseer Al Kayed Ministry of Public Works and Housing Wvafi FCUuoiU MIIIIIIry Y fl ruu ublic vvrks I cd Uiiuusing Walid Ishruq-Laban Ministry of Public Works and Housing Bassam Nweiran Ministry of Tourism Zuhair Hattar Ministry of Transport Dr. Awni Taimeh National Centre for Agricultural Research & Transfer J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

300 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update of Technology Husam Taher National Electric Power Co. Al Kherf I an N'atural Resources Authority Ibrahim Al Rawashdeh Natural Resources Authority Katsufumi Matsuzawa NIPPON Koei Hasan Sbri Al Ustah Queen Alia Fund Lara Arjan Regional Env. HUB/US. Embassy Hame' Ajarmeh IRIoyal Scientific Society Adnan Budeiri Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature Khalid kilani Traffic Department Ibrahim Ghazwi Trucks Owners Union Ghaleb Bashayreh Eid Kefay ah UNIFIED Co. for Transportation Un itednaton Development Programme Dr. Yousef Masannat University of Jordan Dr. Musa Shteiwi University of Jordan George N: Sibley Regional Environment Office/US. Embassy Abdullah Ahmad USAID StLa Khawla Hamdan Majid Kawar i IIIUdL USAIDA Climate Change Project Jordan News Agency (PETRA) Zarqa Scoping Session Sa'diya Khalil Amin Fatima Oassad Taj Ed Deen Sadeq Ali Al Momani Mike jordanou Jihad Sha'lan Akef Al Ma'avtah Jawdat Ramiz Waleed Fraij Ibrahim Taqi Ed Deed Adnan Zawahrah Mustapha Moh'd Salma Yousef Al Hamid Ekrayem Salim Awadat Amjad Said Munir Al Adgham Abdullah Muqattash Salma Al Ghuweiri Abdel Karim Al Abbadi Mahmoud Salah Al Hamadin Mohammad Fayyad Basheer Al Jaghbeer Habis Abu Innab Abdel Majid Al Kabariti Zahi Raia Abdel Latif Al Qurashi Mai Hikmat Marji Nabil Ghawi Husni Olama Khawla Fayyad Mu'taz Taher Chemical Engineer Business Wonmen Club Newspaper Photographer Mayor of Al Hashimiya Dar Ai-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Ministry of Public Works and Housing Member of Zarna Munirinalitv Council Member of Zarqa Chamber of Commerce Member of Zarqa Chamber of Commerce Chairman/Zarqa Chamber of Commence General Manager/Zarqa Chamber of Commerce Director/Chemical and Environmental Studies/Jordan Phosphate Co. Research/Graduate Studies/Jordan University Municipality of Dhuieil Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Consultative Council/Zarqa Governorate Col. Jordan Armed Forces Member of Zarqa Municipality Council Member of Zarqa Chamber of Commence Secretary General/Ministry of Public Works and Housing Ministry of Public Works and Housing Ministry of Public Works and Housing Ad Dustour Newspaper Al Arab Al Yawm Newspaper Municipali and Rural Affairs and the Environment Directorate/Zarqa Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Facilitator Facilitator Facilitator Evon Sahawneh PuI Uic WorkYVIs andu Housing Directorate/Zarqa Isma'il Musa Al Ahmad Technical Consultant/Russeifeh Municipality Yousef Harb Naser Assistant Director/Zarqa Public Works and Housing Directorate Mahmoud Ahmad Zyoud Um Al Slaih and Ghraisa Mubnicipality WVVafI vvaa a' H-adadin uauuauri I ~ Miis Ill0l-LI Y u1 C Pulc ruu, -of IYV -Works- Ivv dis c -n nuruubi, osniy Ahlam E'weis Ministry of Public Works and Housing Mikhled Zyoud UM Al Slaih Municipality Mohammad Sa'id Jalajel Military Housing Corporation Directorate Nadia Bushnaq General Women Federation Hisdilam Al amail Lutfi Al Zein Ayoub Abdel Qader Ali Abed Abu Hammad Peter Speight JUorUdan Environment Society Jordan Environment Society Sahab Municipality Sahab Municipality Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

301 Mahmoud Smeierat Asma' Alawi Al Khalayleh Adnan cafa,au Mohammad Fayyad Environment Engineer/Jordan Oil Refinery Co. Arab women Organisation/Zarqa rlirnit of Publc Works an,' HoasU /Sect,on Head Central Region Roads Member/Zarqa Chamber of Commerce ruhi-eis Skopling Siessio11n- Peter Speight Mike Jordanou Amjad Said Abdullah Muqattash Mohammad Ghuneimat Ata Smeirat Jamal Barham Qamwa Ahmed Al Nimer jamal Yousef Khraisat Tawfiq Al Habashneh Ni'mat Abu Taleb Adeeb Akroush Samir Ni'mat Ibrahim Al Qammaz Ahmad Rousan Nawwash Harb Habis Abu Innab Zaid Ziyadat Manal Moh'd Abdel Salam Tamam Shibli Samir Al Awamleh Wadad Adas Sa'ed Fa'ouri Ahmad Subeih Jamil Hattar Adnan Tabblat Farid Mnaizel Ghada Abu Jamous Ellen Smeirat Manal Fuqaha' Muhsin Makhamra Jihad Sha'lan Mohammad Sha'ar Ibtisam Atiyat Nazih Sweis Marwan Saleh Talal Abu Orabi Ola Al Bakhit Nayef Qasem Awamieh Abdulla Abu Alim Hisham Ahmad Qudah Nihad Smeirat Siham Mada'in DhIahIIer Hattar Jamal Issa Hattar Michael Aranki Fawzi Tu'eimeh Salma Al Salman LaiiOa Aml Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Ein Al Basha Municipality Public Notary/Smeirat Clan Physician/Fuheis Health Centre Chairman/Jordanian Society for the Prevention of Road Accidents Director/Youth Department/Baiqa Director/Balqa' Water Department Principal/Sult Girls High School RSCN/Fuheis RSCN/Fuheis Cement Factory Co. Director/Public Awareness/RSCN Sult Education Directorate Director/Survey and Acquision/MPWH Principal/Mahes High School Teacher/Mahes Girls High School Librarian President/Jordan Environment Society/Sult Researcher/Social Research Team Ein Al Basha Municipality Water Authority/Baq'a Plant Secretary/Fuheis Insitutions Jordan Oil Refinery Co. Chairman/Orthodox Charitable Society Chairwoman/Mahes Society jordan Environment Society/Fuheis Public Awareness/RSCN Professor/University of Jordan Head/Land Acquisition Section/MPWH Teacher/Mahes High School Researcher/Socio-economic Research Team Qasr Al Hummar Manager Water Authority Mayor/Um Ad Dananir Local Community Suit Municipal Council Director/Public Works Directorate/Balqa Sult Muncipal Council Municipal Council Member Deputy Mayor/Fuheis Municipality Ai Hattar clan Puruuic Notary Jordan Environment Society/Fuheis Landowner Member of Parliament Al Mahd Co-operative Society 101 nnl. AsIt Princ IpIaOI/R ouu I I S.01.1 Lamia' Halasa Awwad Sha'ban Attiyat Izzat Arabiyat Nabil Ghawi Zi ad Adi Ses Ehia Mo'hd Arabiyat Salameh Al Hiari Kamal Jureisat Hulas h im MAad II0 a'!n Akef Sweis Fraih Ziyadat Haitham Nahleh Najah Abu Hazim I 111J Il I COtI. ICI SSI...JL IUUI Principal/Modern Fuheis School Sult Municipality Council Member Suit Municipality Council Member Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) usnssa Sult Municipality Council Member Agriculture Engineer Cement Factory Consultant for Environment and Mining Teacher-_ Akef Industrial Co. Fuheis Municipality Council Member Balqa' Governorate/Municipalities Director Jordanian Women Federation/Balqa' 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

302 Amman Development Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Updar e Antone Diyat Mayor of Fuheis Farouq Jreisat Contracting Co. Kliawla Fayyad Faciiitator Abdel Hafiz Arabiyat Sult Municipality Yousif Barbour Sult Municipality Abdel Rahman Al Hiari Sult Municipality Tareq Al Farah Jordan Environment Society IMu wvaf1f3.q Ziyad4at 'ord4an Enrivironment Society Sami Halasa Roads Studies Director/MPWH Iman Ramahi Section Head/MPWH Wafa' Haddadin Engineer/MPWH Ahlam E'wis Engineer/MPWH Fu'ad 0141ada',n JA Izdihar Society Husni Olama Facilitator Hu'taz Al Taher Facilitator Fakhrn Smeirat President/Jordan Environment Society/Fuheis Awni Smeirat Ministry of Foreign Affairs Moh'dK a,mchmud4 Shar,'a.41-1 I ul uead,'. I I raffic III Section/Balqa' 4 LLiU Ij LJIJ Police r ll 1 Directorate 21 OL LO Moh'd Madi Al Abbadi Mayor of Mahes Abdel Karim Moh'd Jarrar Director Fuheis and Mahes Treatment Pant/Water Authority Munir Al Adgham Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Nr1iha-1 l ul 5014 Ghassan 1 Smeirat 1011 I0~lI.l VIC KAember/Fuheis KAunicipal llc 1/f Eu, li~ Council 1IIILl0.. I Munther Akroush Director/Planning and Studies/Natural Resources Authority Nimer Sweis President/Tali'a Society/Al Sweis Issa Hassan Public Notary/Ad Diyat and Al Hasasneh Afaf Mada'in Al Izdaihar Society Hanna Al Salman Women Committees Table 14.2 Attendees at the Feasibilitv IPC Sessions Ras Al Ain Cultural Resources Nabil Ghawi Dar Ai-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Mike Jordanou Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) Habis Abu Innab MPWH Basil Haddadin "Turab" (NGO) Lola Infante Instituto Cerrantes Ailison Mcqitty British Institute at Amman for Archaeology & History Leen Fakhouri Friends of Archaeology (NGO) Khawla Favvad Freelance Consultant Ahmad Shami Antiquities Dept/Madaba Ahmad Ajaj Antiquities Dept. of Jordan Rama Kilani Friends of Archaeology Mohammd Najjar Antiquities Dept. of Jordan Amjad Said Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Mohammed Waheeb Antiquities Dept. of Jordan Shan Tsee Antiquities Dept. of Jordan Mazen Fa'ouri MPWH Munir Al Adgham Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Niveen Zreiqat Jordan Environment Society Hala Obeidi Arab Women Organisation Adeeb Abu Shmeis Antiquities Dept. of Jordan Akt harmi Al AUUadUi Ali Da'ja Quteiba Dusouqi Ghazi S'oudi Particia Bakir Zeiduan Ka,'afii Manal Al Hindi Munzer Al Kharouf Iman Ramahi Wafa Haddadin ALUedei Samnee Shireen Obeidat Abdul Rahim Wreikat Ma'en Shreideh MntiqUi1s Dept. of JoIUdiI Antiquities Dept. of Jordan Antiquities Dept. of Jordan RSCN/Friends of Archaeology Freelance Consultant Yarmouk University Petra National Trust Petra National Trust MPWH MPWH MPWH Recycling Project Jordanian Society for the Control of Desertification Private Sector J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REVO March 2004

303 Amman Deve/,ome,,nt Corridor Envir nmientai I I,,PacL Assessm,,ent Update Sahab Socio-Economics Seminar Abdulla Rashdan MPWH Hmoud Awwad Al jeeza Municipality Yahia Ahmad Hassouneh Al Moh'd Khalaf Sahab Municipality Dhuheibeh Charity Society Dr. Musa Shtewi University of Jordan Mqater Shaher Khraisheh Local Community Nassar Moh'd Salem Local Community Mahmoud Shalabi Local Community Fahed Odwan Al Jeeza Municinality Harbi Arabiyat MPWH Ibrahim Abu Hamda JES/Sahab Fatima Maharmeh Hafsa Bint Omar School Ali Moh'd Khlaif Dhueibeh Club Hazim Al Hardan Local Community Eid Ta'amseh Local Community Misleh Eid Ta'amseh Local Community Omar Ali Mahmoud Maharmeh Sahab Cultural Forum Affash Al Bakhit Al Fayez Libban Municipality/Mayor Abdel Razaq Ad Dibes Govt. Emnlovee Yousef Hameed Study Team Member Ahmad Mahmoud Abdel Hadi Local Community Othman Abde Hadi Businessman Mahmoud Zyoud Um Sleih and Harisa Municipality Abdulla Suleiman Abbadi Libban Municioalitv Sam'an Fakhouri Libban Municipality Khalaf Suleiman Farmer Dr. Fayez Suyyagh Ministry of Planning Mutlaq Moh'd Sakran Farmer Amiad Said Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Saleh Al Jbour Member of Parliament Husni Bal'awi JES Nabil Ghawi Dar Ai-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Aref Mkazi Al Jarbee' Local Community Basil Aref Al Jarbee' Local Community Wafa Haddadin MPWH Adnan Safadi MPWH Mashari Za'ai Al Fayez Local Community Majid Mashari Al Fayez Local Community Ibtisam Abdullah Hafsa Bint Omar School Ali S'oud Ar Raqaqd Abdaliyeh Municipality/Mayor Husni Suleiman Labour Directorate/Sahab Moh'd Obeid Dar Ai-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Munir Al Adgham UNDP Abdulla Muqattash Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Khawla Fayyad Freelance Consultant Addab Moh'd Jbour Dhuheibet Ad Dahham Society Ahmad Qudah Dar Ai-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Sah Abu Jassar Al Hashmyieh/Sheikhs Ibrahim Salem Al Jeed Al Hashmyieh/Sheikhs Moh'd Salem Al Zuheir Local Community Yousef Fares Hassouneh Businessman Hamad Odeh Al Jaber Sahab Municipality/Mayor Ali Hussein Al Hourani Sahab Municipality Sami Halasah MPWH Khalaf Al Maharmeh Local Community Second Zarqa Scoping Session Munir Al Adgham rar AI-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Khawla Fayyad Freelance Consultant Amjad Said Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Mike Jordanou Dar Ai-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Nabil Ghawi Dan (-,ihqn Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Wnr!Id Rank Mahmoud Abdelhalim Saleh Chief of Traffic Sectin/Russeifa Nadia Bushnaq General Federation of Jordanian Women/Zarqa Fatima Qassad Business Women Club Dr. Hisham Al Jughl JES/Doctor's Association Abdel Majid Ai Khabanrt! MPWH Sami Halasah MPWH Iman Ramahi MPWH /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

304 Arnan Devemoar,uient Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Samih Mas'ad Municipality of Zarqa Rafiq E'weis Ministry of Agriculture Basil Abbadi. UntAl rv Zarqa Dlirecorate Marwan Qudah Zarqa Health Directorate Moh'd Said Jalajel Military Housing Corp. Musa Odeh Ministry of Agriculture Evon Sahawneh MPWH/Zarqa Directorate Kraim Al Awadat Dhuleil Municipality/Mayor Yousef Moh'd Abu Mhareb Dhuleil Municipality Muna Safuti Shreim JES Peter Speight Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Amjad Ahmad Zawahra General Union of Taxi Owners Kame! Jadalta Sunna' Jordan Phosp h.ate Mining CAo. Nidal Samarah Municipality of Zarqa Wafa' Dabbas Ministry of Planning Moh'd Smeirat Jordan Phosphate Mining Co. Hamad Odeh Al Jaber Sahab Municipality/Mayor Ayoub Abdel QLacler Abu isma' l Sahab Municipality Turan Hazar World Bank/Consultant Mahmoud Fadel Khleif Um Sleih & Harisa Municipality Nabil Asfour Jordan Phosphate Mining Co./Russeifa Mine Subhi Da'ja MPWH/Zarqa Directorate Mu'tasem Muhaisen Militar-, Housing Corp. Moh'd Nabil Jayousi National Electricity Co. Lutfi Yousef Directorate of Agriculture/Zarqa Walid Frai3 Zarqa Chamber of Commerce Rushdi Al Khatib Jordan Tannery Co. Hasan Mahmoud Abu Hwaidi Dhu!eil Municipalit, Abdel Rahim Ahmad Hamclan Al Hashimiya University Eid Tarazi Al Hashimiya University M.D Taha Sultan Murad Sukhna/Zarqa T. Wolden World Bank Zarqa Public Exhibition Khawla Fayyad Ayman Salim Kamel Al Khaiayieh Saleh Al Hamaydeh Samer Bishtawi Mahmoud Zyoud Mahmoud Smeirat Wafa Haddadin Abdel Karim Omoush Dr. Mustafa Fayyad Fatima Qallab Orpub Ma'aytah Alia Sultan Ilham Husni Haitham Ismail Ya'qoub Muna Ali Amjad Ahmad Ah'imad' SDamarah'i Ishaq Al Asiri Ayoub Maya'tah Salah Bal'awi Awwad Hijazi Mjikc jo rdla o, ou Amjad Said Ahmad Qudah Abdulla Muqattash Ahmad Moh'd Hasan Ta1al Mahmoud Munir Al Adgham Dr. Taha Murad Suzan Sawaftah Nawal Sawaftah Uvon Sahiawnehl Taj Eddin Sadeq Na'jma Ali Samiha Zawahreh Hiba Khawaldeh JES Local Community Local Community Ministry of Interior Ministry of Labour Minicipality of Sleih and Harisa Jordan Oil Refinery MPWH Local Community Zarqa Municipality/Mayor Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality Arab Potash Co. Local Community Dar A!-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Diar Ai-Hiandlasahi (Shair anua PC.1UUnei-s) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Dar A!-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Dar Al-Handasah (Shair and Partners) Zarqa Municipality Z7arqa Municipaliti UNDP MD, Sukhneh Student Student Mii PIrAH- Journalist Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality Zarqa Municipality 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

305 Amman Develorment Corridor Environmental impact Assessment Update Sana' Aziz Zarqa Municipality Eisa Al Hafi Local Community Na'der Hazza' Local Community Oqab Salim Zarqa Municipality Musa Odeh Zarqa Municipality Moh'd Abu Jamous Student Samir At'out Student MoU h U Hussein ZaLliqaI HaimI Salti Sammou'i Zarqa Municipality Youssef Khalayleh Zarqa Municipality Zafer Nasim Teacher Sana' Asfour Zarqa Municipality HI iii adsa 10 Zarqa Municipality Sado Boulad Zarqa Muncipality Razan Radwan Zarqa Municipality Saleh Khalayleh Zarqa Municipality Jihad Jarrar Zarqa Municipality MAoh'd ri.j II U Zawvahrah S.OVO Zarqa Municipality 11 cli LdIL IiU IIIdII. Moh'd Jimzawi Zarqa Municipality Moh'd Abu Jamous Zarqa Municipality Reem Abu Al Haija Zarqa Municipality Tayseer Ayoub Omar Local Community S.a lai I kaiaiinovi LU Locai Commi iiunity Abdel Qader Nijem Local Community Bam Sadeq Mahmoud Ministry of Defense Sanad Zalloum Water Authority Ahmad Salem Abawi Local Community Saairn LJi Locail CommunitUy Samar Al Khateeb Local Community Ahd Mun'em Local Community Majid Dabbas Businessman Ruba Abdel Jabbar Local Community ia' Abdei R1ahman St udueun t Table 14.3 Attendees at the 1999 EIA Review Meeting H.E. Secretary General of Ministry of Public Works and Housing H.E. Director General of General Corporation for Environment Protection H.E Ii l. rdirector LJ LU G-eneral.c I~I0 of: Ni Department L.C I LI IIL of: IIfI Archaeology LI I1 CUU1Nl.1.1Ld of lordan H.E. Mr. Anees Mu'asher/Higher Council for Environment Protection H.E. Dr. Abdel Latif Arabyat/Higher Council for Environment Protection H.E. Dr. Mustafa Fayad/Mayor of Zarqa Ministry of Planning rloyal Scientific Society Dr. Mohamad Waheeb/Department of Archaeology of Jordan Engineer Majed Nimri/Municipality of Greater Amman H.E. Mr. Ibrahim Taki Al-Deen/Director of the Jordan Environ. Society/Zarqa Branch Executive Director/Jordan Environment Society Dr. Mohamad Shatnawi/Director of Water and Environ. Res. Center/Univ. of Jordan Dr. Wa'el Abu Shaer/Environment Centre/University of Science and Technology Members of EIA Regulations Unit/General Corporation for Environment Protection The Mayor of Sahab Dr. Stephen Lintner/World Bank Dr. v.iad Abu-Mughlv/United Nationcs Deve!opment- Program Mr. Munir Adgham/United Nations Development Program German Development Corporation (GTZ) Japan International Co-operation Agency (]ICA) European Union Commission (EU) The Regional Environmenta! Officer/I UA Emhbccy The Study Team - Ministry of Public Works and Housing The Study Team - Dar Al-Handasah Consultants (Shair and Partners) J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

306 ate Table O99 EIA Ftevieiw Matrix Land Acq iisition and Related IssLies Additional Project Proje t C)ther Economic Enforcement, Information & Public Pricirity Issue Legislation Related Design and Capital Tools Reform & a Awareness Regulation Monitoring Investment Investment Stirengtienini C onsultation _ Inadequate land Compensation frribal_lands) * Increase in liand Values Damagie to f arms I lle I Iniadequate Compensation I Ii lieu_111 fo r P la nits Bias in alignment l c oice influe nce laind to be acquired _. *111_.. _ Destruction and DaAmage to Natural Resources Additional Project FProject Other Ecnmc Erforcement, Ifomtn Priority Issue Legislation Related Design aind Capital Economic&rstituitional Research ain Public Regulation MDnitoring Investment Investment Tools StRr m Consultation Lcss of forest areais Impact on naitural ground cover_ Im-Xpact on wildlife* ,/2-rpt-env-'ol REV Mlarch 2004

307 Amman Develonment Corridor Environmen.'al Im )act Assessment Udate Iimpact on Surface WVater V'isual impact Visual Use Amenity _ i _ ; 11 Irnpact on U* In~ g ro un ciwater3. Increase demand for groundwater Loss of habitat/ Species Diversity Soil erosion _ - Soil Contamination by solid ancl liquid _ - aterials _ E Landslides (Urbain issue aissociated w ith flo o ds ) _ Damag e dlue to floods Land Use and Urban_Develo ment Additional Project Project Other- E.nforcement, I'nformiationi & Economic Institutional PLiblic Priority Issue Legislation Related Design and Capital Tools Reform & RPesea:rch and Awareness Regulation Monitoring Investment Investment Strengthenin Consultation Loss of rangelands Lirban expansion cnto agricuitural 1-inds J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

308 Amman Develonment Corridor _Environmental Impact Assessnment UDdate Loss of agricultural Change in land use Ii.I _ - Land clivisicon in az P'lanning Ccntext Land dlivisicon as an Urban issue New Develcip Areas Low income! specified a_i Urban expansion (not densification) Land speculation VVill promote co rri do)r u VVill n promote uinplanined dievelcopm e rit _ Ulncontrolled piopuleiatio n expansion: Beirain District Llncontrolled_ piopulaition expansion: Western and socuthert n areas. J0269/2-RT'T-ENV-01 REV March 2004

309 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Imgact A ssessmnent UDdate Social Concerns Additional Project Project Other Eomi Enforcement, Inforrnation & _ b _ Priority Issue Legislation Relalted Design and Capital Economic Institmtionzl Research and Public Regulation Monitoring Investment Investment TiSoS Refoirm & Consultation Awareness Diviscion of communities/ I!1 Im pacl on!.ocial ~ 'atterns _ Disruption ot commiunity activity pattern! social *tructiire Loss of social values.. - Need Ior I n voluntary resettlenierit Pesist.3nce to resettlemeriti Infrastructure and Access Additional Project Project Other Eom Enforcement, l]nforrnatiori & Priority Issue Legislation Related Design and Capital Economic Institutionail Reseairch and Public Regulation Monitoring Investment Investment Tools Strengtheni Consultation Awareness F edest-rian 'afety. _. '. Especially school; C)bstrLuCtion of access ~*A Loss of local access )iversion ol utilties; 10269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV March 2004

310 Amman Developrnent Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Undate Air quaility in rura_l areas Air quality in urban areas court _ Vibration arid noise IE I J.iI A Agriculture Additional Project Project Other- Economic Enforcemeint,l Inforrnation & PLublic Priority Issue Legislation Refaited Design and Capital Institutioncl r Reseairch and Awareness Regulation Monitoring Investment Investment Strengthenin Consultation Animal Movements _E Damag e to piermanent crops erma3etntr } k" Cultural!;ites E E IEEE Additional Project Project Other- Enforcement, Informnatioi & P Priority ]ssue Legislationr Relat:ed Design and Capital Economic Institutional Research and Awarbencess Regulation Monitoring Investment Investment To StrelR hefno Consultation restriction to cemeteries [a ma ei Cestruct ion,' djisplaciemenit of archaf?ologi.:al E] Potential E-lement of Mltigat on Strategy J0269/2-RPT-ENW-01 REV March 2004

311 A -- -E --!10 - A ADDfelnix A TEMPORARY LAW NO. 1 OF 2003 NKIIDOKIRAMECKTAI DDn7T'CTIfknK

312 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update APPENDIX A OFFICIAL GAZETTE -Unofficial Translation- We, Abdullah II Ibn Al-Hussein, Sovereign of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, pursuant to paragraphl (1) of rtice (4) of Ltle constitution, anu in accordance with thle -ounci o0 Minister's resolution dated 17/12/2002, ratify in accordance with Article (31) of the Constitution th.e following Mernporan I 1J11 Iplmetaio i~i~ 0 yii I ~IILLILI and 0 U its IL3 aaa UUILII ition to LU the LIfI State.3LOILI lvsprovi IaVV- ded thi at IL wil 1 ~11U IU U Ld. L VI be presented to the parliament during the first session held by it: Temporary Law No 1 for the Year 2003 THE ENVTRONMENT PRnTFrTTnN I AW Article 1: This Law shall be called The Environment Protection Law for the Year 2003, and shall be effective as of the date of its publication in the Official Gazette. Article 2: The following words and terms, wherever they occur in this law, shall have the meanings assigned thereto below, unless the context otherwise indicates: Ministry: The Ministry of Environment Min-ister: The Minister of Environment Secretary General: Th,LeI Ministry's cecre'ary General I If III I II LI ~D C L %JIy.IIIId Environment-: The surroundings clont-aining living and non-!iving creatures forganiasm-1s), the- substac-nces It contains, the air, water and soil encompassing it, the reactions of any of them, and the installations erected thereon by man. Envirnnment E!ements: Water. air and land. as well as their contents /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C Al February 2004

313 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uodate Contamination: Any change in the environment elements, which might lead directly or indirectly to any harm to environment, or adversely affect its elements, or affect the practicing by man of his normai life, or which might disturb the natural equilibrium. Deterioration: The impact on environment in a way which decreases its value, mares and deforms its nature, depletes itis resources, or hiiiarms thli Ie living creatures or antjiq uit ilues. Enviomn rtcin Preserve and develop the environment components and elements, and prevent their deterioration or contamination, within the limits which provide security against the occurrence of pollution. Such components hnwever, include the air, water, soil, natural living creatures, man, and their resources. Durable Development: The development which uses the natural resources in a way which preserves them for the future generations and maintains environmental integration, without causing deterioration to the elements and components of the environment systems, and without disturbing the equilibrium among them. Technical Rule It is a document specifying the characteristics of the service, the product, or the production techniques and management systems. It might also include the expressions, symbols codes, data, packing, wrapping, the affixing of marks, and the data card requirements, which are applied to the product, or which are confirmed to any of them where conformity thereto would be compulsory. Court: The Court of First Instance. Article 3: A) The Ministry shall be considered as the Competent Authority for the protection of tenivironment In ilii tlh I ng miyuuiii, and the of,i,ladl diiu lldliuldi dulhorities shali be bound to implement the instructions and resolutions issued under the provisions of this law and then reu'tln isudi ccracherewith, L. I'.. I )'... LhLILI I. under '0 - ", LILL.lI the penalty ofl LuiL IL.~ I1 V ILI I LI Lu Li IC C OL~ UI legal Iy I responsibility ICI IUI IL11 provided for therein and in any other legislation. B) The Ministry shall be considered as the competent authority at the national regional and international level, in respect of a!l the environmental issues and the donors in cooperation and coordination with the competent authorities. Article 4: To achieve the goals of the environment protection, and improve its various elements in a sustainable way, the ministry shall assume, in cooperation and coordination with the relevant parties, the following functions /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C A2 February 2004

314 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update A- Draw-up the general policy for environment protection, and prepare the necessary plans, programs, and projects required for the sustainable development. B- Prepare the standard specifications and norms for the environment elements. C- Control and measure the environment elements and components, and follow them up tlhugi Lilte blmciiliil Lenterls approved uy Lile MIlinistry according to specified standards. D= Tssue the necessary environment Instructions for the_ protctlo ofevrnenrn t L.' ~ ~ Li I~IIL~0 VI 1) I ~ L LIULIUIi IUI Ult PIC.ULUELLIUIl Ul JI ilviui IUllIItIIL dliu 1L5 elements, and the conditions for the setting up of agricultural, development, -cmmerci.al, Iindust.rlal, housing, I -1mng1 In -, aiiu hlieii projctjls., anu LIteir related suervices, in order to be abided by and adopted under the conditions preceding the licensing of any of them and renewing their license, in accordance with the p b principles. E- Monitor and supervise the public and private establishments and bodies, including companies anr enterprises, and in order to verify whether they comply with the environment standards and the approved technical norms and principles. F- Conduct researches and studies related to environment affairs and its protection. G- Set the bases for the consultation of substances which are detrimental and dangerous to the environment, and collect, classify, store, transport, destroy, and dispose of such substances, in conformity with regulations which shall be issued for this purpose. H- Coordinate the national efforts aiming at protecting the environment, including the setting of a national strategy for environmental awareness, education and communication, and transmit, use, and provide the environmental information, and take the necessary procedures to this effect. I- Approve the setting-up and management of natural protectorates and national parks, and their supervision. J- Prepare the environmental emergency plans. K- issue the publications relating to environment, and grant prior approval for the issuance of any publications concerning the environment by any other party. L- Enhance the relations between the Kingdom and the Arab, regional and international states, bodies andu organizations in respect of the affairs concerning tne preservation of environment, and recommend for joining them, as well as to follow up their activities. Article 5: The Ministry shall in cooperation and coordination with the authorities concerned with environment affairs at the local, Arab and international level, assume the preservation of the environment elements and components from contamination, and shall implement the agreements relatinn tn environment affairs Article 6: A- Under instructions to be issued by the council of ministers at the recnmmentlation of the minister, the materials banned from entering the Kingdom shall be determined. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C A3 February 2004

315 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Imoact Assessment Update B- it shall be prohibited to carry out any of the acts stated below, in accordance witn instructions to be issued by the Council of Ministers, at the recommendation of the Minister, whio siail be entited 'Lo U talke LthLe necessar;y procedures fur this purpuse:- 1 Buying any dangerous waiste materials (t-rash) Into the Kingdom..LJ L1U~~~~~II iy Ul iy UCI I~~~~~~~~~ZI UU3 VVa~~~~~~L~~ L II IOLCI IOI~~~~~~~ I I~~LI L ci~~~~i I) II LU L LI LlIMIC P.11 I'~~~~ UUII 2) Buyingn any dangerous or latentdy Ad agngerus m a terials in thii-e Klngd--4om's territories; in cooperation and coordination with the competent authorities. C- In case of discovering any dangerous materials brought into the Kingdom, or in case anv envirnnment nn!!rteprs/ rontamrinantsz rare hrougnht Inton the Vingdom il!!ega!!y, t-he ministry shall, in coordination with the competent authorities, return them to their source. or treat them at the expense of thp nartv which hroiinht them into the Kingdom, and charge the said party with the fines, expenses and losses to which it was exposed. Article 7: A- For the purposes of this law, the specialized employee who is designated by the minister in writing at the recommendation of the secretary general, shall be granted the authority of a juridical officer, and shall be entitled to enter any industrial, commercial, professional place/store, or any enterprise, or establishment or any other location whose activities are likely to affect, in any way, the environment elements and components, in order to verify whether they, as well as their activities, conform to the prescribed environment conditions. B- 1) The Minister may, at the recommendation of the secretary general warm the violating enterprise, establishment, or store, or any other violating party, and specify a period for the violation removal. But should the violator fail to remove it, he shall be referred to the court. 2) The Minister shall be entitled in emergency or serious cases, and in accordance with a report issued by a technical committee formed by nim for this purpose, to issue a resolution for the removal of the violation at the expense of the violator, or precautionary closure of any of the parties provided for in item (A) of this paragraph, prior to the issuance of the court decision. C- The perpetrator of any of the violations provided for in this article, and after the expiry of the -warning period wlaithout removing the violation during the period specified therein shall be punished by imprisonment for a period of not less than three hundred Dinars and not more than five thousand Dinars However, in case of repetition for the second time, the time will be doubled. But, if the violation is repeated for the third time, the Pnternrisp will hp chosed down npnrdinn the remova! of the vionitinn Article 8: With due observance to the provisions of any other legislation. it shall be nrohihited uinder the penalty of legal responsibility to throw any substance, which contaminates or prejudice the sea environment, in the Kingdom's territorial waters, or in the sea shore region, within the borders and distances specified by the Minister under instructions issued by him for this purpose. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C A4 February 2004

316 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uodate Article 9: A- The captain of a ship, vessel, tanker, or boat from which any polluting substances are dropped, poured, emptied, or thrown into the Kingdom's territorial waters or the seashore region, shall be punished by imprisonment for a period of not less than one year and not more than three years, or by a fine of not less then ten thousand Dinars, or by both penalties together. B- The perpetrator of any of the violations provided for in paragraph (A) of this Article shall be c oum mi "L' ted tluo ellminate ItLVL within tlhe period specified Uy tlihe courl. But, shoulu he fll to do this, the ministry or its designee shall eliminate such violation at the expense of tlhe vioatlor, Iin additlion to 2I5LU %0 Of th Le eili mii ni aclion cost as administrative Aexppenistes allowance. Likewise, the ship, vessel, or boat shall be seized together with the contents of any of them, pending the settlement of the amounts due thereon. Article 10: Any nperson who plurks the rnra!s and shells anri extract it from the sea, or trades thereni, or causes any harm thereto in any way, shall be punished by imprisonment for a period of not less than six months and not more than one year. or by a fine of not less than ten thousand Dinars and not more than twenty five thousand Dinars, or by both penalties together. Article 11: A- 1) It shall be prohibited to cast, dispose of, or pile-up any substances which are detrimental the environment safety, whether such substances are solid, liquid, gaseous, radioactive, or thermic, in water resources. 2) It shall not be permitted to store any of the substances indicated in item (1) of this paragraph near water resources located within the security limits specified by the minister according to instructions issued by him to this effect, which include the protection of water reservoirs in the Kingdom, in coordination with the competent authorities. B- Any person who commits any of the acts indicated in paragraph (A) of this Article shall be punished by imprisonment for a period of not less than three months and more than two years, or by a fine of not less than ten thousand Dinars and not more than fifty thousand Dinars, or by both penalties together. He shall be also committed to eliminate the reasons which caused the violation, within the period determined by the court, based on a technical report. But, should he fail to do this, the ministry or its designee silail remove suchli violation at the expense of the violator, in addition to 2 5%/o or the removal cost as administrative expenses allowance. He shall also be charged with a fine of not less than fifty LDJinars and not more "L'thLIUIan L two LV unduredu rdhinars HUH eaol Uch y of default in eliminating the violation after expiry of the period specified by the court for its remova!l. Article 1 2 A- The snirrces nf nnise and the supper limits of noise levels environmentally a!lowed, as well as the necessary requirements for its reduction, shall be determined according to instructions to he issued hv the minister for this purpose. B- Any person who violates the instructions issued under paragraph (A) of this Articke shall be punished by imprisonment for a period of not less than one week and not more than J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C A5 February 2004

317 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update one month, or by a fine of not less than one hundred Dinars and not more than five hundred Dinars, or by these two penalties. C- The person or owner of a vehicle or machine which causes noise, shall be liable to a fine of not less than ten Dinars and not more than twenty Dinars. Article 13: A- Any establishment, company, or entity, or any enterprise the provisions of this law that mighta'vreya' CLthcomie Into force, andu whvilclhl conducts an activity that Lsey a,'fec Luie environment, shall be bound to prepare an evaluation study on the environmental effect of i Jec14 and ubii IL IL Lt the LI I 1n1 siry, s in oruder to tla kle tl Ie appropriate resolutlion inii its respect. B- The Minister shall be entitled to request any establishment, company, enterprise, or party, prior to the provisions of this law come into force, and which conduct an" activity that affect the environment, to prepare an evaluation study on the environmental effect of its propcts, shoi lri the environmentt protection requirements call for this. Article 14: A- The Minister may, at the recommendation of the Secretarv General, adprove the environmental projects and studies provided by official and national establishments, the private sector, and non-qovernment organization affiliated to the donors. The said parties, however, shall be committed to submit periodic reports to the ministry or the work progress of the said projects, from the financial and technical aspects. B- The Ministry shall have the right to environmentally supervise these projects and follow up their work progress and verify their proper execution. Article 15: The Council of Ministers shall be entitled, at the recommendation of the minister, to form a consultative committee in which the parties concerned with environment shall be represented, provided that its members will be from among experts and specialists, and whose number will be determined. The appointment of the chairman of the said committee, and the designation of its authorities, functions, and the other matters relating thereto, shall be made according to instructions to be issued by the Council of Ministers for this purpose. Article 16: Any person who violates the provisions of the regulations and instructions relating to the protectvon of environment In t Lhe natural protectorates and natilona park-s, shilall lue penalized by imprisonment for a period of not less than one week and not more than one month, or by a fine of not less t han one huindred Dli nars and nolt more th.an one t Ihousand Dinars, or y bothit I penalties. Article 17: A- The owners of factories, vehicles, or workshops, or any party which practices an activity havinn adrverse effect on environment. ancd which emits environment nplli!ters, must install devices for preventing or reducing the diffusion of such polluters there from, and must control the polluters before their emission from the factory or the vehicle into the 70269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C A6 February 2004

318 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update air to the permitted limit, in accordance with instructions to be issued by the Minister to this effect. B- Any of the owners of factories who commits any of tne vioiations provided for in paragraph (A) of this Article, and does not remove it within the period specified by the IlinisLer ovf his udesignee, shiiai be referred to cuurl which slhadl Ue entitieud to close uown the factory and issue a judgment against the violator for imprisonment for a period of not less th101an one wveek andu not more LiIhan thil-.y days, or uy a iiine ov notl ess tlhan one hundred Dinars and not rnore than one thousand Dinars, or by both penalties, and shall oblige him to remove the violation wtlkiin the perio specifiea ky It to this effect, and L LI I~V I~I~L~I VYII III L I~ ~C IU I I IU L i v i i I i 1LL,[IC i 1 charge him with an amount of not less than fifty Dinars and not more than one hundred Dinars for each dayrof default in removing the violation after -'i of the period prescribed for its removal. C- Any vehicle owner or driver who commits any of the violations provided for in paragraph (A) of this Artirp- antl rdnes not remove it or reduce it to the hnidnrs permitted according to the instructions issued for this purpose, and within the specified period, shall be Denalized by a fine of not less than ten Dinars and not more than twenty Dinars. However, in case of repetition of the violation, the vehicle shall be seized. D- Any person who commits any of the violations provided for in this Article shall be penalized by double the maximum limit of the imprisonment penalty or the fine penalty provided for in paragraph (B) in case of repetition of the violation for the second time, and by triple the maximum limit of the imprisonment penalty in case of repetition for any subsequent time. Article 18: There is no provision in this law which may prevent the application of any stricter penalty stipulated in any other effective applicable law. Article 19: A- All movable and immovable properties, rights and projects of the corporation, shall devoive to the ministry, which shall assume all the liabilities of the corporation. B- The Environment Protection Corporation's empioyees and personnel shall be transferred to the Ministry in accordance with the provisions of applicable civil service regulations. Article 20: The Minister shall be entitled to delegate to the Secretary General, Governor, or the Envirnmni- rdirector II in Ihe provincem, ann of hie ai oit.3,l ies providedjl foi In tis i IV. Article 71: The Council of Ministers may, at the recommendation of the Minister, entrust any of the ministers, establishments, and voluntary societies related to the field of environment nrotection. with any of the ministry's functions. or delegate them with its nowerc arrnrrdinn to the competence of each of them, and as seen appropriate by him. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C A7 February 2004

319 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Undate Article 22: The non-government societies operating in the field of environment protection shall be iicensed, or their license shall be renewed by the competent authorities after obtaining the Ministry's initial approval, according to instructions to be issued by the Minister. Article 23: A- The Council of Minister shall issue the necessary regulations for executing the provisions of this law, including the following: 1)\ NatF Nure protection regulations. 2) PRegulations for the protection of environment from pollution In emergncles. 3) Water protection renid;tinnr. 4) Air protection reoulations 5) Marine and coast environment protection regulations. 6) Natural protectorates and national parks requlations. 7) Regulations concerning the management of harmful and dangerous materials, as well as their transport and handling. 8) Solid waste management regulations. 9) Environment impact appraisal regulations. 10) Soil protection regulations. ii) Fees and rates regulations. B- The instructions issued under the provision of this law, shall be published in the Official Gazette. Article 24: The Environment Protection Law No. 12 for the Year 1995 shall be abolished, provided that the reuationsinc icci ued in rri n acodnll LI therewihsha! Ak remain effective until they have keen amended, or cancelled, or substituted. Article 25: The Prime Minister and Ministers are commissioned to implement the provisions of his law. 17/12/2002 Abdullah II Ibn Al-Hussein ]0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV C A8 February 2004

320 ApDDenaix A r ts WELL INVENTORY AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL DATA

321 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Imoact Assessment LlOdate APPENDIX B WA/ELLS INI THIE VICINITY OF THE AMMAN DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR (From Ministry of Wate!r and ][rrigatidon, 2003) ID No. Station Name Nortihing Easting Elevation )epth Aquifer Test Date (m/hr) StaIding WL min) (Sainity 2001 (mi 3 ) AL1649 SAHAB 1 (PP 411) AL1650 RAJEEB AL1787 SAHAB EXID WELL _ AL178'' MADOUNEH Upper 23/11/ AL1797 MOHAMMAD HAMIAN Upper 1/12/ ,1:64 AL1802 MARZOOQ FALAH A BED Upper 10/3/ _ AL1803 KAREEM MOHAMNVIAD MIQBEL ALMISN Upper 17/03/ ,120 AL180,' MOHAMMAD SATEED SEEDO AL KURDI AL2560 MOHAMMAD MASOUM 1: AL3317 SA UD HAPIDAN A BBAS EL SAHOU Upper 7/4/ ,296 AL3349 WADI EL QATTAR AL343 3 MANAKHER /17/ AL3503 MADOUNEH la Upper 8/9/ _ AL3623_ HALAWANI INDUSTRIAL COMPANY Upper 5/6/ _ AL3623 JORDAN MODERN READY MIX Lovver 1/22,/ AL3649 NATIONAL PAINT INDUSTRIES CO Upper 9/10,/ CD1002 QASTAL DEEP CD104.5 YAZEED A13U JABIR 11: Upper 5/7/ _ 45,432 CD1054 FAHED ABU JABERJYADOUDEH 11: Upper 5/19/ ,196 CD1064 FAWWAZ ABU JABER 11: Upper 12/31/ ,156 CD1087 QASTAL 19 11: CD1088 QASTAL 21) 11: Upper 5/7/ _ CD12565 ABDELHACDI MAHMIOUD AB3U HAMMAD Upper 3/26,/ ,924 CD1281D RAGHDA HAMDI rmiango 11: Upper 8/31/ ,808 CD1315 DAHHAM DERDAH ESSAYEL EL FAYEZ 11: Upper 12/2/ CD1317 HARRAN BEN KHAZAR EL BAKHEET 11: Upper 8/15/ L 39,:372 CD13215 HUSAIN MANSOUR EL FAYEZ 113: Upper 8/20/ ] CD1345 HASAN FARA] ABLI JABER Upper 9/12/ CD1347 E'lII BEN NJA'UR (TUNAIB) 11: = 215 Upper 5/7/ ,864 CD1349 GHALEB A13U JABER Lovver 5/21/ ,:320 CD1354 FARHAN SA,D ABU JABER 11: Upper 5/7/ ,468 CD1365 ABIDELRUH-MAN ABU HASSAN Upper 7/25/ _ J RPT-ENV-O1 REV O B1 March 2004

322 A4mman Development Corridor Environrm7ental lmact Assessment UDdate Elevation Dlepth Yield Staniding Pumping Salinity Produiction I D No. Station Naime Northing Easting ( o D Aquifer Test Date (m3/hr) WL (min WL (m) (ppni) 2001 (im 3 ) CD1403 GHALEB ABU JABER _ 202 Upper 4/29/ :3 52,:344 CD1407 SULEIMAN HARB ELEID _ 365 Upper 9/12,/ ,016 CD3051 GHAZI MOHMMAC' EL USTAH & PART Upper 5/27,/ , L76 CD311.4 YADUDAH Lower 1/6/ _ - CD3145 QASTAL DEEP CD3154 MUTLAQ M. N. ESSAKRAN _ - CD3157 FAIQ SA D ABU JABER CD315B FAROUQ ABU JABER 11: _.. _ - CD3159 SA EED FAHD ABLI JABER CD3162 CMOHAMAD BEN JARAD ABU JNEII CD3164 NASER BIN JAMEEL 11: CD317B NAYEF HADETHA AL KHRAISHA 11: _ CD322B DHUHEIBA AL SHARQIYA 1 11: Lower 2/23,/ CD3229 DHUHEIBAi AL SHARQIYA Lower 5/31/ ,76.6 CD3230 DHUHEIBA AL SHiARQIYA Upper 6/30/ _ CD3231 RUJM AL-SHAMI 1A CD3242 RAGHDA MANGO/fUNAIB _392 Upper 10/8,/ _ 25,920 CD3252 ALISRAA UNIVERSITY _... _ C'D32615 ALI U'QLA ALI EL SAROUM 1: Upper 9/12,/ i2 _417 CD328.5 GENERAL SPECIALIZED STEEL 11: Upper 4/14,/ ,508 CD3319 GHAZI BEN JARAD ABU ]NAIB CD33210 GHAZI BEN JARAED ABU ]NAIB 2 11: _.. CD3333 SAHAB EXIPLORATORY DEEP Deep 7/4/ _ CD3334 UNIVERSAL IRON & STEEL INDUSTRY Upper 7/13/ ; _ 5,016 1CD33465 GHALEB SALEH ABU JABER Upper 11/19/ ,656 C_D3350 AL ISRAA UNIVERSITY 2 11: Upper 8/25/ ,300 CD3366 YAD)UDAH 3 11: CD3383 SAHAB INDUSTRIAL CITY 11: /13/ D339:3 GHAMADAIN PARK 114: Deep 1/31/ CD3401 HARPAN KHAZAR EL BAKHEET 11: Upper 2/1/ _ 92,424 0D3421 ZIAD KHAI.AF EL MANASEER S Upper 12/28/ , 1387 FALAH ALKHALEEFA AL SHABEED S _ /15/ ' 26, /.2-RPT-ENV-0.Z REV 0 B2 March.2004

323 A ~ -- -I ApDDenUix CIs I U SAMPLE CONTRACT CLAUSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MITIGATION

324 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update APPENDIX C SAMPLE CONTRACT CLAUSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL.MrMPALT MIiTIGATION GENERAL All construction related environmental impacts can be mitigated with the observration of goo construction practice and careful on site monitoring. The Contractor shall abide by all the provisions of the Proiert Environmental Management Pir-An (hereinafter referred to as the EMP) as well as with all related laws, standards and directives in force in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. and with any amendment thereof introdiirpri fliirinn the xprciitinn nf his Contract ME 1 ODnu ST AT1EMEN TS IT Clal II provide.1! in a Ltimely manner l a Ilethod dtatement for any mitigation measures in the EMP for which the Engineer requests a separate Method Statement. Should the metlhod of work proposedj l be tlhe Contractor by ur,acceptable tlo tlui Ie Lngineer, tlhie Clontractor shall provide a revised Method Statement. The work will not be allowed to proceed until a Method Statement has been approved by the Engineer. CONDITIONS OF SITE Before rarrvino out any work on any Sitpe the Site shall hp insnpcted hy the Contractor in conjunction with the Engineer to establish its general condition, which shall be agreed and recorded in writing, and where in the odinion of the Engineer it is deemed nprpssary, by means of photography. ADJOINING PROPERTY The Contractor shall advise owners or occupiers of adjoining property (outside the Right of Way) of the dates on which work is to be executed, obtain the owners permission if it is necessary to erect Temporary Works or otherwise use adjoining property and pay all charges, take all reasonable precautions to prevent damage and, if any damage is caused, make good to the satisfaction of the owner at the Contractor's expense. LAN DSCAPE The Contractor shall exercise care to preserve the natural landscape and shall conduct his operations so as to prevent any unnecessary destruction, scarring or defacing of the natural surroundings in the vicinity of the work. Except where clearing is required for permanent works, for approved construction road access, and for excavation operations, all trees, native shrubbery and vegetation shall be preserved and shall be protected from damage that may be caused by the Contractor's equipment and operations. No trees shall be cut down outside of the ROW without the specific approval of the Engineer. Movement of crews and equipment within the ROW and over routes defined for access shall be performed in a manner to prevent damage to property, productive lands and known cultural or archaeological sites /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C1 March 2004

325 Amman Development Corridor - Environmental Impact Assessment Undate Where unnecessary destruction, scarring or defacing of landscape, natural vegetation, productive lands, cultural or archaeological sites has occurred the Contractor shall be responsible for repairing, replanting or otherwise correcting tne damage at tne nis own expense. On completion of works, and in addition to the requirements contained elsewhere, all work areas shiiall e smoo'lithled and graded In a Ininer to c0n,'form LUe oi ItIdLUI did[pprcefil l L Ite surrounding landscape. SITE CLEARANCE Materials other than topsoil arising out of site clearance shall be disposed by the Contractor off the Site, or where approved by the Engineer, on the site in a manner and place approved by the Engineer. The extent and depth of topsoil to be removed shall be agreed with the Engineer. Topsoil shall be set aside for subsequent re-use or disposal as directed by the Engineer, and will be stored in such a manner as will preserve its fertility until such time as re-use or disposal is directed. DAMAGE TO CROPS The Contractor shall at all times take particular care not to damage crops on productive agricultural land adjacent to the Right of Way. Such care will include taking measures to prevent the migration of dust over planted areas and rendering such lands Out-of Bounds to construction workers, the latter backed up by effective and enforced penalties. ECOSYSTEMS AND WILDLIFE The Contractor shall institute penalties for construction workers, including those of subcontractors, who unnecessarily damage or destroy wildlife and other features of the natural ecosystem. Such penalties shall be particularly severe in the case of workers found collecting eggs or illegally partaking in the trading of species. ARr-HAFnl OnTCAL SITES The Contractor shall take note that the Department of Antquities of Jordan (DA]) will mnnitor all work in the vicinity of all known, newly discovered and suspected archaeological sites. As surh. thp Cnntractnr shall orant access for DAI representatives to all parts of his sites throughout the period of construction. (The term 'archaeological site' shall be taken to encompass all sites of archaeological, historic or cultural heritage interest) DA] shall be considered the Utility Owner of all the sites having declared or suspected archaeological value whether they are found on private or on public property, within or outside the Right of Way. Prior to commencing work, the Contractor shall prepare a checklist of actions his Foremen and workers shall follow in the event they unearth unrecorded archaeological remains. This list will include contact details for the local DA] Inspector and relevant Supervision Consultants' and 30269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C2 March 2004

326 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Imoact Assessment Update PMT staff. Copies of the list will be circulated to all Discipline Managers, Shift Leaders and Foremen, and posted in places such as Site Offices, Time Keepers Offices and Messes. Prior to any work on or in the vicinity of known archaeoiogicai sites, the Contractor snaii coordinate with the Engineer and DAJ representatives to ensure adequate measures as specified uy LJAJ die LdKUII LU poultell LI*hse sles. 'ml! krnovvn or newly discovered 0-1ChCate=01ogic stes sh:_be of -,i is t o sr ci n ce s Mu UII ri ieviyui~lv~l~u IVVI C LIId~IUSLdI -1IL= WI dii UtC UI I iiii ILb LU LUI IsiUULLIUI I ultcw5, whether on or off duty, except with the express permission of the Engineer. Such permission willi only I be given where acces is mneede for site protec or 4-on toensure - k se VYII y LL LUl l~ VLII VY ILI L 1I IKIA;JLA..U I'.I all~-id UL:L.LIUI I VI LU 1= ZI-1I C: YUUIIL- ZkclrLy. Th Conntractor chai! consiadr in hie pro ram of work the -p-resence of any known It.. i I. L t o.lj.)lii I.aL I-... HI., P.J L ILu.... IJ W. SJ LIl~ C C U VL11! CI aly NIIU V archaeological sites and the need for the DA] to inspect them during construction. If new archaeological remains are discovered during the execution of the Works, the Contractor shail immediately inform the DAA anri thi Ennineer. In all such cases, the Contractor sha!! adjust and/or reschedule his activities in the vicinity of such sites, and/or use other sources of materials if the site falls within a borrow area or niqarrvy to aliow the DA1 to rarrv out surveys and emergency salvage excavations. Work in the vicinity of remains investigated by DAJ permission to do so is obtained from DAJ in writing. shall not recommence until express With regard to the application of Clause 27.1 of the General Conditions of Contract, no extension of time or payment of costs will be granted for adjusting the sequence of work. The Engineer will only grant an extension where work is suspended as a result of archeological investigation. The Contractor's liability in respect of archaeological sites extends to damage by construction workers, on or off duty, the reparation of which shall be undertaken at the Contractor's cost. Repeated violation of sites by workers shall render the Contractor liable to be instructed to fence the site at his own cost. LOCATION OF OFF-SITE FACILITIES The location of off-site contractor's facilities such as construction camps, fabrication and maintenance yards, storage areas shall be discussed and agreed with the MPWH. Sites occupying unused or agricultural land for which there are no approved development proposals shall generally not be permitted. All off-site facilities shall be subject to the normal planning and operational controls established by the appropriate planning authorities. SITE ACCESS The mitigation of the impacts from construction traffic can take three forms; access control, road cleaning and definition of approved routes. For access control, the Contractor shall restrict turning movements to approved access points to and from existing highways and, if necessary, improve to existing junction layouts to reduce the potential for accidents. Restrictions on the timing of use, with construction traffic prohibited outside of specified, supervised hours, may also be required /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C3 March 2004

327 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Road cleaning measures will be required to ensure major road carriageways are kept in a safe condition, that surplus oil, mud and other materials are removed on a regular basis. As with access control the Contractor shall be required to submit a programme of road cleaning and signage for approval by the Engineer. Prior to commencement of the Contract the Contractor shall submit for the approval of the Engineer a plan outlining the location of proposed site, entry and access points, points of access to the primary road network, additional traffic control measures to be implemented, required, proposals for signage, andu the duration of use of the proposed access. Ifwid'e ii or vvle abunormal Ul iuiii dliudu1 loadsaerqurdt dl t I t=qu II teu LU Ut= b Li rnpo.dfo Cl I lb UI LCU II01 UII a- Cd 1J1 C-I UI ILdCILIUI II p'a JIdlI 1--'brcto IL LULI o thei Ie construction site they should wherever possible be transported during the early hours of the morning. Approprilate times oil operat0ion VVould bje betvveen anau 0JOO I Ihours. Sudh loads will require specific obstruction-free routes to be defined with the co-operation of the Police and ot"her relevan't author;+-;es. Th-s deta,'s, togethekr wlth the propos-d t-imings of the- f I, of LJLI CI VOIIL I IIJI [LIC. IIt..~C ULUCL IIIO L~y.LIl. I ILI. I-. [J JIJ _.I. LI.. III l LI I- LI LIIHI U W~I L -JI abnormal loads should be contained within a plan submitted to the relevant authorities, MPWH.an t-ke Enginer for annpr-nva U. LI LII. - -~ 1 II Il..I I -J LIH4-J~ li I- DISLOCATION OF EXISTING ACCESS On the basis of the information contained in his Programme of Works, rne Contractor snaii prepare a plan of diversions and temporary works for approval by the Engineer. The plan shall include details of to the proposed works, arrangements for signage, the timing of the proposed closure and works with start date, reopening date and the hours of closure, and the programme of' makrl-ing good'. ACCESS ROADS Existing access routes shall be utilized wherever possible. The routes of all temporary access to the alignment shall be selected with care, especially where such roads traverse, or originate in, residential areas in order that they should minimise possible nuisance values to residents, protect properties and most importantly to minimise the risk to public safety. Details of all proposed access roads, their proposed times of operation (both in terms of the overall contract and daily operatlons), and the size and oaduings of vehicles proposed Lo use them shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval. The alignment and profile of construction access roaus s0 l all also Lbe subject 'Lo te approval of t[he L'-V;IIeLIIiIer. All a,-cc ssrta chrola ha! s cbhier- approved by the Engineer prior to construction. e -ub ntoarogrammo rof rro:ad relonirhng waioirksc ciihmitteoi to anrd Temporary access roads shall be returned to their previous state prior to completion of the works. When no longer reqnlired hv the Cnntractnr rich rnorad sh!l either he marle imnpasahle to vehicular traffic and the surfaces scarified and left in a condition suitable for natural revegetation or for return to Droductive use, or brought to a standard as deemed necessary by the MPWH. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C4 March 2004

328 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update PUBLIC UTILITIES At the commencement of the Contract, the Contractor shall examine the site and identify/verify all utilities within the Right of Way above or below ground, and shall record all such information on suitable Site Drawings, which shall be submitted to the Engineer within one month of ~LLiI V A, I~ I-e Cotaco s'll - t commencement IL of e Works. The Con ILr LL si l,'ori Is pur puse xaldvdte trial pits on site or take any other measures needed as may be necessary for identification and verification of existiing existing u4li itites. ILIC~ Thke I C1 Contractor %_AJ IL ~LL sh-all 1 iii request- UCL of UI the LIl ic utly LIILY agencie dc1ti ILICS confimatio LUIIIIIIIICIdLIUI I and dlu IU defi,. ei i ILIUTI of all utilities sites in and adjacent to all construction sites. The Site Drawings shall also mark the presence of walls and ruins which are of declared or suspected archaeological value in case encountered. The Engineer will forward the Site Drawings to the Department of Antiquities (DAJ), who shall be considered the Utility Owner of all the sites havinn drirc!ar1 or cspcntreid arrhaieo!gical value whether they are found on private or on public property, within or outside the Right of Way. No work shall be conducted at these sites without the written pnnrovva of the nal inrlnuding the excraatirn of trial pits on archaeological sites. The Contractor shall liaise with the agencies responsible for the maintenance of utilities that may be crossed, temporarily diverted or in any other way affected by construction works as to the timing and nature of the works proposed. Any curtailment of utility services shall only be undertaken with the prior approval of the Engineer. The Engineer's approval of proposals for alternative services shall only be qiven after consultation with the effected consumers. Damage to any utility at a defined site will be made good to the satisfaction of the utility agency at cost to the Contractor. Such repair work shall be treated as an emergency and undertaken without undue delay, notwithstanding that the Engineer may not be immediately available. All such accidents shall be reported in writing to the Engineer with details of the remedial action undertaken. WATER SUPPLY The Contractor shall provide at his expense water for the works, temporary works, and for the Engineer's facilities. Where mains supply is not available, the Contractor shall provide suitable water supply and storage facilities as agreed with the Engineer. Where the Contractor wishes to construct a well for the purpose of abstracting ground water from an underlying aquifer, he shall abide by the regulations of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, whose approval shall be obtained in addition to that of the Engineer. WASTEWATER DISPOSAL It is generally preferred that all facilities be connected to an existing piped sewage system, subject to the approval of the appropriate aqencies. Approval will relate to the volume of the waste and the existing capacity of the system and the suitability of the treatment and disposal system to handle the nature of waste anticipated. If no connection to a suitable piped system is available, self-contained collection and disposal systems will be required. The Contractor shall submit a proposed plan for the disposal of wastewater to the Engineer for approval. Prior to installation, the Contractor shall obtain approval for the type of system proposed from the appropriate agencies and from the Engineer. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C5 March 2004

329 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Uodate The suitability of all wastewater collection and disposal sites shall be investigated with regard to ground conditions and location reiative to ground water recharge zones. Depending on the requirements of the appropriate agencies it may be necessary to instaii a separate system for the collection and disposal of industrial wastewater, which may be subject LoU d iiieirent collection and disposal plan. ML locations wvviere the local processing ofy raw matlerials, e.g. crushing, washing, is undertaken the Contractor shall ensure wastewaters do not enter natural watercourses or other surfaces without control of tihilie discharge velocity or thili Ie amount oil suspenduedu so,idus. SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL Where possible, all on and off site facilities shall be included in the existing municipal solid waste collection and disposal process. The Contractor shall provide any necessary special handling and treatment of any generated solid waste and separate such materials from other waste for collection and disposal. If it is not considered feasible or desirable to incorporate sites into established municipal waste collectlion systemis, the Contractor silall collect and transport materials to an approved landfill site. The normal manner of disposal shall include all necessary precautions to prevent air, soil and water VYULC alr cii pollution, jj'iiul UI dr,n3g ialieiiia CI~ c ime3ne I1 CUCic aikc, fir III C hazard I IOLOI1U -ecosystems.- and CIIIU daag U3I i IC3YC to LU CLUZ)YtLIZmsZ. WA!hatever method of waste Ai--si is -adopte, the Contractor shal' submit a plan of the -a1.1 U -F~ LI I 'J Ll ULLU I 1 lu L Ui I L ~ J0 I Li materials to be disposed of, the collection procedures, frequency of collection and level of compaction, to the local waste disposal authority and ti-he Er-nineer for a-p--o DISPOSAL OF SURPLUS EARTH MATERIALS Surplus earth materials shall also be disposed of promptiy to minimize the risk of erosion and sediment discharge from spoil heaps. SOIL POLLUTION The Contractor shall be required to perform all construction activities by methods that will prevent pollution of the soil by accidental spillage of solid or liquid contaminants. If a significant spillage does occur the Contractor shall remove all contaminated soil in a manner and to a site specified by the Engineer. Where necessary, appropriate replacement materiai shaii be laid. The costs of these actions and related materials shall be borne by the Contractor. SURFACE WATERCOURSES Work adjacent to or in surface water channels shall allow for the maintenance of flow and avoid discolouration. Where a temporary reduction in downstream flow or discolouration by suspended solids from excavations is, in the opinion of the Engineer, unavoidable, the Contractor shall make alternative arrangements for supplying any effected users throughout the period of flow reduction or discolouration /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C6 March 2004

330 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update WATER POLLUTION The Contractor shall comply with applicable regulations concerning the control and abatement of water pollution In force in Jordan. II le Contractor's constructlion activities siiail be per'iurmed by methods tlhat will prevent lhe entrance or accidental spillage of solid matter or liquid contaminants, debris and wastes to watercourses, aes and g iro u ndwater sources, In the event of a serious spi!!, and contam ir, t,ni the Contractor shii'i nicf relvant authorities and the Engineer immediately. Any remedial works instructed, shall be undertaken by the Contractor or any other specifiled body at the Contractor's expense. uc... rk skal! be undertaken as a matter of urgency. Intentional failure or delay in issuing notification of such spills, or to impliemnt remedala works, shall be consideredra Breach of Contract. EROSION IT Contractor [e shaii take care at a' tirmes to prevent erosion on every site and eisewnere on land which may be affected by his operations and the Engineer may impose such reasonable limi mtations and restrictions upon tlhe metilod and timing oic clearance as the circumstances warrant. All temporary discharge points shall be located, designed and constructed in a manner that will minimize the potential threat of erosion in the rmceiving ckannels. Measures to be taken may include placement of drains to avoid cascading effects, localized lining of receiving channels and the construction of a sufficient density of drains to ensure the potential discharge from any single point is readily manageable. DEWATERING Dewatering works for foundations and earthwork operations adjacent to, or encroaching upon stlreams or watercourses snail ue conducted in a manner that wiii prevent turbid water entering the streams or water courses directly, through the construction of intercepting ditches, settling ponlus or otu Iler appropriate devices. Where some, short term, construction work In an existing watercourse ;_ --avaoidab tu rda:t II I~IL L~IIi 31UL0 YIF I I ~I LII LyV CLI L.UUI ZOC IZ) 01I3VUIUd1UIC- LUI UIUILY levels may be permitted, with the approval of the Engineer, to increase beyond those normally acceptable. In cases where such measures are known to be unavoidable the Contractor shall submit a programme of work outlining the mitigation proposed and the time frame of the required wnrk, for the Engineer's approval. Similarly, no pressurized water shall be permitted to be discharoed to existinn watercouirses without due care and attention being paid to the potential threat of erosion and scouring of the channel downstream of the discharge. 'XC~AVAT'ONM = G'N'EfLA The Contractor shall ensure the stability and safety of excavations and shall take all measures necessary to ensure no collapse or subsidence occurs. Except where described in or permitted under the Contract, excavations shall not be battered. The sides of all excavations shall be kept true and shall where necessary be adequately supported by means of timber, steel or other type struts, walling, poling boards, sheeting, bracing and the like /2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C7 March 2004

331 Amman Develooment Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Excavations shall be kept free from water and it shall be the Contractor's responsibility to construct and maintain temporary diversion and drainage works, to carry out pumping and to take all measures necessary to comply with this requirement. The Contractor shall be responsible for the disposal of surplus excavated material. No excavated material sultable for re-use shall be renmoved from site witrout the approvai of tne Engineer. The Contractor shall not deposit excavated materials on public or private land except whiere duiiurected by the I eieii U I VVILI I LI Ie consent I writing of the relevant authority or of the owner or responsible representative of the owner of such land and only then in those places and under suchl-i conditilons as thui e relevantl autlhority, owner or representative ml IIay WI 1scrL)e. RISK OF FLOODING The Contractor's attention is drawn to the risk of flooding during storms and shall take appropriate precautions to ensure surface water is free to flow naturally and shall not cause obstructions liable to increase the risk of flooding. Watercourses upstream of the road shall not be interfered with, altered or diverted, and materials shall not be stored or deposited across a watercourse, culvert or drain entry so as to obstruct any natural flow of surface water. All works shall be adequately protected and marked so as not to increase the risk of injury or damage to the works, persons, vehicles, etc. In the event of flooding. Thle Contractor shilall bear all cosls andu expenses foric prio.lectiolni VVUr ks WhILch [Ie executes including construction of temporary diversion banks and channels and all necessary works against- flooding. USE OF EXPLOSIVES Explosives sha!l not be used on any part of the works without the approval of the Engineer and permission from the relevant authorities. The Contractor shall: * Observe all regulations regarding purchasing, transportation, storage handling and use of explosives; * Ensure explosives and detonators are stored in separate an approved building, located and clearly marked in English and Arabic "DANGER-EXPLOSIVES" to the approval of the Engineer; * Ensure all possible precautions are taken against accidental fire or explosion, and that all explosives are kept in a safe condition; and, * Ensure explosives and detonators are always transported in separate vehicles and kept aparl until.he last possibue [Ilorilent, and that metallic tools are not used to open boxes. Blasting shi adi only bie carried out by UAIepeIrIeInIcU ediiul fire. iii riminlly, LaIdryinly, stlmfini[ilj dhu shot firing shall be carried out with greatest regard for safety and in strict accordance with cuirrent- regu!atlons. Adequ.ate warning of k[-!as tvi hl aiw ys bm e given and all persons cleared t...i L '.~4IJU'.I ~I e3 blast ingjjl. VLJ ak I LI JIJL I Ii'J 1 'U.. LU VLU LiC LIVIICI U CI HI U 13 IC ICU from the area, before blasting take places. The Contractor shall: * Ensure the Police and other relevant authorities are kept fully informed of the blasting program so they may be present during blasting if they so require; * Ensure explosive charges are not excessive charged, that boreholes are properly protected, and appropriate precautions are taken for the safety of persons and property; and, * Maintain an up-to-date inventory of all explosive devices and submit a monthly report to the Engineer, detailing the use of explosives by date and location. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C8 March 2004

332 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update OPERATIONS IN UNSTABLE AREAS When operating in areas of geological instability, the Contractor shall exercise particular care in carrying out all works to ensure the risk of iandsiip and other mass movements of material are minimised. Particular regard shall be made in respect of all cut operations, the density of required [dralnage wvrrks, the nature and Lypes discharge points, and the potential for undercutting unstable banks downstream. SUBSIDENCE AFTER BACKFILLING Backfilling, whether in foundations or in trenches, shall be thoroughly compacted by ramming and any subsidence due to consolidation shall be made up with extra compacted material. Should subsidence occur after any surface reinstatement has been completed the surface reinstatement shall be removed, the hollows made up and the surface reinstatement re-laid. Any subsidence that occurs adjacent to the site of the Works that is attributable to the Contractor's activities shall be reinstated to the full satisfaction of the Engineer. AGGREGATE. FILL AND SPOIL HEAPS The contractor shall ensure that all such heaps are located at sites that are generally on land, with slopes of less than 1.5% and that do not permit direct run off into water courses. Aggregate stockpiles shall not exceed their natural angle of repose unless structurally supported. The on site storage of excessive quantities materials shall be avoided. All such heaps shall be of a size and stability that will ensure that the risk of mass movement in periods of high intensity rainfall is minimised. NOISE - GENERAL The Contractor shall ensure that all the equipment utilised in the construction of the project is fitted with appropriate noise muffling devices that conforms to the following sound level emissions: Construction Equipment Noise Limits Activity Source Day Night Earthworks Piling Bulldozer/excavator Piling machine 75 db(a) 85 db(a) 55 db(a) None Structural Concrete mixer/concrete pump 70 db(a) 55 db(a) Surtacing Roiler 70 db(a) 55 db(a) Commercial Vehicle Noise Limits Category 1 LiFmi L Used for the carriage of goods. Permitted maximum weight 4-k(, (A k-~ rnti l does nolt exceed 3.5 tjons. Engine less thlan2 h IN 8 ) 81 db(a) Used for the carriage of goods. Permitted maximum weight 86 dba l exltceds 3.5 Ltons. LEng1ine less than-1-200o lip DIN Bt ) Used for the carriage of goods. Permitted maximum weight 88 db(a) does not exceed 3.5 tons. Engine 200 hp DIN or more 8. J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C9 March 2004

333 Amman Development Corridor Environmental Impact Assessment Update Equipment not covered under these regulations should be fitted with muffling devices in accordance with manufacturers" recommendations. Equipment and vehicles that are excessively noisy due to poor engine adjustment, damaged noise amelioration equipment, or other inefficient operating conditions shall not be operated until corrective measures are taken. IThe Contractor sliail ensure LIatL whviere possi,ue plant and equipment are located away from noise sensitive areas. In this context, loading and unloading operations are particularly impolrtant. Wh1 ere smaller, nolsy eqipen is in opraio it mab. lace ial Ivv I ~~ behind_ scenigo i~ IIuIZPY ~l4u1j1i It ieil Ia III UI.J%=I LIUI I IL IIICIY Ut= IlJllttU UJei IIHU 5Lr eeiliily U[ within a temporary enclosure. Where larger equipment is used within 50 m of properties hoardings of sufficlent length and height skall ke used. I I~UI WI I. z,... IIII L 'I.I IL. I U. 0 I I I I i. IL 101 UC U U. The contractor shall ensure p!ant operated intermittently is shut down, or at a minimum throttled down during idle periods. In general, noisy operations shall be restricted to between 7 am and 9 pm, and not undertaken on pub;lic religious or other holida;w The niihlir- shall be informed of the excte time and duration of works that may emit significant noise levels. Piling operations should be restricted to the hours of 7 am and 8 pm. Advance notice by the Contractor of work starts of at least one month shall be given to residents or users of properties within 50 m of a piling site. Such notice may take the form of public notices displayed in within affected neighbourhoods and or throuqh the media at the cost of the Contractor. Approval to extend periods of operation may be given by the Engineer in consultation with the relevant municipality authority but only where it is necessary to maintain the stability of the Works of for the maintenance of workers and public safety. Extended periods, longer than 3 days, of overtime working shall not be permitted except in the most exceptional cases. ATR POLLUTTON EXGLUDTNG DUST In the conduct of general construction activities and the operation of equipment, the Contractor shall utilize all practical methods and devices as are reasonably available to control, prevent and otherwise minimi7zeatmospheric Pmirsions or the discharge of air contaminants. This will include:. The methods of handling cement and pozzoloid shall include means of eliminating atmospheric discharges of dust; * Equipment and vehicles that show excessive emissions ot exhaust gases due to poor engine adjustment or other inefficient operating conditions should not be operated unless corrective measures are takenl;. Burning of materials resulting from the clearance of trees, bushes and combustible materials siail not be permitted, except unduer specific approval of relevant governnment departments, MPWH and/or the Engineer;. lthe %ContractIor slhall comply wiith1v appiiilcabe regulatlons concu-iernling11 LI IprtevetiILIUII LA dif pollution in force in Jordan. In the conduct of construction activities and the operation of equlpment I I~I, LI I~ L. Icontractor shall utilize a'' pprlactical methods and devices as are Ie UI Ia available to control, prevent and otherwise minimize atmospheric emissions or the dicr-harrige f air rcntaminantc; * Equipment and vehicles that show excessive emissions of exhaust gases due to poor engine adjustment or other inefficient operating conditions shall not be operated unless corrective measures are taken; and, J0269/2-RPT-ENV-01 REV 0 C1o March 2004

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