Global Warming. Department of Chemical Engineering

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1 Global Warming How Can Biofuels Help? Clint Williford Department of Chemical Engineering

2 Introduction ti Greenhouse emissions Reducing growth of GHG emissions Biofuels Why and why now? What they are? How they are made? Potential for energy & GHG reduction Issues 2

3 Introduction ti 3

4 Introduction 4

5 Introduction 5

6 Introduction 6

7 Greenhouse Emissions 7

8 Greenhouse Emissions i 8

9 Greenhouse Emissions i 9

10 Greenhouse Emissions i 10

11 Greenhouse Emissions Gas Preindustrial Level Current Level Increase since 1750 Radiative Forcing(W/m 2 ) Carbon Dioxide 280 ppm 387ppm 104 ppm Methane 700 ppb 1,745 ppb 1,045 ppb 0.48 Nitrous Oxide 270 ppb 314 ppb 44 ppb 0.15 CFC ppt 533 ppt

12 xx Reducing Growth of GHG Emissions 12

13 Reducing Growth of GHG Emissions i xx 1 Wedge Increase Bio EtOH X 50 13

14 Biofuels- Why &Why Now? 2006 Tipping Point for industrial biotech & cell EtOH Higher energy prices Concern for energy security Global warming a mainstream issue Technological advance - enzymatic hydrolysis Political support farmers, environmentalists, security interests, business leaders, politicians Grain corn ethanol building an industry and a market 14

15 15

16 Types of Biofuels Biodiesel Grain corn ethanol Cellulosic ethanol (Cell EtOH) Others Butanol, Renewable biodiesel 16

17 Biodiesel Biodiesel is known chemically as a 'fatty acid methyl ester Transesterification Vege oil or fat reacted with an alcohol using a catalyst, usually a base (OH - ) Settling and washing steps Glycerol is main byproduct 17

18 Biodiesel 18

19 Types of Biofuels 19

20 Biodiesel 20

21 Biodiesel Production and demand surging;$1/gal blending incentive 21

22 Grain Corn Bioethanol Ethanol (CH3CH2OH; also known as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and EtOH) is a clear, colorless liquid. And 22

23 Grain Corn Bioethanol Ethanol produced from corn and sugar crops by dry milling Main products: EtOH,CO 2, high protein animal feed wet distillers grains with solubles or WDGS Corn is ground into coarse flour Water and enzymes are added and the mixture "cooked Yeast is added, and the mixture fermented. The mash is distilled d to recover the EtOH 23

24 Grain Corn Bioethanol 24

25 Grain Corn Bioethanol 25

26 Cellulosic l Ethanol 26

27 Cellulosic l Ethanol Cellulose - main component in plant cell walls Most common organic compound on earth A polymer of glucose Enzymes convert to glucose Yeats ferment to EtOH But, resists conversion Requires pretreatment- acids, high Temp & Pres 27

28 Cellulosic l Ethanol Potential to convert 1 billion tons biomass per year to replace 30% of U.S. petroleum use 28

29 Cellulosic Ethanol Iogen making CellEtOH in Canada Other R& D & demo plants in works Needs for better enzymes, pretreatment, plant yields, etc. 29

30 CO2 Emissions xx 30

31 U of M Project Microbial conditioning with alternate pretreatment improved ethanol yield, economics, and useable lignin adhesives Harvest Conditioning Opportunities Enzyme Production Size Reduction Alternate Pretreatment Simultaneous Saccharification & Fermentation Lignin as a higher value product Ethanol Recovery 31

32 Switch Grass Sorghum Sudan Grass Medicinal Plant Garden, University of Mississippi 32

33 Introduction Greenhouse emissions Biofuels what htthey are; how they are made; their potential for fuel; and impact on GGE Issues 33

34 Fossil Energy Replacement Ratio Energy Delivered to Customer Fossil Energy Ratio (FER) = Fossil Energy Used Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery Corn Ethanol Gasoline Electricity Source: J. Sheehan & M. Wang (2003) 34

35 Fossil Energy Replacement Ratio 35

36 Emerging Fuels Others Biobutanol Biogas Biomass to Liquids id Coal to Liquids Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Gas to Liquids Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel P-Series 36

37 Issues and Implications How Green are Biofuels? Net energy & fossil fuel use Net GHG emissions reduction Deforestation for palm oil plantations Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilizer Food prices Food and grain exports U.S. and world food prices (especially developing) Opportunity Costs Iowa study grain EtOH 18 B gal; Cell EtOH 4.5 B gal (w/$1.55 incentive) 37

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