PIANC COPEDEC IX 2016

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1 PIANC COPEDEC IX 2016 From 16 to 21 of October

2 PIANC COPEDEC IX 2016 From 16 to 21 of October - Book of Abstracts Theme: IX PIANC - COPEDEC on Coastal and Port Engineering ISBN:

3 Committees INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE (IOC) Mr. Freddy Wens, Chairman (Belgium) Mr. Louis Van Schel, Secretary General PIANC (Belgium) Mr. Rafael Galvão de Santana, Chairman of the LOC (Brazil) Ms. Ana Paula Harumi Higa (Brazil) Mr. David Smith (Jamaica) Mr. Gary Mocke (South Africa) Mr. Hartmut Bruehl (Germany) Mr. Nissanka Perera (Sri Lanka) LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE (LOC) Mr. Rafael Galvão de Santana, Chairman (ANTAQ) Mr. Aguinaldo José Teixeira (ANTAQ) Capt. Alberto Pereira Nogueira (Navy) Mr. Alexandre da Silva Cunha (ANTAQ) Ms. Ana Paula Harumi Higa (ANTAQ) Ms. Carolina Piccoli (PIANC YP-Com) Mr. Jefferson Vianna Bandeira (CDTN) Mr. Jeová Alves Araújo Mr. João Dobrochinski (PIANC YP-Com) Ms. Maria Beatriz Hopf Fernandes (EBEI) Ms. Tatiana Abreu Ferreira Chalub (ANTAQ) Ms. Yara Rodrigues de Assunção (ANTAQ) PAPER SELECTION COMMITTEE Prof. Ron Cox, Chairman (Australia) Prof. Charitha Pattiaratchi (Australia) Prof. Dr. Eloi Melo Filho (Brazil) Dr. Gary Mocke (South Africa) Prof. Dr. Han Ligteringen (The Netherlands) Prof. Paolo Alfredini (Brazil) Prof. Tomoya Shibayama (Japan)

4 Copyright and reproduction Copyright 2016 to the authors of individual articles. Partial reproductions are allowed, since the source and the authorship be cited. The republication of the works requires permission from ANTAQ and PIANC, responsible for the publication and copyright holders. 627b International Conference on Coastal and Engineering 9.:2016: Rio de Janeiro, RJ) Book of Abstracts (electronic resource) / 9th International Conference in developing countries, 16 to 21 of October 2016, Rio de Janeiro [electronic source]: enhancing waterbone transport and coastal development the challenge of reaching integrated solutions / Organized by ANTAQ and PIANC. [realization by ANTAQ and PIANC] Rio De Janeiro: ANTAQ, PIANC, ISBN: Port Engineering 2. Coastal Engineering 3. PIANC 4. ANTAQ

5 Preface This Proceedings contains 145 papers presented at the 9th quadrennial Conference on Coastal and Port Engineering (PI- ANC-COPEDEC) held in from 16 to 21 October This international forum conceived to allow coastal and port engineers from developing countries exchange know-how and experiences amongst themselves and with their colleagues from industrialized countries was held for a second time in Rio de Janeiro, in this instance under the aegis of ANTAQ, the Agência Nacional de Transportes Aquaviários (National Waterway Transportation Agency). The Proceedings are arranged according to the main themes of the conference presentations, namely: Port Engineering; Port Planning & Management; Inland Navigation; Short Sea Shipping & Coastal Navigation; Coastal Engineering; Coastal Zone & Coastal Risk Management; Port & Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change; and Port and Waterborne Transport Logistics and Multi Modal Transport. The individual papers cover a broad range of topics including theory, numerical and physical modeling, field measurements, case studies, design, and management. These papers provide engineers, scientists, planners, developers and authorities with state-of-theart information and guidance on port and coastal engineering and management. Gary Mocke PhD, PrEng, D.CE (ASCE) Director: Ports & Marine TerminalsAfrica, Europe & Middle East (AEM)

6 Table of Contents Coastal Engineering 012 I Evaluation of Cultural Losses and Risks by Coastal Floods 014 I A Study on Solitary Wave Overtopping using Lattice Boltzmann Method 016 I Experimental investigation on optimizing the projecting side walls of an oscilating water column 018 I The effect of solid material received into the coastal zone after extreme heavy rain to coastal processes 020 I Sal Rei Breakwater with Single Layer Cubes 022 I Dynamics of the Channel-Shoal System at the Amazon River Mouth - Brazil 024 I Wheatstone Breakwater - Design and Construct of a 980m long breakwater resisting cyclones in a remote location 026 I Mitigation of shoreline changes due to variations in offshore wave conditions on short- medium- and long time scales, examples from Brazil 028 I Fluid mud dynamics around dredged navigation channel at river mouth port 030 I Stability and settlement analysis of compound geo-synthetic materials in coastal protection measures 032 I The effect of channel deepening on tidal velocity asymmetry in an estuary subject to a mixed tidal regime 034 I Defining extreme water levels for design of coastal structures in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia 036 I New Large Hydrodynamic Flume Introduction and Wave Propagation Experiments on Abrupt Change Terrain 038 I Mitigation of shoreline erosion east of Kitchener drain outlet at the Nile Delta Coast, Egypt 040 I A practical method to determine typhoon-induced design wave conditions at nearshore area 042 I Evaluation of an operational wave forecasting system applied to the Tubarão Port at Espírito Santo Bay - Brazil 044 I Toe Stability of Tetrapodarmoured Breakwaters 046 I Analysis of Rubble Mound Breakwater Damage: Case Study of an Existing Breakwater Rehabilitation 048 I Coastal Engineering Review, Niemeyer Bike-Path Damage 050 I Potential Volumetric Changes in an Intertidal Shoal Adjancent to the Proposed LNG Marine Terminal

7 052 I Santinho-Ingleses headland bedform characterization through interferometric data, Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil 054 I Performance based design of coastal structures; A new turkish codes 056 I Observations and Modelling of Shoreline and Sandbar Response on a High-Energy Beach 058 I Recommendations for the use of SWAN to simulate extreme events 060 I Oran Highway Revetment Design 062 I The Black Sea and Sea of Azov wave regime: results of numerical simulation 064 I Geomorphologic impact of 24 breakwater constructions on Kerala Coast in South West India 066 I Overview of Wind, Wave and Tidal Conditions along the Brazilian Coast for Coastal Engineering practice 068 I Effects of TEBAR Pier at São Sebastião Channel Hydrodynamics and Shoreline Evolution at Ilha Bela 070 I Berm breakwaters: designing for wave heights from 3 m to 7 m 072 I Spatial distribution of impact pressure on a parapet using tactile sensors 074 I An experimental study on the wave oscillation of partially trapped waves 076 I Recurve Seawalls to reduce Wave Overtopping 078 I Wave overtopping over sea dikes and impact forces on storm walls 080 I Coupled Numerical Models to Simulate Wave Run-up in Fresh Water and Dead Sea Water 082 I Finite Element stress analysis of a concrete armour block, Kolos 084 I Propeller jet flow around pile groups 086 I Mud deposits on cassino beach, southern brazil: dredging effects 088 I Wave transmission through submerged, smooth and impermeable dikes on a gentle and shallow foreshore 090 I Adverse Impact on Drainage System by Unplanned Human Intervention in the South-Western Coastal Part of Bangladesh 092 I Natural Harmonize Design Improvements of Hikkaduwa Fishery Harbor 094 I Drainage Improvement and Sustainable Water Management of Bhairab River Basin in Bangladesh 096 I Motion response of a floating pontoon breakwater through numerical investigation 098 I Numerical modelling of wave impact forces on fixed deck structures due to air entrapment 100 I Operational Forecasting System in Angra dos Reis - Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil 102 I Sediment Transport Management in Tidal Inlets: Tiab Estuary Case Study 104 I Theoretical study on erosion at Cua Dai river delta coast induced by the reduction of sediment supply 106 I Morphological evolution of a tidal inlet located along the west coast of India 108 I São Francisco River, Brazil: from stability to a migrating mouth 110 I Nautical Bottom Approach using Densimetry 112 I An experimental study of waveinduced particle velocities in fluid mud layer 114 I Mud transport in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, RS, Brazil 116 I Are Geotextile Encapsulated Sand Elements only Temporary Solutions in Coastal Engineering?

8 Table of Contents Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management 118 I Coastal Process in the Cox s Bazar-Teknaf Area of the Eastern Coast of Bangladesh 119 I Modelling for gold 120 I Coastal shrubland restoration, a management experience 122 I Integration of high-resolution metocean forecast and observing systems at Port of Santos 124 I Influence of meteorological tsunamis in ports and marinas 126 I Investigation of structural resilience against tsunamis in harbor regions: case study in ambarli port, Turkey 128 I Submerged Vertical Cylinder Barriers to Prevent Flooding and Erosion 130 I What Makes People Evacuate? - Triggers for Tsunami Evacuation Inland Navigation 132 I Conceptual model of fiscal feasibility assessment applied to waterway projects 134 I Developing of an integrated system to collect and analysis data 135 I Urgent solutions to promote inland waterway transport in Vietnam 136 I Hydrodynamic Brake Implements for the Bow of Rake Barges in Convoys and for the Stern of Self-Propelled Inland Navigation Vessels 138 I Port Development in the Master Plan for Regional Waterborne Transport on the Mekong River 140 I Panama canal third set of locks: water saving basins 142 I Passenger Satisfaction Survey for Inland Waterways Transportation in Brazil: From user perception to deconstruction of old premises 144 I Panama Canal Third Set of Locks - Approach Structures 146 I Regulatory model for inland waterways in Brazil: current stage and possibilities for development 148 I Revision and comparison between methods to define the reduction level in waterways 150 I The potential for water freight in the South West UK 152 I Traffic capacity evaluation in consolidated waterways: Tiete river s cascade study case.

9 Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change 154 I A numerical experiment of supertyphoon and extreme storm surge under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios 156 I Application of chirurgical dredging in contaminated sediments from a tropical coastal environment 158 I Ecosystem Service: Framework for an integral decision in maritime projects 159 I Estimating maintenance dredging for ports and access channels with a rapid, hybrid approach 160 I Effectiveness of adaptive coastal protection in managing wave overtopping and retaining beach views at the crest of seawalls 162 I Environmental compliance about marine fuels 164 I Experiments and results of the environmental management of the port of Paranaguá-Paraná-Brasil 166 I Hydrodynamic aspects of Araçá Cove in São Sebastião SP 168 I Hydro-sedimentary modeling, a precious tool for coastal developments : illustration on a port extension project in France 170 I Improvements to the Fluvial Sediment Estimation in SMIC (preliminary results) 172 I Institutionalized Green Port Strategy as Performance Measure for Philippine Ports 174 I Navigating a Changing Climate. The Action Plan of PIANC s Think Climate Coalition 176 I Pollutant Elution Characteristics of Contaminated Sediment Treated by Cement-mixing and Mechanical Dehydration 178 I Quantifying metal concentrations in water due to dredging operation in contaminated sediments 180 I Sea turtles monitoring program: case study of Açu Port 182 I Shipping Emission Inventory in the North Channel of the Yangtze River Estuary based on Terrestrial AIS Data 183 I The Environment Performance Index - IDA, a major tool to assess the environmental management of the port sector in Brazil 184 I Statistical methodology for reliability analysis of wave height return value estimation models 186 I The Influence of Tidal Prism on Port of Santos Dredging 188 I Fluid Mud in Santos Harbor (SP, Brazil) 191 I Vulnerabilities to Climate Change is Not Just for Seaports - Inland River Ports Should Also Proactively Address Climate Change Vulnerabilities in their Planning Processes

10 Table of Contents Port Engineering 192 I A Nonlinear Channel Optimization Simulation Framework for Port of Brisbane Australia 193 I A procedure for evaluation of the technical feasibility of a vessel approach harbour entrance 194 I Anchored vessel ship-to-ship operations: environmental limits considering mooring equipments and ship maneuver 196 I Applying spectral wave models for the design of port layouts and entrance channels 198 I Assessment of new port operations using integrated analysis: a case study in Port of Mucuripe (CE, Brazil) 199 I Physical model test on emergency protective measures of breakwater construction process 200 I Barge Unloading Arrangement At Raslaffan 202 I Comparison between 2D and 3D Analysis of Open-piled Quay Walls 204 I Damages assessment and rehabilitation of north breakwater at a major port in south east coast of India 206 I Hydraulic model studies for proposed fishing port at Messida (wilaya El tarf, Algeria) 208 I Including Tidal Windows into a Discrete Event Traffic Simulation to Improve Navigation in Approach Channels 210 I Influence of the navigation channel geometry on silting of Paranagua Port (Paraná, Brazil). 212 I International MSE Wall Experience for Port and Coastal Applications 214 I Navigation channel at Amazon mouth: problems and perspectives 216 I On the development of a dynamic underkeel clearance computational code for Santos Port 218 I Portocel - the importance of coastal morphology for a greenfield port development 220 I Propeller Action and Berth Scour Protection 222 I Rubber Fender Manufacturing: best practice from formulation to performance measurement 224 I The list of records in Dubai grows longer with the New T3 Container Terminal 226 I The New Standards PIANC 2014 and their Impact on the Brazilian Harbor Management 228 I The role of fresh water discharge on siltation rates in harbor basins 230 I Wave forecasts using an artificial neural network for port construction works management 232 I Wave Tranquility and Morphological Implications of Proposed Fishery Harbour in Mussanah, Oman 234 I Structural assessment of Berth 208 in accomodating bigger vessels 235 I Hindcasting and surveying ocean waves for the Port of Kamsar, Guinea

11 Port of Santos 238 I The city and port of Santos: proposal to solve the main relationship conflict 240 I The Green Port concept and the Port of Santos 242 I The potential for inland waterway transport of cargo in the Metropolitan Area of Santos - Brazil 244 I The potential for public transport on waterways in the Metropolitan Area of Santos - Brazil 246 I The railway transport and the Port of Santos: prospects of expansion Port Planning and Management 248 I Bahia Blanca s Deepening, maintaining Argentina s deepest Port 250 I Complex Networks Application for Competitiveness Transport Waterway Brazilian 252 I Improving Container Terminal Productivity by Simulations 253 I Dredging and Transhipment Optimizations Studies for Port of Kamsar, Guinea 256 I Dredging Contracting and Management Innovations 258 I Formulating goals towards success for Adaptive Port Planning, Applied case: Europoort at Port of Rotterdam 260 I Hydrodynamics, navigation and mooring simulation tools used for port and harbour design 262 I Innovation flexible dolphins by full scale field test laterally loaded tubular piles 264 I Mauritius Port Masterplan I Modeling and optimization of the stowage plan and handling of containers in port yards by rules representation and genetic algorithm 268 I Operational Maritime Weather Forecast for Port Access and Operations using the AquaSafe platform 270 I Optimization of integrated port problems using genetic algorithm and simulation through rules 272 I Port developments are core elements for future economic growth in Gabon, West Africa 274 I Selection of Criteria for Dredging Prioritizing in Seaports 276 I State management of ports system in Vietnam existing mechanisms and future changes 278 I The Ghent Canal Zone Project - a successful example of stakeholders involvement in an industrialized urban area 280 I The integration of port development in the overall infrastructure planning of Manila to ensure future economic growth in Philippines 282 I Tolu (Colombia) jetty: rehabilitation and maintenance 284 I Under keel clearance availability at the Port of Itajaí: A study of channel accessibility during the strong wave event in May I Integrated Method for the Development of Optimal Channel Dredging Project - Case Study: Terminal Portuário do Mearim 289 I Environmental assessment of public ports that trade soybeans using the dea model

12 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Evaluation of Cultural Losses and Risks by b Coastal Floods D.R. Dassanayakee 1, A. Burzel 2 and H.Oumeraci 3 ABSTRACTT 1. INTRODUCTION Tourism and recreation in urban areas are mainly based on the cultural assets of the area. Cultural assets include all buildings considered to form part of cultural and historical h heritage and other non- to the heritage infrastructure that has a cultural value. Natural hazards mayy cause massive damages cultural properties due to many reasons: negligence of these places in a disaster, placement of the destructible items in a risky area, lack of damage prevention strategies, etc. This paperr aims at developing a method for the qualitative assessment of losses to cultural assets caused by coastal floods, ncluding the associated risk. r Cultural assets are categorised in this studyy in two main groups: heritage h assets and non-heritage assets. Heritage cultural assets include: historic/ heritage buildings,, museums, archaeological sites, library/ archives, churches, movable historicc goods, cemeteries, monuments and historic landscape. Non-heritage assets are cultural spaces, libraries, monuments, and ecreational parks. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR CULTURAL LOSSESS In this study, two steps are identified for the evaluation of cultural losses (Figure 1): (i) Identification of cultural sites within the study area, (ii) Qualitative assessment of losses. l The proposed method is illustrated in Fig. 1. First, the geographical area prone to coastal floods is identified. The cultural assetss within the considered area are then identified and their spatial distribution is determined. The available information on the existing conditions (category, age, building material, data on past flood damages, any renovation information etc.) is also collected. Inundation models are used to determine the most relevant flood characteristics; namely water depth and velocity. Depending on the flood characteristics, the level of potential physical damages (mainly the damages to the floor/ walls of the buildings and loss of contents) are identified. Further, by analysing the cultural value constituents off cultural assets, the level of cultural value of each asset is determined. The qualitative assessment is carried out by combining the level of physical damage to cultural assett and the level of cultural value of the asset. 1 Ms., Ext ternal PhD Student, LWI, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany, 2 Dipl.-Ing g., Deltares, Inland Water Systems, Delft,, The Netherlands. Former PhD Student at LWI, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany. 3 Prof. Dr r.-ing., Professor, LWI, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany. 12

13 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering The losses are presented in a five-point scale: 1-very low, 2-low, 3-medium, 4-high and 5-very high. Since, no specific methods are available for the estimation of the level of physical damages of cultural assets, the analysis is carried out based onn the available methodss for the estimation of residential building damages. Available methods for thee assessment of physical damages of residential buildings depending on flood depth and flow velocityy have been adopted for the estimation of the physical damages of cultural assets based on the assumption that the structural strength of both residential and cultural buildings has insignificant difference. However, unlike for the other buildings, it is not sufficient to consider only the physical damages of cultural assets as a a final cultural loss, since the cultural assets themselves are highly heterogeneous in terms of their cultural values. Therefore, it is proposed to consider their cultural values, which consist of their historical significance. However, the determination of cultural value is a difficult task, since it should be done for every asset separately. The level of cultural losses is determined using a CLAM (cultural loss assessment matrix), which combines the physical damage level and the cultural value level. 3. RESULTS A case study on the estimation of cultural losses was carried out in Hamburg H Wilhelmsburg, Germany within the German Joint Research Project XtremRisK (extreme storm surges at open coasts and estuarinee areas: risk assessment and mitigation under climate change aspects), under the lead of the third author. Here, two analysess were performed: 1. Estimation of cultural c losses based on physical damages to cultural assets and 2. Estimation of culturall losses based on the physical damages and the cultural value of assets. The results aree shown below for the flooding scenario XR2010A with a maximumm flood depth of 4.61m and maximumm flow velocity of 3.69m/s. A significant difference in the results of the two analyses shows the importance of the consideration of the cultural values of assets in the t analysis.. As shown in i Figure 2a,, when only physical damages to cultural assets are considered, the level of cultural lossess is mainly within w 0 (not affected) and 2 (low). Since most of the cultural assetss in the considered area are historical buildings off high cultural values, the second analysiss results in loss levels 3 (medium) and 4 (high)) (Figure 2b) ). Therefore, the first analysis can be used as a preliminary stepp for the assessment off cultural losses to obtain a first picture of the losses, while the second analysis which requires a moree comprehensive data set of each cultural asset, together with the results off this first analysis, represents a detailed study, which provides a more complete picture of cultural losses. Once the damage level is estimated, the risk level can be calculated by combining the t flooding probability and the expected damage. The full paper will mainly include the detailedd description of the cultural loss assessment method and the main outcomes of the case study. Furthermore, the estimatedd damage and risk levels for all flooding scenarios will also be presented at the conference. 13

14 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering A Study on Solitary Wave Overtopping using Lattice Boltzmann Method E. Dinesh Kumar 1, S.A. Sannasiraj 2 and V. Sundar 3 Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India. ABSTRACT The excess spillage over the coastal structures caused by the extreme waves result in the failure or damage of structures. In the past, wave overtopping phenomenon has been studied through both laboratory experiments and computational methods [Badlock et al. (2012)]. In computational methods, the continuum macro-scale laws on mass conservation and momentum balance equations are solved by mesh based methods like finite difference/ element/ volume and mesh-free methods like smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). In coastal environment, numerical modelling has to tackle two important problems viz., large density ratio and high Reynolds number. Recently, Chowdhury and Sannasiraj (2014) studied the solitary wave overtopping using SPH and compared with the experimental results of Badlock et al. (2012) and investigated the SPH modelling of wave interaction with costal structures. Compared to mesh-based methods, particle based methods have advantages while modelling broken free surfaces. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), a new entrant in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) domain, is semi-lagrangian. It is a mesh-based particle method. Attempts are being made to develop LBM as an alternate tool for CFD solvers. LBM is the discrete form of Boltzmann equation, through Chapman- Engkog analysis it leads to Navier- Stokes equation. To highlight a few reasons in favour of LBM are: meso-scale modelling approach, semi-lagrangian and explicit parallelization in modern computer architecture [Succi (2001)]. Attempts have been made for studying the wave run-up using shallow water approximation of LBM [Frandsen (2008)]. Yet, the studies aimed at checking modeling capabilities of LBM. Zhao et al. (2013) has shown that, LBM can simulate the process of shoaling and dispersive phenomena using Navier- Stokes approximation of LBM. The kinematic boundary condition was used to identify the free surface. However, the potential usage of LBM in coastal hydrodynamics is yet to be fully identified on which the present study is focussed on. The present paper deals with the development of a numerical model based on Navier-Stokes approximation of Lattice Boltzmann method. It is capable of tackling surface water wave problems relevant to coastal environment. The paper will review the applicability and limitation of LBM for water wave problems, though it shows promise. The standard Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator is used. Coupled Level Set-Volume of Fluid method (CLSVOF) has been used to capture the interface. Interface schemes play a major role in capturing free surface; the paper will give the comprehensive overview on different interface schemes available in LBM. Preliminary results with Volume of Fluid based interface scheme have shown for two dimensional broken dam with obstacle in front of water column (Fig.1). The applicability of CLSVOF in comparison with diffusive-interface scheme for the wave overtopping problem will be highlighted. The simulation results using LBM will be compared with physical experiments conducted on sloped seawall [Badlock et al. (2012)] and SPH simulation [Chowdhury and Sannasiraj (2014)]. 14

15 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 1 Broken dam with obstacle (200 X 120 cells) References 1. Baldock T.E, Peiris D., Hogg J. (2012) Overtopping of solitary waves and solitary bores on a plane beach, Proc. R. Soc. A. 468, Chowdhury S. De., Sannasiraj S. A. (2014) A study on wave overtopping and sea wall stability using SPH schemes, Proc. 24 th International ocean and polar engineering conf. (ISOPE), Busan, Korea. 3. Sauro Succi. (2001) The lattice Boltzmann equation for fluid dynamics and beyond, Oxford. 4. Frandsen, J.B. (2008) A simple LBE wave run-up model, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 8, Nos. 1 4, pp Zhao. Z, Huang. P, Li. Y, Junmin Li. (2013) A Lattice Boltzmann method for viscous free surface waves in two dimensions, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 71,

16 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON OPTIMIZING THE PROJECTING SIDE WALLS OF AN OSCILATING WATER COLUMN ABSTRACT Daniel Raj. D (1), Sannasiraj. S.A (2) and Sundar.V (2) (1) Research Scholar, (2) Professor. Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India. Studies on the conversion of wave energy into clean electricity have evincing keen interest among researchers worldwide over the last three decades. Among the several concepts of wave energy converters (WEC), the Oscillating Water Column (OWC) device that works on the concept of rise and fall of water level which advances an air flow that drives the wells turbine coupled to electric generators has become quite popular. Although, there have been a few pilot OWC plants, there still remains a lot to be investigated particularly on improving in its efficiency. The run-through of OWC for the production of electricity necessitates a detailed analysis of the local wave regime and hydrodynamic studies. However, the design and optimization of the OWC s projecting sidewall length is also as important as the design and optimization of the water chamber (hydrodynamics), the air hole and the turbine that playing a major role in the performance of these devices. When integrating with breakwater, projecting sidewalls play an important role in providing entrance for larger amount of the incident wave energy to propagate in to the chamber. Moreover the sidewalls prevent the rubbles from blocking the path of wave incoming to the chamber of the OWC if it were to be linked to a conventional rubble mound breakwater. The sidewalls, also called harbor walls (Malmo et. al.1986), are crucial in enhancing the efficiency of primary conversion of OWC type WEC in bottom mounted conditions and is also competent in an environment dominated by oblique waves. The objective of the present study is to optimally convert the incident wave energy to the electrical power by analyzing the influence of projecting side walls and optimizing its projecting length. In contemplation of enumerating the efficient length of projecting sidewalls, series of experiments were conducted with a model scale of 1:20 in a 72.5m long, 2m wide and 2.5m deep wave flume. The flume equipped with a wave maker can operate in the piston or hinged mode to generate shallow water or deep water waves respectively. Perforated wave absorber on the other end is capable of absorbing the incident waves effectively. The OWC dimensions are chosen as 283 mm wide, breadth of 180 mm and height of 540 mm. Bottom opening of 180 mm x 283 mm and circular bottom profile of radius 180 mm are provided for the device. The geometric dimensions of the OWC model is adopted based on the optimization study carried out by Sundar et. al The dimensions have been chosen in such a way that the device can absorb more energy when the relative water depth, (d/l) is around The detailed plan and sectional view of the model is shown in Fig. 1. Four testing criteria have been chosen so as to investigate the effect of projecting sidewalls on the efficiency of the OWC. Among them, one is without considering the projecting sidewalls and rest of three with the projecting sidewalls of ratio between length (c) to breadth (b) as (c/b) of 1, 1.5 and 2. The schematic illustration of the geometry of OWC with the projecting sidewalls is shown in Fig. 2. The models were exposed to the action of regular and random waves in order to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance characteristics of the device mainly the effect of the harbor walls on its efficiency. The details of test set-up, testing facility, parameters of models, test procedure, analysis of results and discussion will be reported in this paper. The optimum length of the sidewalls would be recommended in addition to detailed power absorbing efficiency of the OWC chamber. 16

17 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering 283 Ru 180 AH 12 Air Chamber P fin P fout Ø R ELEVATION OF OWC SECTIONAL VIEW A-A OF OWC a = 283 A 50 AH P air A 50 PLAN VIEW OF OWC b = 180 Ru - Runup meter at rear wall of the air chamber AH - Air hole at the air chamber P fin - Fluid pressure inside the air chamber P fout - Fluid pressure outside the air chamber P air - Air pressure at the air chamber All Dimensions are in "mm" Fig. 1 Detailed plan and sectional view of the model w w w w I b II b III b IV b c = b c = 1.5b c = 2b Fig. 2. The schematic illustrations of the geometry of the different configurations of OWC with harbor walls. KEY WORDS: Wave energy; Oscillating Water Column; Rubble mound breakwater; Projecting sidewalls; harbor walls. REFERENCES 17

18 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering The effect of solid material received into the coastal zone after extreme heavy rain to coastal processes Krylenko Marina 1.Introduction. On July 6 7, 2012, coast areas of Gelendzhik (Russia) (Fig. 1) suffered extremely heavy rain. According to the Russian Agency for Hydrology and Meteorology [1], the maximal daily precipitation at the Gelendzhik meteorological station before this rain was 105 mm and the exceedance probability of this value was estimated as one time per 100 years. However the 6-7 July daily precipitation amounted to 311 m. It stimulated the catastrophic water level rise in rivers and small creeks. Presented paper is dedicated to the analysis of the consequences provided by the extremely heavy rains and the subsequent flood and their influence on the Gelendzhik coast processes. The analysis included the quantitative assessment of the transported solid material in the natural conditions with revealing its accumulation patterns in the bays and on the open seashore. 2.Methods. The field survey was carried out in the coastal area of the Black sea between Gelendzhik and Tsemess Bay (Fig. 1). The key areas were covered by the geodetic survey. Its results were compared with the data obtained by previous similar observations [2, 3]. 3.Results. The investigations primarily involved areas of the abrasion sea coast, where material was provided by land and rockslides that occurred immediately at the cliff and by solid flows of intermittent streams flowing into the sea. Land- and rockslides are confined to areas with prerequisites for their formation. Under weathering, rocks constituting the cliff lost their stability and the extremely heavy shower only favored their mass collapse. The distribution of the rockslide fans is irregular: seven rockslides are noted between valleys 5 and 6 (Fig. 1) with three of them being large; four small rockslides are observed between valleys 5 and 6; and 12 large rockslides, each exceeding 100 m 3, are recorded between valley 2 and Golubaya Bay. In addition, small sized rock fragments from the cliff are observable along its entire length, although their total volume is insignificant. The flood in the valleys was followed by the formation of fans consisting largely of gravel and rubble with an insignificant admixture of boulders in their mouth areas. It is difficult to estimate the total transport of solid matter since the volume of beach sediments that existed in the mouth areas of the valleys prior to the rain is unknown and a significant share of the transported material was represented particulate matter that was removed beyond the coastal zone. Nevertheless, the transport of drift forming material from every valley may be estimated as being at least m 3. Fig. 1. The Ashamba River s Basin. (M) Markhotskii Range; (T) low Tuapkhat mountainous massif; (1 6) numbers of valleys of intermittent streams (corresponding to their local toponyms). 18

19 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Particular attention was paid to the mouth area of the Ashamba River, where the flood formed a spacious fan consisting of abovewater and underwater parts (Fig. 2). The base of the fan is located at a depth exceeding 5 m; its relatively flat surface is raised up to 2.5 m above the bottom. The sediments accumulated along the fan s base at the bottom include large fragments of building structures, trees, and blocks of compact gray clay up to 0.5 m across. The integral volume of the solid material transported by the river and deposited immediately in the mouth (except for the finegrained fractions, which were transported farther to the open sea) was as high as m 3. The above sea part of the fan was formed and modified during storms that followed the flood. Initially, it represented a small pebbly island with trunks of large trees serving as the base. Two months later after several mediumscale storms, a pebbly spit approximately 60 m long and over 1 m high (above the sea level) appeared to the right of the river s mouth (Fig. 2). The strong storm that happened at the beginning of November stimulated the displacement of material from the underwater part of the fan to the spit and the adjacent beach to form a swell up to 1.5 m high. The spit joined the bank salient left of the mouth to form a cuspate bar. After the displacement of small pebbles, the seaside part of the accretion morphostructure became largely composed of boulders; at the same time, no retreat of the brink was observed. Fig. 2. The formation of the fan in the Ashamba River s mouth. (1) Position of the brink before July 6, 2012; (2) reinforced concrete structures protecting the beach; (3) boundaries of the river s stream during the flood on July 6, 2012; (4) retaining wall constructed after the flood; (5) contour of the fan s base; (6) shoreline on August 18, 2012; (7) shoreline on September 6, 2012; (8) shoreline on October 21, 2012; (9) large trees transported by the flood; (10) shoreline on November 2, Conclusion. The extremely heavy rains in the summer of 2012 considerably affected the lithodynamic processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea. The undisturbed natural landscapes are characterized by their high resistance to the activity of the extreme showers: they provided an insignificant share of clastic material to the streams and sea. The largest share of the solid flow was received by them from areas with anthropogenic disturbances. A significant share of the solid flow almost completely taken out to the sea was produced by linear erosion along stream channels, which was responsible for the formation of deep incisions. The erosional incisions formed along the channels of intermittent streams should stimulate the transport of solid material during even weaker flood and landslide activity on the adjacent slopes of valleys. The instant influx of large volumes of solid material to the coastal zone should unavoidably affect its balance in the latter. Therefore, the probability of similar natural events should be taken into account when analyzing the past evolution of the shore, prognosticating its further development, and estimating the balance of solid material. The abrasion slopes are now stabilized at the new level, and the transport of solid material from the cliff to the coastal zone should be reduced for some period. 5.References. 1. Disastrous Flood in the Adagum River Basin on July 6 7, Aleynikova A., Krylenko V. Lipka O. Succession changes of vegetation of the burned woods of Pinus brutia var. pityusa on the Western end of the Black Sea coast of Caucasus / Vestn. Ross. Univ. Druzhby Nar.: Ser. Ekol. Bezop. Zhiznedeyat., No. 2, (2012). 3. Shuiskii Yu.D. Modern dynamics of accumulative relief forms. In Natural Principles of Coastal Protection, ed. by V. P. Zenkovich, et al., Nauka, Moscow, 1987, pp Short summary. The consequences of extremely heavy rains in the coastal zone near Gelendzhik are discussed with defining the sources of the solid material supply to the seashore, estimating their influence on the coastal processes, and approximately calculating the volumes of the solid material that was transported by permanent and intermittent streams and provided by the coastal denudation. It is emphasized that the probability of such anomalous natural events should be taken into account when prognosticating the evolution of the seashore and estimating the balances of solid material. 19

20 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Sal Rei Breakwater with Single Layer Cubes J.C. van der Lem 1, R.J.H. Stive 1, M.R.A. van Gent 2 1. Introduction When design wave conditions are high and available rock sizes are small, the application of concrete armour units for the design of breakwaters becomes nearly inevitable. Modern day design practice then shows that often single layer concrete armour units are applied. The concept of the single layer obviously results in a considerable cost reduction compared to double layer armour systems applied some decades ago. Looking at single layer units, it is observed that the shape is rather complex, with legs protruding in different directions. Therewith the formwork of these units is complex, as is the fabrication of the moulds and the casting and compaction of the concrete. Further the placement is often dictated by stringent directives of the developers, demanding specific placement patterns and/or orientations. In contrast to these complex units, a concrete cube is easier to produce. The formwork is simple and the compaction of concrete is not complicated by legs protruding in different directions. Further, cubes are easy to stack and the placement of the cubes in a single layer is quite simple. Based on these considerations RoyalHaskoningDHV with support of Deltares prepared a repair design for the breakwater at Sal Rei (Cape Verde) using a single layer of cubes. After completion of the breakwater in 2013 this breakwater experienced some severe swell wave events and the single layer of cubes showed to perform satisfactorily. The repair design of the breakwater, the results of the physical model tests and observations on the status of the single layer cubes will be presented in the paper and the conference. 2. History In 2011 construction was ongoing for the expansion of the Port of Sal Rei, Boa Vista, Cape Verde, based on a design with Accropode units. In anticipation of the upcoming winter period, a temporary protection was provided on the head and the crest of the partially completed breakwater. During the winter period of 2011/2012 the breakwater was hit by severe swell waves during a number of events. After these events damage was observed. Not only was the temporary protection heavily damaged, also the permanent protection (Accropode) showed displaced and broken units. As this put questions to the robustness of the original design of the breakwater, Royal HaskoningDHV was invited to review the design, provide recommendations for repair, prepare a preliminary repair design, carry out model tests (at Deltares) and provide a final repair design. Temporary protection Swell events winter 2011 Broken Accropode 3. Design review The review of the design was complicated by the fact that the breakwater was not completely finished. The Accropode were not fully supported by additional units on the crest and the breakwater parapet wall was not completed yet. Further, it was impossible to judge whether the strength of the armour units was sufficient as no calculation model exists to address the concrete tensile stresses occurring in the armour units already placed in the (temporary) works. Apart from this, it was observed that the foreshore of the breakwater shows to be steep which (in accordance 1 Maritime & Waterways, Royal HaskoningDHV, PO Box 8520, 3009 AM Rotterdam 2 Dept. Coastal Structures & Waves, Deltares, PO Box 177, 2600 MH Delft, The Netherlands 20

21 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering with CLI design guidelines of 2012) could have affected the stability of the Accropodes. In particular in view of the latter the application of a larger armour unit was recommended. 4. Alternative breakwater designs and 2D model tests For the repair design of the breakwater, the selection of a larger Accropode would be the obvious choice. But the contractor (already on site) foresaw problems in the timely fabrication of the larger moulds and the larger Accropode. Instead, the contractor suggested the application of a double layer of Antifer cubes. To investigate the different options, model tests were carried out at Deltares wave flumes in The Netherlands. Results of these tests confirmed that the originally designed Accropode showed to be of underweight, leading in the model tests to a collapse of the armour layer under extreme loading. Interesting result of this test was that, prior to such collapse, settlements within the Accropode layer showed to be significant without showing extraction of units. A recommendation has been formulated to monitor and evaluate such settlements in future model tests. Next to tests with Accropodes and a double layer of Antifer cubes also tests on a single layer of cubes were carried out. This demonstrated that the single layer of cubes were very stable. In view of the combined advantages of the cubes and in consultation with the Contractor, the Client approved to proceed with the design using a single layer of cubes. 5. Final design, 3D model tests and construction The final repair design was developed in such a way that still the use of already produced and placed Accropodes was maximized. This implied that a transition had to be made between Accropodes already placed in the works and the single layer of cubes. To verify that this transition would be sufficiently stable and to verify the stability of the single layer of cubes on the head of the breakwater, a series of 3D model tests were also carried out at Deltares. Transition Trunk Roundhead Following the completion of the tests and the re-design of the breakwater, the entire breakwater was repaired and completed in the summer of The simplicity of the cubes and its placing method significantly contributed to this achievement. The breakwater has faced two winter periods including serious swell conditions that occurred in both the winter of 2013/14 and 2014/15. During these extreme situations the primary armour layer of the breakwater performed well. Placement of cubes (2013) July 2014 July

22 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Dynamics of the Channel-Shoal System at the Amazon River Mouth Brazil. Fernandes, R.D. 1 ; Baltazar, L.R.S. 2 ; Vinzón, S.B. 2 1 Moffatt & Nichol, ( 2 LDSC, AECO, PEnO, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 1. Introduction There is a strong concern about the navigation safety at the Amazon River mouth. As the flow section widens and sediments deposit, highly dynamic sandbanks are formed requiring frequent depth surveys in order to update the navigation channel position. The main marine traffic occurs along the north river branch, known as the North Channel. A series of nautical charts (nº 201) are available for the site, which span a period of 53 years. However, the poor time and spatial data resolution of this data set makes it difficult to fully understand the channel-shoal system dynamics. Therefore, the process-based model Delft3D, was also used for depthaveraged morphodynamic simulations and verified against the available historical bathymetric data. This work aims to get a better understanding of the processes that drives the formation, maintenance and dynamics of the sandbanks located at the Amazon River mouth. Furthermore, it intends to provide a guideline for the required frequency of depth surveys to take place to guarantee safe navigation along the studied navigational path. 2. Site Description The Amazon Estuary can be classified as macro tidal, with tides as high as 4m at the mouth resulting in large tidal flats bordering the main channel (Gallo, 2004). The Amazon River hydrological cycle has a distinct behavior, the water discharge can reach 2.8 x 10 5 m 3 /s in the wet season (May to July) decreasing to about 1 x 10 5 m 3 /s during the dry season (October to December). As the tidal wave propagates landward, it is affected by the reduced depths and the importance of friction increases. Tidal propagation is also affected by river discharge, both effects contribute to tidal asymmetry in the region. Fernandes (2007) showed through numerical modeling a vertical positive asymmetry in the inner portion of the estuary evolving to negative asymmetry seawards over the continental shelf. Along the main channel, the river discharge prevents the flood dominance, however, in the tidal flats and shallower areas this positive asymmetry corresponds to stronger flood currents. At the head of the estuary, a small fraction of the suspended load accessing the estuary, estimated as 0.5 to 1.3 x 10 9 t/year (Meade, 1985; Martinez et al., 2009), is constituted by sand. Strasser (2008), carried out dune tracking measurements in a transect in the vicinities of the city of Obidos, which is considered the landward limit of the estuary, and determined a bed load ranging from 4 to 5 x 10 6 t/year. This represents less than 1% of the total load, but contributes to shoaling processes at the mouth and the formation of migrating sandbanks at the North and South Channels. The silt and clay fractions are mostly carried out of the estuary mouth, instigating a large mud deposit over the Continental Shelf (Amasseds, 1990; Vinzon, 1997). 22

23 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering 3. Methodology The 21 editions of the nautical chart nº 201 (from 1957 to 2011) produced by the Brazilian Navy were used to determine the main features of the sandbanks, its evolution and the changes of the navigation channel. The studied sandbanks were defined by the 10m isobaths, therefore allowing their characteristic dimensions and orientation to be established. The banks center of mass were calculated and their displacement over time determined in order to evaluate their migration rate and direction. Data gaps prevented all banks to be tracked, however a qualitative pattern could be identified. The channel modifications were observed through the position of the navigation aids along time. Morphodynamic simulation was used to study the evolution of the sandbanks and the displacement of the navigation channel. The flow was described by the depth averaged shallow water equations and the sediment transport by Van Rijn formulation (1993). The model allows bathymetric update and consequently bed morphological evolution. The model was forced by the Amazon River discharge at its landward boundary and tidal forcing from a regional model at its offshore boundary. 4. Results The initial smooth bathymetry considered in the simulations evolved to a complex configuration proving the model capacity of spontaneously generating a channel-shoal system similar to observations. During the simulations, the channel developed a meandering pattern, which was also observed in the data. It was verified that the banks were associated to the inner bend of the meanders indicating the importance of the secondary flow to its maintenance analogously to what happens in river meanders. It was also verified that the flow deflection over the banks is not aligned parallel to the peak tidal current direction. Such deflection causes a sediment transport convergence to the bank crest thus facilitating its maintenance. It was verified that the interface between the tidal flats and the channel is the primarily area responsible for the formation of sandbanks at the Amazon River mouth, as indicated by the bathymetric data. Two main factors can explain why this is a preferential region for the formation of banks. The first one is related to Curuá Island that blocks the flow facilitating sediment accumulation on the lee side of the island, while it also causes a circulation pattern that contributes for the detachment of sand bodies that will initiate the banks. The second one is due to the residual flow pattern in the region, which is ebb dominated along the channel and flood dominated on the adjacent tidal flat, facilitating the formation of sandbanks between residual currents dominated by opposite directions. The mechanisms mentioned are not mutually exclusive, i.e., both can act simultaneously contributing to the bank formation. From the bathymetry records, banks with 10 to 20 km in length, 2 to 4 km in width and 2 to 4 m in height (above the 10 m isobath) were identified. The corresponding volume and weight were in the order of 10 7 m 3 and kg, respectively. The data showed bank orientations ranging from 40 to 45 in general and indicated a migration mostly northwestward at a rate of 1km/year. The position of the navigation channel was displaced approximately 15.7km in NW-SE direction. The modeled bed elevation resulted in a channel-shoal system pattern similar to the observations. The banks generated by the model had dimensions similar to the observed ones. The modeled migration rate ranged from 1.2 to 2.1 km/year, during low and high water season respectively. The position of the navigation channel during the 30 year of simulations displaced approximately 14.2 km, comparable with observations. 5. Conclusions The model was useful to investigate the mechanisms responsible for generating and maintaining the banks. Mechanisms such as secondary flow, obliquity between the bank crest and flow direction, interface between ebb and flood dominated channels and accumulation of deposits on the lee side of headlands were identified as having an important role in generating and maintaining the banks. The outcome of the work allowed a better understanding of the channel-shoal system and can be used to support the planning of future depth surveys. 23

24 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Design and Construction of a Breakwater in a Remote Location in Western Australia Hubert VANDER MEULEN Head of Marine Works Engineering BESIX Anthony CANOR Project Engineering Manager BESIX Toby BARNETT Engineering Specialist BESIX Cyril GIRAUDEL Technical Manager CLI INTRODUCTION The BESIX THIESS joint venture (BEST JV) was awarded the contract to design and construct the 1020m long breakwater for a LNG project near Onslow, Western Australia. The purpose of the breakwater is to provide protection to the Material Offloading Facility (MOF) during operational conditions and access and protection to tug pens that are required to provide support to operations at the main LNG jetty. Figure 1 shows a view of the breakwater and MOF at temporary construction stage before installation of the Tug Berth The paper presents the design and construction of the mass armour breakwater using rock and ACCROPODE II TM armour, from preliminary desk study calculations to placing of the concrete armour units on site. A specific highlight is set on the benefit of the interaction between the design and the construction of the breakwater. The construction of the breakwater was challenging given the remote location, harsh climate and difficult soil conditions. DESIGN The paper presents the design metocean conditions, including the cyclonic events related to a 200 year return period. The desk study that was prepared to determine the preliminary sizes of the components of the breakwater is detailed. Focus is set on the selection of the prefabricated solution for the roadway. It has been designed with shear keys at the end of each element to generate vertical and horizontal translational continuity, thus ensuring that any wave induced uplift forces on the deck would be resisted by the elements acting as a catenary. The desk study was validated through the physical testing of the breakwater using a combination of 2D model at scale 1:30 and 3D model at a scale of 1:49.9. It was demonstrated that the crest roadway remained stable during overload conditions. It was also demonstrated that the combination of wave transmission through the breakwater, the wave penetration through the harbour entrance and the wave overtopping was such that the criteria to achieve a significant wave height of less than 1m at the tug pens was respected under the extreme conditions The project schedule and the selected construction methodology were such that the breakwater was potentially exposed to cyclonic events during construction. Accordingly, several options were considered to mitigate the risk of damage, which were established through discussions between the construction team and the designers. Benefit was taken of the 2D and 3D physical modelling to test 3 different options. The paper describes the results of the test. 24

25 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS Upon the award of the contract, it became apparent that a paleo-channel was present under the footprint of the breakwater, which would be susceptible to liquefaction under seismic excitation thus leading to excessive settlement. An extensive survey has allowed to identify the extent, depth and nature of the paleo-channel. After that design has demonstrated that a mitigation was necessary, the selection of the most adequate solution is detailed regarding cost, interface and environmental benefits. A mixed solution between soil replacement in the shallow parts and the installation of stone columns in the deeper part of the paleo-channel, both by marine equipment. A full scale field trial test was undertaken in order to confirm the behaviour and the installation parameters for the stone columns using a plate/zone load test, with the intention of measuring the settlement of the plate with increasing load. CONSTRUCTION Nearly 12,000 3m 3 ACCROPODE II TM units were required for the breakwater. The precasting facility was setup on an available laydown area in the vicinity of an existing quarry, which facilitated the supply of the aggregates, the logistics and the delivery of other components necessary for the concrete production. In order to meet the project requirements, 85 steel moulds were manufactured, custom made to suit the implemented pouring/casting methodology. The concrete was poured through the upper legs of the ACCROPODE II TM moulds. A production rate of 85 units per 24 hours was achieved. The units were then stored at the precasting facility until their shipment to the project site. In order to reduce this risk and also reduce the number of journeys made by road, 4 triple trailers (road trains) able to carry 9 ACCROPODE units each were mobilised (see Figure 9) on an average of 3 trips per day, to bring more than 100 ACCROPODES II TM units to the site daily. The underlayer was built with a 120 ton excavator fitted with a DGPS RTK system able to trim the slope down to the toe thus ensuring a good control of the placement of this important support. The toe was then surveyed with a multibeam sonar that gave a detailed picture and data on the as-built rock layer. For placement both above and below water, the ACCROPODES II TM units were placed using a 125 ton land based excavator fitted with a 360 rotating hydraulic grab specifically designed for placing the ACCROPODE II units. The excavator was equipped with an RTK DGPS system and a 3D model of the breakwater and the ACCROPODES II TM placement grid and model. The benefit of the system was that the ACCROPODES II TM units could be placed with limited human intervention. This solution allowed the accurate placement of 3m³ ACCROPODE units at a daily placement rate of up to 120 units per 10 hours shift. CONCLUSION In the process of designing and constructing a breakwater in a remote location with harsh environmental conditions, the holistic design and construction approach brought several successful innovative solutions. An optimal solution for the challenge of constructing the breakwater over a paleochannel was developed and applied, which was proven through testing. The logistics associated with the mass production of ACCROPODE II units, their storage and transportation was achieved despite the constraints associated with the project location. Their placement on the breakwater was achieved with a high rate of accuracy with very little damage. The above innovations and achievements were made possible by through daily communication between the design and construction teams with the common goal of delivering a successful project. 25

26 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Mitigation of shoreline changes due to variations in offshore wave conditions on short medium and long time scales, examples from Brazil By Berry Elfrink 1, Domenico Accetta 2 and Karsten Mangor 3 Climate changes will cause increased risk of coastal erosion. The great concern related to the impacts of climate change is the fact that the coastal zone is heavily occupied by human activities, such as coastal towns, ports, infrastructure, industry, public utilities, tourist developments, fishing communities, etc. The problems associated with global warming and the associated sea level rise can principally be addressed by mitigation of the coastal impact caused by the climate changes or by adaptation to these changes. In order to develop shoreline management guidelines that are aimed either at mitigation or adaptation, a thorough understanding is needed of the physical processes that determine the dynamic behavior of coastal areas and the importance of the climate changes on these dynamics. The objective of the present paper is to identify dominant coastal erosion processes along the Brazilian coastline. A distinction will be made between coastal erosion on short time scales (acute erosion) and medium to long time scales (chronic erosion). The paper will be illustrated with examples from coastal studies in Brazil. Implemented mitigation measures will be discussed and presented. Coastal studies in several locations worldwide indicate variations in offshore wave conditions that are having serious consequences for many coastal city beaches. Along the Brazilian coastline the observed variations indicate tendencies of changes in both the severity and duration of storm conditions. The result of these variations is observed in persisting and in many occasions severe beach erosion. Often erosion is observed in locations were such erosion never was observed before. Variations in shoreline position occur on several time scales varying from a single storm event of a few hours, to seasonal variations and variations on time scales of years, decades and even centuries. In this paper these different erosion mechanisms are identified and possible mitigation options will be discussed. 1. SHORT TERM (ACUTE) EROSION Acute beach erosion along the Brazilian coastline is often related to a combination of high astronomical tide, wind generated water level elevation (ressaca) and high waves. Under these circumstances, sand will transported from the upper part of the beach profile and deposited in deeper parts of the profile further offshore. The erosion that occurs during such events can have disastrous impacts on coastal infrastructure if insufficient space is available to absorb the natural, and often reversible, dynamics of the cross shore beach profile. Mitigation options include hard structures such as revetments that stop the shoreline retreat during storm events. The problem with this type of solutions is that the beach may get lost if the acute erosion occurs frequently or if the site becomes subject to chronic erosion. An alternative solution includes beach nourishment, which restores a sufficient volume of beach material between the coastal infrastructure and the sea. 1 Senior Coastal Engineer, DHI Denmark, DHI Brasil, 2 Director Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Hidroviárias, INPH,, 3 Chief coastal engineer, DHI, Denmark, 26

27 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Finally, negative impacts for future urban developments can be avoided by maintaining sufficient distance between the new coastal infrastructure and the sea. Set back lines must be defined as part of the design of the soft solutions. These lines indicate the minimal safe distance to the sea during the life time of the project. The set back lines must consider the risk of beach erosion on short medium and long time scales. Example of acute erosion : Conceição da Barra, Espirito Santo, Brazil 2. LONG TERM (CHRONIC) EROSION Chronic or long term erosion is due to a deficit in the coastal sediment balance. For example, an increasing transport in the direction of the net transport will cause coastal erosion. The gradient in the littoral transport along a coastal stretch is typically occurring as a result of changes in the orientation of the shoreline, as a result of changing wave conditions along the coast or blockage of the transport by a coastal structure. Chronic erosion is typically developing progressively and steady over long periods and are consequently not only associated with extreme storms. Along the coast of Brazil three types of chronic erosion are frequently observed. Firstly, erosion is observed downstream of coastal structures, such as a port or a groin field. The erosion occurs as the coastal structure traps the sand on the upstream side of the structure resulting in so called leeside erosion on the downstream side. Secondly, erosion can be observed downstream of large accumulative forms along coastlines with very oblique wave approach, such as for example in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará in Northeast Brazil. Along such coastlines there are tendency for the natural formation of a spit complex parallel to the coast. They accumulate the sand and shift the sand supply to the offshore part of the downdrift coastal area, which means that the downstream coastline is starved and begins to erode. Thirdly, erosion in river delta areas is caused by natural variations in the supply of sand to a coastline from a river or by human interventions such as the establishment of dams. Droughts in large river basins can result in periods with decreasing supplies of sand to the shoreline, leading to coastal erosion. Similarly, the establishment of dams cause a sediment deficit in the delta, which results in erosion. Example of chronic erosion : Atafona, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil The paper will include examples of both acute and chronic erosion in various location along the coastline of Brazil. Applied methodologies of analysis and development of mitigation schemes and guidelines for future shoreline management will be presented. 27

28 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Fluid mud dynamics around dredged navigation channel at river mouth port Yasuyuki Nakagawa 1, Noriko Takashima 1, Yoshio Goto 2 and Ippei Nagai 2 1 Coastal and Estuarine Sediment Dynamics Research Group, Port and Airport Research Institute, Nagase 3-1-1, Yokosuka, , Japan 2 Niigata Port and Airport Office, Hokuriku Regional Development Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Irihune-cho , Chuo-ku, Niigata, , Japan Introduction Ports and harbours in many countries have been suffering from channel siltation which is crucial topics for safety navigation of ships (e.g. PIANC, 2008). Mechanisms of the siltation depend on the sediment transport processes around navigation channels governed by several factors, such as sediment types, force conditions (waves and current) and sediment discharge through the river. A better understanding of the process is essential for selecting an effective countermeasure and minimizing siltation. The aim of this study is to elucidate siltation process in a navigation channel which is dredged in a river mouth area. This abstract describes results of field survey at a navigation channel under a flood condition with highly turbid water discharge and shows measured fluid mud layers in the dredged channel. Dynamics of the mud flows are also examined through experiments with a circulating flume. Study site and Field measurements The study site is in the Port of Niigata, which is one of the biggest port located in the west coast of the Japanese main island (Fig.1) and the port has been developed around the mouth of the Shinano river, which is the longest one with the total length of 367 km in Japan. The channel of the port has been suffering from the siltation by the discharged sediment through the river and maintenance dredging is required around 800,000 m 3 annually to keep the depth of -5.5 to -11 m in the navigation channel and harbour basin. The bathymetry of the site along the channel is shown in Fig.2 with the data of multi frequency acoustic survey. The downstream area from the Stn.B are deepened by artificial maintenance dredging. The surveys were carried out in the summer of 2013 and the several data were taken just under a flood condition with relatively higher turbid water discharge from the upper tributary. Measured vertical profiles of salinity and SSC at Stn.B shows apparent their pycnoclines around 3 m from the water surface (Fig.3 (a)). Another key point in the measured data is the rapid increase of SSC near the bed. In this near bottom layer, high concentrated mud layer with the bulk density of around 1,200 kg/m 3 appears, according to an in-situ density measurement (Fig.3 (b)). This high concentration layer does not appear regularly according to previous field measurements during normal discharge rate condition. It is conceivable that the near bed high concentrated layer (Fig. 3 (c)) could be formed by fluid mud transport from the upstream which is sometimes observed on shelves off river delta (e.g. Fan et al. 2004). Fluid mud experiments with circulating flume Flume experiments were also carried out to examine dynamics of fluid mud flow in the vicinity of dredged channel at river mouth port. The flume used in the study is a circulating flume at Port and Airport Research Institute. In the experiments, the pycnocline was reproduced with upper fresh water and lower saline water at the dredged channel (Fig.4) and dynamic behaviours of turbid water discharged from upstream were measured with several turbid sensors. The experimental data will be precisely demonstrated in the paper and presentation. Conclusions We conducted several field surveys in order to elucidate the siltation mechanism in the navigation channel located at the mouth of the Shinano River in Japan. The survey successfully captured the formation of high concentrated mud layer in the deeper dredged channel under the river flood condition with high turbid water discharge. We will also discuss, in the paper and presentation, flume experiments which were carried out to examine the fluid mud behaviours at dredged channel

29 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Port of Niigata N Japan Japan sea Niigata city N Shinano river E 0 5 km Fig. 1. The location of Port of Niigata (indicated in the dotted box) Depth(m) Stn.A Distance along channel (km) Stn.B Stn.C Stn.D Fig. 2. Bathymetry and sub-bottom data along the channel. The triangles indicate the locations for insitu measurements and core samplings. (a) Stn.B Salinity(PSU) SSC(mg/L) (b) Bulk Density (kg/m 3 ) (c) Depth (m) Depth (m) Fig. 3. Measured vertical profiles of (a) Salinity and SSC, (b) vertical profile of bulk density at Stn.B and (c) picture of bottom sediment sample taken from the station. The dotted line in the density data shows the same layer near the bottom, indicating fluid mud layer with the density of around 1,200kg/m 3. (b) ( ) (c) ) (a) Fig. 4. Flume experiment for examining fluid mud behaviours using Kaolinite clay in Photo (a) and reproduced vertical profiles of (b) Salinity and (c) turbidity at the modelled channel basin. References PIANC (2008). Minimizing harbour siltation. The World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructures, Report p. Fan S. et al. (2004). River flooding, storm resuspension, and event stratigraphy on the northern California shelf: observations compared with simulations, Marine Geology, 201, pp

30 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering STABILITY AND SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS OF COMPOUND GEO- SYNTHETIC MATERIALS IN COASTAL PROTECTION MEASURES ABSTRACT SukanyaR. (1), Sannasiraj S.A. (2) and Sundar V. (2) (1) Research Scholar, (2) Professor. Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India. The various geo-synthetic components such as geo-tubes, geo-bags, geo-mattresses, geocontainers, geo-grids, geo-cells etc. find extensive application in coastal engineering practice.it is more sought after due to the ease of construction, quick implementation and reduced cost as the supply of natural rock material is eluded. Innovative geo-synthetic materials of numerous units were compounded to form a sea wall cross section as shown in Fig 1 is proposed to be constructed at Pallana coast of Allepy, Keralato prevent wave run up during high tide level. The cross section is designed to ensurescour protection and stability against overturning, sliding and overtopping.the major factors concerning geo-synthetics are UV radiation, stability against wave action, settlement of the structure and protection against scour. The aforementioned factors are to be addressed prior to the implementation of the design on site. The core units are protected with multiple layers of geo mattress, geo grids and geo mat filling, which would offer effective protection against puncture and impact failure also the green mat made out of coir offers fortification of harmful UV rays.a scour apron is also incorporated in the design to alleviate the risk of scouring. The objective of the paper is to discuss in detail the summary of physical model studies conducted in a wave flume and settlement analysis using Plaxis-2D. The stability of the structure against the predominant wave climate and storm surge is to be ensured by performing physical model studies.a series of experiments were conducted with a modelscale of 1:8.5 (Froude s scaling law) in a 72.5m long, 2m wide and 2.5m deep wave flume. The flume equipped with a wave maker which can operate in the piston or hinged mode to generate shallow water or deep water waves respectively. Perforated wave absorber on the other end is capable of absorbing the incident waves effectively. Fig 2 shows the scale down model cross section of sea wall. Fig 3 shows the breakdown of the individual units employed in the section. Wave probes and pressure transducers are employed at critical locations to record the responses of the wave action over the scaled model. The degree of settlement for the proposed design was analyzed using Plaxis 2D software application. Plaxis 2D employs finite element method and the geometry of the model are defined in soil and structural modes, which are intersected and meshed. It accounts for the geotechnical considerations of the site sub soil conditions. COIR MAT AT OUTER GR W GR W GEOFIL MAT (GGM-650) 80X80 GEO GRID SEA SIDE GR W 5 2 GR W 42mm thick Sand filling wrapping with GG GEOFIL MAT (GGM-650) 80X80 GEO GRID 6 M NWGTX WRAPPING OVER GEO BAG AT APPRON 1.50 Geocell filling with down aggregate and sand mixing MT Geo bags 4.00 Fig. 1 Cross sectional view of the proposed prototype 30

31 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering A Geofill mat (GGM -650) 10 X 10 Geo Grid GR W Local Sand Filling 0.24 Coir mat Turfing Geofill mat (GGM -650) B 10 X 10 Geo Grid A 3 4 GR W GR W GR W 0.04 Local Sand Filling mm thick Sand filling wrapping with GG 1 2 GR W 5 GR W 0.2 Kg Geo bags 0.18 B mm thick Geocell filling with 3mm down aggregate and sand mixing Kg Geo bags 0.47 Fig. 2 Cross sectional view of the scaled model GR W 0.25 GR W 1 of length 1.95m 3 GR W 0.25 GR W 3 of length 1.95m GR W GR W 2 of length 1.95m GR W GR W 4 of length 1.95m mm thick Sand filling of 1.95m length wrapping with Geo Mattress Geo Mattress of Length 5m and Breadth 2.5m mm thick Geocell filling of length 1.95m with 3mm down aggregate and sand mixing 0.03 Fig. 3 Cross sectional of individual section in scaled model KEY WORDS:Geo-synthetic materials; physical model studies; stability against wave action; settlement analysis. 31

32 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering The effect of channel deepening on tidal velocity asymmetry in an estuary subject to a mixed tidal regime Priscila Gianoni 1 and Marcos Gallo 2 Department of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering, Ocean Engineering Program Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Introduction Although the tidal velocity asymmetry in estuaries with a predominantly semidiurnal tide often reflects the phase relationship between the M2 and the M4 tides, other tidal constituents may play an important role on the tidal currents distortion. In estuaries subject to a mixed tidal regime, the tidal asymmetries can be even more complex due to the interaction between tidal constituents of relevant magnitude. In that estuaries, the tidal currents may reflect the diurnal inequalities observed in water level fluctuations, with alternation of both slack times and maximum speeds achieved during the flood and the ebb tides. Such alternating distortions - associated with the diurnal and the terdiurnal tidal constituents - are capable of periodically reversing (or enhancing) the unidirectional residual flow resulting from the M2 and M4 interaction. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of channel deepening on tidal velocity asymmetries in the Santos estuary, which presents a mixed, predominantly semidiurnal tide with diurnal inequalities. For that purpose, a 2DH hydrodynamic model was set up for the Santos estuarine complex. After the calibration and validation processes, the model was used to simulate the tidal circulation (60 days) before and after the dredging held between 2010 and 2012 in the Santos navigation channel. The tidal constituents related to the asymmetry changes resulting from the geometric modification were also investigated. 1.1 The Santos estuary The Santos estuarine complex, located on the southeastern Brazilian coast, is one of the most important regions of Brazil from the socio-economic point of view. Due to the economic importance of the Port of Santos, and the need to adjust the depth of the channel for the safe navigation of ships, there is a clear effort to identify and control the sediment deposition processes in the Santos navigation channel. After the second half of the twentieth century, large geometric modifications were made in the estuary, and an increase in the sediment volume dredged annually was observed. Part of this increase in dredged volume is related to the adequacy of the Santos estuary to the new structural needs demanded by the port expansion. Part of this increase, however, may represent an increase in sediment deposition rates in response to the hydrodynamic changes resulting from the imposition of a new estuarine geometry (Figure 1.1). In 2010 a new dredging project was implemented to deepen the navigation channel and the evolution basins of the Port of Santos. The purpose was to increase the nautical depth in the navigation channel from 12 to 15 meters and increase the width from 150 to 220 meters, allowing shipping in both ways. The channel deepening was completed in 2012 and the new depth, 14.9 meters, was approved by the Port Authority in 2013 after a bathymetric survey of the dredged channel (Figure 1.1). (a) (b) Figure 1: (a) Historical evolution of dredged volumes in the Santos estuary from 1928 to 2014, and (b) the area of the navigation channel dredged between 2010 and

33 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering 2. Model setup and validation The tidal circulation in the Santos estuary was modeled using a 2DH hydrodynamic model (Delft3D), forced at the sea boundaries by the main astronomical tides (M2, S2, O1, K1, K2, N2, Q1, P1, and M3). The fluvial boundaries were defined as a constant discharge represented by the mean discharge of each one of the five main rivers of the estuarine complex. The hydrodynamic model was calibrated using the tide gauge data obtained in 2004 along the Santos channel. The data was previously filtered to exclude meteorological effects and noise. The bed roughness parameter was calculated according to the spatial distribution of sediments and mangroves in the domain. The numerical results were validated with both water level and flow velocity measurements obtained in 2006 and 2012 in the Santos estuary. For the 2012 simulation, the bathymetry of the calibrated model was updated, since the dredging of the Santos channel increased the navigation channel s depth. Five observational stations were defined along the Santos channel to evaluate the behavior of the main tidal constituents on water levels and flow velocities and the impacts of channel deepening on tidal circulation during spring tides and neap tides. The harmonic analysis of numerical results (water levels and tidal velocities) was performed to evaluate the amplification of tidal constituents along the Santos channel before (2006) and after the geometric modification (2012), and the velocity phase differences between the most energetic tidal constituents. 3. Synthesis of results The model results suggest that the changes on estuarine morphology have far-reaching implications on the capacity of the Santos estuary to export sediments. The large and abrupt changes in the navigation channel geometry may have increased the nonlinear response of the estuarine system. The main effects of the channel deepening, according to the simulated results, include: (1) the magnification of flows velocities during neap tides, due to the damping of S2 on tidal velocities (50%) and to the consequent reduction on tidal modulation which results on the quadrature-spring tidal cycle; (2) the reduction in the ebb peak velocities during the spring tides along the estuary (up to 20%)(Figure 2), due to the modification in the relative phase of M2 and M4, which reduced the asymmetric distortion of the tidal currents; and (3) an increase of the diurnal inequalities in the ebb peak velocities, related to the periodical distortions produced by the terdiurnal tidal constituents. The interaction between the M2 tide and its overtide M4 seems to be responsible for the dominant asymmetry pattern observed in the estuary. The results also suggests that the asymmetry pattern resulting from the phase relationship between the diurnal tidal constituents O1 and K1 and the M2, maintained after the channel deepening, represents a contribution on flood velocities. And that the diurnal inequalities in the ebb peak velocities are actually related to the terdiurnal tidal constituents. 1 Praticagem Praticagem water level (m) 0 water level (m) velocity (m/s) velocity (m/s) Figure 2: Phase diagrams of simulated results at Praticagem before (2006) and after the channel deepening (2012). An expressive decrease of the maximum ebb tidal velocities at the entrance of the Santos channel can be observed after the dredging. 4. Summary The most relevant effects on tidal asymmetries caused by the channel deepening will be properly discussed and illustred in the full paper. Some aspects of the investigation related to the tidal constituents will also be discussed in the full paper. The residual circulation (2 months) in the Santos estuary before and after the channel dredging will be presented in the full article, as well as the details of model configuration, calibration and validation. The important role of some tidal constituents in the tidal current asymmetries, and therefore in the residual sediment transport in estuaries subject to a mixed tidal regime - like the Santos estuary - will be discussed in the oral paper presentation. 33

34 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Defining extreme water levels for design of coastal structures in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia 1. Introduction A. Kaji 1, H. Korving 1,2, M. Jansen 1 Jakarta is a expanding city with a need for space for houses, offices and highways. Therefore, several new land reclamation projects and flood protections elements (sea defences and dikes) are being designed and constructed in Jakarta Bay. For an appropriate design of these projects, ensuring the required level of protection, hydrodynamic boundary conditions, such as water levels, wave conditions and flow velocities, have to be determined. A good estimative of the extreme water levels is crucial for defining design conditions for flood protection because higher water levels can also result in higher overtopping rates which causes flooding of the city. In January 2013, parts of Jakarta were flooded due to a combination of high river discharges and high water levels in the Bay. In August 2013 and October 2013 extreme high water levels were measured. For design purposes, it is important to know what the frequency of occurrence of these water levels is and what causes these water levels. Long term water level measurements are still scarce in the area, hampering the estimation of extreme events based solely on the statistics of observations. An alternative approach is to perform extreme value analysis on synthetic water level time series generated by process-based hydrodynamic numerical models (Batstone et al., 2013, Haigh et al., 2013, Arns et al., 2015). The objective of this study is to assess extreme water levels in Jakarta Bay using a combined approach of data analysis and numerical modeling tools and to provide insight in the different processes leading to extreme surges in Jakarta Bay. 2. Available data Within Jakarta Bay, water level measurements are available from three different tidal gauges (namely Sunda Kelapa, Tanjung Priok and Kolinlamil) from different sources and periods. Unfortunately, these records are incomplete and sometimes unreliable. Although the data at Tanjung Priok comprise a relatively long time period, the data contains several shifts and gaps and therefore is not considered in this study. The time series at Sunda Kelapa (October January 2014) and Kolinlamil (March present) are used in this study. Prior to the analysis these records have been validated and partly reconstructed using a combination of knowledge of the physical system, statistical trend analysis and harmonic analysis of tidal data. Along the Java Sea two additional stations are available since Long term water level measurements are available at several locations in the South China Sea. The data at those stations is used for the model calibration. 3. Numerical model In order to derive a sufficiently long time series to be used in the extreme value analysis, a 30-year hindcast ( ) is performed using the 2DH hydrodynamic numerical model D-Flow Flexible Mesh (FM). D-Flow FM is a hydrodynamic simulation program which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena that result from tidal and meteorological forcing on unstructured grids. The use of unstructured grids allows local refinement without compromising the computational time and makes it suitable for complex geometries, such as the Java Sea. The model is forced with astronomic boundary conditions derived from the TPXO global tidal model (Egbert and Erofeeva, 2002) and wind and air pressure from the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis (Dee et al., 2011). The model is calibrated for selected storm events by optimizing specific model parameters (including bed roughness) and comparing simulated and observed water levels at several stations. The model is then validated using the entire water level time series at Kolinlamil leaving out the events used for calibration. 1 Witteveen+Bos, Willemskade 19, 3016 DM Rotterdam, The Netherlands Corresponding author: 2 Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA, Delft, The Netherlands 34

35 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering 4. Time series analysis Time series analysis is performed for the 6-year water level series at Sunda Kelapa and for the 30- year water level hindcast time series generated by the hydrodynamic model in order to compare the two approaches. Figure 1 shows the results for the observed water level series at Sunda Kelapa. water level (cm) Extreme value analysis: storm surge, POT, Exponential fit ( = ), Threshold = cm, No. peaks in fit = 35 Data (Benard`s plotting position) Expected value (Exponential, Bayes fit) 95% confidence interval 20 Figure 1. Results of the extreme value analysis for the water level series at Sunda Kelapa ( ). The analysis consists of a harmonic analysis and an extreme value analysis of the non-tidal 0.05 components (storm surges, wave setup and seasonal fluctuations). Astronomic tide is derived from the 0.04 time series using harmonic analysis. This analysis is performed using T-Tide (Pawlowicz et al., 2002). P (-) The non-tidal components (i.e. storm surge levels) of the time series are described using an extreme value distribution Its accuracy, however, depends on several factors, such as correctness of selected distribution 0.01 type, correctness of peak selection and number of available observations. Hence, a Bayesian approach has been applied in order to quantify uncertainty as well. 5. Conclusions The Java Sea model is able to reproduce the water levels in Jakarta Bay and can be used to derive long water level series where measurements are limited or not available. The model can also give insight in the quality of measured data and on the processes leading to extreme water level events. The water level series generated by the model are used in extreme value analysis to derive the design conditions. Extreme values are calculated splitting up the signal in non-tidal and tidal components. Details on the model setup and the extreme value analysis of the complete 30-year water level series at Jakarta Bay will be addressed in the full paper and oral presentation. 6. References return period (y) Posterior probability (Jeffreys prior) (-) Arns, A., Wahl T., Haigh I.D., Jensen J., Determining return water levels at ungauged coastal sites: a case study for northern Germany. Ocean Dynamics Vol. 65, Batstone C, Lawless M, Tawn J, Horsburgh K, Blackman D, McMillan A, Worth D, Laeger S, Hunt T., A UK best-practice approach for extreme sea-level analysis along complex topographic coastlines. Ocean Engineering, Vol. 71, Dee, D. P., S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, Paul Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae et al., The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Vol 137, Egbert, G.D. and Erofeeva, S.Y., 2002: Efficient inverse modeling of barotropic ocean tides. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol19, Haigh, I.D., Wijeratne, E.M.S., MacPherson, L.R., Pattiaratchi, C.B., George, S., Estimating present day extreme total water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tides, extra-tropical storm surges and mean sea level, Climate Dynamics Pawlowicz R., Beardsley B., and Lentz S., Classical tidal harmonic analysis including error estimates in MATLAB using T_TIDE. Computers and Geosciences 28,

36 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering New Large Hydrodynamic Flume Introduction and Wave Propagation Experiments on Abrupt Change Terrain Bao-lei Geng 1, Ning Guan 1 ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION Wave is the main environmental factor in coast and ocean engineering, in order to simulate and study the real wave action in laboratory many large flumes have been built in some countries or regions, for example Japan, Germany, America, Taiwan and etc. In these flumes, the longest one is the Large Wave Flume in Hannover German, its length is 330 m; the widest distance is 5 m, including the flumes in Germany, Taiwan and Netherland; the deepest one is the Large Hydro-Geo Flume in Japan and its depth is 12 m. Comparing the ability for wave generation, regular wave with 3.5 m wave height could be gotten in Large Hydro-Geo Flume, which is the strongest ability in these flumes. In China mainland, Tianjin Institute for Water Transport Engineering (TIWTE), which belongs to Ministry of Transport, proposed the primary idea of building a water transport engineering applied basic technique laboratory in After feasibility research and scheme discussion with expert consultation meetings, primary design and construction drawing design for Large Hydrodynamics Laboratory was completed in In May 2012, equipment and basic construction for large flume were started and the project was completed in July As the biggest flume in the world by now, the main size of Large Hydrodynamic Flume (Fig. 1) is 450 m long, 5 m wide and 8~12 m deep. At the same time, it can generate 3.5 m wave height for regular waves, which is also the biggest value for wave height we could get in laboratory by now. Fig. 1 New Large Hydrodynamic Flume in TIWTE 2. MAIN EQUIPMENT The main sizes of the flume have been given in front. For the whole length, it can be divided into wave making area, test area and wave absorbing area. The biggest depth which is 12 m is in test area, including a sandbed with 4 m depth, about 100 m length. In experiment, the standard water depth is 5 m, and then the distance is 3 m from Bao-lei Geng, Ning Guan, Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transportation Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Port Hydraulic Construction Technology. No. 2618, Xingang Erhao Road, Binhai New Area, Tianjin, , China

37 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering still water level to the top of flume. The main equipment of the Large Hydrodynamic Flume includes the wave generator, current generator, measuring equipment and etc. Fig. 2 shows the wave generator and crane. Fig.2 The wave generator and crane in the flume 3. WAVE PROPAGATION EXPERIMENTS ON ABRUPT CHANGE TERRAIN Wave propagation experiments on abrupt change terrain was conducted in the large flume. As shown in Fig. 3, it is 5 m height and 6 m length for the terrain which including 4 slopes. The gradients from the bottom are 1.32, 2.07, 1.12 and 0.17, and corresponding horizontal distances are1 m, 1 m, 1 m and 3 m, respectively. Fig. 3 Sketch of the abrupt change terrain Considering regular waves propagation on abrupt change terrain, wave gauge and ruler lines are used to measure the changing of wave height. Some experiments pictures are shown in Fig. 4. Fig.4 Some experiments pictures 4. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION As the largest flume in the world, we want to conduct some research to break through the scale limit of common flumes on water transport engineering safety, environment protection, disaster prevention and mitigation, development and utilization of coastal resource, and so on. At the same time, suggestions and cooperation are welcome around the flume. 37

38 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Mitigation of shoreline erosion east of Kitchener drain outlet at the Nile Delta Coast, Egypt Ahmed Balah, Abdel-Mohsen El-Mongy, Ibrahim El-Shennawy, Yasser Mostafa 1. Study problem The shoreline of the Nile delta, from Abu Quir to Port Said, is typically of an arcuate coast with mainly sandy beaches backed by coastal dunes or by large lagoons. The two main Nile promontories at Rosetta and Damietta and El-Burullus headland interrupt the sandy shoreline of the delta. The predominant wave approaching from the N-W sector is responsible for generating the unidirectional net eastward sediment transport system. The coastal zone of the Nile delta is presently undergoing extensive changes caused by both natural and anthropogenic influences that started in the last century with the construction of the massive river control structures, specially the Aswan High Dam in the Sixties, and significantly increased in the last two decades. Kitchener drain outlet is located at the central bulge of the Nile Delta coast 20 km east of El-Burullus inlet, as shown in the following figure. This drain was constructed during the thirties of the last century with a length of about 68 km to serve about Ha of the intensively cultivated land of the Nile Delta. The large public beach and resort of Baltim city is located adjacent to the drain outlet to the West. This beach is protected by massive shore protection structures that consist of 14 offshore breakwaters and 9 groins. The study are extends about 6 km to the East of Kitchener drain outlet. This coast has been going under an aggravated erosion problem since the nineties due to the construction of the adjacent shore protections structures that blocked the dominating eastward littoral transport. Since the completion of these structures in 2007, the rate and extension of the shoreline erosion increased rapidly to reach about -30 m/yr over the 6 years ( ), as was resulted from the analysis of the satellite images. 2. Study objectives and methodology This study aims to predict the future evolution of the eroded beach under the current circumstances by simulating the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic conditions along the investigated coast using numerical modeling and with the aid of GIS tools. Depending on modeling results, different shore protection plans were proposed and investigated in order to determine the most suitable and feasible one. 38

39 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering First, the Nearshore Spectral Wind-wave model (NSW) of MIKE21 software package, developed by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI), was used to estimate the deep-water wave characteristics along the Nile Delta coast. This was carried out using a back-refraction iteration process depending on the wave records obtained from two nearshore stations near the two promontories. The model was used to determine the nearshore wave characteristics at the study area based on the estimated deep-water waves. The calculated wave parameters were used for the prediction of future changes along the simulated shoreline using the stand-alone DHI numerical model LITPACK. The historical shorelines extracted from Google Earth and Landsat images using GIS techniques were used in the calibration and the verification of the model. 3. Results and conclusions It was found that the dominating erosion trend is expected to continue along the investigated shoreline downdrift the drain outlet through the next decade (up till 2025) with an estimated average rate of about 12.8 m/yr. Taking No Action to stop this erosion will result in a huge land loss of approximately 330,000 square meters by Several alternatives for the protection of the shoreline and the restoration of the eroded beaches were modeled in order to determine an efficient and feasible solution. These alternatives include the use of detached breakwaters, groins and combination of both. Finally, it was suggested using a system of five groins, each 200m long and with 600m spacing to protect and restore the threatened shoreline. This alternative will decrease the expected land loss by about 85% compared to the "No action" plan. KEYWORDS: Nile delta, shoreline changes, sediment transport, beach erosion, protection structures, MIKE21-NSW, LITPACK. Full paper The Full paper comprises four sections. The first one is an introduction describing the study area, the study objectives and the relevant previous studies. The second section explains the adopted research methodology including brief description of the used models. The third section presents the analysis of the modeling results. Finally, the fourth section includes a summary and the study conclusions. Oral presentation The oral presentation will include a comprehensive illustration of the following parts: Study area and research problem. Study methodology and objectives. Procedures and results of the wave transformation modeling. Procedures and results the shoreline evolution modeling. Comparison study between the investigated alternatives. Final conclusions and discussion. 39

40 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering A practical method to determine typhoon-induced design wave conditions at nearshore area by Nguyen Thi Hai Ly 1, Nguyen Thanh Hoan 2, Nguyen Minh Dung 3 ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION Tropical cyclones (also known as Typhoons in the Western Pacific) occur all year round the East Sea of Vietnam. The design wave conditions are determined by those typhoons that approach project site. Design wave conditions are often requested for different return periods and at a shallow area (e.g. at breakwaters, port facilities, coastal structures, jetties etc.). In most cases, there are no measured typhoon-induced wave data available at project areas which can be used to determine design wave conditions. The best method for determining wave conditions in a typhoon is to use a numerical model such as SWAN or MIKE 21 SW. To derive design wave data, simulations for individual typhoons that approach the project area are needed. This approach is however very time consuming and is not feasible 4 for most coastal and maritime studies in Vietnam due to time and budget limitation. A more practical approach is therefore needed to determine the design wave conditions. This paper describes a practical method used to analyse the extreme conditions associated with typhoons and to derive typhoon-induced design waves at nearshore area. The method provides a useful tool to quickly analyse typhoons and their related design waves at a specific location. 2. METHODOLOGY The current research is aimed at finding a simple but reliable approach to determine nearshore design wave conditions induced by typhoons. The approach presented in this paper uses the combination of the SPM (1984) method (to determined offshore extreme wave conditions) and nearshore wave modelling study (to transfer the offshore extreme Track maps of historical typhoons in that affected the project area ( ) 24 wave conditions to the nearshore). Numerical Tropical Depression Tropical Storm experiments have been carrying out in which the 22 Severe Tropical Storm Typhoon results from the present approach were compared Super typhoons 20 Unknown intensity with those from individual typhoon hindcasting. 18 For the Western Pacific Ocean, typhoon data published by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) 16 can be used for the analysis. The track is referred 14 to as RSMC Best Track Data. This consists of the track information of more than 1700 tropical 12 cyclones occurring between 1951 and present (November, 2015) that passed within the West 10 Pacific Ocean. Based on the aforementioned JMA database, one can use the SPM (1984, page 3-85) method to calculate the deep-water wave characteristics associated with a typhoon. This method includes Longitude 1 Corresponding author, lecturer at Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong street, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2 Lecturer at Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong street, Hanoi, Vietnam, Senior Maritime and Waterway consultant, RoyalHaskoningDHV Vietnam, 14th floor, ICON4 Building 243A La Thanh Street Lang Thuong Ward, Dong Da District Hanoi Vietnam, 3 BSc student, Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong street, Hanoi, Vietnam, 4 For most area along the coast of Vietnam, more than 100 typhoons are identified to have impact at the project site. Hindcasting such a large number of typhoons is therefore not always feasible. Latitude 8 6 Figure 1: Track map of historical typhoons in center of Vietnam 40

41 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering two equations, one for the maximum significant wave height and one for the associated wave period. In addition, a graph is provided that represents the non-dimensional distribution of significant deepwater wave heights in a typhoon. This makes it possible to obtain an estimate of the significant wave height and period at a given point of interest. This approach is, however, only applicable for deep water area. Therefore, the SPM (1984) method cannot be used to directly determine design wave conditions at the project area (a shallow area). To overcome this, a combination of SPM (1984) method and numerical model (MIKE 21SW) is needed as described in the following steps: 1. Determine typhoon-induced waves at offshore location using Shore Protect Manual (1984) method. The derived waves are assumed omnidirectional. 2. Extreme value analysis is performed for the derived offshore typhoon-induced wave data to determine offshore design wave conditions (for various return periods). 3. Transfer the design wave conditions from the offshore area to the project area using a spectral wave model such as SWAN or MIKE 21 SW. 3. EVALUATION OF THE PROPOSED METHOD This approach makes use of the key advantage of SPM (1984) method to quickly determine wave conditions at the offshore locations if otherwise take few weeks to months to model. The design wave at offshore location is then transferred to the nearshore location using spectral wave model, making sure that all relevant nearshore processes such as refraction, shoaling, bottom friction, depth induced breaking etc. will be taken into account. The drawback of the SPM (1984) method (compared to a more complicated 2D modelling) is that (i) this is a simplified method. Thus it cannot provide detail information of wave conditions as a more complicated 2D modelling can, (ii) it cannot be applied for shallow area and (iii) design wave conditions are omnidirectional. In some situation, this could result in conservative design conditions. Figure 2: Spatial variation of simulated wave field Extensive numerical experiments are Point of interest: 12.95N,109.5E StormID: 6736 Storm name: FREDA 10 Hs - SPM being carried out to validate the Hs - simulation 9 proposed approach. The figures present a track map of historical 8 typhoon (Fig. 1), simulated wave 7 field (Fig.2) and a comparison 6 between simulated wave height and wave height derived from SPM 5 (1984) (Fig. 3) as an example of 4 such analysis. Initial results have 3 shown that the approach is robust and provide comparable results to 2 the conventional approach. Possible 1 measured wave data and/or satellite 0 altimeter data are being collected 11/08/67 11/09/67 11/10/67 11/11/67 Date (UTC) and accessed. This could give a Figure 3: Comparison of Hs calculated by SMP (1984) more reliable evaluation of the and by a spectral wave model proposed approach. A complete analysis and comparison will be presented in the full paper. 4. REFERENCES SPM, (1984). Shore Protection Manual, Army. Corps of Engineers and Coastal Engineering Research Center (U.S.) Significant wave height (m) 41

42 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Evaluation of an operational wave forecasting system applied to the Tubarão Port at Espírito Santo Bay - Brazil Nogueira, I. C. M.; Cabral, I. S.; Delpupo, D. F.; Fernandes, T. A.; Lourenço, T. S.; Parente, C. E.; Pereira, H. P. P. 1. Introduction Surface gravity waves are the most important environmental forces acting on marine structures. Wave information plays a key role on the development of port and maritime operations. Generally, the information about waves is obtained by in situ measurements or numerical modelling. Nowadays, numerical wave models have become one of the most useful tools for determining wave patterns in terms of hindcasting and forecasting. Numerical wave models can be used in both forecast and hindcast. In a hindcast, past meteorological conditions are used as input with the aim to evaluate wave climates and determinate extreme events. The forecasting mode helps to be aware of the near future wave condition. A wave model can predict the propagation of wave energy, but the evolution (growth) of the wave energy is dependent on meteorological input and so a major part of the procedure is actually referring to the wind forecast which generates gravity waves (WMO, 1998). The present paper describes the performance of an operational wave forecasting system applied to the continental shelf of South and Southeast Brazilian coast and the impacts of wind field and wave model upgrades. After that, a calibrated shallow water forecast was implemented in the region of Tubarão Port at Espírito Santo Bay in order to predict an extreme wave event. 2. Methodology Third generation models WAVEWATCH III (WW3) (Tolman et al., 2014) and SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) (Booij et al., 1999) were used. The WW version and 4.18 version were used to make wave forecast in deep and intermediate waters, and SWAN version was used to forecast waves in shallow water. The models are implemented in nested domains: 1.0 coarse resolution for Global, 0.25 intermediate resolution for South Atlantic, 0.01 fine resolution for Espírito Santo coast, and fine resolution for Tubarão Port. In the operational forecasting system, seven-day wave forecasts are issued daily, characterizing a 168 hours forecast. To validate this system past energetic events were simulated in the forecast mode. This mode is composed by a preliminary spin-up of seven days before complete event to get suitable initial conditions. Many tests were made intending to find the best settings for the wave forecast. For deep and intermediate water different spatial resolutions of the GFS (Global Forecast System) wind fields were tested to force the WW3 model, and three different WW3 source term packages: ST2 - Tolman and Chalikov (1996), ST4 - Ardhuin et al. (2010) and ST6 BYDRZ (Babanin / Young / Donelan / Rogers / Zieger). After choosing the best deep-water setting, the wave forecast system was applied to predict an extreme wave event in Tubarão Port region. Three buoys from PNBOIA Brazilian Navy were used to validate the deep and intermediate wave forecasting system. These buoys are around 200 m deep in Rio Grande RS, Florianópolis SC and Santos SP regions. Two ADCPs are used to validate the forecast. The ADCPs are located at a point in the middle of the bay approximately 14 m deep (ADCP10) and in another region next to the entrance of the bay that is about 20 m deep (ADCP04). 3. Results and Discussion On May 14 th 2015 an energetic event was reported by Tubarão Port operation. In deep water buoys, was possible to identify the swell arriving on May 12 th with almost 7,0 m in Florianópolis buoy. Figure 1 shows the significant wave height (Hs) time series estimation from four different settings of WW3 on May 11 th, compared to the measurements of Hs at the PNBOIA buoys. Results from WW3 forced with GFS 0.25 (using both ST4 and ST6 physics) are relatively close to the observed Hs peak values, and they achieve accurate timing of the peak of storm waves observed, especially in the Florianopolis peak storm (Figure 1). Furthermore, the simulation with WW3 forced with GFS 0.25 and ST4 physics provided better results from the viewpoint of the error indexes of Bias, Root Mean Square Error and Scatter Index. 42

43 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Using the best settings of WW3 simulations, the SWAN was applied to forecast the wave condition in the Tubarão Port. The Figure 2 shows the comparison between ADCP data at 14 m of depth and forecast results from different simulation days. The highest Hs was measured on May 14th 2015 (about 2 meter) and 72 hours forecast results (May 12th) had already indicated this increase in the Hs values. In general, the results show a decrease in model errors to 24 hours forecast (May 14th). Figure 1 Hs time series showing data measured (plus) and results modeled from WW3 at the PNBOIA buoys on May 11 th 2015: thin solid line indicates WW3 with ST2 physics and GFS 0.5 ;dashed line indicates WW3 with ST4 and GFS 0.5 ; thick solid line indicates WW3 with ST4 physics and GFS 0.25 ; and dotted line with ST6 physics and GFS Figure 2 Hs time series showing data measured (plus) and forecast results at the Espírito Santo Bay. Dashed line: May 12th 2015 forecast; thin solid line: May 13th 2015 forecast; and thick solid line: May 14th 2015 forecast. 4. Conclusion The data of the buoys at the continental shelf show an improvement in the forecast results with a higher spatial resolution of the atmospheric source (wind). Regarding the physical processes of WW3 model, new source term (ST4 and ST6) improves the forecast results. These physical processes have shown similar behavior, but the ST4 source term provided the best forecast result in this case. The SWAN model was used to provide a transformation from deep water forecast spectra to shallow water at Tubarão Port. The validation of the shallow water model against data from an ADCP at 14 m water depth showed satisfactory agreement. 5. References ARDHUIN, F., et al., Semi-empirical dissipation source functions for wind-wave models: part I, definition, calibration and validation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 40(9), BOOIJ, N. et al, 1999, A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: Part I, Model description and validation, J. Geophys. Res., 104, C4, TOLMAN, H. L.; CHALIKOV, D., Source terms in a third-generation wind wave model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., v. 26, pp TOLMAN, H. L., and the WAVEWATCH III Development Group User Manual and System Documentation of WAVEWATCH III version ZIEGER, S.; et al., Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting. Kohala Coast, HI, JCOMM Technical Report No. 67, 12 pp. WMO, 1998: Guide to wave analysis and forecasting. 2nd edition. WMO No. 702, Geneva, Switzerland. What will be included on the full paper and be discussed in the oral paper presentation: The article explains in a more detailed way the methodology, especially describing the configurations for the simulations. The chosen event will be presented in detail, explaining the system evolution. In addition, the forecast results in the different tests will be better explained, presenting the statistical results for all three buoys and two ADCPs. In addition, the calibration of SWAN model will be presented. 43

44 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Toe Stability of Tetrapod-armoured Breakwaters By Otavio J. Sayao 1 and Renan F. da Silva 2 * ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to evaluate toe stability of breakwaters armoured with tetrapods using physical modelling data and published guidance. The hydraulic laboratory tests reproduced the complex geometry of a rubble mound breakwater armoured with tetrapod concrete blocks and subjected to breaking wave action. The programme included wave basin (3-dimentional; 3D) test cases using combinations of input parameters, such as wave heights, wave periods, water level elevations and tetrapod sizes. During physical model tests, the hydraulic stability of the tetrapodarmoured breakwater (including toe) was evaluated, where damage was measured for every segment of the design storm using the flickering technique. Analysis of the model test cases focused on the improvement of the tetrapod cross-section and toe stability at the roundhead for alternative toe designs, including toes formed of tetrapods, stones and cubes. Further, the model test results were used to evaluate available toe protection stability formulae, such as methodologies from van der Meer et al. (1995), van der Meer (1998), USACE (2002), CIRIA (2007), Sayao (2007) and Muttray (2013). 1. INTRODUCTION This paper evaluates toe damage in breakwaters armoured with tetrapods using physical modelling data. Hydraulic model tests were conducted in the laboratory facilities of the University of Cantabria s Institute of Environmental Hydraulics (IH Cantabria), in Spain. Figure 1 show views of the 3D wave basin at the University of Cantabria. More information on the IH Cantabria facilities and on the physical model test conditions, scales and programme is described in Silva and Sayao (2015). The 3D physical model tests were carried-out using tetrapod mass varying from 16 t (at scale 1:42.2), 21 t (at scale 1:46), and 26 t (at scale 1:50), with the same armourstone mass range of 6 t to 12 t. During physical model tests, the hydraulic stability of the tetrapod-armoured breakwater was evaluated, and for every design storm segment the damage was measured using the flickering technique, which measures tetrapod rocking and displacements with repeated photography. This is a new approach for tetrapod-armoured breakwaters, so the comparison of these results with previous published laboratory results should take this different definition in consideration. Figure 2 shows a typical design cross-section of the breakwater head used for the 3D model tests, with tetrapods toe. Figure 3 shows a detail of the breakwater cross-section with a toe formed by a single cube. 2. CURRENT TOE STABILITY GUIDANCE The current guidance for the design of breakwater toe protection is limited, particularly for structures in shallow waters and influenced by steeper nearshore slopes. Available toe protection stability formulae are given in van der Meer et al. (1995), van der Meer (1998), USACE (2002), CIRIA (2007), Sayao (2007) and Muttray (2013). Sayao (2007) design equation includes important surf zone parameters, such as bottom nearshore slope (m) and Iribarren number (ξ s ). Muttray (2013) includes the damage number (N od ) in the new toe stability formula, which is based on a critical stability number (N s,cr ) that refers to initial movements of armourstones on the toe. Most expressions have not been applied to different toe designs formed of concrete blocks, which is reviewed and discussed in this paper. 3. TOE STABILITY DISCUSSION The analysis of the model test cases focused on the improvement and understanding of the tetrapod cross-section stability at the roundhead including toe stability. It was evident that the stability of the toe is relevant to the overall stability of the breakwater armour. During the tests, the % of damage of 1 Hatch, Suite 400, 1066 West Hastings St., Vancouver, BC Canada V6E 3X2, 2 Hatch, R. Buenos Aires 15, 8º fl., Rio de Janeiro, RJ, , Brazil, * Presently: CoMEM M.Sc. Student, 2015/

45 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering the cross-section including toe was considered, where attention was paid to the areas where the toe suffered some damage. The stability of the toe was improved by using stones and concrete cubes, rather than tetrapods themselves. Increasing the tetrapod mass was also considered, up to a limit defined by prototype constructability (26 t). The increase of tetrapods mass improved the stability performance of the overall structure, and the armourstone toe seemed to behave better in the model. However, all toe designs were unstable and yield % of damage higher than 5%, which was considered as the design limit. Further, the paper investigates the prediction of stability of the toe using available formulae and compares predictions with model test results. Figure 1. Views of 3D model breakwater under wave action (at IH Cantabria). Figure 2. Typical cross-section of model breakwater head, with tetrapods toe. Figure 3. Detail of cross-section of model breakwater head, with cubes at the toe. 4. REFERENCES CIRIA, The Rock Manual, 2nd edition. Publication C683, CIRIA, CUR, CETMEF. Muttray, M., A Pragmatic Approach to Rock Toe Stability. Coastal Engineering, Elsevier, 82, Sayao, O.J., Toe Protection Design for Rubble Mound Breakwaters, Proc., Coastal Structures 2007, Venice, Italy, W. Scientific, Silva, R.F., and Sayao, O.J., Evaluation of Damage in Tetrapod Breakwaters (in Portuguese). Revista de Engenharia e Tecnologia, Special Ed., Ocean Engineering, ISSN , Vol. 7, No. 2 (2015), Pub., Open Journal System (OJS ), pp USACE, Coastal Engineering Manual. Engineer Manual , Washington, D.C. van der Meer, J.W., Geometrical Design of Coastal Structures. Chapter 9 in: Seawalls, Dikes and Revetments. K.W. Pilarczyk (ed.), Balkema, Rotterdam. van der Meer J.W., d Angremond, K., Gerding, E., Toe Structure Stability of Rubble Mound Breakwaters. Proc., Advances in Coastal Structures and Breakwaters. ICE, Thomas Telford,

46 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Analysis of Rubble Mound Breakwater Damage: Case Study of an Existing Breakwater Rehabilitation By Renan F. da Silva 1 *, Otavio J. Sayao 2, and Leonardo P. Conceicao 3 ABSTRACT This paper evaluates damages in rubble mound breakwaters by means of a case study of Praia Mole Terminal breakwater, located in Tubarão Port, ES, Brazil (Figure 1a). The Praia Mole breakwater presented structural damages due to the action of severe storms (Figure 2a). The breakwater was constructed in 1982 and had not been maintained since; construction was recently initiated as part of a maintenance contract (Figure 2b). As physical modeling tests have intrinsic uncertainties to reproduce the behavior of coastal structures in complex environments, the objective of this paper is to verify the effectiveness of van der Meer (1988) formula and existing guidance from USACE (2002) by comparing the published methods based in laboratory research with an existing breakwater where damage levels were measured. Breakwater damage levels were calculated for two periods (2006 and 2010) using topographic survey data for typical sections of the Praia Mole breakwater, including trunk and head. Cross sections of detailed design and measurements were overlaid to obtain the eroded areas, and these areas were divided by the square of the nominal armourstone diameter to estimate damage level (USACE, 2002). In order to obtain the sea state parameters for the application of van der Meer (1988) equation, a numerical wave model (SWAN, Delft3D) was applied to obtain waves close to breakwater typical sections (Figure 1b). Hindcast wave data from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WaveWatchIII global model runs were used as boundary conditions. By using the peak over threshold method, offshore storms were selected for SWAN simulations, followed by the analysis of extreme wave statistics onshore. No local data of wave measurements were available for calibration purposes. As van der Meer (1988) formula correlates a single sea state with a damage level, the most extreme waves onshore were used as input for each of the storm periods. In order to better evaluate the results, a new definition of damage was proposed by combining the approaches of USACE (2002; 1984) and van der Meer (1988), as shown in Table 1. Most of the results comparing calculations and measurements provided the same type of damages, indicating that in general, van der Meer (1988) formula is a reasonable methodology for damage evaluation of existing rubble mound breakwaters. Discrepancies could be due to several reasons, which are discussed in the paper, such as the fact that only one storm sea state is considered in the formulation and that progression of damage is not considered, as well as the lack of calibration data for wave propagation modelling. Table 1 Definition of damage for Praia Mole Breakwater evaluation. Damage Levels % Damage Damage Type S = (between 0 and 5) - S = 4 5 1) Initial Damage S = (between 5 and 10) 1) Initial Damage S = ) Intermediate Damage S = (between 10 and 15) 2) Intermediate Damage S = ) Intermediate Damage S 15 failure 3) Failure 1 Hatch, R. Buenos Aires 15, 8º fl., Rio de Janeiro, RJ, , Brazil, * Presently: CoMEM M.Sc. Student, 2015/ Hatch, Suite 400, 1066 West Hastings St., Vancouver, BC Canada V6E 3X2, 3 Hatch, R. Buenos Aires 15, 8º fl., Rio de Janeiro, RJ, , Brazil, 46

47 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 1 (a) View of Praia Mole Breakwater and (b) results of wave propagation modeling. Figure 2 (a) Damaged breakwater head before rehabilitation works and (b) Start of breakwater rehabilitation works, Praia Mole Terminal, REFERENCES BS (2000). Maritime Structures Part 1: Code of Practice for General Criteria. British Standard, BS :2000. Sayao, O.J., (2003). Back Analysis of Rubble Mound Armorstone Design. Coastal Structures 03, ASCE, Portland, Oregon, USA, August, pp USACE (1984). Shore Protection Manual, 4 th Edition, Coastal Engineering Research Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. USACE (2002). Coastal Engineering Manual, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank Vale (Tubarão, Brazil) for financial support and Engrs. Marcio Ferraz and Maurício Carneiro for their valuable technical input. KEYWORDS: Coastal Engineering, Rubble Mound Breakwater, Damage Assessment, Wave Propagation Modeling, Extreme Event Analysis 47

48 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Coastal Engineering Review, Niemeyer Bike-path Damage By Otavio J. Sayao 1, Renan F. da Silva 2, and Luciano Absalonsen 3 ABSTRACT A bike-path along the Niemeyer rocky coast in, was designed and constructed to connect the neighborhoods of Leblon and São Conrado. Construction works began in September 2014 with the intent to open the lane to the public before the 2016 Olympic Games (August 2016). Approximately half of the bike-path extension (total length of 3.8 km) was designed as an independent structure on the rocky hillside at the sea side of Niemeyer Avenue. The remaining portion was built overhanging or as landfill, but attached to the roadway. On April 21, 2016 a 50 m section of the bike-path, designed as an independent structure, collapsed and was destroyed by storm wave action about three months after inauguration. Fig. 1 shows the section of the bike-path at the sea side of the existing Av. Niemeyer after the accident. Fig. 2, shows the destroyed bike-path section under wave action. This paper presents a coastal engineering review of the bike-path design and discusses some of the causes for the bike-path accident. The paper approach is to define the wave climate in front of the bike-path using numerical modeling (SWAN), and estimate wave run-up and overtopping on the smooth rocky ledge, as well as wave reflection, and wave slamming forces. The paper will also evaluate the risk during storms to pedestrians and vehicles against overtopping events, as the Av. Niemeyer roadway is already about 100 years old. Because of vehicle traffic restrictions on Av. Niemeyer during the construction phase, the bike-path structure was built in pre-molded parts, in spans of 6 m and 12 m at the rocky ledge, following the winding path of the century-old route. Along the way, rock slope containment works were performed, such as soil nailing, cable-stayed curtains, etc. Nearshore site data availability is very scarce at this particular exposed location, for coastal engineering analyses. Calibration of SWAN runs was obtained using existing measurements from a wave buoy inside Guanabara Bay, about 12 km from the accident site. A video taken through a bus window during the wave jet impact showed that the wave period was 18 s, which is longer than average (about 12 s), when compared with the site wave climate during storm events. Significant wave heights (Hs) during the April 21, 2016 event were estimated at 3 to 4 m, before run-up and reflection. Wave run-up (R) in smooth slopes is a function of the Iribarren number ξ (Battjes, 1974): R/Hs ξ. Assuming incident wave conditions as described above, wave run-up levels during the storm event of the April 21, 2016 accident may reach elevations of about +20 m above MSL. Other run-up methods described in the CEM (2003) and in CIRIA (2007) also yield similar predictions. As the elevation of the bike-path deck is at +25 m above MSL, wave run-up levels do not reach the Av. Niemeyer elevation at this site; however, the presence of the vertical walls of the structure called Castelinho, located at an elevation of about +15 m above MSL, as seen in Fig. 2, caused the accident and the damage of the bike-path due to impulsive overtopping conditions. The estimation of violent, impulsive wave overtopping at these vertical walls was carried-out, using the method of Allsop et al., (2005), also given in Besley et al., (1998), which predicted an upward jet velocity so high that the bikepath deck structure was completely destroyed by the single wave action. Limits of wave overtopping volumes for vehicles and pedestrians were also estimated and shown to be higher than allowable limits (CIRIA, 2007). These analyses determined that traffic during similar storms is compromised and lead to the recommendation that protocols be in place for the interdiction of both the Av. Niemeyer bike-path and its parallel roadway during the intervals of such extreme events. 1 Hatch, Suite 400, 1066 W Hastings St., Vancouver, BC Canada, V6E 3X2 2 CoMEM M.Sc. Student, 2015/2017. Previously:. Hatch, R. Buenos Aires 15, 8º floor, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, , Brazil 3 Hatch, Suite 400, 1066 W Hastings St., Vancouver, BC Canada 48

49 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 1: Damaged Bike-path under Wave Action, April 21, 2016 (Source: G1.globo.com). Figure 2: Damaged Bike-path under Wave Action, April 21, 2016 (Source: G1.globo.com). REFERENCES ALLSOP, N.W.H., BRUCE, T., PEARSON, J. and BESLEY, P. (2005). Wave Overtopping at Vertical and Steep Seawalls. Proc., ICE, Maritime Engineering 158, Sep Issue MA3, pp BATTJES, J.A., (1974). Surf Similarity. Proc., 14 th Conference of Coastal Eng. ASCE, pp BESLEY, P., STEWART T., and ALLSOP, N.W.H. (1998) Overtopping of Vertical Structures: new Methods to Account for Shallow Water Conditions. Proc. Int. Conf. on Coastlines, Structures & Breakwaters'98, pp 46-57, March 1998, ICE/Thomas Telford, London. CEM (2003). Coastal Engineering Manual. Engineer Manual , U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. CIRIA (2007). The Rock Manual. The use of Rock in Hydraulic Engineering (2nd Ed.). C683 Report. 49

50 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Potential Volumetric Changes in an Intertidal Shoal Adjacent to the Proposed LNG Marine Terminal By Luciano Absalonsen 1, Otavio J. Sayao 2 and Roslin Arbuckle 3 1. INTRODUCTION The construction of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility is being proposed adjacent to an intertidal shoal partially covered by eelgrass and used as habitat by fishes and marine animals. The proposed conceptual design for the marine structure includes a suspension bridge over the protected shoal (spanning 1600 m), a piled trestle (spanning 1300 m) and a jetty with two LNG berths. The bridge is supported by two larger anchor structures with footprints of approximately 44 m by 45 m and 20 m by 36 m and the trestle has pile bents (1.2 m pile diameter) located every 36 m. The bridge supporting structures are located immediately outside the edge of the intertidal shoal and the distance of the trestle from the shoal increases offshore (Figure 1). The berthing jetty is located at 25 m depth and approximately 500 m offshore of the shoal. The tidal range at the site is considerably large, with maximum range of 7 m, causing the shoal to be exposed during periods of low tide and completely submerged during high tides. The project site is protected from swells, being dominated by seas (wind waves) with relatively low significant wave height (H s ) and short wave period. The average H s is about 0.25 m and maximum H s measured by a local buoy northwest of the berth is 1.6 m. The depth averaged currents are in general below 0.35 m/s near the marine structures, but can increase during larger storms due to wind and wave induced currents. The sediments size varies considerably at the site, ranging from fine to coarse sand. The river discharge and its contribution with suspended sediments and fresh water (more pronounced during the freshet period) were also included in the numerical simulations. 2. METODOLOGY Delft3D was used to conduct the numerical simulations during this study, coupling the wave and flow modules (including morphologic changes) and using WW3 data as input conditions. The model was calibrated with local data (ADCP s and buoys) collected during approximately one year near the site. Two sets of numerical simulations were conducted to determine potential impacts of the marine structures in the morphologic change in the intertidal shoal. The natural conditions (without the marine structures) and the condition with the marine structures in place were investigated using the same input conditions. Both simulations covered the period of one year, capturing seasonal changes in the study area, with calm periods with large river discharge (summer) and relatively more energetic periods during the winter storms. The volumetric changes (focus of this study) were calculated using the difference between the final and initial morphology over the intertidal shoal area above -3.8 m MSL (thicker line in Figure 1). 3. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED MARINE STRUCTURES The difference in the morphological changes observed in the simulation without the marine structures (natural conditions) and the simulation with the marine structures in place was used to calculate the potential impacts expected at the shoal and near eelgrass if the marine structures are in place. 1 Hatch, Suite 400, 1066 West Hastings St., Vancouver, BC Can.V6E 3X2, 2 Hatch, Suite 400, 1066 West Hastings St., Vancouver, BC Canada V6E 3X2, 3 Hatch, Suite 400, 1066 West Hastings St., Vancouver, BC Canada V6E 3X2, 50

51 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering The volumetric changes, showing the areas of erosion and deposition, for the natural condition and the situation with the marine structures in place is presented in Figure 2. The results show very similar areas and magnitude of erosion and deposition in both simulations. The sediments at the southwest boundary of the shoal are more exposed to the waves coming from southwest, resulting in erosion of the sediments in this area and transport to more protected areas inside the shoal. The volumetric changes at the end of one year of simulation showed a net erosion of approximately 29,000 m 3 and 25,000 m 3, for the natural and with the marine structure conditions, respectively. The results indicate a decrease of the erosion when the marine structures are in place, caused by the mild sheltering effect provided by the trestle (with piles located 36 m apart), decreasing the wave energy at the shoal. The decrease in the wave energy consequently suspends and transports less sediment at the shoal and causes less volumetric changes. Figure 1. Proposed location of the marine structures (berth, trestle, bridge, tower and anchor block) adjacent to the shoal. Figure 2. Morphological change after one year simulating the natural conditions (left) and with the proposed marine structures (right). The results also indicate a season pattern in the sediment mobility in the shoal. The sediments are more mobile during the winter period, when the winds are stronger, generating larger waves and limited morphological changes are observed during the summer months (when the H s is smaller). This study, using numerical simulation during one year, compared the morphological changes at an intertidal shoal with and without marine structures in place. The results indicated that the proposed marine structures will decrease the sediment transport at the intertidal shoal and will not cause significant morphological changes to the adjacent shoal. 4. SUMMARY FOR PRESENTATION The presentation will include more details about the metocean conditions at the site, the proposed marine structures and how the marine structures were incorporated in the model. Also, more details on the morphological seasonal changes. 51

52 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Santinho-Ingleses headland bedform characterization through interferometric data, Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil Porpilho, D. 1, Klein, A.H.F ¹; de Camargo, R. S. V. ¹, Prado, M. F. V. ¹, Short, A. D. ², Vieira da Silva, G. 3,4 1 Laboratório de Oceanografia Costeira, Departamento de Geociências, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, , Brazil, 2 School of Geosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia, ³ CECO, Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, , Brazil 4 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522, Australia, This paper classifies bedforms adjacent to Santinho-Ingleses headland, located in northeast of Santa Catarina Island, Brazil (Figure 1). This headland is part of a 50 km long headland-beach system extending from Barra da Lagoa beach to Daniela spit (Figure 1), which is being investigated for headland bypassing and overpassing around the northern end of Santa Catarina island. The field area is the inner shelf adjacent to the headland, between 5 and 25 m depth. The data was collected with an Edgtech 4600 interferometric sonar, 540 KHz, which outputs side scan sonar images and swath bathymetry, providing coverage that is 3 to 4 times the water depth. It covered an area of approximately 2 km² and preliminary results show an occurrence of asymmetrical, catenary bedforms that ranges in wavelength from 5 to 12 m and height from 0.5 to 1 m, in both, southern and northern section of the headland (Figure 1). These features are almost perpendicular to the shoreline and are indicative of bed load transport around the headland. Shape and size (Figure 1) of the bedforms also indicate that they are formed by a strong unidirectional current, but in different directions, as the northern features are migrating W/SW E/SE and southern features are migrating S N. Current data shows the presence of bidirectional (north and south) near bottom current, very similar in frequency, with the northerly current having higher velocities, reaching 0.6 m/s at maximum velocity. While southern features reflect the intenser northerly current, the northern features are indicating the presence of a reverse current. It is also possible that current velocity is increased owing to the constriction between the headland and the islands (Figure 1). 52

53 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 1: Santinho-Ingleses study area. (A) Bedforms in the northern section (A1 A2); (B) Bedforms in the southern section (B1 B2). 53

54 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering PERFORMANCE BASED DESIGN of COASTAL STRUCTURES; A NEW TURKISH CODES Z.T.. Yuksel and Y. Yuksel Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul INTRODUCTION Reliability design considering probabilistic nature is quite suitable for coastal facilities because waves are of irregular nature and wave actions fluctuate. However, solely considering the probability of failure is considered insufficient, as deformation (damage level) should also be taken into account (Takahashi, Shimosako and Hanzawa 2015). This paper discusses performance design as a future design methodology for coastal and port structures., focusing on, the new Turkish standart about coastal structures. The performance of coastal structures such as port and coast protection structures is specifically considered by describing the design criteria with respect to different design levels during a lifetime including probabilistic aspects. The new frame of performance design for coastal structures and necessary studies to develop the design are also discussed. The new Turkish standarts (2015) includes the performance design basis of coastal structures, hydraulic design (wave and current climate), structural design, planning of port facilities and modelling criterias. We introduce damage criteria, level of damage, importance of structures and performance grade for the coastal and port structure. The concept of performance design is new, which allows researchers and engineers to create an integrated design framework for its development. Performance design can be considered as a design process that systematically and clearly defines performance requirements and respective performance evaluation methods. In other words, performance design allows the performance of a structure to be explicitly and concretely described. The General Directorate for Infrastructure Investments of Ministry of Transportation, Communication and Maritime of Turkish Republic has commissioned a group of experts in 2015 for the preparation of a coastal structures code officially administered by GDII. The aim of this contribution is to describe the main aspects of the GDII Coastal Structures Code. The code, as a whole, rests completely on a performance-based design philosophy, as explained in this paper. PERFORMANCE BASED DESIGN PARAMETERS As in any performance-based design code, the GDII code for port structures starts with the definition of the following performance-based design parameters: 1. Structural classes associated with the expected performance, usage and functional importance, 2. Performance levels associated with expected damage levels, 3. Damage levels associated with frequent, rare and very rare wave events, 4. Performance objectives under different wave return levels. Structural Classes Coastal and Port structures are classified as special, normal, simple and unimportant structures. Special Structures: Structures to be used for rapid response and evacuation immediately after an damage, Structures to be used for the marine structures of nuclear power plants, toxic, flammable or explosive materials. Normal Structures: Structures where the loss of life and property must be avoided, Structures of economic and social significance, Structures with difficult and time-consuming post-wave actions repair and retrofit needs, Simple Structures: Less important structures other than those classified in Special and Normal Structures, Structures other than those classified as Unimportant Structures. Unimportant Structures: Easily replaceable structures, Structures not causing life safety risk even extensively damaged, 54

55 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Temporary structures. Performance Levels Performance levels of coastal and port structures are defined with respect to expected damages during an storm wave event. Minimum Damage (MD) Performance Level: This performance level corresponds to a state where no or a very limited damage occurs in coastal and port structures and/or in their elements under a design wave and beyond event. In this case, port operation continues uninterrupted or if any, service interruptions are limited to few days. Controlled Damage (CD) Performance Level: This performance level corresponds to a state where non-extensive, repairable damage occurs in port structures and/or in their elements under a design wave. In this case, short-term (few weeks or months) interruptions in related port operations may be expected. Extensive Damage (ED) Performance Level: This performance level corresponds to a state where extensive damage occurs in coastal and port structures and/or in their elements under a design wave. In this case, long-term interruptions or even closures in related port operations may be expected. State of Collapse (CS): This corresponds to the collapse state in port structures and/or in their elements under the over design wave. CONCLUSIONS General Directorate for Infrastructure Investments of Ministry of Transportation, Communication and Maritime of Turkish Republic has recently issued a new coastal structure design code in Turkey. In this paper, main aspects of the code are explained with particular reference to the performance design requirements for coastal and port structures. As its main feature, the code defines the performance-based design philosophy. In this context, classification of port structures, definition of damaged-based performance levels, multi-level design wave actions and performance objectives are briefly described in the paper as the essential parameters of the performance-based design. References Takahashi, S., Shimosako, K., Hanzawa, M., 2015, Design of Coastal Structures and Sea Defenses World Scientific. PIANC, 2001, Seismic Design Guidelines for Port Structures. The General Directorate for Infrastructure Investments of Ministry of Transportation, Communication and Maritime of Turkish Republic, 2015, Coastal Structures, Planning and Design Code, First Draft Edition. 55

56 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Observations and Modelling of Shoreline and Sandbar Response on a High-Energy Beach Maria V. G. Gonzalez; Ron Cox; Joan Oltman-Shay; Kristen D.Splinter Sandbars are a natural form of coastal protection. During high wave conditions, sand is pulled offshore by strong seaward directed currents known as undertow, leading to erosion at the shoreline and deposition on the offshore sandbars. The sandbar system creates a barrier in which the bigger waves break on the outer sandbar crest, dissipating most of their energy across a wide surf zone. During milder wave conditions, sediment transport is landward directed as these sandbars move onshore, returning sediment to the shoreface, thus creating a more reflective beach. This movement of the shoreline and the sand bars are a primary expression of cross-shore sediment transport ( Plant et al. 1999; Plant et al. 2001). The exchange of sand between the dry beach face and the nearshore system, as well as the rate of shoreline change is of particular interest to engineers and managers alike to protect the coastal environment and to plan future developments. However, despite the over-arching conceptual agreement in equilibrium-driven shoreline and sandbar models, a model designed for one feature (such as shoreline) is rarely applied to other features in the same sediment system. To examine relationships between offshore wave forcing and shoreline/sandbar behaviour, a simple equilibrium model is used. The equilibrium model, ShoreFor (Davidson et al. 2013), was originally developed to examine the equilibrium state of the time-varying shoreline and is suitable for application in micro to meso-tidal, energetic, exposed sandy beaches where cross-shore process dominate (Davidson et al., 2013; Castelle et al. 2014). The model has been shown to successfully reproduce weekly to annual shoreline variability at a wide range of beaches around the world (Splinter et al., 2014). In the model, the direction of shoreline/sandbar movement is dictated by a time-evolving equilibrium and instantaneous dimensionless fall velocities and its displacement (dx/dt) is forced by wave-driven cross-shore sediment transport. The governing equation takes the following form: dddd = dddd cc(ff+ + rrrr ) + bb [1] Where F+ and F- represent the accretive (+) and erosive (-) forcing response; b is the linear trend component, and c is a wave driven free parameter that accounts for the response rate. The parameter r is not a model free parameter, but determined within the model based on the balance between accretionary and erosive forces. It is termed the erosion ratio and influences the erosion forcing term (F-). The model is applied to 10 years of observed sandbar and shoreline variability taken from an Argus camera imaging system at a meso-tidal, high energy, multiple bar beach, known as Benson Beach, located in the state of Washington, USA. Foam produced by waves breaking over the bars in the planview images was used to locate the position of the sandbar crests and shoreline on a bi-weekly basis. The mean high water (MHW) shoreline contour was interpolated from the inter-tidal bathymetry generated from the hourly shoreline data during spring tides. In this study, the analysis is limited to the alongshore section m in the local coordinate system. It does not consider the ~500 m section closest to the breakwater. After data was collected and separated for each bar, the alongshore-averaged time-varying position of each sandbar was calculated. It can be observed that both the shoreline and sandbars have a seasonal signal but in opposite direction, highlighting the exchange of sediment between the shoreline and the sandbars at seasonal scale (Figure 1). The model was found to be most skilful at predicting the two end-members of the cross-shore sediment system; namely the shoreline and the outer bar (Figure 1). As expected, model coefficients revealed that these two end-members in the sediment system acted in opposite directions to changes in the offshore wave forcing. During high wave events, sand was removed from the shoreline, causing landward retreat and deposited in the outer bar which moved seaward following a break point type model. The model was less skilful at predicting the cross-shore movement of the middle and inner bar where sand was typically transferred between the shoreline and the outer bar. This paper to be presented at COPEDEC 2016 will describe the application of the ShoreFor equilibrium model to the cross-shore position of the sandbars and shoreline to better understand how the nearshore sediment system responds to the incident wave field. In order to better understand and 56

57 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering analyse this system, the model to data comparison was undertaken in three stages. First, the model was run for each bar individually with its full (2km) alongshore average. Secondly, to examine intrasite variability, each sandbar was divided into 500 m alongshore sections. Thirdly, the data was subdivided into three time periods, in order to examine any changes in the response regarding changing weather conditions and also nourishments made at the site. For assessing the prediction capacity of the model, two model skill definitions are used: correlation coefficient (R) and Brier Skill Score (BSS). We also compare the variability of the wave driven model coefficients: response rate (c); and the response factor (ϕ), which determines the omega low pass filter cutoff in days, indicative of memory decay showing the dominant time scales of cross-shore sediment exchange. Keywords multiple sandbar system, equilibrium behaviour, high-energy beach. References Castelle, B. et al., Equilibrium shoreline modelling of a high-energy meso-macrotidal multiplebarred beach. Marine Geology, 347, pp Available at: [Accessed August 12, 2014]. Davidson, M.A., Splinter, K.D. & Turner, I.L., A simple equilibrium model for predicting shoreline change. Coastal Engineering, 73, pp Gallagher, E., Guza, R.T. & Elgar, S., Observations of sand bar evolution on a natural beach. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(C2), pp Hoefel, F. & Elgar, S., Wave-induced sediment transport and sandbar migration. Science, 299(5614), pp Plant, N.G. et al., A simple model for interannual sandbar behavior. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, p Plant, N.G., Ruessink, B.G. & Wijnberg, K.M., Morphologic properties derived from a simple cross-shore sediment transport model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(C1), p.945. Splinter, K.D., Turner, I.L. & Davidson, M.A., The Development of a Generalized Model for Predicting Shoreline Change on Natural, Cross-shore Transport Dominated Sandy Coastlines., pp Figures and Tables Figure 1 ShoreFor results (solid lines) for the shoreline and 3 bars. Average alongshore position of all sand bars (OB outer bar, MB middle bar, IB inner bar) and shoreline (section 1000m m) with vertical error bars. The light grey vertical bars represent times when merges were also present in the data indicating a transitional phase. 57

58 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Recommendations for the use of SWAN to simulate extreme events 1. Introduction A. Camarena 1, C. Gautier 1 Coastal structures around the world are designed based on Hydraulic Boundary Conditions (HBC), such as waves, water levels and flow velocities. The quality of the derived HBC depends on the adequate performance of a number of components in the so-called HBC chain, which includes several numerical models, among them the spectral wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore, Booij et al., 1999). Although the performance of SWAN has been previously assessed in other hindcast studies (i.e. Rogers et al. 2007), measurements of extreme conditions are rare and the knowledge of model behavior under these conditions is limited. A good representation of extreme events is crucial for the definition of HBC since those are normally derived for events with lower frequency of occurrence. On 5th and 6th December 2013 a strong north western storm hit the Dutch Wadden Sea. Wind velocities above 21 m/s and water levels of NAP* m were recorded. This water level corresponds to an event with a return period between 50 and 100 years. The 12 wave buoys in the tidal inlet of Ameland (Wadden Sea, The Netherlands) provide an exceptional dataset for a wave hindcast. The SWAN model is used to reproduce this event. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of SWAN under different physical and numerical settings for the simulation of extreme events and to define the most optimal settings taking into account accuracy and computational time. 2. Methodology In order to assess the performance of SWAN when simulating extreme events, a number of stationary and non-stationary wave simulations are set-up. Wave boundary conditions are derived from the measured data, winds from the HARMONIE model (KNMI, 2013), while water levels and currents are generated based on the results of hydrodynamic modeling. Five different series (varying whitecapping formulations, currents and calibration parameters) are used to define which combination of settings is more suitable to simulate extreme events. In addition, five non-stationary simulations using the optimal physical settings derived from the stationary runs are defined (varying computational time step and maximum number of iterations) to further assess the capabilities of the model. This hindcast focuses on the tidal inlet of Ameland. Eight moments that were recorded during the storm of the 5th and 6th of December 2013 are selected in order to represent different stages of the storm for the stationary simulations. For the non-stationary simulations the entire time-series is considered. The hydrodynamic simulations to derive water level and current fields were carried out using the numerical modeling package Delft3D in a coupled flow-wave simulation to generate water level and current velocity fields to be used as input in the wave simulations. The quality of the results of the stationary simulations is evaluated in different ways. First, the comparison between SWAN results and measurements is expressed by means of relative difference. Second, rays representing the wave propagation from deep to shallow water are used; these rays are strategically created to coincide with measuring locations in order to compare the results from SWAN and the measured conditions along a varying depth. Third, a number of statistical parameters are derived (e.g. bias, standard deviation and root mean square error) and used to judge which settings are more suitable to simulate waves in the Wadden Sea. In addition, for the non-stationary simulations the results are evaluated with respect to accuracy and computational time. The full measured time-series is compared to the results of the model. The number of iterations required to reach convergence is assessed and lastly the computational time is taken into consideration for the evaluation of the model performance. 1 Deltares, Boussinesqweg 1, 2629HV, Delft, The Netherlands * The vertical datum in the Netherlands is abbreviated as NAP. 58

59 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering 3. Results The present default SWAN settings of version A, which include Komen wind growth and whitecapping with delta=1, based on Rogers et al. (2003), give a better approximation of wave conditions than the previous default settings (Komen with delta=0) during extreme events on areas with complex geometry and dominated by wind sea and swell, such as the Wadden Sea. Nevertheless, the whitecapping formulation from Van der Westhuysen et al. (2007) reproduces the wave conditions significantly better than the standard SWAN settings. In the tidal inlet of Ameland SWAN underestimates the significant wave height (H m0 ) by only 2% and the mean wave period (T m-1,0 ) by 5%. The results from the stationary simulations show that the whitecapping formulation and associated calibration parameters strongly influence the results of the SWAN model. Furthermore, it was found that although the effect of currents on wave growth is limited, it cannot be omitted. The statistical parameters used to assess the model performance show slightly better scores for the non-stationary simulations, which indicate that the non-stationary simulations perform better than the stationary. Although extra insight on the storm is obtained with the non-stationary simulations, there is no significant added value to the derivation of hydraulic boundary conditions, especially considering the extensive computational time. Figure 1 shows the observed and simulated significant wave height at buoy Amelander Zeegat 31. Figure 1. Significant wave height measured at buoy Amelander Zeegat 31 (solid line), derived from stationary simulation (circles) and from non-stationary simulations (dashed line). 4. Conclusions The performance of SWAN was thoroughly assessed by means of a sensitivity analysis of several numerical and physical model settings. Overall it is concluded that SWAN is a high quality tool to compute nearshore waves during storms when the adequate combination of settings is used. An in-depth description of the dataset used and the different model settings applied in the study, as well as detailed results, will be discussed in the paper and oral presentation. In addition, the combination of recommended settings for the use of SWAN to simulate extreme events will be discussed. 5. References Booij, N., Ris R. C. and Holthuijsen L. H. (1999). A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 104, KNMI (2013). Towards an approved model set-up for HARMONIE Contribution to WP 1 of the SBW-HB Wind modelling project. KNMI report, February 27, Rogers, W.E., P.A. Hwang and D.W. Wang (2003). Investigation of wave growth and decay in the SWAN model: three regional-scale applications, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, Rogers, W. E., Kaihatu, J. M., Hsu, L., Jensen, R. E., Dykes, J. D., & Holland, K. T. (2007). Forecasting and hindcasting waves with the SWAN model in the Southern California Bight. Coastal Eng, 54, Van der Westhuysen, A. J., M. Zijlema, and J. A. Battjes (2007). Nonlinear saturation-based whitecapping dissipation in SWAN for deep and shallow water, Coastal Eng., 54,

60 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering ORAN HIGHWAY REVETMENT DESIGN Dr. Işıkhan Güler 2, Erdinç Söğüt 1, Dr. Hülya Karakuş Cihan 1, Dr. Mustafa Esen 1, Prof. Dr. Ayşen Ergin 2, The Oran highway (Fig. 1) which is located on northern side of the City of Oran, the city constructed on the Gulf of Oran, is one of the most important highways in Algeria due the its location. This highway, which is under construction nowadays for rehabilitation purposes, will create a fast and safe link between the other import two cities of Algeria which are Arzew and Mostaganem. In addition to the fast and safe transportation for people, after the construction of the highway completed, it will also serve as safe and safe trade route that connects the ports in City of Oran, Arzew and Mostaganem. The location of this strategic highway is shown on a Google Earth Picture in Figure 1. N Coast of Spain Project Site 0 Km 130 Km Port of Oran Oran Highway N Gulf of Oran 0 Km 7 Km City of Oran Figure-1: The Google Earth picture showing the location of Oran highway Depending on both the existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran, the new alignment of the highway is shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Such a shift in the alignment caused the construction of approximately 1 km of the highway on the sea. Depending on the need for the construction of revetment, wind and wave climate analysis were performed for the study area by using the ECMWF wind data on the 36N 0.7W coordinates (Fig. 2) to understand the wave climate in the region. After detailed wave analysis the deep water wave characteristics for the study area by using ECMWF wind data are found as H s0 =6.43m and T s =10.30sec. However, from due to the importance of the project, in the determination of the deep water wave characteristics, the experience of the local authority in Algeria (LEM) was taken into consideration and the deep water wave data (H s0 =10.4m, T p =12.9sec) provided by this authority was used in the project. Study Area N 0km 130km Figure 2: The Google Earth picture showing the location of ECMWF gauge location 1 Yüksel Proje Uluslararası A.Ş. 2 Middle East techinical university Civil Engineering Departmant Ocean Engineering Research Center Corresponding author, Işıkhan Güler e mail: tel : /102,

61 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering In addition to these studies, in order for clear understanding of the project area, existing revetment project prepared by client (using 15 m 3 Accropode units) about the Oran highway was clearly evaluated. After evaluation of the existing project, one important question about the construction capabilities of these interlocking units in Algeria has arisen depending on the importance of the highway. In order to understand whether such units can be satisfactorily applied in Algeria, a detailed literature survey was conducted. From this literature survey, it is found that 20m 3 tetrapode units, which have interlocking behavior like Accropode units, were used in the Port of Oran breakwater which is next to the new alignment of Oran highway. However, more interestingly, it is observed that this breakwater was damaged in a storm that had a significant wave height 7.0m which is has approximately same wave characteristic at the toe of the new revetment for the Oran highway. In order not to take risk, it is decided that the use of more robust units is much suitable for the new revetment that will be constructed. In the selection of the type of armor layer unit, the construction experience in Algeria was the main issue that was considered. From the detailed survey, the most applied armor layer unit in Algeria was found as antifer blocks. Thus use of antifer blocks was decided as most suitable armor layer unit. From stability analysis, 23 ton antifer blocks with regular placement are found suitable to be used as armor layer units (Fig.3). Figure 3: The proposed cross section of revetment with 23 ton antifer blocks However, for the construction purposes and the construction capability in Algeria, irregular placement of antifer blocks was suggested by LEM. In order to have better understanding of the proposed section by using 23-ton antifer blocks, a physical model test series were performed by LEM. As a result of these test series the calculated weight of the antifer blocks which is 23 ton is found insufficient for the required stability, thus the weight of the armor units are increased to 26 tons (Fig.4). during the physical model tests, toe protection was also studied as a fundamental design parameter affecting in the overall stability of the cross section. Figure - 4: The cross section of revetment with 26 ton antifer blocks according the physical model test results Since both data bases are used in the determination of wave climate in the study area and physical model tests were performed for clear understanding of the cross section of the revetment, it is found that the proposed cross section given in Fig.4 is the most stable and suitable cross section this important highway project. In this paper, selection of design wave parameters, design considerations concerning also the local practice, experience and the physical model experiments carried out for the stability of trunk section and toe protection will be discussed in depth. This project is under construction. Acknowledgements:The authors wish to thank MAKYOL Construction Company, d'etudes Maritimes (LEM), Agence Nationale des Autoroutes (ANA) Wilaya d Oran Laboratoire

62 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering The Black Sea and Sea of Azov wave regime: results of numerical simulation Divinskii B.V., Kos yan R.D. The Southern Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences The main objective of the present work is the analysis of storm activity and available wave energy in the Black Sea for the last 25 years. The basic method is mathematical modeling using modern spectral wind-wave model DHI MIKE SW (DHI, 2007). Despite belonging of the Black Sea water area to six states, there is an apparent lack of direct observations of the instrumental parameters of wind waves. To date, the most representative data are obtained by Russian and Turkish experts using Datawell Waverider (Kos yan et al., 1998, Wave Climatology ). These data are mainly used for verification of the spectral wave model. As the wind forcing, the data of global atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim are used, represented by the European Centre for Medium forecasts. The spatial resolution of the original fields of atmospheric pressure is 0.25 degrees, time step - 3 hours. When analyzing the results, we will be based on a conditional zoning of the Black Sea, proposed in (Reference data, 2006). Chosen areas of the Black Sea are characterized by quasi-homogeneous conditions of wave. The position of observation points for wind wave parameters, as well as the regions borders, are shown in Fig. 1. Additionally, the wave climate statistics for the Azov Sea (point A in Fig. 1b) will be analyzed. a) b) Fig. 1. Position of observation points for wind wave parameters (a) and the regions borders (b) Comparison of experimental data and calculation results from the spectral wave model show that the use of surface pressure fields ERA-Interim as wind forcing of spectral model is acceptable (Fig. 2). The correlation coefficients between the calculated and observed rows of wave heights are in the order of Fig. 2. Wind wave parameters. Symbols - experimental data, black line - the simulation results As a result of this work an extensive dataset consisting of fields of calculated parameters of wind waves of the Black and Azov seas with a time step of 3 hours and covering a period of 25 years (1990 to 2014), is received. This article discusses the results for the internal parts of the designated Black Sea areas corresponding to deep water conditions. Coastal areas with elevated levels of dissipation of wave energy will make the subject of further research. Compared to other areas of the World Ocean, the wave activity of the Black Sea is quite moderate. Despite the fact that in a particular storm the power of wind waves can reach 600 kw / m, the average numbers are about 3-4 kw/m. Fig. 3 represent for designated areas of the Black and Azov Seas the curves of average annual wave capacity (dotted lines), their linear approximation (solid lines) and repeatability as to seasons and directions. As can be seen from fig. 3, there are tendencies of increased storm activity for the entire Black Sea. They are especially noticeable for II and V areas. Azov Sea with its near-zero trend in this respect is more conservative. We can confidently assert that the wave activity in the Black Sea for the last

63 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering years has increased by 10-15%. Contribution of winter seasons is the most significant for the western areas (I and III), while in the eastern part of the Black Sea as part of the annual cycle, the impact of summer months increases. Fig. 3. The average capacity of wind waves and repeatability as to seasons and directions When considering the spread directions, the most prominent feature is a tangible gain the eastern part, while reducing the west. Increase of the contribution of eastern waves over the past 25 years is about 10 percent, which is the case for the entire sea. Repeatability of waves of southern and northern directions during given period remained virtually unchanged. In other words, the most significant changes for the Black Sea have taken place across the zonal circulation. Acknowledgements This work could not have been completed without the data of waves measurements, archived in the different state and private organizations of many countries, which is in the free access for the scientific research. Collection of data was carried out with the support of the Russian Scientific Foundation (grant no ). The office data processing and analysis of the literature and archive data were supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation (grant no ). Literature DHI Water & Environment. MIKE 21, Spectral Wave Module, Kos'yan R.D., Divinsky B.V., Pushkarev O.V. Measurements of parameters of wave processes in the open sea near Gelendzhik. The Eight Workshop of NATO TU-WAVES/Black Sea, METU, Ankara, Turkey, P Reference data of the wind and wave conditions for Baltic, North, Black, Azov and Mediterranean Seas. Russian Maritime Register of Shipping. St. Petersburg, ISBN Wave Climatology of the Turkish Coast: NATO TU-WAVES Project

64 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering GEOMORPHOLOGIC IMPACT OF 24 BREAKWATER CONSTRUCTIONS ON KERALA COAST IN SOUTH WEST INDIA Kunhimammu Paravath 1 and T. Jayadeep 2 1 Executive Engineer, Harbour Engineering Division, Kasaragod, Kerala, India , (Corresponding Author) 2 Assistant Executive Engineer, Harbour Engineering Investigation Sub Division, Beypore, Kerala, India INTRDUCTION The Kerala coast in India runs north south along the Arabian Sea and has a length of 590 km. This coast in India is characterized by a barrier strip of low lying land sandwiched between the Arabian Sea and a continuous chain of lagoons and backwaters with connections to the sea at various points. It is in this coastal strip, the industrial, agricultural and other economic activities of Kerala are mainly concentrated. Forty one rivers, most of them are of the type of mountain streams flow from Western Ghats into the backwaters and lagoons that skirt the Kerala coast. The backwaters in turn are connected to the Arabian Sea by inlets at 34 points. Out of the 34 inlets, 21 are permanently open while the remaining 13 others are open during part of the year, particularly during the monsoon season and closed during the dry season due to the operation of littoral processes. Fishing industry occupies an important position in Kerala state s economy. Even though Kerala has only 7% coastline in India, the share of Kerala in the national marine fish production is about 25 %. The state s share in the export of marine fish products from India is also about 25%. There are many locations on the Kerala coast, where fisheries activities are taking place as the main livelihood of people. Some of these locations are already developed into full fledged fishery harbours. The fishery harbours are generally planned at the mouths of river estuaries, natural bays and open sea coast. The harbour sites are finalized considering technical, social and political factors. In Kerala three types of harbours are developed. They are: harbours constructed in the river estuaries, harbours developed utilizing the natural bays on the coast and harbours established on the open sea coast. These harbours can be respectively called as estuarine harbours, harbours in bays and sea harbours. In Kerala coast, even though 21 inlets are permanently open, most of them are found to be unstable under its natural conditions. They are not suitable for maintaining a safe navigational channel due to the unfavourable stability conditions. The coastal Inlets are also grouped as controlled (improved) or uncontrolled inlets depending on whether manmade training works exist or not. The geomorphologic features of the coastal inlets and adjacent coasts will be affected by natural processes, or by artificial manmade structures or by a combination of these two. All the coastal inlets are influenced by the movement of sediments which are brought in directly by the river discharge into these inlets or by the longshore littoral transport. Generally all the man-made improvement works at the coastal inlets influence the shore stability for some distance on the adjacent coasts from the inlets. Rivers and estuaries form the natural transportation routes between the sea and hinterland. Hence many harbours are developed along the banks of these water ways. Utilizing the potential of estuaries in Kerala fishery harbours and minor ports are developed. To develop estuarine fishery harbours and minor ports in Kerala, it is essential to construct breakwaters at the inlets. At twelve coastal inlets in Kerala, the breakwaters are already constructed/being constructed for the development of fishery harbours and minor ports. They are namely: Manjeswaram, Kasaragod, Cheruvathur, Azhikkal (Kannur), Beypore, Ponnani, Chettuva, Munambam, Chethi, Kayamkulam, Neendakara and Muthalapozhy. At Kasaragod, Cheruvathur, Azhikkal (Kannur), Beypore, Ponnani, Munambam, Chethi, Kayamkulam and Neendakara the breakwaters are completed. At Manjeswaram, Chettuva and Muthalapozhy the breakwater constructions are progressing. Bay is a recess in the shore between two capes or headlands. There are many such natural bays exist on Kerala coast. Some of the harbours are developed by utilizing these natural bays. The bay harbours already developed are: Moplabay, Thalai, Puthiyappa, Thangassery and Vizhinjam. Breakwaters are constructed in all these harbours. The third type of harbour is situated on the coast of a sea or ocean. Many harbours in Kerala are established on the open sea coast considering the local demand. The sea harbours developed/being developed in Kerala are: Chombal, Koyilandi, Vellayil, Tanur, Chellanam, Arthungal and Thottappally. 64

65 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Out of these the breakwaters at Chombal, Koyilandy, Vellayil and Thottappally are completed. The breakwater constructions at Tanur, Chellanam and Arthungal are progressing. 2. METHODOLOGY In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the geomorphologic impact of the 24 breakwater constructions along Kerala coast on the adjoining coasts. All the breakwaters are mainly rubble mound structures. In some of them, artificial units like concrete blocks and tetrapods are used as primary armour layers. The available data on shoreline changes of the coast adjacent to the breakwaters were collected for the study. The depth of shoreline data available for the study is ranging from five to thirty five years. The collected data on shoreline changes were analyzed to infer the impact of breakwater constructions on the coastal geomorphology. In addition, the sounding/bathymetric data available for the sites were made use of for the present study. The results from the preliminary analyses of the data are explained below for some typical cases. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION At Azhikkal (Kannur) inlet two breakwaters of length 1070m (north) and 1150m (south) are constructed to develop a cargo cum fishery harbour. After the commencement of breakwater construction, there is considerable accretion on the northern side of north breakwater. Accretion is also observed on the south of south breakwater for some distance and thereafter there is erosion tendency. It is found that major part of the materials deposited on the southern side is supplied by the river discharge. The analysis of sounding data from the estuary indicates that the depth between the breakwaters has increased and there is clear channel formation in the inlet. At Ponnani, it was evolved from detailed model studies that for maintaining a safe and navigable entrance channel, two breakwaters of 780m (north) and 570m (south) are to be constructed with centre to centre distance of 270m. Accordingly the construction is completed. It has been noticed that there are tremendous impact/coastal changes after the construction of breakwaters in the estuary. The analyses of shoreline data show that there is considerable accretion and net advance of coastline on the north of north breakwater and net erosion on the south of southern breakwater. The analysis of sounding data collected from the estuary shows that the depth over bar or the depth between the breakwaters increased continuously with the progress of breakwater construction and now maintaining 5-6m depth in the channel.. At Thangassery, two breakwaters of length 2100m (north) and 550m (south) are constructed to develop a fishery harbour in the existing natural bay. After the breakwater construction, severe coastal problems on the southern side of the south breakwater are noticed. More deposition and net shoreline advancement is observed on the immediate south of south breakwater and thereafter severe erosion is experienced. Marginal accretion is also observed on the north of north breakwater. At Koyilandy, two breakwaters of length 1600m (north) and 910m (south) are constructed to develop a fishery harbour on the open sea coast. It has been noticed that there are tremendous impact/coastal changes after the construction of breakwaters. The analysis shows that there is considerable accretion on the north of north breakwater and net erosion on the south of south breakwater after the construction. The analyses of the data show that there is accretion on the north of north breakwaters and accretion is also observed for some distance on the immediate south of south breakwaters constructed in inlets and thereafter erosion is experienced. The material deposit on the immediate south reach of south breakwaters is observed to be riverine based on sediment analysis. The erosion trend on the far south of southern breakwaters can be attributed to the trapping of littoral material by the northern breakwaters. It can be inferred from the analyses that the predominant direction of littoral transport along Kerala coast is from north to south, especially during monsoon season and there is reversal in the direction during non-monsoon season. 4. CONCLUSION The preliminary analyses of the data show that there is net accretion on the north of north breakwaters. Accretion is also observed for some distance on the immediate south of south breakwaters constructed in estuaries and thereafter erosion is experienced. The material deposit on the immediate south reach of south breakwaters is observed to be riverine. It can be inferred from the analyses that the predominant direction of littoral transport along Kerala coast is from north to south, especially during monsoon season and there is reversal in the direction during non-monsoon season. 65

66 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Overview of Wind, Wave and Tidal Conditions along the Brazilian Coast for Coastal Engineering practice Eloi Melo, D. Machado and M. Romeu Coastal and Port Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, FURG, Brazil 1. Abstract A Coastal Engineer must have a solid understanding about the environment he will deal with. Amongst all the aspects that affect the coastal environment, winds, waves and sea level conditions stand out as major factors for any engineering project in the coastal zone. The Brazilian coastline spans more than 8000 km going from 4 o N to 34 o S encompassing very different wind, wave and tidal conditions. In Brazil, information about these parameters are spread out in the literature and, in many cases, do not cover aspects of interest to an engineer. The present paper will synthesize what is known about the main features of wind, wave and tidal conditions along the Brazilian coast. Some of the results that will be presented are novel and have not been reported in the literature as yet. 2. Methodology Besides relying on published information, we also performed specific analysis of (coastal) wind, wave and tidal (sea level) data. We collected wind and wave information from NOAA s data base: for wind, we used reanalysis and for waves we used hindcasts from the wave generation model Wave Watch III, both freely available through the internet. Sea level (tide) data was obtained from GLOSS-Brazil (global sea level monitoring program), also freely available at the internet. 3. Summary of Results for Wind and Wave Coastal Conditions. Wind and wave data, collected at 26 locations spread along the Brazilian coast, from Chuí (extreme south) to Amapá (extreme north) for a period of 10 years were used to study the variability of these parameters along the country s coastline. As a first step, directional histograms (known as roses ) for wind intensity, significant wave height and wave peak period were constructed. Figure 1 illustrates these results for the two sites above mentioned. Wind Hs Tp Chuí (Extreme South) Amapá (Extreme North) Figure 1 Wind and Wave Roses for selected points of the Brazilian Coast Results (for all points) showed that winds and waves assume very different characteristics depending on the latitude and the orientation of the coast at the location. In the south, winds are more variable and reach greater intensity whereas waves display a bimodal structure with swells coming from the S and seas from de ENE (see Fig.1 upper panel). This pattern changes as one moves northward. At the East coast, for example (not shown), the influence of the Southern Hemisphere (SE) Trade Winds is very marked both in wind and wave climates. At Amapá, for example, winds and waves respond to the Northern Hemisphere (NE) Trade Winds with both winds and waves coming from the NE (see Fig.1 lower panel). Next, we performed simple statistics on wind intensity and wave height and period comprising the 26 points with special attention to extreme events. Figure 2 illustrates the result obtained for significant wave height only. 66

67 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 2 Blue bars are mean Hs; Orange bars are maximum Hs, both corresponding to the 10 year data. Vertical axis is in meters, horizontal axis indicate site location with 1=Chuí 26=Amapá. Number 10 corresponds to Rio de Janeiro A clear structure of the Brazilian wave climate emerges from this analysis. Although mean (annual) Hs is roughly of the same order in all 26 locations, maximum Hs is higher in the S than in the N of the country. This tendency is somewhat diminished at Rio (#10) which displays (Hs)max similar to locations further S. The final version of the paper will discuss these and many other issues in depth. 4. Summary of Results for Tidal Conditions. Tides in Brazil have peculiarities that can affect Coastal Engineering projects if not correctly accounted for. As a general rule, (astronomical) tidal amplitude increases from S to N as one can verify by inspecting Figure 3 below [Velloso & Alves(2006)]. Figure 3 - Shows tidal amplitudes (in meters) corresponding to a number of sites along the coast (blue dots). Red (horizontal) lines mark the border between three tidal regime regions: Microtides (< 2m) in the South; Meso-tides (2<4m) in the East and Macro-tides (>4m) in the North. At some regions of the Amazon region, a combination of extra high tides and funnel-like estuaries give rise to tidal bores known in Brazil as Pororocas. In the Southern part of the country, sea level displays a very peculiar behavior: sea level variation there is a combination of the usual astronomically induced tide plus a nonastronomical component which reaches considerable magnitudes. At Rio Grande, for example, the non-astronomical component is responsible for ¾ of the sea level variance as illustrated in Figure 4 below. This phenomenon, known in Brazil as Meteorological Tide, results from the action of the atmosphere (wind and atm. pressure) over the ocean and is preeminent from Chuí all the way to Rio de Janeiro State. Figure 4 Time series of non-astronomical variation in sea level at Rio Grande (Southern Brazil) for the year of Vertical axis is in cm, horizontal axis is number of days. 5. Conclusion The final version of the paper will provide a synthesis of wind, wave and tidal characteristics along the Brazilian coastline. It is hoped that the information in the article will serve as a valuable guideline for the labor of young coastal engineers in Brazil. 6. References (selected) Vellozo, T.G. e Alves, A.R. (2006) - Características gerais do fenômeno da maré no Brasil. Anais Hidrográficos da Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação, Tomo LXI,

68 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Effects of TEBAR Pier at São Sebastião Channel Hydrodynamics and Shoreline Evolution at Ilha Bela Albernaz, M. 1 ; Ansanelli, L. 2 ; ; de Luca, C. 3 ; Fiedler, M.F.M. 4 ; Giovannini, S.G.T. 5 ; Siqueira, B. 6 ; Yassuda, E.A This project consisted on the impact assessment under a demand from TRANSPETRO regarding TEBAR Pier at São Sebastião Channel. The study consisted on the wave climate evaluation and coastline evolution considering three scenarios: i.e. (1) without the pier (former condition), (2) with the actual structure and (3) expanded configuration (future). Deep water waves were propagated into São Sebastião Channel to calculate nearshore sediment transport and consequent coastline changes comparing the three different scenarios of TEBAR Pier (Figure 1). An oceanographic campaign was carried out deploying an ADCP to collect sea level, currents and wave data in order to provide a better understanding of the hydrodynamics into the channel as well as to verify the numerical model. Afterwards a SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) model of surface waves was implemented (Figure 1), applying 10 years of wave data from southeast Brazilian region WAVEWATCH III as boundary conditions along with wind data from CFSR model. After the calibration process, the maximum dissimilarity algorithm MaxDiss was applied on the wave data selecting 100 representative wave cases to optimize the propagation of such long time series into the study site. The results were used to assess the difference on the wave climate at the vicinity of TEBAR and as the input to calculate the sediment transport and the coastline change throughout UNIBEST CL+ model. São Sebastião TEBAR Ilha Bela Future design Current structure Figure 1 Top Left panel: study area with SWAN numerical grid and bathymetry; Top Right panel: São Sebastião channel grid and bathymetry; Bottom Left: TEBAR current structure; Bottom Right: TEBAR future design. As expected, waves tend to refract and get more perpendicular to the coastline as they approach the shoreline. Two distinct wave and wind conditions occur inside the channel due to its orientation and topography. Waves and wind can enter either from the southern or northern portions of the channel. 68

69 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Regarding the local wave climate, the difference on the wave height considering distinct structures configuration is confined around the pier area (Figure 2) applying several wave directions and periods. This restrict effect is mainly because the pier has been constructed on piles and can permeate the flow and waves underneath the quay. The coastline modeling results from UNIBEST CL+ show the nearshore sediment transport at Ilha Bela coast facing the channel prevails to the north, with local reversal on its northern portion - at Pequeá Beach. The section between Pequeá and Itaquanduba Beaches presents the highest morphological and sedimentary dynamics as this location is more exposed to the waves. These areas have erosion and accretion rates up to 0.5 meters per year (Figure 3). Pronounced erosion areas are Pequeá, Engenho and Itaquanduba Beaches and the most stable regions are Perequê, Itaguassu and Vila Beaches. Such erosion and accretion patterns and rates where validated with observed shoreline evolution hindcast calculated with DSAS (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) within 1994 and Figure 2 Probabilistic difference in significant wave height considering (left panel) before and after the current pier scenarios and (right panel) comparing the current and future piers. Values equal to zero shows no difference and values equal to one hundred shows difference in all wave scenarios. The assessment comparing the three scenarios shows no difference of the shoreline evolution along the insular coast of Ilha Bela facing São Sebastião Channel. Reports of local erosion could be related to the blockage of free longshore sediment transport along this section. Considering that the sediment transport predominates to north, the obstacles blocking the flow, e.g. groins, boat ramps launchers and rocky outcrops along the coast - are the possible causes of the observed erosion. These features have a direct influence on the sediment balance and shoreline evolution as they retain completely or part of the longshore sediment transport (Figure 3). In addition, the proximity of Pequeá tip with the navigation channel is a potential feature enhancing sediment losses, mainly due to storm events that can transfer sediments from the upper beach into deeper regions, e.g. São Sebastião channel. This mechanism can permanently remove hundreds of cubic meters from the beach. Vila Pequeá Engenho d Água Itaquanduba Itaguaçu Perequê Figure 3 Left panel: coastline position after 30 years w.r.t. to the initial position (on zero) considering the situation without pier, with the current pier and the future pier proposed; Right panel: Final sediment transport pattern at insular region of Ilha Bela (highlighting the reversal). 69

70 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Berm breakwaters: designing for wave heights from 3 m to 7 m Jentsje van der Meer 1 and Sigurdur Sigurdarson 2 Introduction The design of modern berm breakwaters started more or less in 1983 by Baird & Associates in Canada. The original design consisted of mass armoured berms that were reshaped to statically stable S-shaped slopes. The design was adopted in Iceland and eventually led to a development with more stable structures by utilizing available rock sizes, large rock and more gradings. This more stable and only partly reshaping structure is called the Icelandic-type berm breakwater. Real guidance on design and construction of berm breakwaters was lacking, but the new book of both authors may be seen as an improvement on this, [Van der Meer and Sigurdarson, 2016]. Aspects of this book were presented at various conferences: New classification of berm breakwaters, [Sigurdarson and Van der Meer, 2012] Recession, wave overtopping and reflection, [Sigurdarson and Van der Meer, 2013] Geometrical design of the cross-section, [Van der Meer and Sigurdarson, 2014] Application of geometrical design rules, [Sigurdarson et al., 2014] Quarries and rock grading, [Sigurdarson and Van der Meer, 2015] "Rock" is the essential word in design of berm breakwaters. Often dedicated quarries can be found and opened to produce the required rock. This is different from designs with rock demand from existing quarries, where delivery of very large rock classes may be problematic. It has been proven possible to go for really large rock in dedicated quarries and all this experience has been described in the book. Quarry and project management as well as blasting and sorting techniques are essential in getting all required rock for an acceptable price. And this is also true for developing countries. Berm breakwaters may be an alternative for conventional two-layer rock slopes as well as for application of concrete units. It depends mainly on rock availability and design wave conditions. This paper gives ten cross-sections or designs for design wave heights ranging from 3 m to 7 m. Examples of designs The geometrical design method of Van der Meer and Sigurdarson, [2014] has been used to present a first cross-section. Assessment of this cross-section by Sigurdarson has led to the final design of the cross-section. Three wave climates have been considered, a very moderate wave climate with H sd = 3 m, a quite normal wave climate with H sd = 5 m and an extreme wave climate with H sd = 7 m. Standard rock gradings have been chosen from t up to the maximum of t, as well as gradings from dedicated quarries, starting from t up to very large gradings of t and even t. Berm breakwaters can be divided into hardly reshaping (HR), partly reshaping (PR) and fully reshaping (FR), all depending on the stability number for the (100-years) design condition, H sd. A berm breakwater can be designed as a mass armoured berm breakwater (MA) or an Icelandic-type berm breakwater. The classification is given as follows, where S d is the damage number and Rec the expected recession of the berm. Type of breakwater Abbrevation H sd / D n50 S d Rec/D n50 Hardly reshaping berm breakwater (Icelandic-type) HR-IC Partly reshaping Icelandic-type berm breakwater PR-IC Partly reshaping mass armoured berm breakwater PR-MA Reshaping berm breakwater (mass armoured) FR-MA For a design wave height of 3 m a design has been made for a hardly reshaping Icelandic-type of berm breakwater with 1-4 t, a partly reshaping mass armoured berm breakwater with t and a conventional two-layer rock slope with 3-6 t. The berm breakwater cross-sections have been compared with the conventional designs and conclusions will be given in the paper. 1 UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands, 2 IceBreak, Reykjavik, Iceland, 70

71 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering A design wave height of 5 m needs a t grading for a hardly reshaping Icelandic-type of berm breakwater. But also a partly reshaping Icelandic-type of berm breakwater is possible with 6-10 t. A fully reshaping mass armoured berm breakwater only needs a maximum grading of 3-6 t. A conventional two-layer rock slope would need 3-6 t armour rock on a 1:2.5 slope. Comparison and conclusions will be given in the paper. For an extreme design wave height of 7 m a grading of t is needed for a hardly reshaping Icelandic-type berm breakwater. For a partly reshaping Icelandic-type it still needs t. A fully reshaping mass armoured berm breakwater, however, can be made with a maximum grading of 6-10 t. It is not possible to design an economically conventional rock slope with a maximum standard grading of t. As an example, Figure 1 gives the cross-section of a partly reshaping Icelandic-type berm breakwater with a Class I rock grading of 4-10 t and designed for a wave height of 5 m. The paper will describe all designs. Figure 1. Partly Reshaping Icelandic-type berm breakwater cross-section designed for H sd = 5.0 m, Class I 4-10 t, q 100y = 1 l/s per m. All designs will be discussed in the paper, which will give a good guidance for all designers in the world that would like to consider a berm breakwater. References Sigurdarson, S. and J.W. van der Meer, Design and construction of berm breakwaters. Proc. Coastal Structures 2015, ASCE. Sigurdarson, S., J.W. van der Meer, E. Bijl, Yang Sihan, Tang Qiaoliang, Zhang Xiaoqiang, James KS Goh and D. Heijboer, Icelandic-type berm breakwater for the Hambantota artificial island revetment, application of geometrical design rules. Proc. 34th Conf. Coastal Eng., ASCE. Sigurdarson, S. and J.W. van der Meer, Design of berm breakwaters, recession, overtopping and reflection. Proc. ICE, Coasts, Marine Structures and Breakwaters 2013, Edinburgh, UK. Sigurdarson, S. and J.W. van der Meer, Wave overtopping at berm breakwaters in line with EurOtop. Proc. 33th Conf. Coastal Eng., ASCE. Van der Meer, J.W. and S. Sigurdarson, Design and Construction of Berm Breakwaters. World Scientific. Book to be published. Van der Meer, J.W. and S. Sigurdarson, Geometrical design of berm breakwaters, Proc. 34th Conf. Coastal Eng., ASCE. 71

72 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF IMPACT PRESSURE ON A PARAPET USING TACTILE SENSOR RS R. Ravindar (1), Stefan Schimmels (2), V. Sriram (1)(*), Dimitris Stagon nas (3) (1) Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai, India I (2) Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK), Hannover, Germany (3) University College London, United Kingdom (*) corresponding author ABSTRACTT This paper presentss results on impact i pressures acting on a parapet fitted on top of a vertical wall. The impact pressures are measured using tactile sensor and traditional pressure transducers. The work reported here is a part off the experiment conducted under framework f of UE-HYDRALAB IV Project (HyIV-FZK-06), Contract No in large wave Flume (GWK) in Hannover, Germany, titled as Large Scale Measurements of wave loads and mapping of impact pressure distribution at the underside of parapets. Information of wave loading acting on the re-curved seawall exposed to extreme wave conditions is reported. The main objectivee of this paper is to validate the credibility of tactile sensor against traditional pressure transducer and to provide insight on impact pressure distribution over an area. (a) (b) (c) Tactile Sensor Pressure Transducer (d) Figure 1 (a) Dimensions of re-curvthe re-curvee wall (d) Schematic diagram of the re-curve r walll fixed in Large Wave wall (b) Experimental Setup (c) Tactile sensor and pressure transducers fixed on Flume (N.B, drawing not in scale) Experiments are conducted in a large wave flume (Große( Wellenkanal, GWK) at Forschungzentrum Küste (FZK), Hannover, Germany. The dimensions of the flume are 307m long, 5m width and 7m high equipped with piston type wave generator. The wave generation is controlled by online absorption system so tests were conducted for an average duration d of 1250 s comprising of around 150 waves without the effects of re-reflection at the wave generator. A full scale quasishown in prototype of a re-curved sea wall was built at a distance of 243m from the wavee maker as Figure 1. The flume has a flat bottom and ann approaching slope of 1:101 that ends at the toe of a sea 72

73 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering (a) Vertical Distance (cm) (b) Vertical Distance (cm) Horizontal Distance (cm) Horizontal Distance (cm) Pressure (kpa) Pressure (kpa) Time (s) Time (s) wall. The slope was constructed using geotextiles filled with sand andd concrete block placed on top of it. The vertical wall is made up of steel covered with a with Perspex plates on the seaward side to provide a smooth surface and the parapet iss entirely made up of steel. The tests are carried out for constantt water depth of 4.1m for different wave heights (0.6m, 0.7mm and 0.8m) and for different time periods (4s, 6s and 8s). The parapet with dimensions of B r = 0.61m, h r = 0.61m and α = 90ºare used, where B r & h r are the vertical and horizontall distance of the seaward and upperr edge of the parapet from the upper limit of the vertical wall respectively and α is the central angle of the arc. Two Casio Exilim F1 cameras 1 and 2 are used to record the incoming and breaking waves with 300fps (Frames per second) and 30fps respectively. The detailed drawing of the flume and re-curved sea wall are given in the Figure 1. Figure 2 Spatial and Temporal variation of wave impact pressure for a typical wave impact. (a) Before impact (b) Peak impact The experimental resultss are analysed to find the credibility of o tactile sensor. The quantitative analysis is performed by plotting pressure time history of both tactilee sensor andd pressure transducer and comparing pressure values and impact pressure durations. Fromm the test results, impact pressure characteristics are found to be in agreementt and few variations are reported withh examples from test cases. The non-dimensional spatial distribution of impact pressuree is also compared between the sensors for vertical direction. And the spatial distribution of impactt pressure inn horizontal direction obtained from tactile sensor is investigated and reported. Statistical analysis is conducted by calculating the co-relation matrix of pressure values from both sensors. The advantage of tactile sensor for measuring both temporal and spatial distribution of impact pressure will be the reported in this paper as an alternate to traditional pressure measurements. Thee typical plott is shown in figure 2. Based on the analysis, conclusion and recommendations for using tactile sensor in water wave pressuree mapping are proposed. REFERENCES Stagonas, D., Muller, G., Ramachandran, K., Schimmels, S., Dane, A., Distribution of impact induced pressures at the face of uniformly sloped sea dikes: Preliminary 2D Experimental Results, Proceedings 33rd Conference of Coastal Engg., Santander, Spain. Ramachandran, K., Schimmels, S., Kudella, M., van Doorslaer, K., De D Rouck, J.,, Versluys, T., Trouw, K. (2012). Measuring wave impacts in largee scale testss using both pressure and force sensors.33 rd International Conference on Coastal Engineering (ICCE), Santander, Spain. Tekscan, Inc I Scan and High Speed I Scan User Manual (Rev. N). South Boston, MA B 73

74 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering An experimental study on the wave oscillation of partially trapped waves RAJENDRA 1 K. AND BALAJI 2 R. 1 Research scholar and 2 Assistant professor, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai , India A breakwater structure is designed to absorb the energy of the waves. Breakwaters are widely used for providing shelter to sea-going vessels. Due to their relatively inexpensive and easy constructability, slotted wave screens are found to be advantageous for the development of marinas and small craft facilities, where a certain amount of wave transmission into the sheltered area is accepted. Not only do they offer protection behind the screen but they may also be designed to reflect little wave energy from the screen face. This can be beneficial when vessels are navigating within the harbour adjacent to the screen, as the levels of wave activity will be much less than with a conventional vertical wall structure. In addition, they permit the circulation of water and so assist in the maintenance of the water quality within the harbour. Present study describes the hydraulic performance of double vertical perforated breakwaters. For the wave-structure interaction problem experimental tests have been carried out in 50m long, 1m wide, and 1m deep physical wave flume in Department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Tests were performed for four different porosities (P=5, 10, 15 and 20%) and six different non-dimensional chamber width (B/L=0.1, 0.2, 0.25, and 0.5). The arrangements of porosity in such a way that the leeward side barrier porosity is varied, while the seaward side barrier porosity is kept constant as; (20%, 20%), (20%, 15%), (20%, 10%) and (20%, 5%). The breakwater models were subjected to regular waves of different period and amplitude in a constant water depth, d of 0.5m. Six different wave periods (T=1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2s), and three different wave height (H=0.05, and 0.1m) were adopted. Wave gauges were used to measure the wave elevation time histories on the seaside, inside the chamber between two porous barriers and on the leeward side of the breakwater models. It was observed from the analysis of the measured wave elevation time histories that reflection through all the models is lower for B/L values of about 0.25, due to the oscillations of partially trapped waves inside the chambers. The phase plane projections of the wave elevations, measured inside the chamber, shows that, there are more than one periodic attractors exists for B/L around The wave profiles, at a particular time step, inside chamber for all B/L shows that, as the chamber width increases, a node of standing-wave pattern shifted toward seaward side barrier, and reaches close when the chamber width is about to a quarter of wavelength (B/L 0.25), then further increase in chamber width, leads seaward side barrier to stand at an anti-node of standing waves. It was also observed that, when the chamber width is about 0.25 times the wave-length, the velocity in the vicinity of seaward side barrier reaches its minimum which allows incident wave to overcome

75 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering easily, due to the fact that velocity outside the barrier is higher enough, thus, observed less reflection for B/L=0.25. At the same time, the leeward side barrier stands at anti-node and velocity reaches its maximum in the vicinity of leeward side barrier, thus, larger amount of wave energy dissipate through second barrier with lowest porosity. However, variation of dynamic pressure with chamber width in Fig. 1 shows that, dynamic pressure on seaward side barrier decreases with increase in chamber width and observed minimum at B/L=0.25 due to seaside barrier just stands at a node of standing wave. Further increase in B/L shows increase in dynamic pressure due to the shifting of a node away from seaward side barrier. The details of model, physical model test setup, methodology and results are presented in this paper. Fig. 1: Dynamic pressure on the seaward side barrier Keywords: Permeable barrier, chambered breakwater, reflection and transmission 75

76 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering 1. Introduction Recurve Seawalls to reduce Wave Overtopping T. Schoonees 1 and G. Toms 2 The crest height of coastal structures is often determined by the allowable wave overtopping during extreme conditions. Raising the crest height of existing coastal structures is one possible solution to reduce wave overtopping. However, the view of the ocean can be obstructed and access to the beach denied when the crest height of coastal structures, particularly a seawall at the back of the beach, is raised. An obstructed view and lack of access can have a negative impact on a beach's usage and its appeal as a tourist attraction. An alternative solution is to incorporate recurves into seawall design. A recurve is a form of seaward overhang of a seawall, to deflect uprushing water seawards. The main advantage of recurve seawalls is that their crest height can be lower than that of vertical seawalls to allow for the same wave overtopping rates. Although recurves are often incorporated into seawall design, literature offers little design guidance for recurve seawall dimensions. Design guidance on the shape of recurve walls is based on limited research. Existing studies did not specifically investigate the use of recurve walls at the back of a beach nor the optimal recurve profile, to reduce overtopping. According to the literature, no systematic studies have been performed to test the influence of the recurve seawall overhang length in reducing overtopping. For the purpose of this study, a recurve wall is defined as a vertical, impermeable seawall with a curved or straight seaward overhang sited at its crest and it is assumed to be situated at the landside of a beach, separating the beach from a promenade or road. 2. Objective This project aims to explore the use of a recurve at the top of a vertical seawall to reduce overtopping. The specific objectives are to: Compare overtopping rates for a vertical seawall and a recurve seawall Determine the influence of the length of the recurve overhang in reducing overtopping 3. Method To achieve the project objectives physical model tests were performed with three different seawall profiles under the same marine conditions, i.e. five different water-levels, input wave height (irregular waves) and period. The three different seawall profiles were classified as follows: (1) a vertical wall; (2) a recurve section with a short overhang and (3) a recurve section with a long seaward overhang, denoted Recurve 1 and Recurve 2 respectively (Figure 1). The overtopping was measured for each seawall profile to compare the influence of the length of a seaward overhang on overtopping rates. The model tests were performed at a scale of 1:20 in a 30 m long glass flume at the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department of the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. 4. Results and Analysis The results of the model tests indicate that the use of recurve walls offers a definite reduction in wave overtopping rates compared with vertical walls (Figure 2). The relative freeboard (Rc/Hm0) of the structure influences the reduction in overtopping of recurve walls (where Rc is defined as the vertical distance between the water-level and the crest level of the structure (Figure 1) and Hm0 is the spectral significant wave height at the toe of the structure). The highest reduction in overtopping of recurve walls compared with vertical walls, occurs for the highest relative freeboard cases. As the relative 1 WSP Parsons Brinckerhoff, Stein House, Brandwacht Office Park, Trumali Street, Stellenbosch, 7600, South Africa (formerly, M Eng. Student, University of Stellenbosch) 2 Deltares, UAE (formerly Senior Lecturer, TNPA Chair in Port and Coastal Engineering, Stellenbosch University, South Africa) 76

77 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering freeboard decreases, the effectiveness of recurve walls to reduce overtopping also decreases. However, even for the lowest relative freeboard cases, the recurve walls offer a significant reduction in overtopping compared with the vertical wall. The results also indicate that Recurve 2, with a large seaward overhang, proves to be more effective in reducing overtopping than Recurve 1, which has a small overhang (Figure 2). Figure 1: Seawall profiles with 3 different overhang lengths (model dimensions in mm) By further investigating the influence of the overhang length on the mean overtopping rate as a function of freeboard, it was found that all freeboard cases follow the same trend, namely: as the overhang length increases, the mean overtopping rate decreases. However, as the freeboard increases, the reduction in overtopping between Recurve 1 and Recurve 2 becomes less significant (Figure 2). Figure 2: Results of the model tests As an indication of the reliability of the test results, the overtopping results were compared with results calculated using the EurOtop empirical calculation tool. This indirectly enables the measurements in this project to be compared with measurements of overtopping from previous studies. 5. Conclusions Recurves are very effective in reducing wave overtopping, especially for high freeboard values. The length of the seaward overhang of a recurve influences the overtopping performance of the seawall. As the overhang length increases, the reduction in overtopping also increases. It was found that the crest height of recurve seawalls can be lower than that of vertical seawalls to allow for the same wave overtopping rates. 6. Contents of full paper In addition to a more thorough explanation of the presented information in this abstract, a short literature review and graphs, comparing the test results with the EurOtop calculation tool predictions, will be included in the full paper. The applicability of the results will also be illustrated by means of a case study. 77

78 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Wave overtopping over sea dikes and impact forces on storm walls Em. Prof. dr. ir. J. De Rouck, ir. K. Van Doorslaer I. INTRODUCTION In recent years much attention was paid to the management and improvement of the dikes along coastlines. For example, in Belgium the Coastal Safety Plan states that the coastal areas should be protected against a reference storm characterized by a return period of 1000 years. The prediction of the average overtopping discharge [l/m/s], individual overtopping volumes [l/m] and wave impact forces [N/m] for non-breaking storm conditons have therefore been investigated by experimental research. II. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND For non-breaking wave conditions, the average overtopping discharge is frequently calculated using the formula by EurOtop 2007 [1]. 1 = 0.2 exp 2.6 In this formula, q stands for the average overtopping discharge per m [m 3 /s/m]; g = acceleration due to gravity [m/s²]; Hm0 = incident spectral wave height [m]; Rc = freeboard [m]; γf = reduction factor due to the slope roughness; γβ = reduction factor due to the angle of the incident waves. Remark that there are no reduction factors for the presence of a storm wall, storm wall with (retrun wall), or promenade in this formula, in contrast with the formula for breaking waves by EurOtop 2007 [1]. III. TESTS AND OBJECTIVES Wave overtopping tests have been carried out in the 2D wave flume (L x W x H = 30m x 1m x1.20 m) at Ghent University. Those tests have lead to a modification of the previous formula for non-breaking waves and the derivation of reduction factors for the use of a storm wall, parapet, berm and combinations of berm and wall or parapet. These reduction factors have been published in Van Doorslaer et al. (2015). In addition, a guideline is given for the maximum overtopped volume during a storm. Finally formulae to calculate wave impact forces on a storm wall or parapet are established. Non-breaking wave conditions were tested on a smooth dike (γf = 1) with perpendicular wave attack (γβ = 1). Both a dike with slope 1/2 and 1/3 were tested. Two main types of geometry are distinguished: one where the overtopping reducing elements are placed at the crest of the slope and one where those structures are built at a certain distance from the dike by means of a promenade. IV. TEST OVERVIEW All tests were carried out with a JONSWAP3.3 spectrum at the wave paddle. The following geometries are tested. A. Smooth dike: basic configuration Figure 1: Smooth dike with the used definition of the freeboard Rc and indication where q and Vmax are measured V. REFERENCES [1] EUROTOP: Wave overtopping of Sea Defences and related structures: assessment manual, [2] Crest modifications to reduce wave overtopping of non-breaking waves over a smooth dike slope. Coastal Engineering 101 (2015) Koen Van Doorslaer, Julien De Rouck, Sarah Audenaert, Valerie Duquet 78

79 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering B. Smooth dike with storm wall Figure 2 Sketch of a smooth dike with a vertical wall C. Smooth dike with storm wall with parapet Figure 3 Sketch of smooth dike with storm wall and parapet and definition of the used parameters D. Smooth dike with promenade Figure 4 Smooth dike with berm and definition of the parameters E. Smooth dike with promenade and storm wall Figure 5 Sketch of a smooth dike with promenade and vertical wall F. Smooth dike with promenade and with storm wall with parapet Figure 6 Smooth dike with berm and parapet For all shown geometries formulae are established for the average overtopping discharge(see Van Doorslaer et al. 2015) and for the impact forces on the vertical walls and the walls with parapet. These formulae are directly applicable for design of seadikes. If a certain overtopping discharge is accepted (e.g. 1 l/s.m or 10 l/s.m) the height of the dike or the height of the wall can be determined using the formulae for overtopping discharge. When a wall will be used the formulae for forces allow to determine the impact forces on the walls. Those impact forces are essential for structural design of the walls, and will be presented in the full paper. Summarizing this paper yields all necessary formulae for the full design of a seadike, slope 1/2 a 1/3, with or without a wall on top of the dike. 79

80 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Coupled Numerical Models to Simulate Wave Run-up in Fresh Water and Dead Sea Water G. Manoj Kumar 1, V. Sriram 1, T.Schlurmann 2 1 Department of Ocean Engineering, IITMadras, India. 2 Franzius Institute, Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany. 1. ABSTRACT: Key words: run-up, hybrid model, Dead Sea. The study of run-up is of paramount importance in the field of coastal engineering. The width of the surf zone as well as the extent of run-up defines the safe zones along the beach. Dead Sea is a salt lake landlocked by Jordan, Israel and Palestine.The physical property of dead sea water at 20 C is 1.23t/m 3 (density) and 3.5x10-3 kg/ms (viscosity), whereas, for fresh water at the same temperature is 1 t/m 3 (density) and 1x10-3 kg/ms (viscosity). The earlier estimations of run-up were done with empirical equations that have been developed based on the experiments done at various laboratory conditions. All of these experimental results are based on the tests performed on fresh water, and not much is clear about how the run-up and wave kinematics varies when the fluid property changes. To study the kinematics of waves propagating through fluids of two different densities, the twin flume facility at Franzius Institute, Leibniz University of Hannover is used. The facility comprises of two, 1 m wide flumes that are adjacent to each other. A piston type wave maker is used for generating the waves. More details on the test cases and technique used for run-up measurement can be found in Manoj Kumar etal. (2015), Horstmann etal. (2014). Fig.1. Physical model setup. With the advent of faster computers, numerical techniques are widely used along with experimental and analytical techniques for analysis. The solutions developed for analytical models are function based approximations whereas numerical solution procedure makes use of the techniques of prediction and approximations. The numerical methods can be broadly classified into mesh/grid based methods and mesh-less or mesh free methods. Mesh based methods discretize the problem domain into finite geometric spaces and uses mathematical treatment to estimate an approximate solution. Finite Element Method (FEM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) are some of the methods that fall in this category. In mesh-less/particle based methods, the domain is discretized by particles which are free to move within the domain and are not bound by rigid geometric constraints, so they are grid independent. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and Meshless Local Petrov Galerkin Method (MLPG) are examples. Each method, comes with own advantages and short comings. The mesh based methods are relatively straight forward in terms of solution procedure. But, they suffer from issues related to mesh dependence when dealing with large deformation, like wave breaking. A very high resolution is required both in space and time to capture the breaking wave in a mesh based method. While the mesh-less method is grid independent. The disadvantage over here is that the 80

81 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering methods are computationally intensive. The effectiveness of the models are restricted by parameters such as, the mathematical model, discretization scheme and the numerical technique involved in the solution procedure. Another class of numerical models are the hybrid methods. These are relatively new and involve two or more mathematical models that are usually coupled at interfaces to simulate a single physical system. The coupling is done both in space and time. Based on the information exchange at the interface there are different methods such as, weak coupling and strong coupling. A weak coupling involves transfer of information only in one direction while in a strong coupling information is exchanged in both the direction at the shared interfaces. In this paper we present the results of the numerical study carried out to simulate the difference in estimated run-up for fresh water and Dead Sea water (Brine). For Dead sea water, the in house fully nonlinear potential flow theory (FNPT) solver based on finite element method is weakly coupled with commercial solver ANSYS CFX to simulate the extend of run-up. For fresh water, Improved Meshless Local Petrov Galerkin method with Rankine source Solution (IMLP_R) is coupled FNPT solver to predict the run-up. A strong coupling is established between the two models by using a moving overlapping zone. A detailed description of mathematical model and the numerical procedure is described in Sriram etal (2014). FNPT Navier Stokes equation Fig. 2. Numerical wave tank with FNPT- IMLPG_R coupling. The wave breaking and run-up characteristics of solitary waves and N waves are considered in the present study. Even though there is significant variation in the density and kinematic viscosity for the two fluids, the tests show similarities in run-up characteristics and wave kinematics both in experiments and numerical models. This will be explained in the paper. 2. REFERENCES: 1. Manoj Kumar, G., Sriram, V., Horstmann, N., & Schlurmann, T. (2015). Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Extreme Wave Propagation and Run-Up of Brine (Dead Sea Water) and Fresh Water. International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. 2. Horstmann, N., Kerpen, N., Goseberg, N., & Schlurmann, T. (2014). Investigation on the evolution and propagation of waves in highly concentrated fluid. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 1(34), posters V. Sriram, Q.W. Ma, T. Schlurmann, A hybrid method for modelling two dimensional nonbreaking and breaking waves, Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 272, 1 September 2014, Pages , ISSN , 81

82 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Finite Element stress analysis of a concrete armour block, Kolos N. Sasikala 1 and S.A. Sannasiraj 2 Introduction Heavy shapes of either rocks or concrete blocks are being historically used in the structures of coastal defense works to withstand very harsh wave conditions. As the weight of the required stone is directly proportional to cubic power of the design wave height, H s (Coastal Engineering manual [1]), it is worthwhile to put an effort in the optimization of the armour layer design. Because of the shortage of the heavy rocks and their hard handling, many massive concrete armor units (CAU) are developed as an alternative just to have higher dissipation of wave energy and, reduction of wave run-up and reflection. For better interlocking and larger porosity of the armor layer, CAUs are being designed very slender. Among the various CAUs developed, Dolos is one of the best example of hydraulically stable unit. Retrospectively, dolos fails structurally as the units become more and more slender and, they become vulnerable to breakage. Thus the designed concrete armour blocks must have considerable structural integrity as an individual element and have great hydraulic stability in the armour layer. To reduce the mid-shank failure of dolos due to flexure, a new interlocking concrete armour unit (CAU) - Kolos (plural Kolosse), has been developed through shrinking their elongated shank length by 21% (Chandramohan et al. [1]). Stress analysis Due to their complex geometry, Finite element analyses are performed to compare the structural response of kolosse with that of dolosse for several loading modes using ANSYS- Multiphysics. Since the stresses caused by the wave force is less compared to the permissible stress available in the unit, the critical states of static stress which develop in Kolos armour unit due to self weight are only considered in this study. Structural modeling For the analyses carried out, the unreinforced concrete armour unit taken is of weight 9 tonnes with modulus of elasticity and poison's ratio equivalent to 2.74x10 4 MPa, and 0.21 respectively. An isometric view of the FE model of kolos unit is shown in Fig. 1. The model is comprised entirely of three-dimensional, 10 node tetrahedral element (Fig.2). It has a quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to modeling irregular meshes. Fig 1. An Isometric view of FEM model - Kolos Loading and boundary conditions Fig 2. A 3-D 10 node tetrahedral element The units may fail statically either by their own weight or due to weight of surrounding units, where subjected to unfavorable boundary conditions as the random placement of units results in random boundary conditions (Melby and Howell [3]). The worst loading conditions are imposed by applying (i) a 9 t load at the mid of unsupported fluke to check their bending behavior (ii) two 4.5 t loads at corners of unsupported fluke tips to induce pure torsion, when one of the fluke bottom is 82

83 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering pinned horizontally. Similar loading and boundary conditions are adopted for dolos also for the comparative study. Analysis of results This paper will present the results of a comprehensive FEM analyses of Kolos and dolos units. Thus the static stresses will be discussed for various supporting and loading conditions for both the units. Static stress analysis in Dolos by Tedesco et al. [4] has been discussed along with the present results. From the analyses conducted to understand the structural behavior of kolos, it has been found that there is 50% reduction in the tensile stress developed in kolos due to bending compared with that of dolos and indicated critical stress locations on the unit in the vicinity of fluke-shank juncture. Kolosse are developed in India and used firstly for the construction of breakwaters in Krishnapatnam Port along the East coast of India, not showing any structural failure though faced diverse cyclones ever since Reference: 1. Chandramohan, P.V., Sundar, V., Sannasiraj, S.A. and Arunjith, A. (2012). Development of KOLOS armor block and its hydrodynamic performance. Proc.8 th Intl. Conf. on Coastal and Port Engineering (PIANC-COPEDEC VIII), Chennai, India, February, Coastal Engineering Manual, CEM. (2006). U.S Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Centre. Vicksburg, Mississippi: Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, Engineer Research and Development Center Report EM , Part VI. 3. Melby, J.A. and Howell, G.L. (1989). Incorporation of prototype dolos static response in a dolos design procedure, Proc. Int. Assoc. Hyd. Res. XXIII Congress. IAHR, C391-C Tedesco, J.W., Rosson, B.T. and Melby, J.A. (1992). Static stresses in DOLOS concrete armour units, Computers & Structures Vol. 45, No. 4, pp Ph.D. Research scholar, Dept. of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India. 2 Professor, Dept. of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India. 83

84 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering PROPELLER JET FLOW AROUND PILE GROUPS INTRODUCTION Y. Yuksel, Y. Celikoglu and R.I. Tan Yildiz Tech. Univ. Istanbul, Turkey 90% of the total transportation in the world is carried out over seas. The transportation performed over the seas has been rapidly increasing due to high technological improvements leading the ships to have huge power and high speeds. The approach of even the big ships to the docs is now done by using the ship s own engine power without the help of tugs because of the operation and economic reasons. However; this has been observed to cause local scour on the base. The local scour occurring around the pile type structures has lead stability problems in structures. The research on this subject carries vital importance especially for the engineers planning structure projects. The propeller jet has 3D flow area and high velocities. The erosion problem due to propeller jet can occur in three ways. These are; a) On a slope, b) At the bottom of vertical wall, c) Around piles. Because of the high costs of the building and repairing piers, the propeller induced flow and erosion becomes very important engineering problem. It is seen that this problem has been investigated in two ways in the literature. These are, 3D round jet flow induced scouring area and the propeller jet flow domain. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY This study investigates the scour mechanism caused by ship propeller around the pile groups of the harbor structure. Ship propeller jet was simulated as circular wall jet and also model propeller jet. Submerged round jet flow was simulated by a wall jet but model propeller jet was above 10cm from the sand bed. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory tank by installing cylindrical piles on horizontal and sand bottom. The pile group consisting of two piles is focused in this study. Model piles of diameters d 0 =33, 48 and 90 mm were placed at the axis of the jet. The distance between the water jet and the first pile was kept constant. The distance between the first and second pile was determined to be the pile diameter of the times. Scour measurements were performed by a point gauge. The nozzle diameters were D 0 =16 and 22 mm and propeller diameter was 40 mm. The nozzle was placed just above the undisturbed bed to simulate the jet condition but the distance between propeller and sand bed was 10cm. The variables were set D/d 0 between 1.5 and 5.6; densimetric Froude numbers (Fr d ) were set between and in the experiments. The scouring around the pile groups was also found to be dependent on densimetric Froude number (Fr d ), the distance between the piles to pile diameter defined as gap ratio (G/D) and the relative size of the pile to circular water jet diameter (D/d 0 ). The comparasion of water jet and propeller jet were also discussed in the study. Figure 1 shows that the comparation of maximum propeller jet scour without piles and maximum scours at the front of the piles. Experiments show that the maximum scour depths at the front of piles increase when compared the scour hole without pile. Also the scour are higher for the rear piles than the front pile. 84

85 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 1 Maximum propeller jet scours over the scour profile 85

86 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering MUD DEPOSITS ON CASSINO BEACH, SOUTHERN BRAZIL : DREDGING EFFECTS Calliari Lauro 1 ; Marroig Patrícia 2, Vinzon Susana 2,,Machado, Arthur 1 1 Institute of Oceanography. Laboratório Oceanografia Geológica, FURG, Campus Carreiros, Av. Itália km 8 Rio Grande Brazil. 2 Oceanic Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. ph/fax Introduction Mud deposition in Cassino Beach are associated with storm surge generated by the passage of cold fronts and extra- tropical cyclones, from the southern quadrant. During these events high energy waves can rework the mud deposits at the shoreface and deposit it at the surzone and beach. Early work on the origin of mud on the beach always attributed a purely natural source for the shoreface deposits. However, new interpretations and recent data analyzed from a multidisciplinary approach suggest that the release of large volumes of dredged mud in the subaqueous region of the estuary and at the Cassino beach shoreface can contribute to the formation of mobile fluid mud deposits increasing in this way the mud deposition events. Although the deposition phenomenon is known and attributed to the storms, the source material for the fluid mud pockets is controversial. During 1998 Cassino beach suffered an extraordinary mud deposition event which affected 13 km of coastline, featuring the largest mud deposition phenomenon recorded in the last 109 years. During the first half of that year were discarded by dredging in the estuarine channel and in the shoreface at 13 m water depth respectively 640,000 m 3 and 2.3 million m 3 of sediment with large concentrations of silt and clay. The objective of this study is to provide new evidence that the process of dredging and disposal contributes substantially to the formation of fluid mud pockets in the outer Cassino Beach. 2. Methodology From the dredge spreadsheet the dredged volumes per decade and cumulative over the 60 years were extracted and correlated with the number of depositional events reported in newspapers. Maps of silt / clay ratio, fluid mud thickness and total mud were analyzed under the sediment dispersion approach based on 12 surface samples and 21 sediment cores. The occurrence of massive concentrations of an estuarine gastropod associated with deposits led us to a literature search on their occurrence in the area. The conditions of currents in the vicinity of the disposal site at the time of the event was done through a retrospective simulation where reanalysis data of NCEP, wind data from a meteorological station of the Rio Grande pilots station and a Acoustic Profiler anchored at 15 meters off Cassino beach. Due to the good correlation between the wind and current in the periods it was possible to calculate an algorithm generated from a linear regression, and thus estimate the current velocity for the period of 01/01/1998 to 01 / 05/1998 using wind database for this period. Modeling of sediment transport from the dumping site both at the estuary and offshore based on situ data from the period between January and July of 1998 was done for thee levels (13 m, 8m and 3 m). 3. Results and Discussion The correlations between the volumes released by decade as annual cumulative and the number of occurrences of the deposition phenomenon were strongly positive indicated respectively by the coefficients (r = 0.87) and (r = 0.77) with the highest frequency of occurrence of deposits from the 60 at the start of the deepening work of the port access channel. The textural analysis of surface sediments shows characteristic deposition patterns of sediments coming from the estuary and from the offshore disposal site, north of the jetties, i.e. a lateral gradation of bottom types toward the south varying from sand, silty sand, clayey silt,silty clay, and clay, similar a bottom turbidity current deposit. This pattern is associated with the occurrence of episodic depositional events of short duration, unlike that identified during surface samples taken in the vicinity of the mouth over tens of years. Using data of the cores for the total of mud (silt + clay ) Figure 1 as well as data from silt and clay ratio, is even clearer that there is lateral gradients which indicate the direction of dispersion of a sediment source coming from the estuary or the dumpsite north of the inlet. Thickness of approximately 1.20 m and 1.65 m respectively of fluid mud and total the mud in the cores is another indication of the influence of dredging. Such a pattern is abnormal and transient and has never been detected before. The inexistence of the estuarine gastropod in an extensive study done by Boron (1988) is strong evidence that the massive deposition of this organism is from the dredging operations. 86

87 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 1. Total mud thickness based on 21 sediment cores Using the generated algorithm to the depth of 13m, was obtained as a final result an estimated longitudinal velocity (parallel) to the coastline, featuring the currents regime for the period 01/01/1998 to 01/05/1998 (Figure 2). Figure 2. Estimated current velocity at 13 m water depth. Negative values indicate SW flow. Positive values flow do NE. Negative values indicate flow to SW and positive values flow to NE. It can be seen that during the process of dredging and disposal in March of 1998, the predominance of current to the SW. This observation is also evidenced in the depths of 8 and 3 m the current peaks to the north are associated with passage of frontal systems and extra tropical cyclones when strong winds from the southern quadrant generated currents to NE and waves with significant height between 3.5 and 4 m which intensely rework the bottom. Note that the currents in both directions reach velocities close to 0.6 m / s strong enough to erode mud deposits with large percentage of water deposited at the bottom. The estimation for the currents in shallower levels indicate even higher values some of which reach 0.8 m / s and show the sharp predominance of currents toward south. In conditions of intense lagoon flows and predominance of the northeast wind and currents to SW both disposal sites of dredged material (channel and shoreface) are potential sources of fluid mud to the shoreface of Casino beach. Such observations find support by three-dimensional modeling applied by Vinzon et al (2009) and also in the particulate sediment transport model used with data obtained in situ during Conclusions Sedimentological, hydrodynamic and biological evidences indicate that the release of sediments in subaqueous regions of the estuary and in shallow areas of the inner offshore Cassino beach are potential sources for the formation of fluid mud pockets in the shoreface. These pockets subjected to storms action cause the deposition of mud on the beach and surf zone. Deposition 1998 with volumes and never before recorded impacts show the disposal sites of dredged material as the main sources of fine sediments. 5. References Borzone, C.A Estudo da macrofauna bentônica infralitoral da região costeira adjacente à barra de Rio Grande, RS, Brasil. Dissertação de mestrado, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia biológica da FURG. 113 p. Costa, R. L Estudo sobre a variabilidade sazonal e da estrutura vertical das correntes costeiras da plataforma interna, ao largo de Rio Grande, RS. Dissertação de mestrado,programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Física, Química e Geológica da FURG.86, p. Vinzon, S.B. ; Winterwerp, J.C.; Nogueira, R.,de Boer, G.J Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon Cassino Beach system. Continental Shelf Research, v, 29 p Summary to be presented in the full paper and to be discussed in the oral presentation:the full article will be organized as follow: Introduction; Methodology with modeling; Results and discussion;conclusions;references 87

88 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering COPEDEC IX, 2016 in Wave transmission through submerged, smooth and impermeable dikes on a gentle and shallow foreshore by Thieu Quang Tuan 1, Nguyen Viet Tien 1 and Henk Jan Verhagen 2 1. INTRODUCTION ABSTRACT The sea-dike system as the primary defence line in Vietnam was built over the past decades with a low level of safety. Strengthening of the sea-dike cross-section is therefore necessary to meet requirements of the updated higher standard. Besides, use of a submerged dike on the foreshore to proactively reduce the wave loading is considered a good alternative, especially when upgrading of the existing sea-dike is not cost-effective or not technically feasible. A submerged dike for this can function as a storm-wave or a monsoon-wave reducer or even both. To take advantage of the shallow foreshore in dissipating part of the wave energy and to reduce the capital investment, the structure would preferably be positioned in relatively shallow water and closest possible to the primary defence line (see e.g. Fig. 1). In the literature, there exist a vast number of studies on wave transmission over submerged breakwaters of various structural types (see e.g. d Angremond et al., 1996; Van der Meer et al., 2005). However, these mostly concern with structures which are built in relatively deep water and on a horizontal bed. In the case of a gentle and shallow foreshore, due to a drastic spectral transformation in shallow water, the incoming wave interacts with the structure in a different manner, which may result in a noticeable difference in wave transmission. Further studies to increase understanding of wave transmission under this particular condition are therefore needed. The present study is an attempt to investigate the problem. Numerical simulations with a numerical wave flume (a RANS-VOF model) are carried out first to study effects of various governing parameters such as dike geometry and foreshore slope, etc. on wave transmission. Results are then used for design of the physical model and test scenarios with most representative dike geometric and foreshore parameters. The data from the physical experiments are used to derive a new empirical formula of wave transmission. At present, the study scope is limited to submerged, smooth and impermeable dikes only. Figure 1 Submerged dikes of various structural types located in shallow water close to the shore 2. RESULTS The numerical model study hints at an important remark is that in the case of a sloping foreshore the transmission coefficient increases with the increase of the foreshore slope, i.e. smallest on a 1 Faculty of Marine and Coastal Engineering, Water Resources University, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2 Section of Hydraulic Engineering, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, 88

89 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering horizontal bed. Nevertheless, the foreshore influence on wave transmission is still secondary compared with that by the dike geometry (viz. dike crest width and submerged depth). It was therefore decided to set up the physical experiments with a typical Vietnamese foreshore slope of 1/100. Overall, 150 experiments of various combination of dike geometry and hydraulic conditions were performed. In the case of impermeable dike considered herein, the relative submerged depth S/H m0 is found to play the most important role. Unlike preceding studies which ignore the crest width B, it is experimentally shown that the crest width strongly affect the wave transmission up to B/L p = Also, the effect of the spectral transformation by the shallow foreshore can appropriately be addressed via the use of the spectral period T m-1,0. A new formulation of the transmission coefficient in a similar form to that by d Angremond et al. (1996) has been derived, yielding good agreement with the measured data (Fig. 2a). S 0.5 B 0m Kt e Hm0, i Lm Cross-comparisons of the study result with several existing formulations are also made for the case of impermeable smooth slope dikes as shown in Fig. 2b. It follows that d Angremond et al. (1996) slightly and Van der Meer et al. (2005) largely underestimates the transmission coefficient, which is in part due to the foreshore influence on the spectral transformation of the incoming wave mentioned earlier. 3.4 (1) (a) (b) Figure 2 Wave transmission coefficient: (a) Measured vs. Calculated (b) Comparison with formulations of d Angremond et al. (1996) and Van der Meer et al. (2005) for impermeable dikes 3. CONCLUSION A new formula of wave transmission over submerged dikes on a gentle and shallow foreshore has been derived based on the data of 150 physical model experiments. The formula considers the influence of the spectral transformation of the incoming wave in shallow water, allowing for a more reliable determination of wave transmission under this particular condition. REFERENCES Angremond, K., Van der Meer, J.W. and de Jong, R.J., Wave transmission at low-crested structures. Proc. 25th ICCE, ASCE, Orlando, USA. Van der Meer, J. W., Briganti, R., Zanuttigh, B. and Wang, B., Wave transmissionn and reflection at low-crested structures: Design formulae, oblique wave attack and spectral change. Coastal Engineering, 52, ; 89

90 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Adverse Impact on Drainage System by Unplanned Human Intervention in the South-Western Coastal Part of Bangladesh Md. Bazlar Rashid, Mahmud Hasan, Arif Mahmud Geological Survey of Bangladesh, 153-Pioneer Road Segunbagicha, Dhaka Abstract In the coastal areas of Bangladesh land had been used in the 1950s mainly for paddy cultivation, but salinity intrusion and tidal flooding prevented further intensification (e.g. [4]). Hence, in the 1960s 1980s, the World Bank and others helped with large-scale polderization (Fig. 1) in order to land worthy of cultivation (e.g. [4]). The Dutch term polder was used to designate areas that are surrounded by dykes or embankments, separating them hydrologically from the main river system and offering protection against tidal floods, salinity intrusion and sedimentation etc. Fig. 1: Polders in the study area. A decade later, rigorous drainage congestion due to inside siltation of the rivers because of extensive polderization of the hydro-dynamically active delta, made the southwestern area unsuitable both for agriculture, and, in extreme cases, even for human habitation (e.g. [1], [2], [3], [5], [6]). The present study is an attempt to unveil the rate of drainage congestion in the areas by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. The satellite images of the last few decades have been taken under consideration. Satkhira Sadar, Debhata, Tala, Kaliganj, Asasuni and part of Shyamnagar upazilas of Satkhira District as well as Dumuria, Paikgacha and part of Koyra upazilas of Khulna District have been selected to interpret the rate of drainage congestion. The area is mainly flat and smooth with an average elevation of about 1 meter (m) above sea level and is blanketed with tidal to 90

91 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering fluvio-tidal recent deposits. The overall slope of the area is towards south-southwest, gently slopes toward the Bay of Bengal in the south. The study shows that, in 1977 at Dumuria area, the Sibsa-Sengrail river was a prominent river and the width of the river was about 400 m, in 1990 the width reduced to about 300 m but in 2000 this river was totally abandoned. Large number of interconnected tidal channels and creeks of Sibsa-Sengrail river were also available in the area and these were also disappeared/abandoned. Once, the Kabodak river was a prominent river in the study area but at present this river is nearly abandoned. The study proves that in the last 37 years this river has been lossed about 7 to 8 m width per year. Not only the Kabadak river but also most of the rivers in the area have lossed their width and gradually congested like- the average rate of reduction of width of Betna river is about 6 m per year, Kholpetua river is about 8 m per year and Katakhali river is about 5 m per year. Tidal channels and creeks were randomly present in the area but at present most of these have disappeared. Finally, the study reveals that most of the rivers in the area are gradually congested due to poldering and some of them are totally abandoned. Not only the rivers but also their interconnected channels and tidal creeks of the area are also gradually congested and many cases totally abandoned. This made the area unsuitable for human habitation. 2. Acknowledgements The authors would like to express their deep gratitude and cordial thanks to Dr. Md. Nehal Uddin, Director General, Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB) for giving permission to publish the paper. The authors also express their thanks to Mr. Serajul Islam Khan, Director and Division Chief-1, Mr. Reshad Md. Ekram Ali, Director and Branch Chief, Urban and engineering Geology Branch and Mr. Kamrul Ahsan, Director and Branch Chief, Coastal and Marine Geological Branch, GSB for their support and valuable instructions during prepared this report. Finally, the authors would like to express their thanks to the authority of the USGS for the permission to use the satellite image. 3. References [1] Hassan, M. S. and Islam, S. M., (2014), Detection of Water-logging Areas Based on Passive Remote Sensing Data in Jessore District of Khulna Division, Bangladesh, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 4, 1-7. [2] Khadim, F. K., Kar, K. K., Halder, P. K., Rahman, M. A. and Morshed, A. K. M. M, (2013) Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Impacts in South West Coastal Zone of Bangladesh and Fact-Finding on Tidal River Management (TRM), Journal of Water Resources and Protection, 5, [3] Masud, M. M. A., Moni, N. N., Azad, A. K, (2114), Impacts of Water logging on Biodiversity Study on South-western Region of Bangladesh, IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT, e-issn: , p- ISSN: , 8, [4] Nishat, A., (1988) Review of present activities and state of art of the coastal areas of Bangladesh, In: Coastal Area Resource Development and Management. Part II, Coastal Area Resource Development and Management Association (CARDMA), Dhaka, Bangladesh, [5] Paul, A., Nath, B., Abbas, M. R., (2013), Tidal River Management (TRM) and its implication in disaster management: A geospatial study on Hari-Teka river basin, Jessore, Bangladesh, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES, 4 (1), [6] Rashid, M. B., Mahmud, A., Ahsan, M. K., Khasru, M. H., Islam, M. A., (2013), Drainage Congestion and Its Impact on Environment in the South-Western Coastal Part of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Journal of Geology, 31-32, Summary: Introduction, Geology and geomorphology of the area, Justification of the study, materials and methods, detailed findings and recommendation will be included in the full paper as well as discussion in the oral paper presentation. 91

92 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering COPEDEC IX, 2016 in Natural Harmonize Design Improvements of Hikkaduwa Fishery Harbor D.P.C. Laknath 1, S. Weesakul 2 ABSTRACT Key Words: Siltation; Operational Efficiency; Numerical Modeling; Layout Modification; Income 1. INTRODUCTION Being an island with a long coastline, the exploitable marine fishery resources of Sri Lanka could play an important role in country s economy. Inadequate fishing landing facilities and weaknesses associated with existing fishery harbors are main reasons for the reduction of harbor operational efficiencies. Consequently, inefficient harbor operations cause to the reduction of fishing community s day today income. The present study has focused on Hikkaduwa Fishery Harbor on the southern coast of Sri Lanka. Hikkaduwa is a coastal town where most of people s livelihood depends on fishery and tourist industries. In 1960, Hikkaduwa Fishery Anchorage was constructed and it has been evolved with time to the present harbor with several modifications. However, as a result of unsolved problems such as harbor siltation and wave agitation, full harbor operation level has not been achieved yet. Hence, it is important to address the existing problems of harbor and propose suitable engineering solutions to improve the harbor operational efficiencies which could be subsequently beneficial to the community s livelihood. 2. OBJECTIVES Accordingly, present study was carried out for the fulfilment of following objectives. To assess the economical impacts of fishery harbor on coastal community at different stages of the harbor To investigate the performance of different harbor layouts for harbor siltation and wave agitation using state of the art numerical modeling tools and techniques To propose harbor structural improvements as remedial measures using numerical simulations harmonizing with natural coastal processes To evaluate the impact on income generating activities through the development of proposed harbor SILTATION Southern BW Northern BW Northern Basin Inner BW WAVE AGITATION & SILTATION Net Sediment Transport Direction Outer BW Figure.1. (a) Hikkaduwa Fishery Harbor Present Condition (b) Proposed Harbor (L5) - MIKE 21 ST model simulated sediment transport rate plots for swell waves, spring tide and south west wind. Southern BW 3. 1 Dr, METHODOLOGY Engineering Manager, Lanka Hydraulic Institute Ltd., Sri Lanka, 2 Dr, Deputy Director, Hydro and Agro Informatics Institute (HAII), Bangkok, Thailand, Inner BW To accomplish research objectives, statistical analysis and mathematical model studies were carried Northern Basin out focusing socio-economic and engineering perspective respectively. Thus, collected data through Net questionnaire survey was analyzed to investigate the socio-economic condition before and after Sediment construction of harbor, suggestions for the Transport improvements of harbor operational efficiency and expected income generating activities with Direction the proposed harbor development. Data for economic analysis was collected from primary and secondary Outer BW sources. Random sampling method was used as Northern BW probability sampling method. Collected socio-economic data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative techniques using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Coastal engineering data was analyzed to investigate the behavior of harbor layouts for natural and seasonal coastal processes such as waves, currents actions and sediment transport processes. DHI MIKE21 Software system was used to simulate coastal processes such as wave propagation, wave disturbance, hydrodynamics and sediment 1 transport models for different harbor layouts (i.e. L1-Fishery Anchorage between 1960 and Dr, Engineering Manager, Lanka Hydraulic Institute Ltd., Sri Lanka, 1997, 2 L2 - Rehabilitated Fishery Harbor in 1997, L3 - Fishery Harbor Rehabilitated after Tsunami, L4 - Dr, Deputy Director, Hydro and Agro Informatics Institute (HAII), Bangkok, Thailand, Fishery Harbor proposed by fishermen in 2007 and L5 - Layout Proposed by Author). For the modification of harbor, design principles were used to harmonize with the nature. Boussinesq Wave model (BW), Parabolic Mild-Slope waves (PMS), Hydrodynamic model (HD) and Sediment Transport model (ST) were used as main modules. By taking spring tide and dominant wind effect, hydrodynamic study was carried out with HD model. Sea and swell waves were used as input for near shore wave 92 model (PMS model).pms model output was used for HD model as well as sediment transport model (ST). Thus, wave agitation and sediment transport rates at harbor entrance were simulated for

93 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering such as waves, currents actions and sediment transport processes. DHI MIKE21 Software system was used to simulate coastal processes such as wave propagation, wave disturbance, hydrodynamics and sediment transport models for different harbor layouts (i.e. L1-Fishery Anchorage between 1960 and 1997, L2 - Rehabilitated Fishery Harbor in 1997, L3 - Fishery Harbor Rehabilitated after Tsunami, L4 - Fishery Harbor proposed by fishermen in 2007 and L5 - Layout Proposed by Author). For the modification of harbor, design principles were used to harmonize with the nature. Boussinesq Wave model (BW), Parabolic Mild-Slope waves (PMS), Hydrodynamic model (HD) and Sediment Transport model (ST) were used as main modules. By taking spring tide and dominant wind effect, hydrodynamic study was carried out with HD model. Sea and swell waves were used as input for near shore wave model (PMS model).pms model output was used for HD model as well as sediment transport model (ST). Thus, wave agitation and sediment transport rates at harbor entrance were simulated for representative dominant wave, wind and tidal conditions. Thus, to harmonize with nature and improve functionality of proposed breakwater structures, design concept was used to i) increase sand bypass across the harbor entrance ii) increase the tranquility area of harbor and iii) reduce wave agitations. 4. RESULTS As the outcome of statistical analysis of questionnaire survey, it was identified that there is an increase in monthly income after the rehabilitation of harbor (L2) in However, it was recognized that majority of fishermen s income are still belonged to lower income category. Further, through an attitude testing results of fishermen based on 5 - point Likert Scale, it is found that navigational difficulties due to siltation at harbor entrance is more significant than other prevailing problems. Secondly, navigational difficulties due to high wave agitations were found as a problem in an alarming stage. Out of several alternatives as mitigation actions against the existing weaknesses, majority of fishermen has demanded modification of existing layout. On the basis of numerically simulated results, wave heights along the entrance channel of proposed harbor (L5) has given dramatically reduced values demonstrating high wave protection of entrance channel and larger tranquility area tranquility area by taking the effect of new breakwater attached with northern breakwater and extended outer breakwater in to the breaker zone. In the case of siltation at harbor entrance, it has been considerably reduced by supporting natural sand bypass process across the harbor entrance with the structural modification of proposed harbor (L5). Besides the proper operations of proposed harbor for fishermen, it could act as a catalyst to investment for large boats. The northern basin of the proposed harbor with proposed jetties for the berthing of fishing boats as well as tourist related activities could enable high operational level of the harbor, resulting more employment opportunities for the community. Moreover, by using northern basin as rest and repair facilities for yachts and establishing a 'fisherman s wharf' as a combined market and restaurant area using Hikkaduwa Harbor, income and employment generating opportunities at local level were identified. 5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS After evolving original fishery anchorage to a harbor in 1997 (L2), lower income categories of coastal community has been reduced and upper income categories have been increased. However, majority of fishermen s income levels are low at present due to harbor siltation and high wave disturbances at harbor entrance. With the structural modifications incorporating the natural coastal conditions, the proposed harbor layout could mitigate siltation problem by supporting sand by pass by natural means at entrance. Further, same harbor layout has satisfactory reduced wave agitations in the entrance area and increased the tranquility area of harbor basin. However, the alternative harbor layout proposed by fishermen (L4) has not provided expected reduction of siltation and wave disturbances. With proposed harbor layout (L5), livelihood improvement could be achieved through the improvement of income generation activities such as fishing, fishing supported services as well as tourist related activities. a). Very short summary of full paper Introduction (including the evolution of harbor since 1961 under different rehabilitation programs) Objectives Methodology (SPSS data analysis and MIKE 21 simulations, harbor layout optimization to support natural sand bypass, econmic analysis for the proposed harbor) Results (sucessfullness of differnt harbor layours on the basis of numerical simulations results, incluing fishermen s proposal and aouther proposed layout) Conclusion and recommendations b). Discussion points in the oral paper presentation Introduction (Weakeneeses of existing harbor, evolution of harbor since 1961 under different rehabilitation programs) Objectives Methodology (framework for analysis, SPSS data analysis and MIKE 21 simulations, harbor layout optimization to support natural sand bypass, econmic analysis for the proposed harbor) Results (sucessfullness of differnt harbor layours on the basis of numerical simulations results, incluing fishermen s proposal and aouther proposed layout, income generating activities and oppertunites with the proposed harbor modifications) Conclusion and recommendations 93

94 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Drainage Improvement and Sustainable Water Management of Bhairab River Basin in Bangladesh Shume AKHTER (1) Zahirul Haque KHAN (2) Md. Raqubull HASIB (3) Md. Masum BILLAH (4) Md. Mobassarul HASAN (5) ABSTRACT 1. Introduction The Bhairab river basin is located in the southwest coastal part of Bangladesh, which is characterized by numerous morphological active tidal rivers and creeks. River bed siltation, tidal and monsoon flooding, scarcity of fresh water for surface irrigation, lack of navigation facilities are the typical problems in this area of the country. With the growing population and the increasing demand for productive lands, attempts were made to develop low-lying lands subject to saline water intrusion for agricultural purposes. Accordingly, Bangladesh Water Development Board in the 60s had started to build a series of polders in the coastal area to prevent intrusion of saline water and to make the area free from of the tidal and monsoon flooding. However, in the recent years, this region has been experiencing water-logging and navigation problems due to high rate of siltation in the rivers and internal drainage khals. The total length of Bhairab river is 133 km. Lower part of the river from Hardboard Mill Ghat to Afra Ghat (37km) is known as Bhairab river which is active and influenced by tidal action and Upper part of the river from Afra Ghat to Taherpur (96km) is known as Buri Bhairab river, which has experienced huge sedimentation over the years. Once Hisna-Mathabhanga-Upper Bhairab river system was the main source of fresh water supply into the Bhairab river. Due to cut-off of Hisna-Mathabanga river from the Ganges over the years, the fresh water source is lost. As a result, sedimentation in the river and encroachments has been developed day by day. The present research focused on a clear understanding on existing physical processes and probable future consequences of the development work and to find most feasible strategy and measures for drainage and navigation improvement and overall water resources development and management in an integrated manner. 2. Methods, strategy and improvement measures Methods that have been applied to understand the present problems, future needs, devising potential strategy and measures are; (a) data collection (meteorological, hydrological and morphological data, socio-economic and environmental data) and analysis for characterising the prevailing problems, (b) stakeholder consultation for selecting problems and issues, devising potential strategy and measures, (c) assessment of effectiveness of measures/options applying hydraulic modelling and multi-criteria analysis. The main strategy is water safety and security to ensure navigability, drainage and water availability for irrigated agriculture. Considering the significant river siltation a long-term dredging strategy is formulated to meet the criteria of draining the peak flood flow of the river basin, water availability and navigation requirements of cargo vessels. 94

95 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering In devising improvement measures, the criteria are, navigation depth of 2.2m for 2m draft cargo vessels, drainage of 25-year flood event and availability of freshwater flow during dry season. In the existing condition the navigation depth in the channel varies from 0.63m to 0.86m at the upstream stretches of the river, which implies dredging is required to improve the navigability of the channel and enhancement of water availability. Considering the issues of sediment management, improvement of navigability, water availability and socio economic conditions of the local community two water management options with different improvement measures have been devised. Option-1 considers dredging of the Buri Bhairab river, all tributary khals and dismantling of existing narrow encroachment. Option-2 includes a large pump house at Afraghat to pump water from Bhairab to Buri Bhairab river in addition to other interventions in Option-1 to enhance the water availability and navigability at the upstream stretches of the river. The main difference between the options is that a regulator and navigation lock at the outfall of the river is considered in one option and in other natural movement of tide. In order to establish baseline conditions, identification of problems and assessment of effectiveness of different options, MIKE11 and MIKE21FM modelling systems are used. 3. Results and Discussions Model results show that, tidal movement of 68km in the dredged condition whereas currently tide propagates up to 23km (starts from Afra Ghat) during dry season in the Buri Bhairab river. Capital dredging/excavation volume is about 20.8 million m3 in both options. The re-siltation rate is about 35% over a year as seen in the simulation results. It is seen freshwater is available during dry season in a river stretch of 68 km in both the options, which implies Low Lift Pump irrigation is feasible within 1km area along the both banks of the river and this area is about ha. The water requirement of Boro crop is 0.91million m3 per day for 13000ha of land. Model result shows that the minimum availability of water is 2.2 million m3 which will increase the net irrigable area and also ground water recharge. Simulation model results show that, operation of a regulator under Option-2 increases the volume of water and extent of higher water depth into the river compared to Option-1. Option-2 also enhances the water availability and navigability at the upstream stretches of the river. The operation and maintenance of such large infrastructure is a huge challenge for sustainable benefits. Option-2 involves huge infrastructure development and investment and moreover local communities are against the construction of regulator and navigation lock at the mouth of the Buri Bhairab river and large pump house at Afraghat. Considering and comparing the benefits, technical issues, operation and maintenance cost of the project interventions, demand of local communities, economic viabilities, Option-1 is the best suited option for implementation in the present context. Restoration of the Bhairab river is technically feasible, environment friendly and socially acceptable. (1) Coastal Hydraulic Engineer, Coast, Port and Estuary Management Division, Institute of Water Modelling, House no. 496, road no. 32, New DOHS, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (2) Principal Specialist & Director Coast, Port and Estuary Management Division, Institute of Water Modelling, House no. 496, road no. 32, New DOHS, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh (3) Coastal Hydraulic Engineer, Coast, Port and Estuary Management Division, Institute of Water Modelling, House no. 496, road no. 32, New DOHS, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (4) Junior Engineer, Coast, Port and Estuary Management Division, Institute of Water Modelling, House no. 496, road no. 32, New DOHS, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (5) Senior Specialist, Coast, Port and Estuary Management Division, Institute of Water Modelling, House no. 496, road no. 32, New DOHS, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 95

96 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering MOTION RESPONSE OF A FLOATING PONTOON BREAKWATER THROUGH NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION P.Krishnendu 1, R.Balaji 2* and Mukul Pol 3 Abstract Floating breakwaters are found to be an effective alternative in deeper water depths and where the foundation is poor. They provide minimum interface for flow conditions, maintaining the water quality with comparatively less cost of construction. Such protective barriers are susceptible for structural failure during extreme wave conditions portraying the need for better design. Pontoon, plate, pipe and tethered breakwaters are different types of floating breakwater. Various investigations have been carried out around the world for analysing the performance of pontoon type floating breakwater. Motion response of a floating pontoon type breakwater will be studied using Ansys-AQWA under different wave conditions in this study. Further, the results will be analysed to understand the performance of a simple floating pontoon breakwater. Ansys-AQWA works on the boundary element method and linear potential wave theory with capability of undertaking extensive motions and response analysis for a model under different hydrodynamic conditions. A floating pontoon model with a dimension of 0.75m x 0.95m x 0.30m is adopted for the present study as illustrated in Figure.1. SolidWorks is used for modelling the geometry initially to get the mass properties. Figure.1 Floating pontoon breakwater model Floating pontoon breakwater is modelled in AQWA Design Modeller to evaluate the motion response of the free floating pontoon model and moored pontoon breakwater model. Considering different width of the pontoon to wavelength ratio (B/L) the present dimension of the model was finalised for the study. Figure.2 shows the floating pontoon model inside the numerical tank of water depth of 0.6m modelled using Ansys-AQWA software package. Experimental investigation on the floating pontoon 96

97 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering breakwater was carried in the wave flume facility of 50m long, 0.98m wide and 1m deep in the Ocean Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India. Range of wave parameters adopted for the study is tabulated in Table 1. This paper presents the understanding of the motion response of the floating pontoon breakwater using numerical simulation (Ansys-AQWA). Also, a comparison of the numerical and physical model results will be carried out adopting same wave conditions. Figure 2. View of Floating pontoon model inside the numerical wave tank Flume Dimension Table 1. Range of parameters in the study 50m x 0.98m x 1m Wave height (H) 0.05m and 0.10m Wave periods (T) Relative draft (d/d) 0.13 and 0.20 Relative breakwater width to wave length ratio (B/L) 0.8 s to 2.0 s at 0.1s interval Keywords: Floating pontoon breakwater, numerical and experimental investigation, motion response. Summary This paper will include literature survey on various previous investigations carried out to evaluate the performance of floating pontoon breakwater with the governing factors for design of the same. Motion response of the free floating pontoon breakwater and moored floating pontoon breakwater will be investigated numerically and experimentally adopting same wave conditions and results will be discussed in detail. Effects of mooring a free floating pontoon model can also be understood with this study. Presentation will include the above details and expected to be complete in 25 to 30 minutes. 1 Research Scholar, 2 Assistant Professor, 3 Student Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai , India *Corresponding author,

98 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering NUMERICAL MODELLING OF WAVE IMPACT FORCES ON FIXED DECK STRUCTURES DUE TO AIR ENTRAPMENT Rameeza Moideen a, Manasa Ranjan Behera b a PhD Student, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, India b Assistant Professor, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, India ABSTRACT Wave impact on decks of offshore and marine structures can cause both global and local loads on the structure, which affects its safety and reliability. Occurrence of storm surge, climate change and seafloor subsidence has resulted in exposure of deck structures to wave load. Wave impact on deck has been studied both experimentally and numerically over last few decades. Coastal bridges, offshore structures and marine structures like jetties, wharfs etc. are subjected to wave impact loads frequently due to factors driven by climate change. Providing sufficient air gap between deck and still water surface to prevent impact loads, is required in the design of decks. Recent extreme events across the world have shown that wave height can exceed the design heights. Kaiser et al. (2009) studies shown that about 126 offshore platforms are destroyed and 183 structures are severely damaged due to hurricanes Katrina, Ivan and Rita. These effects could be studied by physical model testing which is very expensive and time consuming. Thus, theoretical approaches given by Kaplan (1995) and Det Norske Veritas (DNV), 2010 are also widely used for design of offshore platforms. However, analytical approaches for wave in deck loading fails to capture complex nonlinear interactions and air entrapment (Abdussamie et al, 2014). Thus CFD has attained a lot of attention as these can predict impact force with better accuracy as well as the loading due to breaking waves. Numerical analysis for wave in deck loading of existing structures is most suitable for extending the design life of marine structures. Nonlinear wave-wave and wave-structure interaction study is possible with CFD simulations. CFD simulation should be capable to capture the free surface deformations effectively in order to better understand the physics of complex flow. Wave deck interaction studies carried out using box type deck structure supported by I girders show the increase in impact load, which is due to air entrapment by the girders (Chen et al., 2014). Sekhar et al. (2013) conducted experiments on non circular sections of offshore platforms and concluded that wave slam and slap force on non circular sections are very large. As the forces acting on non-circular sections under the offshore platforms are higher, a study has been undertaken to understand the effect of non-circular girders on wave in deck loading. For the present study, REEF3D is used for simulation of the waves and structures considering the free surface. Navier- Stokes solver is used with level set function to capture the complex free surface. Conservation of mass and momentum equations are solved with assumption of incompressible flow. Finite Difference Method (FDM) with Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory Scheme (WENO) is used for convective discretization of the domain. Vertical wave in deck loading on fixed horizontal deck with unidirectional regular wave is computed and validated with the results of Abdussamie et al. (2014). Present study aims to investigate the air entrapment due to different non-circular girders and its effect on vertical impact loading. Rectangular, channel and I section girders are considered to study their effects on vertical impact loading. Numerical wave tank is developed using REEF3D in which box type deck with girders are fixed in space to represent the offshore deck structure. Time discretization is done using 3 rd order Runge-kutta scheme. Courant number is maintained below one throughout the simulation to maintain numerical stability. 98

99 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 1: Deck structure arrangement in wave tank to be used for validation (Abdussamie et al., 2014) The schematic diagram of numerical wave tank (NWT) and the deck structure is shown in Fig.1. Bottom of the numerical wave tank and the deck structure model are solid walls. The domain has been discretised using Cartesian rectangular grids and cell size is same throughout the domain. NWT has three relaxation zones for wave generation, wave absorption and to eliminate the effect of reflected waves. Relaxation methods adopted omit the need for finer resolution mesh along the interface. Level set function is used to capture the complex interface. As Level set function does not consider moving interface, reintialization techniques like fast marking method is used after every time step. Wave impact studies on deck structure are carried out with various types of girders and two air gaps for different wave steepness. Figure 1 shows the experimental arrangement where the deck model is been fixed with the required air gap. Effect of air entrapment due to different girders and its effect on vertical wave in deck loading are investigated. Short Summary Wave impact studies on deck structure are carried out with a realistic deck structure with different types of girders. REEF3D, an open source software is used for the study. Validation of the CFD tool and its applicability for studying wave impact is compared by studying wave impact on simple box type deck acted upon by unidirectional regular waves. Two air gaps were tested by moving the deck for different wave steepness. Effect of air entrapment due to different girders and its effect on vertical wave in deck loading is studied and discussed. Keywords: REEF3D, WENO scheme, CFD, wave deck interaction, Level set method REFERENCES [1] Abdussamie N, Amin W, Ojeda R and Thomas G, (2014): Vertical Wave-in-Deck Loading and Pressure Distribution on Fixed Horizontal Decks of Offshore Platforms, Proceedings of the Twenty fourth International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference Busan, Korea, June 15-2 [2] Chen Y, Wu Y, Stewart G, Gullman-Strand J and Lu X, (2014): Numerical Simulation of wave in deck loading on Offshore Structures, ASME 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, San Francisco, California, USA, June 8 13 [3] Iwanowski B, Vestboastad T and Lefranc M, (2014): Wave in Deck Load on a Jacket Platform, CFD Calculations Compared with Experiments, ASME 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, San Francisco, California, USA, June 8 13 [4] Sekhar G.R, and Nallayarasu S, (2013): Experimental investigation of the wave slam and wave slap coefficients for array of non-circular section of offshore platforms, Ships and offshore structures, 8:1, [5] Kaiser M.J, Yu Y and jablonowski C. J (2009): Modeling Lost Production from Destroyed Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico Hurricane Seasons, Energy, Vol 34, pp [6] Kaplan P, Murray J and Yu W, (1995): Theoretical Analysis of wave impact forces on Platform deck structures, OMAE 95 Offshore Mechanics and Artic Engineering Conference, ASME 99

100 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Operational Forecasting System in Angra dos Reis - Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil Fiedler, M.F.M. 1 ; Albernaz, M. 2 ; Ansanelli, L. 3 ; de Luca, C. 4 ; Gouvea, M. 5 ; Siqueira, B. 6 ; Yassuda, E.A In the last years Tetra Tech Brazil has developed a robust operational forecast system, using the most modern and efficient tools to perform numeric simulations, and has been subsidizing decision making on coastal and oceanic operations. Ilha Grande is located in the Southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro (Figure 1). The region has great importance ecologically, for tourism and for the fishing industry, holding biological reserves and environmentally protected areas. On the coast, besides the Central Nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto (Nuclear Power Plant), there are shipyard industries. Figure 1 Study location. The circulation of the partially mixed estuarine system formed by Ilha Grande Bay and Sepetiba Bay, results from effects of tides, winds and density gradients. The presence of an east-west flux around Ilha Grande is observed. Measured currents show a balance between clockwise behavior (54.6%) and counterclockwise behavior (41.2%). Delft3D-FLOW Hydrodynamic Model was implemented in operational mode Angra dos Reis - Ilha Grande Bay, alongside Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) Model, to compose the system with circulation, atmospheric and wave forecasts. Delft3D-FLOW was set up in a Domain Decomposition scheme, in which the outside grid (lower resolution grid) had 126 x 68 grid cells and the high resolution grid had 104 x 86 grid cells, with horizontal resolution ranging from 1 kilometer to 300 meters. On the vertical axis 10 sigma layers were used. High resolution bathymetric data was imposed in the area of operations (Figure 2, left panel)

101 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering The WRF Model was forced with global model data from the Global Forecasting System (GFS) and applied in a high resolution grid to reproduce the local wind pattern, and hence providing the meteorological fields to force Delft3D-FLOW (Figure 2, right panel). The lower resolution Delft3D grid located outside the Bay was forced with global HYCOM (1/12 ) elevation and currents results in composition with TPXO harmonic constituents. These were applied at the (40) open boundaries as Riemann Invariants enabling Delft3D to capture the continental shelf dynamics and incorporate low frequency signs. Figure 2 Left panel: Delft3D (hydrodynamics) grids (two grids, domain decomposition); Center panel: SWAN (waves) grid; Right panel: WRF (atmospheric) grids (two nested grids). The model was calibrated and validated through the comparison of its results with measured currents and tide predictions. The comparisons showed a good agreement between model results and locally measured data, indicating that the model represents coherently the current inversions (as the region has a clockwise current with inversions to counterclockwise according to the forcing). When comparing the measured data against results of a model forced with tide on the open boundaries, the model was not able to represent the inversions to counterclockwise (Figure 3). This test indicates the importance of using Riemann boundary to simulate areas with strong influence of continental shelf dynamics. Figure 3 Left panel: East-West current results from Delft3D forced with Riemann boundaries (continuous line) and the measured data (points); Right panel: East-West current results from Delft3D forced with tides (continuous line) and the measured data (points). Bulletins were distributed twice a day (at 03:00 and 15:00 LT) containing a 3-day forecast of wind velocity and direction, significant wave height, wave period and direction, and current velocity and direction, to guarantee that critical operations would take place within safety environmental thresholds. An alert system was implemented in the bulletins indicating when the forecasted environmental conditions were according to these established thresholds for the execution of transport and lifting procedures. E.g. for transport the wind speed should be lower or equal than 14 knots and the wave peak period lower or equal to 10 s, while for lifting the wind speed should be lower or equal to 10 knots and the wave peak period lower or equal to 7 s. Therefore with the information provided by Tetra Tech the operational team could plan sea works and take the final decision for go or no go

102 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Sediment Transport Management in Tidal Inlets: Tiab Estuary Case Study Shafieefar A. (1) ; Rezaee A. (2) ; Shafieefar M. (2) (1) Pars Geometry Consultants (PGC), Tehran, Iran; (2) Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran (1st author): Inland ports located in an estuary are connected to the sea through an inlet. Sedimentation in front of the inlets, blocks ship access to the berths of these ports. In order to manage the sediment transport, sediment sources and transport mechanism of sediments must be studied and proportional actions should be planned. In this paper sediment transport mechanisms in the Tiab estuary inlet are studied and the best strategy for sediment transport management is proposed. Tiab village is located in the Central District of Minab County, Hormozgan Province, Iran. The Tiab port is the heart of this village where the living of fishermen and local merchants of the region depends on. The Tiab estuary is limited between this port and the northern part of the Strait of Hormuz. The distance between the port and the inlet of the estuary is 8.5 Km in high tides and approximately 11.5 Km in low tides. This estuary is a shallow waterway and only boats and local launches (called "Lenj") can enter it and travel to the port. In order to make the port operational at all times, a dredging program was launched to deepen the shallow parts and the main basin. Moreover, in front of the inlet sedimentation had blocked the entrance of the estuary with a semi-lunar shape sediment deposit

103 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Sediment sources of the estuary can be separated into two main regions: (i) in the inner part of the estuary the main sources are sediments from land erosion caused by surface runoffs, while (ii) in the downstream and near the sea, the main sources are sediment deposits on the seabed and suspended sediments from adjacent rivers and estuaries which can be transported by sea currents. The sediment transport mechanisms in the latter region are studied in this paper. The Mike21-ST module by DHI was used to study two dimensional sediment transports. Local waves and currents along with the material properties of seabed sediments of the region were used in the modeling. Two conditions were modeled to recognize the sediment transport mechanism: (i) only tidal currents were considered and (ii) tidal currents combined with waves were considered. The results showed that when the tidal currents were modeled alone, seabed level changes in front of the inlet where little but when tidal currents were combined with waves, the shape of the obtained shoal in front of the inlet was similar to the existing conditions. Model results also showed small sediment barriers parallel to the coastline, both sides of the semi-lunar sediment deposit. Comparing the time series of changes in seabed level with changes in current speed and tidal levels in the same period of time, indicates that the seabed level rises when ebb currents have maximum speeds. It is also clear that the maximum rate of seabed level rise occurs when the tidal current is changing direction from ebb to flow. The main strategies for confronting sediment issues in this port are either to perform periodic maintenance dredging in the access channel or to construct a jetty system to control the sediments alongside the access channel

104 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering THEORETICAL STUDY ON EROSION AT CUA DAI RIVER DELTA COAST INDUCED BY THE REDUCTION OF SEDIMENT SUPPLY Vo Cong Hoang 1, Hitoshi Tanaka 2, Nguyen Trung Viet 3 and Dinh Van Duy 4 1 Division of Hydraulic Structure, Thuyloi University - Southern Campus, 2, Truong Sa Street, Binh Thanh District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2, 4 Department of Civil Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai , Japan 3 Central Region College of Technology, Economics and Water Resources, Hoi An, Vietnam 1. Introduction Cua Dai Beach and the ancient town (UNESCO World Heritage site) play very important roles in the economic development of Hoi An City, Quang Nam Province, Central Vietnam. However, shoreline has retreated about 200m in the past ten years, causing significant changes of coastal morphology. That affects to the tourism and raises safety concern of local people. The erosion of shoreline is subjected to reduction of sediment supply from river due to construction of irrigated and hydropower reservoirs and sand mining along the river or at river mouth area (ICEM, 2008; Viet et al., 2015). The formation of river delta coast from river sediment has been investigated (e.g., Komar, 1973). Besides that the erosion of river delta coast regarding to the reduction sediment supply has been also topic for studies worldwide (e.g., Andredaki et al., 2014). This study attempts to present theoretical analysis of the erosion occurred at the Cua Dai River mouth, adjacent beaches and the possible recovery through the analytical solutions of one-line model. 2. Study area and data collection This study focuses on the Cua Dai River mouth and adjacent beaches in Hoi An City, which is located about 800km in the north of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Cua Dai River mouth is known as the place where Thu Bon River pours into the Pacific Ocean. This river has the length of 152km, the basin area of 4100km 2. Average annual discharge of Thu Bon River is about 327m 3 /s. 3. Results and discussion 3.1 Analytical solution of one-line model for simulating the evolution of river delta coast The formation process of river delta coast occurs continuously over several centuries. Sediment supply from river is considered to distribute equally to both sides under the disturbance of waves, leading the advancement of shoreline. The formation process of river delta coast (Case 1) can be described by analytical solution of one-line model, Eq. (1), (Larson et al., 1987) y=f(x, t)= q 0 D t πε e-x2 /(4εt) - q 0 x x erfc (1) D 2ε 2 εt where x is space coordinate along the axis normal to the trend of river; y is shoreline position; t is elapsed time; is diffusion coefficient; the river mouth acts as a point source, q 0 ( locating at x=0m). When the sediment supply from river is reduced then the erosion of shoreline will happen. Firstly, the erosion occurs at the river mouth area; subsequently, it spreads to adjacent coasts. Analytical solution of one-line model, Eq. (2), can describe the evolution of shoreline position when sediment supply is reduced (Case 2). It is the combination of Eq. (1) and the term representing for the reduction of sediment supply (in parenthesis). Since the simplified governing equation of one-line model, diffusion equation, is linear, the combination of Eq. (1) and the reduction term is also a solution. y=f(x, t)-r 1 f(x, t-t 1 ) (2) where t 1 is elapsed time since the reduction happened; R 1 is rate of sediment supply reduction. When the sediment supply is recovered, shoreline of river delta coast will again advance. The evolution of shoreline position of river delta coast when the sediment supply recovered (Case 3) can be described by the analytical solution of one-line model as Eq. (3). y=f(x, t)-r 1 f(x, t-t 1 )+R 2 f(x, t-t 2 ) (3) where t 2 is elapsed time since the recovery happened; R 2 is rate of sediment supply recovery (R 2 R 1 ). Table 1: Applicability of analytical solutions for three cases of shoreline evolution Case\Period 0 t t 1 t 1 t t 2 t 2 t (1) Eq. (1) (2) Eq. (1) Eq. (2) (3) Eq. (1) Eq. (2) Eq. (3) 104

105 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering y (m) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 t 1 =600 years River mouth t=800 years 500 t=20 years x (m) (a) Simulating the erosion of shoreline Sea side y (m) x=0m x=-1000m 3 x=-2000m x=-3000m 5 x=-5000m t 1 =600 years t (years) (b) Temporal variation of theoretical shoreline positions Fig. 1 Theoretical results on the erosion of Cua Dai River Delta when occurring reduction of river sediment supply 3.2 Applying for the case of Cua Dai River Delta Coast The theory presented in previous part is applied to the case of Cua Dai River Delta Coast. Amount of sediment supply of Thu Bon River, q 0 =6.0x10 5 m 3 /year, is adopted from adjacent river, Vu Gia River basin, which has similar characteristics. Other parameters, R 1,, D C and D B, are assumed of 0.60, 3.4x10 2 m 2 /day, 5.0m and 3.0m, respectively. Values of these parameters are adopted from other study area which has similar features. Thus, it is necessary to obtain these parameters for this study area in future studies. Figure 1(a) shows theoretical results of the developing of Cua Dai River Delta and the erosion happening when reduction of sediment occurs. According to this figure, shoreline position at x=0m to be the same with shoreline position measured from satellite images (2900m) at the time t=600 years. When the sediment supply is reduced, retreat of shoreline will happen. It is most severe on the beach where is located adjacently to the river mouth. The erosion decreases on the beach located far from the river mouth. In addition, the deposition of sediment, which leads to the advancement of shoreline position, can be observed on the beach far from the river mouth. Figure 1(b) shows the temporal variation of shoreline positions at different location (x values). This result shows more details on the evolution of shoreline position both in the formation and retreat of river delta. The retreat of shoreline position can be observed clearly from this figure. Instead of erosion, shoreline far from the river mouth (x=5000m) gets advance Advance Retreat 4. Conclusions Analytical solutions of one-line model, which describe the developing of river delta, the retreat when sediment supply reduced, and the advance when sediment supply recovered, have been introduced. Applying for the case of Cua Dai River Delta Coast, Hoi An City, Vietnam, has been also conducted. Some important parameters and data utilized in this study are assumed quantitatively; therefore, it is necessary to investigate them in detail in future study. References Andredaki, M., Georgoulas, A., Hrissanthou, V. & Kotsovinos, N. (2014). Assessment of reservoir sedimentation effect on coastal erosion in the case of Nestos River, Greece. International Journal of Sediment Research 29(1), ICEM. (2008). Strategic environmental assessment of the Quang Nam Province hydropower plan for the Vu Gia-Thu Bon River Basin. Prepared for the ADB, MONRE, MOITT & EVN, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Komar, P. D. (1973). Computer models of delta growth due to sediment input from rivers and longshore transport. Geological Society of America Bulletin 84, Larson, M., Hanson, H. & Kraus, N. C. (1987). Analytical solutions of the one-line model of shoreline change, Technical Report CERC-87-15: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Viet, N. T., Hoang, V. C. & Tanaka, H. (2015). Morphological change on Cua Dai Beach, Vietnam: Part I image analysis. Journal of Natural Disaster Science 51, Summary In the past decade, severe erosion has been occurred on Cua Dai Beach, Hoi An City, Central Vietnam. The highly possible mechanism of this erosion is the reduction of sediment supply from river which is due to the construction of irrigated and hydropower reservoirs, and sand mining along the river or at the river mouth area. The formation process of river delta from river sediment and the erosion regarding to the reduction of sediment supply are presented through the analytical solutions of one-line model. The reduction amount of sediment supply is discussed. The erosion propagating of sandy beach is reproduced. The prediction for future recovery when an amount of sediment recovered is also implemented

106 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Morphological evolution of a tidal inlet located along the west coast of India Piyali Chowdhury, Manasa Ranjan Behera Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India Estuaries and tidal inlets are transition zones between the sea and the fresh water and hence are complex natural systems which are highly productive. They form a vital ecosystem and host a plethora of diverse flora and fauna. The local economy of the region (where such inlets/estuaries are found) grows rapidly and favours human settlement and industrialization. However, the inlets/estuaries are alarmingly vulnerable to climate change impacts such as sea level rise, changing monsoon patterns, changes in tidal current and wind directions etc. The inlets are maintained by tidal range and the wave climate. Also the geometry of tidal deltas depends upon offshore wave climate and characteristics of the tidal regime (Sha & Berg 1993). Now that changing climate patterns are documented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in almost every corner of the globe, it is important to understand the potential impacts of these changes on such highly vulnerable ecosystems i.e. estuaries and tidal inlets. The evolution of tidal inlets is somewhat more complex than that of undisturbed coastlines. Morphological evolution of various inlet elements occurs at different spatial and temporal scales, especially where decadal/millennial evolution is concerned (Dissanayake & Wurpts 2013). India is surrounded by many such inlets/estuaries and each one of them is important socio-economically and environmentally. Coastal geomorphology of these inlets is of critical importance to the development and planning of coastal infrastructure and policy making for the sustainability of coastal flora and fauna. Insufficient understanding of the potential coastal morphological changes may lead to poor planning and decision making in coastal management and developmental processes. The major problem associated with estuaries and tidal inlets is that they experience both climate effects and human interference in different spatial and temporal scales. The interference due to human activities is not considered in the present study. The increasing threats of sea level variability and changes in the other ocean parameters like currents, waves, winds and tidal ranges are considered in this study and may change the dynamics of these tidal inlets. Mandovi - Zuari is one such complex inlet situated in Goa, along the western coast of India (Figure 1). It is a mixed-energy type tidal inlet (Sundar et al. 2015). Figure 1: Mandovi-Zuari Inlets in the west coast of India It is a major tourist attraction and a home to dense mangrove forest. It experiences mixed tides (mainly semi-diurnal in nature). Also the salinity of this region tends to change seasonally. The annual evolution in morphology of this region is of importance as the sediment transport in this area plays an important role in determining the beach morphology of the adjacent beaches. Tourism being the most important economic driver of this state, it is important to assess the possible changes in the beach 106

107 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering morphology over the coming decades. To fully understand the coastal process and the physics behind all the morphological changes it is important to model the potential inlets/estuaries using process based models which are capable of distilling the empirical observations into mathematical formulations. It relates the observed morphological changes to properties like sediment size and forcing processes such as tides, winds and waves. The process based models are used globally to simulate the morphology in tidal inlets, estuaries, rivers and coastal areas. A state-of-the-art process based model, Delft 3D, is used to calculate the annual sediment transport with a focus to understand the morphological evolution history of this inlet. In this regard a hydrodynamic analysis of the region is carried out by forcing a composite tide at the offshore boundary of the model domain to obtain the tidal levels and currents. The sea bed contours are obtained with the help of admiralty charts. For estimating the sediment transport, Van Rijn formula is used as found in the sediment module of Delft 3D. The simple methodology adopted for this purpose is shown in figure 2. Initial bed Boundary Conditions Hydrodynamics Sediment transport Updated bed level Bed level update Figure 2: Methodology adopted for the calculation of bed load update The morphological changes along the coast of Goa, India is estimated and the locations of accretion and erosion are identified. The present study will help in coastal management and planning which is highly important in a country like India which is vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change. Key words: Morphodynamics, tidal inlets, climate change, process-based model, coastal management Summary of the full paper and oral presentation: There are enough work carried out in different regions which deals with the modeling of inlets to assess its response; both hydrodynamical and morphological. However, every tidal inlet needs separate investigation as the complex geometry, hydrodynamics, climatic environment are different. In the present study, the hydrodynamic and morphologic evolution of Mandovi-Zuari tidal inlet along Goa, attached to open estuaries is investigated. The full paper aims to present the results of the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic response of the Mandovi-Zuari tidal inlet situated at Goa, along the west coast of India under future climate scenarios. Recent bathymetry data are obtained to calibrate and validate the numerical methodology and model. Further, the validated model is used for evaluating the evolution of the tidal inlet. Reference Dissanayake, P. & Wurpts, A., Modelling an anthropogenic effect of a tidal basin evolution applying tidal and wave boundary forcings: Ley Bay, East Frisian Wadden Sea. Coastal Engineering, 82, pp Sha, L.P. & Berg, J.H. Van Den, Variation in Ebb-Tidal Delta Geometry along the Coast of the Netherlands and the German Bight. Journal of Coastal Research, 9(3), pp Sundar, D. et al., Observed variations in stratification and currents in the Zuari estuary, west coast of India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 74(9), pp

108 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering São Francisco River, Brazil: from stability to a migrating mouth by J.V. Bandeira 1, E.G.G. de Farias 2, J.A. Lorenzzetti 3 and L.H. Salim 4 1. OBJECTIVE ABSTRACT The paper reports the effects of human interventions that occurred in the hydrographic basin of São Francisco River, in the last 60 years, and the morphological changes in the region of its mouth, leading from a situation of stability to a migration process of the mouth. The study is based on a collection of satellite images and also takes into account historical maps and aerial photos. 2. CONTENT The São Francisco River originates in Minas Gerais State, in the south-east region of Brazil, drains an area of approximately 641,000 km 2, having 2,800 km length and discharges into the sea between the states of Alagoas and Sergipe, in the north-east of the country (Figure 1). It is classified as the fifth largest river in South America. Its mouth is situated in a huge sand delta, naturally formed by material from continental and sea origin. The littoral drift in the mouth region is bi-directional and was calculated, in the surroundings of Sergipe River mouth, situated 88 Km to SW of São Francisco River mouth, to be of the order of 800x10 3 to 1,100x10 3 m 3 /y. The dominant littoral drift is south-westward and amounts to 500x10 3 to 650 x10 3 m 3 /y. Figure 1 São Francisco River basin Due to the construction of various hydroelectric power plants along the hydrographic basin, starting in the 1950 decade, the contribution of the sediment from continental origin to the region of the mouth of São Francisco River decreased. Furthermore the river flow has been regularized due to the operation 1 DSc., Senior Researcher, CNEN / CDTN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission / Nuclear Technology Development Centre - Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. 2 DSc., Fishery Engineer, Prof. at University of Santa Catarina State (UDESC) - Laguna, SC, Brazil. 3 DSc., Senior Researcher, INPE - National Institute for Spatial Research - S.J. dos Campos, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. 4 MSc., Senior Researcher, CNEN / CDTN - Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

109 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering of the reservoirs. Considering the three main reservoirs: Três Marias in the upper basin, operating since 1962, Sobradinho and Itaparica, situated in the middle region of the basin, operating since 1979 and 1985, respectively, it can be roughly estimated that, from the beginning of operation of the Três Marias reservoir up to 2014, the sediment load retained in the three main reservoirs adds to about 2.04x10 9 t or 1.61x10 9 m 3. As a first consequence, the estuary and the coastal region near the mouth experienced a drastic decrease in the fish population, due to the reduction of fine sediment contribution, which carries nutrients and organic matter. Secondly, with the decrease of the continental sand transport, the regularization of the river flow and taking into account the dominant littoral drift, the right side of the mouth in the Sergipe State is undergoing drastic erosion, since the beginning of the 1990 s. These events have induced, in recent years, a flagrant migration of the mouth to SW, consistent with the dominant littoral drift in the region (Figure 2). Figure 2 São Francisco River mouth (06/05/1988 still stable & 05/13/2015 migrating) 3. CONCLUSION The well-documented case-study of the São Francisco River, including the present flagrant migration of its mouth, will show how the construction of dams in large hydrographic basins could affect, in the long-term, the environment and the coastal morphology. The long-term effect in the environment, specially in the coastal region, due to the construction of reservoirs, should be better considered and studied through joint efforts of River and Coastal engineers, and other professionals, in a multidisciplinary approach, via an Integrated Coastal Area and River Basin Management (ICARM)

110 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Nautical Bottom Approach using Densimetry Diego Luiz Fonseca, Juliane Castro Carneiro, Patrícia Marroig, Francisco Pedocchi, Felipe Torres Vieira, Susana Beatriz Vinzon. Port Authorities have been faced to receive larger vessels, aimed to reduce transportation costs. Furthermore, many ports around the world have been experiencing problems due to excessive siltation leading to reductions of navigable depth, while occurrence of mud bottoms is observed. Mud management in harbors and access channels is usually associated to expensive and continuous dredging operations. On the other hand, part of this mud can be classified as fluid mud, with concentrations usually from tens to hundreds of grams per liter (Mc Anally 2007), which can be in part used for navigation. Based on these conditions, some ports have been replacing the term bottom for the concept of nautical bottom, defined as the level where physical characteristics of the bottom reach a critical limit beyond which contact with a ship s keel causes either damage or unacceptable effects on controllability and maneuverability (PIANC 2014). This definition enables to account part of the fluid mud layer in the available depth. To establish the nautical bottom, this critical limit is usually associated to a rheological transition in the behavior of mud. Nevertheless, rheological properties are difficult to assess in situ and so, other properties, like density, are used for this purpose. Usual values for critical density (density associated to the nautical bottom level) stay between 1100 and 1300 kg/m3 (McAnnaly, 2015). However, as the rheology of mud depends not only on density, but also on many other properties of the sediment (e.g. particle s size and mineralogy, organic content, presence of contaminants, salinity etc.), site-specific laboratory tests must be conducted to correlate density and rheology. Concerning this correlation, hydrographic surveying must also include density profiles measured in the regions of presence of fluid mud (typically observed as a significant difference between high and low frequency signals of acoustic methods). One method for in situ density determination is the use of a vibrating-fork density probe. This technique is easy to use, safe (e.g. compared to nuclear methods) and it allows a direct assessment of the interface water/mud. It consists of a drop probe with a depth sensor and a vibrating fork at the end. The response can be related to density and viscosity, based on site material calibration (McAnally, 2007). Figure 1 shows a density profile obtained with a densimeter at the Port of Santos (Brazil). In this study, a DensiTune device, from Stema Survey Services, was used. As information about the physical principles of the equipment is scarce, the model proposed by Groposo et al, 2014 for density and viscosity determination was considered. This model represents the tuning fork as a damped harmonic oscillator and mud is assumed a viscoelastic media with a predominantly viscous response for large deformations and an elastic one for small stresses (Groposo et al, 2014). The model calculates density based on frequency and amplitude data recorded by the densimeter and other parameters related to the equipment itself and to the mud. Results from the model were compared to the values calculated by the DensiTune itself for density profiles measured at three different Ports in Brazil: Port of Santos (São Paulo), Sepetiba (Rio de Janeiro) and Itajaí (Santa Catarina). Moreover, as the critical density depends on the mud s characteristics, rheological tests were also performed. Using a bench rheometer (Rheolab-QC, from Anton Paar), shear rate controlled tests were carried out for different samples from the three ports previously mentioned at several densities. Critical density was established as the one beyond which an exponential growth of yield stress took place, an usual practice in many ports (PIANC 2014). Additionally, grain size analysis of samples were also assessed, in order to explain differences in the rheological behavior. This paper aims to contribute in establishing the nautical bottom level when fluid mud layers are present. The differences concerning the mud from different places are assessed, highlighting the importance of site-specific tests, rather than using standard values for the critical density

111 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 1: Density profile using DensiTune, indicating the presence of a 1.25m thick fluid mud layer in the Port of Santos, Brazil. 1. References Groposo, V.; Mosquera, R. L.; Pedocchi, F.; Vinzon, S. B.; Gallo, M MUD DENSITY PROSPECTION USING A TUNING FORK McAnally, W. H.; Teeter, A.; Schoellhamer, D.; Friedrichs, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hayter, E.; Shrestha, P.; Rodriguez, H.;Sheremet, A.; Kirby, R Management of Fluid Mud in Estuaries, Bays, and Lakes. II: Measurement, Modeling, and Management. JOURNAL OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. McAnally, W. H.; Kirby, R.; Hodge, S. H.; Welp, T. L.; Greiser, N.; Shrestha, P.; McGowan, D.; Turnipseed, P Nautical Depth for U.S. Navigable Waterways: A Review. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng. PIANC Harbour Approach Channels- Design Guidelines. PIANC REPORT N Summary of Full Paper The results of the in situ measurements (density profiles) and the critical density for each sample (obtained in the laboratory from rheology and density determinations) are going to be detailed in the full paper and presented in oral form in the conference. In addition to this, the procedure used for model calibration is also going to be explained and results from model density calculation compared to the ones provided by the DensiTune itself

112 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering An experimental study of wave-induced particle velocities in fluid mud layer Hadi Shamsnia 1, Mohsen Soltanpour 1, Tomaya Shibayama 2 1 K.N. Toosi University of technology, Iran, 2 Waseda University, Japan, 1- Introduction Fluid mud is abundant in many continental shelves that receive a large supply of fine sediment from adjacent rivers. It can also be formed due to the fluidization of the consolidated muddy beds under the wave action. Wave height attenuation and the so-called mud mass transport, i.e. the steady Lagrangian current in fluid mud layer, are among the major phenomena of wave-fluid mud interaction. Dore (1970) was the first researcher who studied the mass transport in a two-layer fluid system. Using colored mud as tracer, Sakakiyama and Bijker (1989) compared their laboratory results of mud mass transport with theoretical values of Longuet-Higgins (1957). Shibayama et al. (1990) also employed colored mud to measure the mass transport for different high and low mud densities. Using kaolinite as mud layer, they showed that the maximum mass transport corresponds to the fluid mud density of about ρm=1200 kg/m 3. Employing Electromagnetic Current Meter (ECM) for measuring the particle velocities in fluid mud layer, Hsu et al. (2013) investigated the mass transport in mud layer. The measured time-dependent velocity profiles in the fluid mud revealed that the shear rate under wave loading is highly phase dependent. The present study provides an investigation of the wave height attenuation, intermediate wave evolution on the mud layer, particle velocities in muddy bed and the resultant mass transport through series of wave flume experiments with different water content ratios of fluid mud. 2- Laboratory experiments The experiments were conducted in the wave flume of the Coastal Engineering Laboratory of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Waseda University, Japan. ECMs were fixed at a number of vertically oriented locations, i.e. z= 0.02, 0.05, 0.085, 0.12, and 0.15 m above the bed, where the first three sensors were used to capture the particle velocities in the fluid mud layer, and the latter two were installed in the water layer to measure the particle velocities near water-mud interface and above that level (Fig. 1). The mud bed with the thickness of 11 cm was slowly filled with tap water, up to the total depth of 0.4 m. More than 100 tests were applied under both regular and irregular waves. 3- Results and conclusion The water surface elevation, measured in 3 different positions along the flume over the mud layer, confirms the expected attenuation of the waves travelling over the mud layer. Fig. 2 presents samples of time series of velocities in mud and water layers. It is observed that although the mud particles follow the regular periodic oscillations of water particles, a phase shift of about 0.18 seconds exists between the measured velocities in mud layer, in comparison to water layer, as supported by the theory of Dalrymple and Liu (1978). The corresponding velocity profiles of the same case in the mud layer, both under the wave crest and under the wave trough, are shown in Fig. 3a. Fig. 3b presents the favorable comparisons between the measured mass transport velocities and the analytical results of Ng (2000) at two representative cases under regular sinusoidal wave action. The study reveals that application of proper ECMs inside highly concentrated fluid mud will result in accurate measurements of mud mass transport, compared to the traditional method of using colored mud tracers. The conducted tests provide a comprehensive data set for the study of the complex particle velocities and mud mass transport under various wave actions, as well as the wave energy dissipation. References Dalrymple, R.A., Liu, P.L.-F., 1978, Waves over soft mud: a two-layer fluid model, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 8, Dore, B.D., 1970, Mass transport in a layered fluid system, J. Fluid Mech. 40,

113 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Hsu, W. Y., Hwung, H. H., Hsu, T. J., Torres-Freyermuth, A., and Yang, R. Y., 2013, An experimental and numerical investigation on wave-mud interactions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118, Longuet-Higgins, M.S., 1953, Mass transport in water waves, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 245, Ng, C.O., 2000, Water waves over a muddy bed: a two-layer stokes boundary layer model, Coastal Eng. 40 (3), Sakakiyama, T., Bijker, E.W., 1989, Mass transport velocity in mud layer due to progressive waves, J. Waterw., Port, Coastal Ocean Eng. 115, Shibayama, T., Okuno, M., Sato, S., 1990, Mud transport rate in mud layer due to wave action, Proceedings 22nd Coastal Eng. Conf., ASCE, Fig 1. Sketch of the wave flume experimental setup (dimensions in m) Phase shift (a) (b) (c) U (cm/s) U (cm/s) U (cm/s) Frequency (Hz) Fig 2. Time series of velocities in mud layer (a: z=0.05) and (b: z=0.085), and water layer (c: z=0.13) at t= 32s (case 2bb: H=7 cm, T=1.0 s) (a) (b) D (cm) D (cm) U (cm/s) U (cm/s) Fig 3. (a) - Instantaneous velocity profiles in mud layer (case 2bb: H=7 cm, T=1.0 s), (b) - comparisons between the measured mass transport rates and analytical model of Ng (2000) (case 1a: H=4 cm, T=1 s; case 2c: H=7 cm, T=1.1 s) 113

114 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Mud transport in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, RS, Brazil 1 Marroig Patrícia ¹, Calliari Lauro 2, Fontoura José 2, Machado Débora 2, Vinzon Susana ¹ Oceanic Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. ph/fax Oceanic Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. ph Introduction Estuaries are transition zones between marine and freshwater systems, and are the primary drainages sites to the coastal ocean. Usually, harbors located in estuaries suffer from siltation of fine sediments and formation of a layer of high density (fluid mud), above the consolidated bed. Dredging activity of fluid mud layers is expensive, difficult to maintain (Wurpts, 2005) and disposal is often controversial. Identification, characterization and mapping of fluid mud layers and its transport by the local currents are important steps for management of sediments into the harbor. A fundamental question has been the role of estuaries processes in moving cohesive sediment from the river, across, and off the continental shelf or to the site of ultimate deposition. The Patos Lagoon system, located in the southern part of Brazil, receives contributions from a continental drainage basin of about 200,000 km², with approximately 4.5 million tonnes of suspended particulate matter forming layers of fluid mud into the Lagoon (Hartmann and Schettini, 1996). Baisch (1998) found that only 25% of the total sediment that arrive in the lagoon reach the estuary, the remaining being deposited in the lagoon. The coarse sediment will be found in the shallow areas exposed to wave action, while silt and clay prevail in the deep channels and in the protected areas from wave action. This study focus aims to identify the fluid mud layers and to discuss about the responsible mechanism for the infilling of the navigation channels located at the last portion of the estuary. Thus, measured data and the results of a 3D hydrodynamic model are used in order to understand the dynamics of fine sediment transport across this particular estuary. 2. Field Survey A total of 20 stations were sampled on board the R/V Larus in February 2014, to identify the spatial variability of fluid mud layers in the last portion of Patos Lagoon. The stations were distributes into 11 transects, numbered (l-11) from south to north (Figure 1). At each station, density profiles, suspended sediment concentrations and salinities were measured. Bottom sediments samples were collected with a box-core for grain size analysis and rheology tests in laboratory. Current profiles near station 5 were recorded during the experiment using an Aquadopp Profiler, Nortek, 2 MHz frequency (Figure 1). 3. Results and Discussion The bottom sediment is sandy in the shallow areas of the estuary as shown by previous studies and the three sampling locations out of the channels: 1a, 7a and 9c (91%, 10% and11% of sand content respectively, Figure 1). Along the channels the sample were composed mainly by silt (mean of 78%) and clay (mean of 16%). Figure 1 also presents examples of density profiles obtained with a densimeter, indicating the existence of mud layers, with a lutocline height varying from 0.1 to 0.5m. The mean current velocity observed during the period was 0.4 m.s-1, with a maximum of ~1.5m.s-1. This data set was used to calibrate the hydrodynamic model, which was used to get further understanding of the system and sediment dynamics

115 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering Figure 1: Patos lagoon and estuary. Port of Rio Grande is located at the entrance, in the estuarine portion of the system. Middle panel: % of sand, silt and clay of bottom sediments at sampling points. Right Panel: Examples of density profiles measured during the campaign. 4. Conclusions The Patos Lagoon receives approximately 9 x10 6 ton of sediment per year, of the same order than the estimated siltation rate along the navigation channels (Hartmann and Harkot, 1990). The measurements showed the presence of mud layers of about 10cm thick in the lagoon section and thicker layers of fluid mud in the channels, with densities between 1050 kg.m³ to 1280 kg.m³, indicating a high potential for mobility. From the numerical results and literature data, it was determined that the capacity of suspended and bed transport, which compared with the balance of sediment in the system, indicated that the bed transport (as fluid mud) may have an important role in the dynamics of cohesive sediment transport in the system. The understanding of the driven process carrying fluid mud in port access and basins may indicate better managing strategies, reducing the environmental impacts of dredging disposal, now under discussion, bringing also more economy in the dredging operations. 5. Acknowledgments This study was made possible through grants by CAPES Ciências do Mar. The first author was supported by CAPES Foundation (Ministry of Education). Thanks to the Cohesive Sediment Dynamics Lab (LDSC) for the technical support and to our colleagues at the LDSC and FURG for the help in the measurements. 6. References Baisch, P. R., & Wasserman, J. C. (1998). Chemistry and distribution of trace elements in the Patos Lagoon, South Brazil. p In Environmental geochemistry in the tropics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Hartmann, C. and Schettini, C., (1996). Cronologia Sobre o Estudo do Material em Suspensão no Sistema Lagunar Patos - Mirim e Plataforma Continental Adjacente, LOG/DEGEO/FURG,.RS, Brasil. Technical Notes, v.9, p Wells, J.T. & Coleman. J.M. (1981). Physical processes and fine-grained sediment dynamics, coast of Surinam, South America. Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 51, n. 4, pp Wurpts, R Years Experience with Fluid Mud: Definition of the Nautical Bottom with Rheological Parametersǁ, Terra et Aqua, v. 99, pp Hartmann, C., & Harkot, P. F. C. (1990). Influência do canal São Gonçalo ao aporte de sedimentos para o estuário da Laguna dos Patos-RS. Brazilian Journal of Geology, v.20, n.1, p Summary to be presented in the full paper and to be discussed in the oral presentation The full article will be organized as follow: Introduction; Field Survey; Characteristics of the sediment, characteristics of fluid mud; System hydrodynamics and results of the numerical model regarding the sediment transport towards the Port; Balance of sediments; Conclusions; References

116 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Engineering Are Geotextile Encapsulated Sand Elements only Temporary Solutions in Coastal Engineering? D.T. Dassanayake 1, H. Oumeraci 2 and K. Werth 3 ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION Coastal structures with Geotextile Encapsulated Sand Elements (GESE) became increasingly popular (e.g. Geotextile tubes, Geotextile Sand Containers; GSCs, Geotextile Sand Filled Mattress etc.) in recent decades. Their applications as submerged, exposed or buried structures are still growing mainly due to their low costs compared to conventional coastal/marine structures. However, there are serious lapses in communicating outcomes of recent research studies on their durability to the engineering community at large and hence, GESE-structures are still considered as temporary structures by practicing engineers and owners. This inhibits their applications in large scale projects. With a proper design including appropriate material selection, a broad understanding of the potential failure modes of GESE-structures and factors governing their durability as well as the use of improved fabrication and installation methods during construction and a comprehensive monitoring and maintenance plan, durable shore protection structures using GESEs can be achieved. This paper summarises the factors affecting the durability of GESEs applied in shore protection and their relative importance, recent successes in producing durable fabrics for GESE, methods to protect GESEs from different degradation factors and general recommendations for setting up long-term monitoring and maintenance plans for exposed GESEs. Moreover, the paper provides a design guidance and an outline of possible failure mechanisms of GESE-structures. 2. DURABILITY OF GEOTEXTILE ENCAPSULATED SAND ELEMENTS Earlier coastal and marine structures with GESE were constructed using traditional geotextiles that were initially developed for drainage and filter applications in typical infrastructure projects such as road and railway constructions. However, geotextiles used in coastal and marine environment must also be able to withstand conditions, which are far more aggressive than those generally prevailing in the original applications. Even though exposed geotextiles used for the construction of Geotextile tubes and Geotextile Sand Containers (GSCs) for coastal applications are pushing the limits of geotextiles with regards to their durability, due to the lack of guidelines and standards, engineers were using rather weak fabrics in the past. These weak fabrics that were exposed to adverse environmental conditions such as waves, sediment laden currents, UV, etc. ultimately disintegrates sending a flawed impression to the engineering community as GESEs are only a temporary solution. Geotextile manufacturing technology achieved several recent advancements that allow the fabrics to be engineered with a wide variety of properties and consequently, enabling a tailored design of the material for specific applications (e.g. introduction of anti-vandalism protection layers, addition of chemical UV stabilisers, production of composites geotextile materials combining advantages of both woven and nonwoven materials, etc.). This paper will also highlight the crucial relevance of selectiing suitable geotextile materials for GESEs. Moreover, several earlier structures were constructed based on previous experiences of the designers rather than based on sound physically based guidance. Some of them were proven to be more successful than anticipated and some did not meet the expectations. This paper will outline the lessons learned from earlier GESE-structures. Even if a GESE-structure was designed considering relevant metoceanic and geotechnical design parameters, durability can also be affected due to installation damages, incidental damages (e.g. vandalism), UV radiation, abrasion, and marine growth, which are some of the important factors governing the durability of GESEs installed in coastal/marine environment (Wiśniewski and Oumeraci, 1 Dr., Coastal Engineer, WorleyParsons Engineering Pt, UAE, 2 Prof. Dr.-Ing., Professor, LWI, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany. 3 Ms., Senior Technical Consultant, BBG Bauberatung Geokunststoffe GmbH & Co. KG, Germany 116

117 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Engineering 2011). The adverse effect of some of these factors can be mitigated by using advanced geotextile materials and by following industry s best practices. However, the execution of comprehensive monitoring plans and the timely implementation of remedial measures will significantly enhance the serviceable life time of GESE-structures and consequently reduce the investment costs. 3. LONG-TERM MONITORING Project monitoring generally represents an integral part of life cycle management of key infrastructure projects. A systematic monitoring programme focussing on structural and environmental factors allows structures to be regularly evaluated in terms of safety, state and functionality. This practice also enables timely planning of repair and/or replacement activities (Rock Manual, 2007). There are several publications addressing the results from previous monitoring programmes related to GESE-structures. Unfortunately, these monitoring programmes are too site/project specific and not well-planned, so that it is often difficult to use the results for a new project or to compare the results among different projects. Despite several publications on the different tools to monitor the performances and durability issues of coastal structures made of Geotextile tubes and GSCs, the available literature on monitoring methodologies are still far from providing comprehensive guidelines for the development of long term monitoring plans for new projects. A detailed monitoring plan may have diverse advantages such as: (i) Monitoring may allow us to identify damages at an early stage. Subsequently it is indispensable for early warning and may also assist in the planning and maintenances to prevent excessive costs from non-identified failures. (ii) The new information gathered during the monitoring process will generate learning materials for the design of future projects ( Learning from failures ). (iii) A comprehensive design strategy should necessarily include a field monitoring programme to assist design modifications that might be required in long run (Jackson et al., 2002) A monitoring plan should cover different stages of a GESE-structure such as monitoring during construction, short and medium term monitoring and long-term monitoring. A monitoring programme during construction will mainly consist of the construction supervision, acquisition of baseline data set and the installation of additional geotextile materials (or elements) for monitoring purposes. The durability of GESEs can be significantly improved by implementing strict quality control during the fabrication of GESEs and the complying with the standard construction practices/techniques. Short and medium term durability issues such as unwanted opening of inlets, excessive scour, damages to seams (usually the seams that are closed in the field and the weakest and vulnerable to fail), mechanical damages (e.g. due to anchors from boats, fishing spears, drifting debris, etc.), etc. should be inspected in regular intervals. This monitoring plan will be helpful for fast remedial actions and to avoid complete failures. Long term monitoring shall cover assessment of the aging of GESE-structures and predict the remaining serviceable life of the structures, repair works or take preventive measures to safeguard the structure and collection of data related to the durability of GESEs as a learning exercise. It is anticipated that detailed systematic monitoring plans will generate the necessary information to substantially improve the assessment of the durability of exposed GESEs. Therefore, this paper is also an attempt to provide guidelines for designing a comprehensive monitoring plan for GESE-structures. 4. REFERENCES Dassanayake, D.T., Oumeraci, H Development of Guidelines for Setting up Monitoring Plans to Assess the Performance and the Durability of Exposed GESE in Coastal Engineering Applications, Internal report, Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Germany. Jackson, A., Tomlinson, R., McGrath, J., Turner, I Monitoring of a multifunctional submerged geotextile reef breakwater. Proc. 29 th Int. Conf. on Coastal Engineering (ICCE 2002), Cardiff, Wales Rock Manual The use of rock in hydraulic engineering, CIRIA-CUR-CETMEF (C683), London, UK. Wisniewski, T., Oumeraci, H Durability of geotextiles applied in the shore protection - Internal report. Leichtweiss-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, Braunschweig, Germany

118 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management Coastal Process in the Cox s Bazar-Teknaf Area of the Eastern Coast of Bangladesh Kamrul Ahsan and Md. Bazlar Rashid Abstract Cox's Bazar-Teknaf coast is an unbroken 125 kilometer long coast located between Tertiary hills and the open sea. It is one of the most important places of the country for tourism, biodiversity and mineral resources. This article is an attempt to study the coastal processes which are related to the development of infrastructure and tourism of this coast. The study shows that the major processes related with the coastal development are: geology, morphology, sediment supply, sea level fluctuations, neo-tectonic activity, cyclone and storm surges, human activity etc. Cox s Bazar-Teknaf area consists of low coastal plain with dunes and hinders land behind the coast consisting of steep but low cliffs. Several beaches and tidal flats developed in this area. The straight coastline and steep cliffs along this coast suggest that it has developed by faulting and down warping. This coast has modified by in different times with response to tectonic and marine transgression and regression. The beach morphology is another decisive factor which also related to the development of the coast. The beach slope of Cox's Bazar to Teknaf varies from 2 º to 9 º and surf zone varies from 70 to 215 meter. In some cases the morphology of this coast favours the formation of high velocity longshore current. Longshore current can be taken as the most important sediment transport agent, as they are subjected to highly turbulent fluctuation which causes coastal erosion in this coast. The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna River systems provide very little amount of sediments in the study area due to its position. Naf River, Moheskhali Channel, Raju khal and other hilly torrents in this area are the main source of sediments. Sea level fluctuations with eustatic changes of sea level have also an effect on the coastal morphology of this coast. Erosion takes place mainly monsoon time when sea level rises about 1m in comparison with the post monsoon. Seasonal rise of sea level combined with relative sea level rise produce high waves which occasionally erode the base of Tertiary hills in this coast that facing the open sea. Frequent low to moderate earthquake events of about 4 to 6 Mb in recent years and other signatures like uplifted paleo-beach, wave cut platform, bioturbated boulder, river terraces etc. attest to neo-tectonic activities in Cox s Bazar-Teknaf area which also plays a vital role for the development of this coast. Coastal belt of Bangladesh has experienced a number of cyclones and storm surges all most every year some of which attained maximum wind velocity of about 240 km/hr. These cyclones hit the Cox s Bazar-Teknaf coast also. Erosion in this coast becomes high generally during and after every cyclone and storm surges. Tide is another driving force which also plays a vital role for coastal sedimentation. During the time of storm surge the wave heights reaches up to about 12 meter in this coast. Although about 1 meter wave height is suitable for criterion of safe beaches. Recurring effect of high waves during the time of storm surge causes severe coastal erosion. Beside, natural processes with ceaseless human activities are always changing the configuration of the coast. The overall study shows that this coast is suffering from the impact of coastal erosion. Cox's Bazar- Teknaf coast has lost about hectare (2.9 square kilometer) of land in between the year 1972 to These data and information will play a vital role for development of infrastructure and tourism in this area and also use to formulate plan for protect this coast from coastal erosion. Summary: Introduction, geology and geomorphology of the area, materials and methods, coastal process, overview of the coast in the last few decades, detailed findings and recommendation will be included in the full paper as well as discussion in the oral paper presentation

119 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management MODELLING FOR GOLD S.E. Poortman 1, M.G.J van den Boomgaard 2, A.J. Bliek 3 Quality of the sailing team and quality of the sailing equipment are key factors for success in international sailing competitions. Increasing professionalism in boat design and team training make it more complicated to make the difference on these key factors however. Knowledge of other factors, such as the local conditions of wind and currents are becoming more and more important to stay one or more boat lengths ahead of the competition in decisive medal races. This paper discusses the use of site specific current information by the Dutch Olympic sailing team during the Olympic Games in Beijing (2008), London (2012) and this year (2016) in Rio de Janeiro. Sailors use knowledge on the prevailing currents in the racing area to adjust their strategy in order to optimise their achievement in competition. Currents are especially of importance in sailing when there is little wind. With race duration of approximately one hour, distances sailed during the race are limited. In order to distinguish one in tactics, very accurate and reliable knowledge of the current can be essential. In recent years, the Dutch Olympic sailing team has started using numerical models to obtain accurate and reliable site specific current forecasts in important competitions such as the Olympic Games. The numerical flow model FINEL2D is used to provide specific current forecasts for the Dutch team during both training and races at the Olympics of 2008, 2012 and A separate model is set up and extensively calibrated for each of the three venues. For the Games of 2012 and 2016, extensive measurement campaigns have been carried out in the context of the model calibration, focused on the specific racing areas. The application of numerical flow modelling as a support for sailing teams requires a high level of detail and precision in both space and time and sets even higher standards to the performance of the numerical model used than are usually required in traditional model applications. Experience shows the importance of (small scale) features in each of these sailing venues. Complex bathymetries with characteristics such as obstacles below the surface or a jagged rocky coast, result in complicated current patterns with impressive eddies and velocity gradients, showing the importance of model calibration. To improve the model performance, coaches carry out basic current measurements during trainings and report their experiences on the current pattern to the modelling team. Results are discussed in close collaboration with the sailing team, and if necessary, adjustments to the model are made. So far, this has resulted in an impressive medal tally for the Dutch sailing team at the recent Olympics. The paper and oral presentation discuss the set-up of the current models at all three Olympic venues, the calibration and validation of these models as a concerted action of sailing and modelling teams, and the way how the current information of the models was brought to the sailors and their trainers in a practical and easy to interpret format. 1 Svašek Hydraulics, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2 Svašek Hydraulics, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 3 Svašek Hydraulics, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 119

120 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management 9 th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COASTAL AND PORT ENGINEERING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IX PIANC - COPEDEC 2016 RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL COASTAL SHRUBLAND RESTORATION, Keywords: forest recovery, coastal forests. A MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE Daniel Ferreira do Nascimento¹ 1. INTRODUCTION The formation of the sandy coastal plains in the southeastern Brazil is the result of the joint action of several factors such as: sand sources, littoral drift currents, variations in sea level and sediment retention traps (SUGUIO & TESSLER, 1984). Therefore, the beach ridges parallel to the sea line originated from ocean level variation were colonized by diverse plant communities, denominated Restinga shrubland. Human occupation in the coastal lines of southeastern Brazil date back 8,000 years, according to the traces of ancient civilizations found in Duna Pequena and Camboinhas beaches in Rio de Janeiro state (CUNHA, 1992). However, the intensive use of these lands have only started about 500 years ago, with the beginning of colonial period. Since then, the construction of large industrial enterprises, real estate speculation, intensive farming practices (e.g. sugarcane plantation and livestock) along with intensive timber harvesting, have intensified the loss of this ecosystem to worrisome levels. The expansion, modernization and construction of new port terminals in Brazil demands integrated management of forest restoration projects, enabling sustainable development and conservation of local biodiversity. Therefore, one of the biggest challenges faced by port managers nowadays is the harmonization of port activities with social and environmental quality in coastal regions. According to the resolution Nº. 2,969 ANTAQ, Brazil currently has 235 port terminals between public and private. Among these, 27 are located in the Rio de Janeiro state, one of them the largest Latin America port terminal, the Açu Port. Placed in a area of 90 km², its construction has created a huge demand to compensate the impacts over the restinga ecosystem. In this way, the deployment of this port has become a milestone in the preservation and conservation of the restinga ecosystem. Therefore, this paper aims to present the outputs of the actions to restore restinga shrubland in areas nearby the Açu Port, in order to disclose the management practices and the developed techniques that might be replicated in the Brazilian coast. Such actions, can be a powerful tool to preserve biodiversity and ensure ecosystem services for future generations. The recovery of part of the coastal forests is a historical rescue of human's actions on the most threatened ecosystem of Atlantic forest Biome. 2. METHODOLOGY The compensatory measures of different enterprises of Prumo Logística in Açu region were decisive for the integration of forest restoration projects. The lack of consolidated restoration techniques, together with lack of information related the species of restinga, created a demmand for developing specific planting models (see TIEPPO, 2011). Furthemore to meet the huge demand for seedlings, there was a need to construct a restinga s nursery with production capacity of 500,000 seedlings per year (today the biggest in Brazil). Planting areas were grouped in two large tracts acquired by the company and subsequently turned into a private conservation unit, the RPPN Fazenda Caruara (which in English means Particular Reserve of Natural Heritage) Plantings followed ecological concepts that seek to respect standards of the physiognomy of the restinga plant typologies for the species choice and planting sites. Two models of planting are proposed, one for berm ridges and another for swales. The selection of species for plantings respected the edaphic preferences of species, species of interest to local birds, species of conservation interest and key species in ecological succession. Planting areas are mapped and monitored through geoprocessing and all actions are planned using 1 hectare as control unity. In each hectare 1,116 seedlings are planted, distributed in 36 hexagonal rings, with 31 seedlings per ring. The pictures below illustrate the RPPN Fazenda Caruara and the restinga s nursery. 1 Forest Engineer of Prumo Logística S.A. Saco Dantas Farm, s/n, 5 th District, São João da Barra/RJ

121 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management Figure 1. Panoramic photos of RPPN Fazenda Caruara and the forest nursery. 3. RESULTS The integrated restoration project has already four years and is still ongoing. So far its main results are: (i) 560 hectares of restinga already planted; (ii) construction and operation of nursery dedicated to management of species from restinga, which currently has 70 different species under production; (iii) selection and acquisition of areas to meet the high demand for forestry compensation generated by implementation of Açu Port; (iv) creation of the RPPN Fazenda Caruara which is the largest Brazilian private conservation unit dedicated to preserve the restinga ecosystem. 4. CONCLUSION The experience in the Açu Port, specifically the RPPN Fazenda Caruara is a great legacy which is not limited to the local population, since all knowledge and all the techniques developed within the framework of the project might be replicated to other areas of the Brazilian coast. The disclosure of the environmental actions of the Açu Port regarding to plantations of restinga and the management techniques of species, are fundamental instruments for the sustainable development of human activities in coastal areas of Brazil. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Consultants Paulo Roberto C. Farag and Felipe Marauê M. Tieppo, for assistance in translation and consolidation of this summary. 6. REFERENCES AGÊNCIA NACIONAL DE TRANSPORTES AQUAVIÁRIOS. Define a classificação dos portos públicos, terminais de uso privado e estações de transbordo de cargas em marítimos, fluviais e lacustres. Resolução nº de 4 de julho de SUGUIO, K. & TESSLER, M. G Planícies de cordões litorâneos do Brasil: origem e nomenclatura. In: Lacerda, L. D. de et al. (orgs.). Restingas: origem estruturas e processos. Niterói, CEUFF. p CUNHA, M.W. da Aspectos históricos do Pau-Brasil. In: Cunha, M.W. da - Viagem à Terra do Pau-Brasil, Rio de Janeiro: Agência Brasileira de Cultura/Una Cultural, p ZAMITH, L. R., & SCARANO, F. R. (2006). Restoration of a Restinga Sandy Coastal Plain in Brazil: Survival and Growth of Planted Woody Species. Restoration Ecology, 14(1), TIEPPO, F. M. M., Manejo florestal em restingas da Mata Atlântica: uma proposta para a recuperação ambiental deste ecossistema. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/UNEP (Instituto Brasil PNUMA), Rio de Janeiro, 75 p

122 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management Integration of high-resolution metocean forecast and observing systems at Port of Santos RIBEIRO 1,*, R.B.; LEITÃO 2, J.; LEITÃO 2, P; PUIA 3, H.L.; SAMPAIO 1, A.F.P. ¹Universidade Santa Cecília Núcleo de Pesquisas Hidrodinâmicas NPH-UNISANTA Rua Oswaldo Cruz, 277 Boqueirão, Santos SP CEP ²HIDROMOD Modelação em Engenharia Rua Rui Teles Palinha, 4, Piso 1 Porto Salvo Portugal CP ³Praticagem de São Paulo Avenida Almirante Saldanha da Gama, 64 Ponta da Praia, Santos SP CEP Introduction Currently, with the advancement of technology and knowledge, the operating observations systems and metocean forecasting, both in large, regional and costal scale are quite widespread. Great examples are the CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) in Europe and the IOOS (Integrated Ocean Observing System) from NOAA in United States. These kind of initiatives are intended to provide new tools and forecasts to support decision, thus improving safety, protecting the environment and human life. Most of these initiatives are based on a partnership between government, academy and the private sector, with a high public investment involved. The Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (COOS), as known in literature, appear as a way to leverage the investments made in terms of data collection, sensors networks and large scale numerical modeling. Such systems aim to provide efficient decision-making support in specific coastal activities (e.g. ports, water companies, ship owners, civil protection, water sports practitioners) by providing stakeholders with real time data and forecasts for their various operations. Port of Santos COOS The Port of Santos, through the private placement of Praticagem de São Paulo (SP Pilots), implemented a Coordination, Communications and Traffic Operations Center (in Portuguese know as C3OT). Among the various tools and features present in this center, there is a real time meteorological and oceanographic monitoring system, which includes five weather stations, five tide gauges, four moored ADCPs throughout the Port of Santos navigation channel, thus providing support for navigation along this channel. In this context, NPH-UNISANTA, through the partnership with Hidromod and Mercoshipping, is implementing a tool with this concept of COOS at Port of Santos region. This COOS aim to provide support not only for port operations, but also for issues related to water quality, bathing and civil defense. This is made through the AQUASAFE platform ( developed by Hidromod. This platform allows you to manage different data sources and high-resolution numerical models to provide forecasts, control the interface with users through different clients (desktop, web, mobile) and send automated reports and alerts

123 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management At this time, the platform connects to nine different external sources of local and global data, such as SP Pilots monitoring system, the weather station of the Santos Air Base, the GLOSS network, several rain gauges. Also, it connects to six external numerical models: a global weather model (GFS), two local weather models, a global model of waves, a global hydrodynamic model and astronomic tide model with global scale. In addition, two downscaling systems with hydrodynamics and wave models were developed, providing high-resolution forecasts for the Port of Santos area. Observational data and results of these several numerical models are available since the beginning of 2015 for three local stakeholders (civil defense of the city of Santos, the sanitation company which operates at the city, SABESP; and the SP Pilots) and eventually will spread to other local stakeholders. This large amount of information sources, data and numerical models, are characteristic of these COOS in order to cope with the uncertainty of the various numerical predictions and collected data and maintain redundancy in the process of decision making for navigation, dredging activities, marine pollution emergencies, water quality and related civil defense alerts. In this sense, the description of the COOS implemented for the area of Port of Santos will be presented in this paper. Focus will be placed on the characteristics of the system and validation of high-resolution models, but also on the uncertainties and the best ways to disseminate the results to support decision making

124 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management Influence of meteorological tsunamis in ports and marinas Charitha Pattiaratchi 1 & Sarath Wijeratne 1 ABSTRACT Introduction Meteorological tsunamis (meteotsunamis) are water level oscillations which are similar to waves generated by seismic activity ( tsunami waves ), except they have a meteorological origin and are not generated through seismic activity, volcanic explosions or submarine landslides. Time series of water level records from Fremantle (Western Australia) obtained during the seismic tsunami of 2004 and a meteo-tsunami in 2002 indicate similar wave heights for both events (Figure 1). The term Meteorological tsunamis was introduced to define water level fluctuations resulting from atmospheric phenomenon such as squalls, thunderstorms, frontal passages, and atmospheric gravity waves, however the first reported work on meteorological effects generating tsunamis was published in The main forcing mechanism of a meteotsunami is the propagation of an abrupt change in sea surface atmospheric pressure and/or associated wind gusts. Recent work and the occurrence of several events globally in the past few years have highlighted the importance of meteotsunamis as a coastal hazard similar to that of seismic tsunamis. Although meteotsunamis are not catastrophic to the extent of major seismically induced basin-scale events, they have, nevertheless caused millions of dollars in damage to boats and harbours around the world, and have claimed lives. The south-west Australia has been identified as a global hot-spot for meteorological tsunamis with frequecy occurrences of meteorological tsunamis. In this paper we present field data from meteorological tsunamis recorded from two locations: (1) Fremantle Port a large container port where a meteorological tsunami resulted in the breaking ship moorings; and, (2) Port Geographe, a small marina and canal estate where meteorological tsunamis create strong currents inside the marina. Figure 1: Time series of residual water level (filtered to include periods< 6 hours) recorded at Fremantle Boast Harbour during the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and a meteotsunami recorded in Meteotsunami on 17 August 2014 At 2203 hours on Sunday 17 August 2014, car carrier Grand Pioneer and the container ship AAL Fremantle were moored in Fremantle Port. A bollard that was holding all three of the AAL Fremantle's stern lines and two from the car carrier the Grand Pioneer ripped off the wharf causing both ships to swing away from berth. AAL Fremantle, freed from its stern lines swung around and collided with a railway bridge which was badly damaged and closed for two weeks, severely disrupting one of Perth s major commuter railway lines. At the time of the incident, widespread thunderstorms were experienced in the region. The atmospheric pressure data indicated a gradual decrease, with a pressure jump with a 2.4 hpa change over 14 minutes with winds speeds up to 23 ms -1 and gusts up to 30 ms -1. Tide gauge records all indicted the presence of higher water level fluctuations coinciding with the passage of the pressure jump (Figure 2). As the wave progressed in the harbour, very strong currents > 1.0 ms -1 (depth-mean) was measured to the north of the entrance breakwater. The location of a shallow shoal, the Wangara shoal, immediately downstream of the 1 Prof Charitha Pattiaratchi, School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA Australia

125 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management railway bridge was thought to prevent ships impacting on the bridge. However, the water levels were higher due to the meteotsunami and thus the AAL Fremantle was able to pass over the shoal. Although there was insufficient water after the impact with the bridge and a different route was used to relocate the ship at the berth. Figure 2: Time series of water levels and currents associated with the meteotsunami in Fremantle Port on 17 August Filtered water levels at Fremantle Boat Harbour and measured currents. Meteotsunami in Port Geographe Time series data on water levels and currents inside Port Geographe, a small marina and canal estate in south-west Australia ibndicate the frequent occurrence of meteotsunamis over the 2 month record. There were up to 7 events during this period which resulted in strong currents, higher than the ambient currents which result in the transport of sand and seagrass wrack into the the canal estate system leading to reduction in water quality. An interesting observation is that the meteotsunami waves are not significantly attenuated within the canal system. Figure 3: Time series of water levels and currents associated with meteotsunamis in Port Geographe in October-November Conclusion The above data from Fremantle and Port Geographe indicate that strong currents may be generated inside ports and marinas as a result of meteorological tsunamis which may be an under rated hazard in many regions

126 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management INVESTIGATION OF STRUCTURAL RESILIENCE AGAINST TSUNAMIS IN HARBOR REGIONS: CASE STUDY IN AMBARLI PORT, TURKEY Ceren Ozer Sozdinler, Nurcan Meral Ozel, Ahmet Cevdet Yalciner, Ocal Necmioglu, Andrey Zaytsev 1. Introduction Tsunami is one of the important marine hazards of which major impacts are observed mainly in the harbors due to tsunami amplification, abnormal agitation and related damages in enclosed basins. Therefore a complete assessment of tsunami behavior would be essential in ports and harbors in order to investigate the tsunami effects and structural resilience against tsunamis in harbor regions. Tsunami modeling with high resolution would be a proper approach to understand the effects of tsunamis on marine structures and harbor facilities. With the results of tsunami modeling, it would be possible to conduct a tsunami vulnerability analysis in the region and then identify the structural resilience of the region against tsunamis, which indicates the ability to recover and restore after tsunami disaster. Marmara Sea is surrounded with many industrial facilities of Turkey in large scale. Istanbul is the largest city located in the Marmara Sea with the current population of more than 14 millions. Ambarli Port in Istanbul is known as the biggest trade gate of Marmara region with 7 different terminals and an offshore platform operated by different companies for container and cargo handling. The port is serving not only the megacity Istanbul but also the whole country. This study focuses on the investigation of tsunami inundation and structural resilience in Ambarli Port against tsunami disaster. Figure 1 shows the map of the Sea of Marmara and Ambarli Port region including several numerical gauge points. Figure 1: The Map of Marmara Sea and Ambarli Port, Istanbul 2. Earthquakes and Tsunami Potential in the Sea of Marmara The active tectonics of northern Turkey is dominated by the right-lateral North Anatolian fault zone, running from Karliova in the east (41 E) to Istanbul (29 E) in the west (Ambraseys and Jackson, 200). Right-lateral strike-slip faulting continues to west of Izmit and then becomes more distributed over several subparallel strands in the Sea of Marmara, NW Turkey and the northern Aegean. Parson (2004) states that, based on the evaluation of coseismic and postseismic effects of the 1999 Izmit earthquake with Mw = 7.4, the probability of an earthquake with Mw > 7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35% to 70% in the next 30 years. Historical records reveal that there are strong evidences of around 30 tsunami events in the Sea of Marmara until today (Altinok et al., 2011). Among those, catastrophic earthquakes such as 1509, 1766 and 1894 resulted in considerable tsunamis and some damage. Tinti et al. (2006) reported that tsunami occurred in Marmara Sea due to a submarine landslide triggered by 1999 Izmit earthquake with run-up heights of 1-3 m in most places. As a result, tsunami potential in the Sea of Marmara should not be neglected considering the large scale of industrial activities and economic potential in the region. The right-lateral strike-slip faulting consists of several fault segments in Marmara Sea. This study uses selected earthquake scenarios including those segments with different fault mechanisms. The tsunami 126

127 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management modeling is performed in the Sea of Marmara, especially in Ambarli Port, regarding to these selected earthquake scenarios. 3. Tsunami Numerical Modeling with High Resolution Bathymetry in Ambarli Port The bathymetric and topographic data for Ambarli Port region is prepared with a resolution of less than 3.3m grid size including the digitized coastline and the sea and land structures with their coordinates and heights. The tsunami modeling code NAMIDANCE is used for the calculations of tsunami hydrodynamic parameters and inundation analyses (NAMIDANCE, 2011). Tsunami inundation analyses are performed by inputting both static and dynamic sources, gradually. Water surface elevations calculated in larger domain (with grid size of 90m) on boundary gauge points at every calculation time step were used as dynamic tsunami input in the numerical simulations of smaller and finer domain (with grid size of 3.3m). The results of numerical modeling are evaluated and used for the determination of structural resilience against tsunami waves and having a better understanding of tsunami preparedness and mitigation in ports and harbors. It is, in other words, the way of expressing structural damage probability or fatality ratio related to tsunami hydrodynamic parameters such as flow depth, current velocity and hydrodynamic forces by means of numerical modeling. Acknowledgement: This study is supported by SATREPS-MarDim Project (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) and EU ASTARTE Project. References: Altõnok, Y., B. Alpar, N. zer and H. Aykurt, 2011, Revision of the Tsunami Catalogue Affecting Turkish Coasts and Surrounding Regions, Natural hazards Earth System Science, 11, Ambraseys, N.N. and Jackson, J.A. (2000), Seismicity of the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) since 1500, Geophysical Journal International, Volume 141, Issue 3Pp. F1-F6. Minoura, Imamura, Yalciner, Takahashi, Papadopoulos, Kuran, Altõnok, Ersoy, Alpar, (2000), "The Traces Related to Tsunamis Along the Coasts of Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara, Fifth Coastal Engineering Workshop, Yõldõz Technical University, Yalçõn YŸksel, Turkey, pp: , Oct NAMI DANCE (2011), Manual of Numerical Code NAMI DANCE, Published in Necmioglu, O. (2015), Conceptual Design and Challenges for a Tsunami Early Warning System in the Sea of Marmara, EGU General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, EGU , 2015 Parson, T. (2004), Recalculated Probability of M 7 Earthquakes Beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 109, B05304, doi: /2003jb Tinti, S., Armigliato, A., Manucci, A., Pagnoni, G., Zaniboni, F., Yalçiner, A.C., Altinok, Y., 2006, The generating mechanisms of the August 17, 1999 Izmit bay (Turkey) tsunami: Regional (tectonic) and local (mass instabilities) causes, Marine Geology 225, Yalciner A. C. Alpar B., Altinok Y., Ozbay I., Imamura F., (2002), "Tsunamis in the Sea of Marmara: Historical Documents for the Past, Models for Future" Special Issue of Marine Geology, V: 190, (2002)

128 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management Submerged Vertical Cylinder Barriers to Prevent Flooding and Erosion Hans J. Scheel (Scheel Consulting, Switzerland) 1. Introduction Flooding from tropical storms (hurricanes, typhoons) and from Tsunami causes every year numerous fatalities and huge damages. These catastrophes are expected to increase with increasing population near coasts and with climate change and rising sea level. The situation is hazardous for most coastlines and for some of the largest cities, and it is extremely critical for lowlying small-island states like Maldives and low-lying countries like Bangladesh. Protection measures at the coast are often destroyed or overtopped. Even breakwaters submerged in the bay have failed as for instance the world s largest breakwater dam in Kamaishi Bay, Japan which could not stop the March 11, 2011 Tohoku tsunami causing the destruction of Kamaishi harbor and led to 1000 fatalities (Arikawa et al. [1]). Also many other breakwaters failed, for instance in Japan (Takahashi et al.[2]) and in Portugal (Baird et al. [3]). The lessons from the studies of failures of classical breakwaters consisting of a rubble mound and heavy caissons on top (Burcharth and Hughes [4]) have been considered when designing future stable protection barriers. Such a novel stable Tsunami-Flooding-Barrier (TFB) was described by Scheel [5] which has a fully vertical seaward wall and thus is breaking with the tradition of sloped dams and with breakwaters consisting of caissons on top of rubble mounds. The vertical barrier reflects and partially absorbs the energy of impulse (pressure) waves of tsunami, whereas any slopes assist the transition of the kinetic tsunami energy to the potential energy which leads to the catastrophic tsunami water fronts. The construction of single-fence-rock or double-fence-rock structures outside in the sea is quite demanding with respect to investment and to construction time, even when the double-pontoon technology (Scheel [6]) is applied. An efficient and economic technology for achieving stable submerged barriers outside in the sea in short construction time is required. This is achieved by deposited cylinder barriers (Scheel [7]) which are described below. The combination of the TFB barriers with new cylinder barriers would allow the construction of large sea reservoirs for several applications, for instance to solve Fukushima s radioactively contaminated water problem. Other applications are large-scale fish farming using fresh water from tides, or alternatively use the reservoirs for waste disposal followed by deposited soil in order to reclaim new land. The rocks for building these long single-fence-, double-fence- and cylinder barriers can be excavated from a nearby mountain in such a way that a large cavity is formed for an artificial lake to be applied for pumped hydroelectric energy storage. These applications will partially compensate the investments for the flood-protection barrier. 2. Tsunami impulse waves reflected at vertical wall Earthquakes and landslides cause tsunami pressure or impulse waves of small amplitude which are travelling at high speed towards the coast. There the reduced water depth transforms the kinetic tsunami energy to potential energy. The resulting high waves and waterfronts cause destruction and human losses. A stable vertical wall submerged to sufficient depth will reflect the impulse waves before the catastrophic high tsunami waves are formed. The degree of reflection depends on the roughness of the seaward face of the TFB, and the remaining tsunami energy is dissipated within the barrier and by lifting water up in front of the barrier. Computer simulations of the hydrodynamics and of the stability of such barriers have started. It is widely accepted that the high velocity c of tsunami waves in the ocean, at depth of 4km, of typically 700km per hour is reduced when the wave reaches the reduced water depth h when approaching the coast, by the relation c = ) with g the gravitational acceleration. The wave heights A of tsunami waves starting at 4km depth with c= 713km per hour and an initial typical wave height of 30cm and a high wave height of 1m from the relation A 2 x c = constant, according to the law of energy conservation, are 1.02m and 3.40m, respectively at water depth of 30m. Ideally for highest efficiency, the TFB should be built at depth of 200m, but construction and transport costs would be excessive for such deep barriers. Barrier depths between 20m and 40m are economic and can be efficiently built in relatively short time compared to 31 construction years for the Kamaishi breakwater, which was finished But the height above sea level has to be increased for barriers of lower depth in order to compensate the increased Tsunami amplitude. Based on this discussion we can define the principle of the vertical wall: any rising slope will increase the tsunami amplitude and thus the risk of catastrophic tsunami flooding. 3. Construction of Tsunami-Flooding Barriers Deep-sea construction of barriers can be achieved in principle by using saltwater-resistant 128

129 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management concrete and steel, but it is complex and time-consuming. An efficient and economic architecture was recently developed using steel fences inserted into the sea and fixing them with horizontal anchors by inserting rocks (Scheel [5]). A parallel double-fence structure with rocks inserted in between the parallel fences by the double-pontoon technology facilitates the construction of barriers starting from the coast [6]. The fences are horizontally connected by rings around vertical steel pipes to form long barriers approximately parallel to the coastline. The barriers extend about 6m to 10m above mean sea level depending on expected storm and tsunami waves. Service roads on top of the barrier allow inspection and repair and are needed for maintenance of turbines and pump-turbines for tidal energy and for pumped hydroelectric energy storage. Also gates and sluices for navigation and fishing boats can be reached from the roads. The upper barrier and the service roads are protected against erosion from high waves by replaceable surge stoppers (parapet). Doublepontoons starting from the ramp road at the coast allow trucks to deliver rolls of steel fence and of rocks and to insert them to form the double-fence barrier, fences lowered outside the double-pontoon and rocks inserted between the two central pontoons. The trucks return to the coast via a simple double-fence pontoon road discussed by Scheel [5]. 4. Deposited submarine cylinder barriers Empty cylinders of sufficient size and length are assembled in the harbor, floated to the intended site in the sea, and lowered to the seafloor by filling with water or by inserting concrete, grout, rocks and other filling material. These cylinders are made from a steel framework with sidewalls of steel fences, Geotextile, plastic sheets or wood. Their volume allows them to float as long as they are empty. The cylinders have a depth between 10m and 40m below and extend 4m to 10m above mean sea level so that they, after filling, also withstand tsunami impulse waves and storm surges. The cross section of cylinders can be triangular or rectangular with the steep vertical front facing the sea, or the cylinder can be round. A top steel construction facilitates to build the service road after the cylinder has been deposited. These cylinder barriers can be combined with the Tsunami-Flooding-Barriers to connect to the coast. Preferably the TFBs are constructed starting from the coast until reaching the required depth, and the cylinder barriers of standard size are deposited parallel to the coastline at approximately constant depth. In order to prevent sinking of these heavy TFB barriers and cylinder barriers into the soft seafloor, the preparation of a concrete bed is required of sufficient size and stability. Alternatively a deep bed can be produced by dredging, and the barriers fixed by steel bars inserted into the ground. The cylinder barriers have the advantage that they can contain pre-installed turbines and pump- turbines for tidal energy production and for hydroelectric energy storage. Also the construction of gates and sluices is facilitated by attaching them to the stable steel frameworks in the harbor. 5. Conclusions Novel submarine architecture allows to very efficiently erect stable barriers which will protect major cities and coastlines against tsunami and flooding from tropical storms. Sea reservoirs established from the novel barriers could find important applications beneficial for the energy and food problems of mankind or alternatively allow reclamation of new land. References [1] T. Arikawa, M. Sato, K. Shimosako, I. Hasegawa, G.S. Yeom, and T. Tomita, Failure Mechanism of Kamaishi Breakwater due to the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami, Proceedings Coastal Engineering 33, pp.1-13, [2] S. Takahashi, K. Shimosaki, K. Kimura, and A. Suzuki, Typical Failures of Composite Breakwaters in Japan, Proceedings27th Internatl. Conf. on Coastal Engineering ASCE, pp , [3] W.F. Baird, J.M. Caldwell, B.L. Edge, O.T. Magoon, and D.D. Treadwell, Report on the Damages to the Sines Breakwater, Portugal, Coastal Engineering Ch. 184, pp , [4] H.F. Burchardt and S.A. Hughes, Types and Functions of Coastal Structures, in Coastal Engineering Manual, 6 Ch.2, pp.vi-2-i VI-2-44, [5] H.J. Scheel, Novel Tsunami Barriers and their Applications for Hydroelectric Energy Storage, Fish Farming, and for Land Reclamation, Science of Tsunami Hazards, Journal of Tsunami Society International, 33 Nr. 3, pp , [6] H.J. Scheel, Double-Pontoon-Bridge Construction of Submerged Barriers and of Off-Shore Roads, WIPO/PCT Patent Appl. PCT/IB2013/059511, October 21, [7] H.J. Scheel, Submarine Cylinder Barrier to Stop Flooding from Tsunami and Tropical Storms, patent application PCT/EP2015/059057, Summary: All aspects, together with many figures, will be discussed in a full lecture of 40+ minutes and in the publication 129

130 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management What Makes People Evacuate? Triggers for Tsunami Evacuation Takahito Mikami, Waseda University, Japan, Tomoya Shibayama, Waseda University, Japan, 1. Introduction To reduce the loss of lives due to tsunami disasters, successful evacuation is needed. In the case of a local tsunami, its first wave would reach coastal areas minutes after an earthquake, and thus it is important for residents to quickly become aware of the danger of tsunamis and then start evacuation. In the present paper, to understand keys to successful evacuation for each tsunami-prone community, first triggers for tsunami evacuation (phenomena or information which help people realize a tsunami approaching to the coast) will be summarized based on the results of field survey reports on recent tsunami disasters. Then, necessary efforts to achieve successful evacuation will be discussed. 2. Triggers for Tsunami Evacuation In recent years, many destructive tsunamis were reported, such as the 2009 Samoan Islands Tsunami, 2010 Chile Tsunami, 2010 Mentawai Islands Tsunami in Indonesia, and 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in Japan. Based on the field survey reports on these tsunami events (the authors own filed survey reports are summarized in Esteban et al. (2015)), possible triggers for tsunami evacuation can be pointed out, as shown in Figure 1. Earthquake Tsunami arrival Ground shaking (time) Tsunami warning information / Evacuation orders People who are evacuating / People who have already realized danger Unusual behaviors of the sea Inundation Figure 1. Triggers for tsunami evacuation The first trigger is ground shaking due to an earthquake, if people know that an earthquake has a potential to generate a tsunami. Tsunami warning information and evacuation orders issued from the authorities (e.g. disaster prevention sectors in local governments) can also be considered as ones of the triggers. The information is generally disseminated through radio, television, or sirens. However, not all tsunami-prone areas have this kind of systematic information network. Seeing people who are 130

131 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Coastal Zone and Coastal Risk Management evacuating and hearing calls from people who have already realized approaching danger enable people to start evacuation. Unusual behaviors of the sea include receding sea water, breaking tsunamis, and sounds generated by tsunamis and obstacles. One of the last-minute triggers is inundation. Some of the triggers mentioned above do not function under specific conditions. For example, because people cannot see the state of the sea at night, it is difficult to observe unusual behaviors of the sea. Thus, it is necessary for each coastal community to have different types of triggers for successful evacuation. 3. Necessary Efforts for Successful Tsunami Evacuation To make these triggers function, the following 3 things are required: 1) spreading knowledge of tsunamis, 2) preparing and maintaining evacuation routes and sites, and 3) disseminating information about evacuation routes and sites to both local people and visitors. The authors found that many improvements had been carried out after the 2009 tsunami in the Samoan Islands (see Figure 2). These improvements contribute to increasing the number of triggers and disseminating knowledge and information. These can be considered as good examples especially for developing countries. (a) (b) (c) Figure 2. Improvements in Samoa: (a) siren tower, (b) evacuation route to higher ground, (c) sign 4. Conclusions Triggers for tsunami evacuation were summarized with concrete examples obtained in recent tsunami disasters. Understanding triggers and continuing efforts for improving an environment in each coastal community are important keys to successful evacuation. The final paper and presentation will include detailed discussion and some trials of an evacuation simulation. References Esteban, M., Takagi, H. & Shibayama, T. (eds.), Handbook of Coastal Disaster Mitigation for Engineers and Planners, Elsevier, 765p. (Due to space limitations, references are not listed herein, but will be listed in the final paper.) 131

132 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF FISCAL FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT APPLIED TO WATERWAY PROJECTS 1. Abstract Joaquim José Guilherme de Aragão Universidade de Brasília Lílian dos Santos Fontes Pereira Bracarense Universidade Federal do Tocantins Jean MARCHAL University of Liège Brazil has a great potential for waterway navigation, counting about 63,000 kilometers of rivers and lakes. More than 40,000 km of this total are potentially navigable. However, commercial shipping occurs on ca. 13,000 km, with a significant concentration in the Amazon Region. Despite the great potential of navigability and the well-known logistic and environmental cost vantages of this system, there are bottlenecks in the infrastructure, which require the completion of expensive adaptation works and other improvements. In addition, social, technical, political and environmental externalities have impeded the Brazilian waterway transportation to be developed at a proper pace. In Brazil, waterway investment depends almost exclusively on fiscal resources. However, investments in major projects such as infrastructure should be carefully designed, so that their deployment induce development, ensuring fiscal sustainability. Otherwise, excessive debt burden will shorten investment space and bring up other macroeconomic troubles as the acceleration of inflation levels. Despite that obvious connection, fiscal accounting practices used currently in the feasibility studies of transport infrastructures in Brazil are very limited, as they do not consider indirect and induced effects of the infrastructure investment in the fiscal. In addition, the corresponding influence area has not an established delimitation method. The aim of the present paper is to develop a conceptual model for calculating economic and fiscal impacts of transport infrastructure investment projects that includes the direct, indirect and induced effects within a reference area do be determined. As a first step, different project assessment guides in Brazil and abroad are examined with a special focus on the assessment of economic and fiscal impacts of the projects. The main documents to be analyzed are: i) US feasibility study manuals linked to federal investments in water resources (PRG- USA); ii) cost and benefits analysis manuals for investment projects that are adopted in Europe (MCB EU); iii) guides adopted by the World Bank (Handbook on economic analysis of investment operations (HEA WB); iv) the Brazilian handbook for the presentation of feasibility studies of largescale projects (MEV-BR). Based on the assessment experience, but also on the definition of the fiscal balance of an infrastructure project, the variables of the model are determined. A swift overview of the input-output analysis observes how direct, indirect and induced project effects are obtained, including fiscal multipliers, which is then be summed up in order to calculate the overall tax revenues. However, the applicability of this tool is critically assessed with respect to the difficulties in obtaining proper data. Therefore, the paper establishes an alternative framework for calculating the impacts, using more easily obtained data. The proposed model is applied in a case study in the Tocantins River Waterway (Brazil)

133 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation As a result, a conceptual model of fiscal feasibility assessment of a large-scale project is presented, where the expenditures and tax revenues are opposed in order to evaluate whether the projects have a positive net fiscal balance. The study verifies that the model is practical and that it is possible to calculate the fiscal return of investment in the Tocantins waterway infrastructure by adopting a strategy for the commercial consolidation of the waterway investments that is subsequently described. A further aim of this model is to encourage a proper design of investment projects, ensuring positive fiscal balances and contributing to the reduction of risks of overinvestment and/or misallocation of resources 2. Summary The article begins with a presentation of the general context of the Brazilian waterway system and the need for fiscal evaluation of large projects. After a short literature review on the history and on the main concepts and techniques related to fiscal analysis projects, as well on the main project assessment manuals, the proposed framework for the analysis of economic and fiscal impacts of major infrastructure projects is presented. Subsequently, the model is tested in the study case of the Tocantins Waterway. The oral presentation intends to discuss the limitations and the applications of the model, as well how a mandatory inclusion of the analysis of economic and fiscal impacts into the general assessment procedures of infrastructure projects could contribute to assure a augmented fiscal space for infrastructure investment

134 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation Developing of an integrated system to collect and analysis data of the fluvial vessels, ports and waterways on the Amazon basin Fernando Merege In the Amazon basin, until to the present day, the river transport of passengers and cargo is done anachronistically due the fact that is inserted in an insufficient and deficient infrastructure. Every year, it is reported by the press a large number of events with loss of life and equity due to: Collisions; Sinkings; Ship fires; explosions vessels, and; All kind of accidents caused by precarity and poor use of floating craft. Additionally, police records show that, year by year, has increased the number of criminal occurrences with: Evasion; International traffic of arms and drugs; Piracy on the waterways with thefts on boats, and; Robbery of cargo in ports. In the face of frequent incidents, the National Agency of Waterway Transportation (ANTAQ) and the Brazil's Navy signed an agreement for the future establishment and implementation of a monitoring system will allow only the transmission of the geographical position (GPS) of fluvial vessels to a central station using satellite communications. However, the system that being planned could be improved to collect and transmit of data referring the condition of the vessels and their vectoring (velocity and route). Our group in an initial study cataloging and analyzing the most frequent types of incidents the results saw that it is possible and necessary to collect more a vast numbers of data. To solve this lack it was developed the concept of integrated system using devices of low-cost common in the market and capable to work in fluvial ships, ports and waterways. An electronic prototype was built using electronic low-cost components to act in the ship monitoring and control and installed into a static "physical model". The prototype had various sensors to perform the collection of data on the condition of the vessel (fire sensors, temperature, slope, etc.) and their vectorization (engine speed, direction, speed, etc.) and the sensors are controlled by a central processing unit with analysis capability of real time data. To the ship device, the analysis software developed was designed to detect unsafe operating conditions or risk, to show in a screw the data and also to fire the trigger alarms. After the begin of tests immediately it was identified some potential improvements: The potential of vessels information exchange (vessel to vessel), especially the vectorization to avoid collisions; The necessity of the addition of a short distance network communication due satellite communications restrictions in the region; The necessity to collect and transmit images on the real time in function to decrease the criminal risks. The initial test results were satisfactory and they will be show in this article

135 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation URGENT SOLUTIONS TO PROMOTE INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT IN VIET NAM Mr. Hong Giang HOANG, Director General Mr. Trong Doanh TRUONG, Director of Science-Technology, International Cooperation & Environment Department. Vietnam Inland Waterway Administration I. Over view of Vietnam inland waterway system The inland waterway network in Vietnam is very rich with the density of 0,127 km river/1m 2, ranged in the top 5 countries with the highest density of river. The role for livelihood, socio-economic development, national security of the inland waterway system is very significant. It used to take account of 18% of the transported cargo volume, especially oversized and overweighed cargo supplying industrial zones and for the development of the remote areas. However, its role and importance are not recognized properly. The use of the inland waterway system in Vietnam is mainly based on the natural condition, infrastructure has been improved but with low investment. Many sections of rivers have not been surveyed and installed with aids to navigation. The port and pier system is not well organized with out of date facilities; multi-modal transportation is underdeveloped. The fleets and shipyards are not invested with new technology. Operational statistics of the inland waterway sector does not commensurate with the potential available. The policies for sector tax, fee, loans and technical standards are not suitable that limit the sector development. Management scope is not clear, some rivers are not managed. Some of ports located on the rivers are specified as sea ports. Ports and piers in some areas operate without registration and permits. All those things have negative impacts to the sector management II. Inland waterway development strategy The investment in the development of inland waterway transport is located in the strategic of restructure of the Transportation sector, contribute to ensure traffic safety, reduce transport costs, creating new transport market with reasonable cost. This transport mode has consistent development targets, linked with the development tendency of the whole transport sector and the Government of Vietnam as follows: - Promote advantages of the inland waterway sector: geographical positions, natural conditions of the river network for waterway transport, low investment, low cost, practical for overweighed and oversized cargo, environmentally friendly, convenient for tourism, etc - Restructure the organization system, improve managements and institution capacities. - Proper investment priority for fast and sustainable growth of waterway transport. Improve and update some main river routes and ports by Governments Budget, ODA projects, BOT projects, development for remote areas for the poverty elimination, fee-collection from river users, etc - Increase the use of information technology in the management of infrastructure and transport operations: installation of AIS equipment for vessels and navigation aids; digitizing the waterway infrastructure; computerization of the management of the professional authorities. - Develop inland waterway in coordination with irrigation, agriculture, tourism, environmental and water recourse protection. - Enhance the sense of the responsibility of the whole nation: people, management levels for inland waterway construction works

136 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation Hydrodynamic Brake Implements for the Bow of Rake Barges in Convoys and for the Stern of Self-Propelled Inland Navigation Vessels José Esteves Botelho Rabello Making an inland navigation convoy to stop is currently a considerable challenge. Under normal circumstances, stops are carefully planned. If an emergency occurs, special procedures as zigzag or radius of curvature stops are performed. Convoy stopping is done conventionally by rudder actuation, and by propellers reversing, which are equipment of the pusher, at the stern of the convoy. The possibility of adding an equipment to the bow of convoy which preferably and usually is a rake barge, for braking, is treated in this paper. In addition, the use of rudders symmetrically actuated to large angles of attack relative to the water flow as a means of convoy braking is considered. Both of these implements would act complementarily to conventional convoy braking. The first proposal herein is to study the possibility to install at the front of the rake barge a small extension, or implement, of triangular format, called herein Bow Triangular Auxiliary Braking Implement, BTABI. A floating device, BTABI function is to house an upward- retractable front part. The BTABI should be in the form of a small barge. As this front part is retracted upwards, a concave region is exposed to the incoming water flow, which in turn causes a considerable drag force, i.e., a braking force. This braking action, i.e., drag at this bow concavity of the vessel, would be caused by momentum changes in the water flow, resulting in a net backwards force for the convoy. The above-mentioned concavity in the bow of the front barge would appear when the upper part of the bow was retracted upwards, or raised from water, by mechanical means. This mechanical means could be for example a retractable hoist or other apparatus for raising the bow. This would then expose the concave region in the waterline to the water flow. Figure 1 depicts schematics at waterline. Bernoulli equation considerations can be taken when the water in this region becomes stagnant, with near zero speed, by means of energy conversion of speed into pressure energy. This pressure increase exactly at the front of the vessel means a backwards net force, that is, braking drag. In this way, CFD and towing tank tests would be very useful in this research of best concavity dimensions and other geometric parameters. Conservation of momentum of course also does apply. For example, for a convoy navigating in still waters at 4 m/s, with density ρ equal to about kg/m³, we have if the BTABI is actuated, a net braking force of 8,000 N for each square meter of exposed concave area of the BTABI. If we translate this into power, at this moment when speed is 4 m/s, we have 32 kw, or about 42.9 hp of braking power. If we had a dedicated engine and propeller for braking, with about 70 % of efficiency, to provide the same braking power as described above, this would be equivalent to 61 hp of engine + propeller reversal braking, when the speed is 4 m/s, with just 1 m² of concave area of this braking implement. If we doubled the concave braking area, in this way with just two m² of concave area, the braking power would be 122 hp. The BTABI should even improve the performance of the convoy, in terms of less drag, because that auxiliary braking implement in cruise mode navigation, i.e., lowered, probably would make the convoy more streamlined

137 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation Pusher Direction of Travel Figure 1) Inland navigation convoy, with the Bow Triangular Auxiliary Braking Implement, BTABI, pictured here as the rather small triangular equipment at the front of the convoy, in which the braking implement is deployed at below, left. Right, the braking implement is lowered, i.e., deactivated, for normal navigation. Use of Rudders for Braking in the Control Engineering Era Secondly, some self-propelled vessels are equipped with two or more rudders. In this case, we could consider the use of rudders for braking not committed to a curve, instead used for braking. Being so, the left (port) rudder would deflect to the left, and the right (starboard) rudder would deflect to the right, i.e., both rudders would deflect outwards, in angles that are about 45. In this way, the water would flow around rudders in stalled condition, which favours a high drag situation, which is ideal for braking. Deployed this way, the rudders are considerable drag producers, contributing largely to braking forces. The choice of exact or optimized angles could be done by using control-engineering techniques, whose details are worth to be studied for this case, albeit out of scope of this paper. Figure 2) Stern of self-propelled vessel with twin rudders, in which both of them can deflect outwards, for complementary braking action. Schematics at waterline. Summing up, the paper focuses on additional braking possibilities for the performance of inland navigation vessels, and on the need of CFD and towing tank tests. In this context, in addition to conventional braking schemes, with the above mentioned hydrodynamic brake implements for bow rake barges and of stern of self-propelled vessels, the convoy stopping distances could be smaller, and also with the possibility of saving on fuel when braking the convoy. These savings would be because of total relatively less involvement of engines and propellers in the reversing action. Finally yet importantly, safety would be enhanced by using such brake implements in conjunction with conventional braking which uses propeller thrust reversal

138 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation Port Development in the Master Plan for Regional Waterborne Transport on the Mekong River Ms. Ton Nu Thi Thanh Yen 1, Ir. Freddy Wens 2 1. The Mekong River Basin The Mekong River is one of the world s great river systems, flowing 4,909 km through six countries: PR China, Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Viet Nam. It drains an area of 795,000 km 2, discharging 457 km 3 of water annually in the South China Sea. From the Tibetan Plateau, the river runs through China's Yunnan province, where it is called the Lancang River. From the Green Triangle (China- Lao-Myanmar Border) to the Khone Falls (Lao- Cambodian Border), extreme seasonal variations in flow (water level variations between wet and dry season of more than 10 m) and the presence of rock crops, rapids and waterfalls make navigation difficult. The Khone Falls form a barrier for any navigation and downstream to Phnom Penh, the Cambodian floodplain, the Tonle Sap and the Great Lake form a complex hydrodynamic system with a seasonal flow reversal into and out of the Great Lake. In Phnom Penh, the mainstream divides into a complex and increasingly controlled and artificial system of branches and canals, called the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. The seasonal variations in water level directly affect navigation on the Mekong River. Volumes of trade being shipped decrease by more than 50 per cent, primarily due to the reduced draughts available during the low water season (June January). In the Lao PDR and in Cambodia, upstream Phnom Penh, 50 and 100 DWT vessels are primarily operated for regional trade. The main types of cargo carried are timber, agricultural products and construction materials. Local passenger and tourist transport is popular between Huay Xay and Luang Prabang, in the Pakxe region and on the Tonle Sap and Great Lake up to Chong Kneas (Siem Reap/Angkor). Waterborne trade in the lower Mekong countries of Vietnam and Cambodia has grown significantly, with trends in container traffic at Phnom Penh port and general cargo through Can Tho port both showing steady increases with the opening of a new deep-water port at Cai Mep/Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam where mother vessels sail directly to Europe or the United States. Because the Lao PDR and Cambodian authorities planned some 10 hydropower dams on the Mekong mainstream (5 between Huay Xay and Vientiane, 3 between Pakxe and the Khone Falls and 2 between the Khone Falls and Kratie), although there are several socio-environmental concerns, this could create opportunities for waterborne transport, generating enough water depth in the impounded areas upstream the dams and providing locks at the dam locations. 2. Mekong River Commission In 1957 the Lower Mekong Basin countries, Cambodia, Laos People's Democratic Republic, Thailand and Vietnam, formed an intergovernmental organization called the Mekong Committee, which further became the Mekong River Commission (MRC) after the signing of the Mekong Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong Basin in Myanmar and China are not full members of the Commission but are considered Dialogue Partners. As a regional facilitating and advisory body governed by water and environment ministers of the four countries, the MRC aims to ensure that the Mekong water is developed in the most efficient manner that mutually benefits all Member Countries and minimises harmful effects on people and the environment in the Lower Mekong Basin. The MRC Secretariat is an operational arm comprising about 150 staff members based in two Secretariat offices in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Vientiane, Lao PDR. Its focal points in the four countries, the National Mekong Committees, coordinate work at the national level. 1 Ton Nu Thi Thanh Yen, Coordinator Navigation Programme MRCS, Viet Nam, 2 Freddy Wens, MSc. Civ. Eng., Waterborne Transport Consultant, Belgium, 138

139 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation 3. Master Plan for Regional Waterborne Transport on the Mekong River Basin In the framework of the MRC Navigation Programme, in 2013 the MRC Countries decided to draft a Master Plan for Waterborne Transport on the Mekong river Basin with as main objective to design a short term and long term development programme which implementation should rehabilitate and improve the national and international transport network using the Mekong River Basin in the MRC Member Countries. After a study of the current situation, the baseline conditions and economic forecasts, some 24 local experts and 6 international consultants decided on the ultimate goal of the Master Plan as To increase waterborne transport in the MRB to at least 125% of the actual waterborne transport volume in 2020 and to at least 250% of the actual waterborne transport volume in 2040 and to make navigation safer and more sustainable for the people and for the environment. Development scenarios and an action plan with some100 actions were prepared for fleet renovation, waterway design, navigation safety and aids to navigation, port development and management, regulatory and institutional issues, socio-environmental aspects and capacity building. 4. Port Development in the Master Plan In the Master Plan, two long term scenarios have been proposed: 1) 500 DWT navigation between the Green Triangle and Kratie, with a bypass canal with locks at the Khone Falls, DWT navigation between Kratie and Phnom Penh and DWT navigation between Phnom Penh and the South China Sea; 2) 500 DWT navigation between the Green Triangle and Savannakhet, no adaptation between Savannakhet and Kratie and the same proposal downstream Kratie. Some ten ports along the Mekong mainstream, where now only a earth unpaved ramp for 50 to 100 DWT vessels is provided, need an urgent upgrade or completely new port facilities (Huay Xay, Pak Beng, Luang Prabang, Vientiane, Savannakhet and Pakxe in the Lao PDR, Kratie, Kompong Cham, Kompong Chhang and Chong Kneas in Cambodia). Hereby, four port types have been proposed: - A vertical berthing quay terminal for general cargo and containers; - A pontoon terminal for passenger vessels and cruise ships; - A jetty with derrick crane for the smaller container ports; and - A concrete ramp with mobile crane for domestic transport. In the final paper, half of the paper will deal with the results of the Master Plan, half of the paper will deal with the technical aspects of the terminal and port type proposals. First author First (and middle) Ton Nu Thi Thanh Last (Family) name Yen name(s) Title Programme Coordinator Agency / Company Mekong River Commission Secretariat Birth country and year Viet Nam, Actual residence country Cambodia Second author First (and middle) Freddy Alfons Willy Last (Family) name Wens name(s) Title Waterborne Transport consultant Agency / Company Birth country and year Belgium, 1947 Actual residence country Belgium Third author First (and middle) name(s) Agency / Company Birth country and year Title of the paper Last (Family) name Title Actual residence country Port Development in the Master Plan for Regional Waterborne Transport on the Mekong River Keywords (*) Inland Waterway Transport Inland Ports and Terminals 139

140 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation PANAMA CANAL THIRD SET OF LOCKS: WATER SAVING BASINS Lisette Terry PE & Ayhan Utkan PE, SE Figure 1: Panama Canal, Third Set of Locks, Atlantic Site in May Why Water Saving Basins? The Panama Canal is the only lock passage in the world that connects two oceans, the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The cargo ships that pass through the Panama Canal drive the economics of world trade. The original Panama Canal features two lanes on each side which opened over 100 years ago in The cargo ships operated to transport goods have grown too large to fit through the locks, thus a Third Set of Locks is under construction to enable the passage of ships that can carry nearly three times the capacity of the current Panamax cargo containers. As one can imagine, it takes several hundred thousand cubic-meters of water for a one time use for one ship to pass through. Considering the environmental impact of using the largest fresh water source in Panama, Lake Gatun, to flush directly into the ocean, the concept of Water Saving Basins became a crucial part of the design of the new set of locks. Approximately 60% of the water will be recycled every time a ship passes through. The new third set of locks are 60% wider and 40% longer than the existing locks, but will use less water due to the Water Saving Basins. Tetra Tech designed 18 water saving basins (three basins per chamber). Each basin per chamber covers an area of 80,000 squaremeters which is equivalent to an area of 14 full sized soccer fields. The basins at each chamber have 125,000 cubic-meters of water moving back and forth in each basin within 17 minutes whenever a ship passes through. 2. Water Saving Basins Design Criteria and Components For this largest infrastructure project since the waterway s original construction, the specifications for the design life required all structures to be durable enough to operate for a minimum of 100 years. The specifications required the basins and locks filling and emptying system to operate by gravity flow. Therefore, all of the water will flow by gravity using the difference in elevation between the locks and the basins. The components of the water saving basins consist of several filling and emptying structures including: Trifurcations The function of each trifurcation structure is to connect the conduit valve structure to the culverts at the back face of the lock walls, converging (necking down) six conduits into one. Each trifurcation is nearly 30 meters tall, equivalent to an eight story building, with 46 meter width at the upper portion and 9 m at the lower portion of the neck. Valve Structures Each valve structure extends from the invert elevation of the conduits to the deck surface staging area at each chamber. It will provide room for the conduit valve, two maintenance bulkhead slots and an access shaft for each of the six valves per valve structure. The valve structures control the flow of water to and from the basins. WSB Conduits Each WSB has six conduits, which pass water to and from the WSBs and connect to the valve structure. On the other side of the valve structure is the trifurcation which connects to the culvert at the lock walls. The conduit structure at the Pacific was constructed with flexible joints to withstand settlement of backfill to the estimated settlement values from the 1939 Excavation Fills DBM referenced previously. The conduit internal dimensions are typically 9.0 m wide by 6.0 m tall

141 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation Basin Inlet Structures The inlet structure in each basin is located at the low point of the basin floor near the center of the basin. The inlet structure is the connection to the conduit. A trashrack covers the inlet structure entrance to prevent large debris from entering the conduits and lock chambers. Basin Floors The basin floors are lined with a flexible membrane lining and limited areas of concrete pavement for vehicle access to the inlet structures. The flexible membrane lining of the basin is sloped toward a central inlet structure. Vehicle access slabs were placed over the flexible membrane lining system in traffic areas for vehicle access in and out of the WSB during dewatered maintenance operations. Basin Dividing Walls The interior basin dividing walls are oriented parallel to the lock axis and separate the top, intermediate, and bottom basins from each other. They were constructed as reinforced concrete, up to 10.5 m cantilever retaining walls. The top elevations of these walls have been established by the hydraulic analysis results as referenced above. The exterior basin berms are sloped with engineered fill and/or cut into rock. The walls were designed for normal operating water levels, as well as maintenance conditions and seismic events. Basin Linings A flexible membrane lining system rests on the floors and side slopes of each WSB to act as an essentially impermeable barrier to limit leakage from the WSBs. The lining system connects to side slopes of the basins, the concrete dividing walls and retaining walls, conduit inlets, manholes and cleanouts. Vehicular access ramps, traffic lanes and aprons around the conduit inlets are located on the lining for maintenance and inspection use. 3. Summary To reduce the water usage of the lock system, a portion of the water in each chamber is not released to the next chamber downstream during a lock cycle. Instead, it is diverted from the culverts into large basins adjacent to the lock chamber. Each chamber has a total of three basins. The basins are arranged in three levels (top, intermediate, and bottom). During the next lock cycle, the water in these basins is returned to the lock chambers. The elevations of the levels are arranged so there is sufficient head to move the water from the chamber to each basin and then return it to the chambers. Every one of the WSB system components is classified as Critical. This includes all of the Water Saving Basins and their Conduits, Valve Structures, and Trifurcations, and Walls, in both the Pacific and Atlantic Complexes. This classification enters into the seismic analysis and design. Critical structures are subject to both the Level I (475-yr.) and Level II (1000-yr.) earthquake design requirements, whereas non-critical structures are only subject to the Level I earthquake design requirements. Every one of the WSB system components is classified as Normal. This Normal versus Essential classification affects the stability requirements and sliding factors of safety in the analyses and designs. The structural loadings analyzed include: Dead Load Live Load Soil Load Hydrostatic Loads Seismic Loads Hydrodynamic Loads Dynamic Soil Loads Wind Loads The load combinations were under the categories of: Usual (Normal operating maximum and minimum water levels) Unusual (Drawdown, Maintenance, Level I Earthquake with normal operating maximum and minimum water levels and Construction) Extreme (Level II Earthquake with normal operating maximum and minimum water levels) The analyses for each structure included one of the following, depending on the structure: Seismic Coefficient Method Response Spectrum Analyses Time History Analyses (Using seven historical earthquakes) 141

142 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation Passenger Satisfaction Survey for Inland Waterways Transportation in Brazil: From user perception to deconstruction of old premises Isaac Monteiro do Nascimento Eduardo Pessoa de Queiroz Marilia Patelli Juliani de Souza Lima There is a consensus among experts, researchers and enthusiasts of waterway transportation that the Brazilian waterborne transport potential is still, at present, rarely used. Brazilian public entities carried out recent studies, such as the National Waterway Integration Plan (PNIH) and the Strategic Waterway Plan (PHE), that corroborate the misuse of navigable rivers and inland waterways in the country. However, the underutilization of waterway potential is observed, largely, in cargo transportation in Brazil. Inland waterway navigation intended for the simultaneous transport of passengers and cargo, popularly known as Mixed Transport, presents another reality. This inland transport mode is responsible for handling more than 9 million people, in the Amazon region, as estimated by the National Agency for Waterway Transportation (ANTAQ) in Most of the transportation of passengers by Brazilian rivers is concentrated in the Amazon region, standing out as an indispensable transport mode for access to remote parts of Brazil. This service is often presented as the only transport means for most of the 15 million inhabitants population and, paradoxically, specialists says that the quality of these services is not consistent with the social relevance that this type of transport sustains in the region. Historically, the main complaint appointed by users is the low level of service quality offered by ship owners and the precariousness of vessels and terminals. The institutional arrangement for the provision of passenger transport service on Brazilian inland waterways adds complexity to the issue. Brazil is a federal republic with 27 federal units. The transport carried out between cities in different federal units or between a location in the country and abroad is a federal responsibility, namely the Union s. Administratively, the federal entity responsible for this transport s regulation and supervision is ANTAQ. On the other hand, transport performed between cities within the same federal unit is that unit s own responsibility. This administrative arrangement generates regulatory asymmetries, characterized by distinct authorization procedures and supervision. Often, federal units do not have technical and monetary resources to properly monitor these services, which reflects in the quality of services provided to the population

143 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation At the federal level, ANTAQ held in 2014 the first Users Satisfaction Survey for Mixed and Passenger Longitudinal Transport. About 80 vessels authorized by ANTAQ were surveyed, from 64 companies that have been operating in 21 shipping lines under the Agency s jurisdiction. The main result was the elaboration of a general user satisfaction rating that synthesized the evaluation of indicators, such as the company's sales service, obsolescence of vessels, comfort, continuity of services, courtesy of company employees, hygiene within vessels, price rates, punctuality, regularity and safety. The potential of analysis of the user satisfaction indicators was not fully accomplished by the publications made by ANTAQ. Further analysis can be carried out considering the type of researched shuttle service, the available database and hypothesis testing for some previous premises usually linked to the subject. Based on the above considerations, the purpose of this article is to analyze the results of the Users Satisfaction Survey conducted by ANTAQ for passenger transport users. This analysis was based on the set of satisfaction indicators considered in the Survey. From the surveyed indicators, this article seeks to analyze the following issues: Can trip duration influence user satisfaction? Does the assessment of the trip tend to vary by the user s educational profile? Is the assessment of frequent users distinct from those who travel occasionally? Is the vessel profile one of the attributes that modify the user s assessment? With the expected results, the authors hope to contribute to transport planning, public policy and regulatory review regarding inland transport services for passengers in Brazil, seeking elements that transcend the questions asked in the survey

144 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation 1. BACKGROUND Panama Canal Third Set of Locks Approach Structures By Chris Willcox, Jason Kikuta, and Michael Hough ABSTRACT The new Third Set of Locks for the Panama Canal includes Approach Structures at three of the four entrances: at both ends of the Pacific Locks, and at the ocean side of the Atlantic Locks. They are used to align and pre-position vessels entering the locks and for vessel mooring when necessary, allowing faster entry of vessels into the locks As originally envisioned, the Approach Structures were to be 500-meter-long permeable, or invisible, structures that would have minimal effect on density currents at the ocean entrances to avoid adverse impacts on vessels approaching or leaving the locks. Additional requirements called for bollards at 15 meter spacing and a walkway or deck to allow access for line handlers. The design proposed by CICP provided a pier with a cone fender mounted to it at each bollard location, and a ten-meter wide deck linking the piers. Early in the design phase the Owner, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP), requested that the design be changed to provide continuous or semi-continuous fenders. Given the energy absorption required by the owner-specified vessel impact cases, cone fenders were the only realistic choice. Therefore, continuity was provided by reducing the fender spacing to 5 meters, sizing the fender panels so they nearly touched, and linking the panels with chains. In addition to the cost increase due to the larger number of fenders, the structural cost increased as well: first because the total vessel impact force rose, since more fenders participated in a vessel impact and, second, because the deck became part of the load path for impact forces and had to be substantially strengthened as a result. In an attempt to mitigate the additional fender and structural costs and keep the overall cost approximately the same, the Contractor and Owner agreed to reduce the overall length of the structures to approximately 450 meters and, more significantly, to allow the design for seismic loads to take advantage of structural ductility. The Panama Canal is located in a seismically active area, and significant parts of the design for the Approach Structures at both lock complexes are controlled by earthquake loads. Therefore, taking advantage of ductility in the design allowed for significant savings. After a study by the Contractor of a number of different schemes, a system consisting of a box-girder 144

145 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation deck spanning 15 meters between rectangular piers was selected for further design. The piers were sized so that they are expected to remain uncracked under the vessel impact loads. The pier foundations consisted of H-shaped pile caps with a set of 1.5-meter drilled shafts. The number and the length of the drilled shafts varies depending on the structure location and the subgrade material. In order to limit stresses due to concrete shrinkage and temperature changes, expansion joints were provided in the deck every 75 meters. Due to the relative heaviness of the structure compared to the concept design, the Contractor elected to have tank tests performed to compare the effect of the structures on density currents and approaching vessels with the original design. 2. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) design standards, which were used for the rest of the lock structures call for concrete hydraulic structures to remain essentially elastic under seismic loads, so a new design basis was needed. Due to the similarity of the Approach Structures to bridges, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) bridge code was selected to govern the design for seismic effects, while the USACE Engineering Manuals were used for the remaining load cases. The AASHTO code uses the concept of capacity design, where the designer selects the parts of the structures that will yield in a severe earthquake and the amount of ductility to be provided. The yielding regions are then detailed so that they will have the required yield strength and ductility, and the rest of the structure is designed to resist the maximum internal forces that will occur during the post-yield stage. While a strong earthquake can cause significant damage to a structure designed this way, the method provides a high level of protection against collapse, even for earthquakes larger than the design event. This is an appropriate standard for the Approach Structures, since they aren t necessary for operation of the locks, but they could block the canal if they were to collapse. In the Approach Structures, the piers are the fuse elements and the foundations and the deck structures are designed to remain elastic. Response modification factors of 2 and 3 were selected for the long and short directions of the pier respectively for the 475-year (Level I) earthquake, and factors of 2.5 and 3.5 were used for the 1000-year (Level 2) event. These are the factors by which the seismic response is divided to determine the design forces for the piers. Once the pier design was completed, the nominal capacity of the piers was multiplied by an overstrength factor to determine their likely ultimate strength, and these expected ultimate pier end moments and shears were used as the input forces for the design of the foundations and the deck. As can be seen this allows for a substantial reduction in the design forces in the piers and some reduction at the deck and foundations, with the tradeoff being additional transverse reinforcing in the piers to ensure a ductile response when the moment capacity of the pier is exceeded and to prevent the piers from failing in shear. The analysis of the piers and deck was done in the program SAP 2000 using a three-dimensional frame model. The linear multimode spectral analysis method using the site-specific response spectra provided by the Owner was used for the seismic analysis, and the model accounted for foundation flexibility using springs at the bases of the piers. The drilled shaft foundations were analyzed using the program GROUP, and the output from the foundation analysis provided the spring constants used for the foundation stiffness in the SAP model in an iterative process. In addition to the overall analysis model, a 3-D shell model of a single deck span was developed in SAP 2000 to look at the local response of the deck structure to vessel impact loads. The results from this model showed that it was feasible to use two smaller box sections connected by the deck slab instead of a single box the full width of the deck with intermediate webs, which simplified the construction of the deck. This model also allowed for the optimization of the area around the fenders. 3. SUMMARY The full paper will explain in more detail the procedures used for the analysis and design of the Approach Structures, and descriptions of the various foundation solutions will be included. The influence of construction methods on the design will be presented, and some of the construction challenges and solutions will be discussed. Figures and photographs illustrating the analysis and construction will be included

146 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation REGULATORY MODEL FOR INLAND WATERWAYS IN BRAZIL: CURRENT STAGE AND POSSIBILITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT Luiz Fernando Soggia Soares da Silva (MSc Naval Engineering - Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo; Terrafirma Consulting Firm) Marcos Mendes de Oliveira Pinto (Professor at the Department of Naval Engineering - Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo; Coordinator of the Center of Studies for Naval Management) ABSTRACT The full development of inland waterway transportation in Brazil faces severe institutional obstacles, notably the lack of a regulatory framework that governs the sector properly. Thus, the recently intention presented by the federal government to involve the private sector in the development of inland waterway infrastructure can reap positive results, as long as accompanied by the necessary regulatory aspects required. There is a myriad of issues that must be addressed in a regulatory framework to structure the concession of an inland waterway, concerning rights, duties and allocation of risks between the parts involved. Next, as an example, are relevant questions that must be answered (and that have variable responses according to the inland waterway characteristics): What degree of vertical integration is desirable and permissible along the chain? May the inland waterway operator be the same as the terminal operator? Is there the possibility to apply tariffs at lock operation or it would result in a loss of competitiveness by the inland waterway? Should the waterway be sectored and a General Granting Plan (Plano Geral de Outorgas PGO) be developed in order to ensure harmony between agents and avoid opportunistic behavior? Is there the possibility to integrate navigation in the bidding of a terminal, ensuring increased capacity along the entire chain? First, it is important to understand the role of the government, assuming the objective of planning and developing the inland waterway modal. The dynamics of investments in the inland waterway modal has a clear entry barrier because of the difficulty of all necessary links waterway (path and navigation), waterway and railway terminal (when necessary) be developed by the private sector. This is due to the large amount of investment, the large number of decisions that the initial system configuration involves (there is no possibility of mobilizing all private to define all decisions) and the risks to be assumed. Thus, is attached to the government the role of development inducer. To this end, the inland waterway development plan must include a division between the links as public or private responsibility. Therefore, the government is responsible for links in the chain that represent indisputable public interest (i.e., involve collective interests), allowing the participation of private agents in other links involving essentially or mainly private interests. In areas of great convergence of cargo and transshipment to another high capacity modal railroad or highway, such as São Simão/GO (Paraná River), Pederneiras/SP (Tietê River) or Itaituba/PA (Tapajós River), there is attractiveness to the private sector. However, the common infrastructure and the accesses need to be planned (example: the highway BR 163, which will be granted in 2015) and often undertaken by the government, since the economic benefits are shared, justifying the joint action of ANTAQ, the Ministry of Transport and entities that manage the inland waterways. Other problems such as shortage of areas and a need for common infrastructure organization can justify the existence of a "Waterways Authority", along the lines of a Port Authority in an organized port. In these terminals, seems to make sense a model in which the authorized Small public port facility (Instalação Portuária Pública de Pequeno Porte - IP4) accommodate different terminals, along the lines of a landlord port. In this model, the government (through the Waterway Administration - WA) is responsible for the management of contracts, investments in common infrastructure and rail access to 146

147 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation the existing railroad network. It should be noted that the role played by the WA in this model can be played directly or even through a sponsored public-private partnership (PPP). In regions suitable for small terminals that serve as local collectors, there may be two situations. The first, in which the owner of the cargo proposes an Transshipment Terminal (Estação de Transbordo de Carga ETC) to move themselves volumes and the second, in which demand is sprayed and the perception of risk is high, justifying a public terminal as a key link to induce the development of the inland waterway. In such cases, is recommended a model in which the IP4 is granted to a single player who takes most of the investments to be made. The public feature of the project may be guaranteed from explicit regulatory mechanisms in terms of the concession contracts (e.g.: contractual minimum movement, defined price-cap, among others). It is known that the movement of loads in inland waterways is still underdeveloped in Brazil since among other reasons there is a lack of a mature institutional framework. On the other hand, the waterway is widely used in many countries and understanding existing management models adopted abroad, considering the characteristics, objectives and idiosyncratic practices in each country will enable identify similarities with the modal characteristics in Brazil and draw good practice lessons to be adopted in defining the regulatory framework in the country. One example is the European Union Solidarity Fund case, created to finance infrastructure-restructuring projects, including transport infrastructure, in the event of major natural disasters in its member countries. In Brazil, seems to be interesting the proposal to create a fund to support the waterway modal, aimed at mitigating systemic risks that prevent the use of the waterway at certain times, for example, a compensation for business-related losses in case of operating impossibility caused by drought. The cases will be evaluated using various sources, but mainly: scientific articles; website addresses of terminals, operators and public officials; and personal contact with industry players. Then, will be presented the key information extracted from the analysis, and finally, the major learning and conclusions from the cases for setting a regulatory model for waterways in Brazil. It is important to point out, finally, some regulatory implications derived from the list of rights, duties and allocation of risks between the government and each private agent winner of the different bids to be performed. There are interesting mechanisms to be adopted to mitigate risks and ensure that all links are developed in harmony, ensuring capacity in all links and avoiding supply fluctuations that lead to specific bottlenecks. Next, some of the possible mechanisms raised in the study are listed: Joint bidding of input and output terminals, with the obligation to provide navigation superstructure (construction and barge operations): with this mechanism, it is guaranteed that there will be capacity in all links and competition with existing operators. Sectorization of the waterway and deadlines for the entry of new terminals: in order to minimize demand risks, an alternative may be to create some sectors in the waterway and not allow new terminals (ETCs or IP4s) to be installed in the new terminal sector for a reasonable time until the cargos in terminal are consolidated

148 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation REVISION AND COMPARISON BETWEEN METHODS TO DEFINE THE REDUCTION LEVEL IN WATERWAYS Guarneri, Henrique (Federal University of Paraná); Amorim, Renato Souza (Brazilian National Department of Transport Infrastructure); Creech, Calvin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers); Osorio, Ana Luisa Nunes de Alencar (Brazilian National Department of Transport Infrastructure) 1. Introduction The safety and permanence of navigation services are closely related to the maintenance of waterways operational requirements, such as the least available depth (LAD). The existence of enough depth to navigate during most of the year ensures a feasible implementation of commercial routes for loads and passengers. Technical data on water levels, discharges, and other river characteristics are needed, and economic data on traffic and cargo flows will enable an optimum use of the existing waterway (system). In this context of needed reliability on waterways infrastructure and expansion of the waterway sector in Brazil, it is essential that the methodologies and procedures to determine the water level datum for navigation are consolidated and universalized so that a theoretical and solid framework is available to improve maintenance services such as dredging and signaling. This low water datum can be defined as the reduction level or chart datum depending on the different available references, that level will serve as reference for nautical maps and gauge readings. Such a reference should be related to a shipping-critical low water discharge so that anywhere along the river the reduction level is exceeded as an average during the same number of days per year (PIANC,2003). This reference is also used for example in the development of the waterway channel alignment and in the definition of dredging and rock excavation volumes to ensure that a vessel, with the defined waterway requirements, can navigate safely. Therefore, this concept is very central for the construction, operation and maintenance of the waterway. Although primary, there is a lack of normative and systemic recommendations that define what should be this reduction level and how it should be computed. So what happens in reality is that the calculation and procedures to define this variable ends up being regulated by the waterway authority of each country and / or region. Guided by statistical concepts or pure observation of phenomena occurring in a defined time frame, the range of methodologies is immense and little is debated among the entities involved in waterway management. In this context, this paper aims to present different methodologies for computing the reduction level used worldwide and discuss their limitations and potentials. Then, apply these methods to a case study and compare and discuss the results and possible impacts of the differences between them. 2. Methodology Given the lack of specific recommendations on the definition of how the reduction level should be computed, this paper consisted initially in the literature revision of regulations regarding procedures and standards in navigation projects in Brazil and other parts of the world. The research covered regional regulations of countries with recognized navigation history as Belgium, the Netherlands and the United States and continental such as the guidelines established by the World Association for Waterborn Transport Infrastructure (PIANC). Then, in possession of these widely used methods, each calculation procedures was detailed in a didactic way to support future work in order to become a first reference on the subject. Finally, for the application of these methodologies, a study site was selected based on the following requirements: be a waterway planned in the Brazilian s Waterway Strategic Plan (PHE, 2012); have long series of observation of water level and stream flow; available topobatimetric section of the station and sufficient data to support the development of an adequate rating curve. Taking these requirements into account, the Brazilian stretch of the Paraguay River Waterway was selected as the study area for the application of the reviewed methodologies. This stretch extends through approximately 1272 km in Brazilian territory in a wetland commonly known as Pantanal, from Caceres MT to Apa s river mouth in Porto Murtinho-MS. Along the studied area there are five official gauging stations, one of which have 100+ years of records. The results obtained for each method were compared. The differences between the different reduction levels were evaluated. Finally, these differences were analyzed by it statistical relevance given the uncertainties of the study

149 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation 3. Bibliographic Review and Expected Results Every inland waterway have its own requirements and characteristics such as navigation season and drought and flood period. This often provide the baseline with which planners and agencies define the chart datum of each specific inland waterway. This may be the very reason why there are so little about a methodology conversion in literature. Choosing the right chart datum may be a bigger challenge for inland waters than for costal water. In general, rivers do not have the stabilizing feature that the ocean exert in mean water levels and are highly sensible to the rain-discharge dichotomy of river basins. Defining correct and consistent reference levels for inland waters requires long periods of stage records. In contrast, a couple of months of costal water levels entries may provide enough information for defining with reasonable accuracy its reference level. The big amount of records needed is mostly due to seasonal, even secular fluctuations in mean low water levels. In many rivers (e.g. Rio Paraguay), more severe drought and flood periods seem to occur in almost constant cycles, leading to matching periods of low water and high water levels. According to Forrester, 1983 the calculation of reduction levels should be done with this low water periods in mind even if seems unrealistic and pessimistic during high water levels. For this reason the author question the commonly used guideline that defines the chart datum as that in which the water level is only under it 5% of the time, suggesting it may not be severe enough. Table 01: Chart datums for non-tidal waters that could be adapted from those of tidal waters Variable Definition Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) Average of the lower of two daily low tides observed over a given period Mean Low Water (MLW) Average of all low tides observed over a given period Extreme Low Water (ELW)* Lowest elevation reached by the water in a given location * Includes the combined effects of tidal and meteorological factors Beyond those contained in the Table 01, another commonly used guideline describes the chart datum as the level such that the mean daily water level is never under 20 cm (Forrester) and the ninety percent exceedance level of the last 20 years (Brazilian Navy). The IHO is an International entity whose mission is to ensure that all the world s seas, oceans and navigable waters are surveyed and charted. Their only recommendation for non-tidal waters, is that the chart datums (reference level, reduction level) can be calculated as an appropriate long term range of low/high water definitions of the lower/upper percentile. The Brazilian Navy is responsible for maintaining the navigable waters in Brazil. They are signatory to the IHO and its regulations which defines the current standards for chart datum calculation in Brazil. Five gauging stations along the Paraguay River where analyzed and its chart datum (Reference Level) calculated with the methods described above. The dredging volume calculations of sites near each gauging station is performed with the different methods and compared for variations. At the end we obtained a significant difference between the methods and a direct impact in the overall simulated operation cost. 4. Final Paper and Oral Presentation In the full paper, first the methodologies for reduction level calculation identified in the literature review and its use in different parts of the world are described. Second, the study area is presented in detail describing its main characteristic of interest and available data for applying these methodologies. Finally, the results obtained for each methodology are presented in graphs and tables with the comparison between them with all the references used in the study that wouldn t fit in the abstract. In the conclusion, it is emphasized the importance of evaluating the different possible reduction level with its calculation procedures and the possible impact on waterway infrastructure implementation and maintenance. The main goal is that this matter is further discussed and published formally to guide the studies in the waterway sector. The oral presentation will be a brief introduction of the topic and its motivation with the definition of the term reduction level as called by PIANC (2001). After that, the procedures used to compute the reduction level will be described and the main findings and conclusions will be presented

150 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation THE POTENTIAL FOR WATER FREIGHT IN THE SOUTH WEST UK 1 Purpose Sapna Chacko, Michael Roe, and John Dinwoodie The importance of water freight as a sustainable mode of transport is growing continuously. As world trade depends on maritime transport, water transportation has a special place in the logistics industry. Water transportation is a sustainable mode of transport in a supply chain. Today, rising environmental concerns encourage business to seek alternatives from road transport, and have renewed the interest in waterborne transport. This research investigates the potential for water freight (short sea shipping, coastal shipping and inland shipping) in the South West UK especially in Devon and Cornwall. The study aims to identify current practices in water freight, the importance of water as a mode of transport in the supply chain, the logistical, economic and environmental benefits of using water freight as a mode of transport, its socio-economic impact in society, challenges blocking the successful management of water freight and to identify whether the use of water freight as a mode of transportation is worthwhile to the logistics industry in Devon and Cornwall. 2 Research Approach A conceptual model was developed based on the research objectives and literature review on water freight. It helped to recognise all important key factors and their assumed interrelationships to analyse the present situations in water freight. Simultaneously the formation of a conceptual model led to the realization of the most suitable methodology for accomplishing the objectives of the study. The management of water transportation in the supply chain to achieve various logistical, economic and environmental advantages depend upon the efficient and effective interrelationship among the key factors. The key factors identified in the conceptual model are port infrastructure and hinterland connections, professionals in the industry, stakeholders, policy, support and promotion from the government, the European Union and the Department for Transport, weather and tidal constraints, tax incentives and subsidies and market demand for water freight. Since water freight in Devon and Cornwall has been less studied than many other parts of the UK, the opinions and suggestions from the experts in the shipping and logistics field on the management of existing and future of water freight is very important to achieve the objectives of the study. The best way identified to approach for the experts observations and recommendations on the research topic as per the conceptual model is the Delphi method. Thus the Delphi method is used for primary data collection. The research completed three rounds of the Delphi survey. As explained before the limited usage of water transportation in Devon and Cornwall forced the researcher to gather a high level of consensus on each statement to get a real picture of water transportation in the region. Thus the consensus level was fixed at 75%. 3 Findings The Delphi study achieved a total of eight statement consensuses among the expert panel members. The consensuses revealed that presence of an extensive coast line and accessibility to a number of ports along the coast of the South West UK are supportive for the effective management of water freight movements in the region. Water freight is a sustainable green alternative to road and rail which is more labour, energy and fuel efficient than road transport. As an efficient and sustainable mode of transport, water fright will reduce the cost of transportation of bulk products over long distances, overland congestion, negative impacts on the environment, and external costs. It provides competitive cost, integration across all regions, economic progress and sustainability compared to road transport. At present ports in Devon and Cornwall lack investments in infrastructure and poor hinterland connectivity blocks the well-organized and profitable management of water freight in the region. As a result, the integration of water freight in the logistics chain is difficult. Meanwhile the statements which almost achieved agreement (70-74%) among the expert panel members confirmed that the potential of water freight as the mode of transport is facing many problems to utilize its full potential due to insufficient port infrastructure and hinterland connectivity in the region. Professionals related to the industry need more information about the possibilities of water freight to prepare themselves for the better management of water freight in Devon and Cornwall. With the help of improved resources water freight in the region can support transfer of road freight movements to water and will be beneficial to the economy of Devon and Cornwall

151 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation 4 Discussion and conclusion The three rounds of Delphi surveys together brought a large amount of information on water freight in the South West UK especially in Devon and Cornwall. Water freight is best suited to transport nontime critical bulk cargoes. Small and medium ports in the region can be used for small quantities of single bulk cargo movements. With the integration of local water freight into intermodal transportation, links between the existing port facilities, better hinterland connections, infrastructure and operational systems, the management of water transportation would be much easier to perform. The administration of water transportation can be supported by the introduction of subsidies, grants and a reduction in duty/taxes for water freight as a sustainable mode of transport. Better water freight movements will reduce road congestion, increase port employment, and local jobs and local distribution opportunities which could be beneficial to industry and society. The use of water freight will produce a better environment, congestion free roads, integration of remote locations, less price for goods, and a better economy. This study reveals the latest information about waterborne freight in Devon and Cornwall. The data collected during the Delphi study helped to realize the importance of using water freight and possibilities of it in South West UK. It was identified that water transportation is a sustainable mode of transport and offers many benefits to industry, society and environment. However the usage of water freight in the South West UK is low due to many reasons. The major reason for low usage is the lack of infrastructure at the ports and hinterland connectivity. The expert panel members shared information on water freight from their experience and knowledge accumulated from the industry over many years. The findings of the study will be useful for the government departments working for freight transportation, and shipping and logistics industry to develop better management strategies to increase the usage of water transportation in the region. Results of the research provide many practical recommendations to encourage the logistics industry to successfully manage water freight for the movement of goods, services and information without disturbing the environment. The Delphi study reveals when waterways are used for transportation, the economy and social status of that particular region will be improved. Thus this study opened a new insight into the possibilities and innovative uses of less considered waterways as a sustainable mode of transport in the coming days. The results of this research also have many implications to the rest of the world where water freight is in the developing stage or aiming to increase the usage of it. The suggestions, observations and information collected during the Delphi study from the expert panel could be used for forming better management strategies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of water transportation in a region or country. Consequently the economic and environmental benefits of using water freight would be more real in the shipping and logistics industry and society. Content of the full paper The full paper will include an introduction to the research topic (The potential for water freight in the South West UK), literature review on the importance of water freight as a sustainable mode of transportation in the logistics industry, logistical, economic and environmental advantages of water freight and managerial challenges to conduct water freight in Devon and Cornwall, methodology adopted (the Delphi method), an analysis of the Delphi process and findings, discussion on the results of the Delphi study and conclusion of the research. Content of the oral paper presentation A short introduction to the research topic, purpose of the research, methodology- the Delphi process, the Delphi results, suggestions for the successful management of water freight in Devon and Cornwall and conclusion on the impact of the research to society, the shipping and logistics industry and to the environment

152 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Inland Navigation TRAFFIC CAPACITY EVALUATION IN CONSOLIDATED WATERWAYS: TIETE RIVER'S CASCADE STUDY CASE. Antonio Henrique Soares Dutra Gomes Pereira; Tiago Zenker Gireli Water Resources Department School of Civil Engineering Campinas State University Introduction Nowadays Brazilian non-tidal lakes and rivers network feature about 63,000 km of potentially useful ways, (witch) can be divided into 9 watersheds that have nearly 44,000 km of rivers, from which 29,000 km are naturally navigable (BRASIL, 2009). In spite of the large amount of potentially navigable waters in Brazil, whether for freight or passenger transport, inland waterway transportation is the less used in comparison with other national freight transport modes. This means that the commercial inland navigation represents only 17% of the whole, whereas the use of rail traffic represents 25% and the use of road traffic is 58% (BRASIL, 2012). One of the most used waterways is the Tiete-Paraná which has 2,400 km of length. It has 800 km of navigable way in operation in Tiete River and 1,600 km in Paraná River. This waterway influences, directly, a 76-million-square-hectares region, which corresponds for 50% of national GDP, according to Annual Balance of Transportation/2008 in the State of São Paulo. Currently, this waterway works with convoys constituted by four barges which have draft up to 3 meters - this allows the transportation up to 6,000 tons, contrary to 2,400 tons initially intended, there were an increase of 150% of shipped cargo and 20% of the original draft (SOBENA HIDROVIÁRIO, 2011). Tiete River navigation is supported by eight lock and dam combinations. This waterway has lots of functions like reservoirs for urban water supply and recreation besides electric power generation. The main limitation to expand the traffic capacity is due to the time taken with the locking process. A calculus methodology to Effective Traffic Capacity (ETC) is presented in this study to be applied to any consolidated waterway which has historical data. The Tiete-Paraná ETC is going to be calculated from operational data of the lock located on Bariri's dam because this kind of structure limits the traffic increase capacity of the waterway. Calculating ETC is useful for showing a current scenario and to plan a future scenario and allows the comparison with the original data used in the framing of the project. Since the perspective is done, it is possible to take it as a basis to plan the management of the water resources and think about other uses that can be serviceable to the region population. Materials and Methods The factors related to the sluices witch influence and compromise the ETC have been observed analytically because the time to transpose the gap can be limiting to the cascading sluice traffic. The waterway traffic capacity can be avoided from expansion because of the limitation due to the locking process time besides loss with empty locking process, lack of logistic plan for operations, environmental and physical limitations nearby the lock, limitation of the long-distance transportation, etc. To the river Tiete's case study the following points were considered among known factors that affect the ETC: - types of transported cargo; different sizes of draft from several kinds of vessels; time expended on locking process of the typical convoys, which can be simple or double, as other types of ships that pass by the pound lock; maintenance stop; traffic flux discontinuity; preferential way of freight transportation; limitation of the ships draft due to lack of depth; time expended with maneuvers and vessels lashing; climatic conditions. These parameters have been chosen for being comprehensive so, it is possible to use the methodology applied to this case study in all consolidated waterways because since we have the data, the calculated coefficients are relevant and representative to any waterway use. The determination of Bariri's efficiency coefficients has been done using cargo transportation data on the sluice between years 2008 to Results Maximum cargo values to the typical convoy, passing time, Maximum Traffic Capacity (MTC), calculated efficiency factors by use of the data obtained with the sluice operator company, Global Efficiency Coefficient (GEC) and ECT are presented on the Table

153 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Inland Navigation Table 1 Bariri s dam ETC Effective Traffic Capacity Locking process time (min) 50 Cargo* (ton) 2.939,10 MTC (ton/ano) ,21 Cargo Facto 0,686 Draft Factor 0,969 Convoys Factor 0,389 Locking process time Factor 1,543 Maintenance Factor 0,997 Global Efficiency Coefficient (GEC) 0,397 ETC (ton/year) ,25 Discussion Despite the calculated ETC to this study presenting a value close to ETC planned project, it is realized that the changes done over the years in the convoys, changing them to double convoys affected the lock traffic capacity due to the increase on quantity of empty locking process caused by the separation of the convoys. Nevertheless, the real ETC is below to the CESP (Energetic Company of the State of São Paulo) calculated values witch were published in It predicted a move of 17,2 tons/year considering a 57,6 minutes transposition time. The MTC and ETC calculated by the DH (Inland Navigation Department) feature values which do not match with the used crossing time. The Tiete simple convoy, with 2,50 meters of draft and 2,200 tons of capacity, would have taken 26 minutes of transposition time, instead of 57,6 minutes presented to verify the calculation done by IND. Conclusion Once the ETC was obtained, it was possible to notice that the GEC used during the waterway design phase (0,39), according to Lopes (2011) is basically the same value calculated with lock operational data. These results indicates that the expectation about the pound lock work is reasonable and it is acceptable to consider that waterways with similar features have similar values regarding to the Global Efficiency Coefficient. References ALMEIDA, C. E., Obras de Transposição de Desnível em Barragens de Aproveitamento Múltiplo. Tese de doutorado apresentada à EPUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 1968, 353p. BRASIL. Agência Nacional de Transporte Aquaviário. Panorama Aquaviário, v. 3. Brasília: ANTAQ, p. Disponível em: < Acesso em: 02 set BRASIL. Ministério dos Transportes. Plano Nacional de Logística e Transportes - PNLT Disponível em: < Acesso em: 02 set CARVALHO, C. T., A Atividade Hidroviária no Estado de São Paulo e Investimentos no Plano Diretor Hidroviário Tietê Paraná e no Porto de São Sebastião. Instituto de Engenharia, São Paulo, Disponível em: < Acesso em: 09 jun FERNANDES, M. B., As Eclusas no Ambiente da Navegação no Brasil. Trabalho de Graduação Interdisciplinar apresentada à Escola de Engenharia da Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, 2001, 95p. LOPES, W. P., Impactos na Produção de Energia nas Usinas Hidroelétricas do Rio Tietê em Decorrência do Transporte Hidroviário. Dissertação apresentada à Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 2011, 199p. SOBENA HIDROVIÁRIO, Hidrovia Tietê-Paraná - Atracadouro de Espera da Eclusa de Bariri, Porto Alegre, 2011, 7 p

154 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change A numerical experiment of super-typhoon and extreme storm surge under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios Authors: Ryota Nakamura, Miguel Esteban, Takumu Iwamoto, Tomoya Shibayama 1. Introduction The present study investigated behavior of future potential typhoons and storm surges on of RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios by using a case of super-typhoon Haiyan of 2013 and associated storm surge. Several numerical experiments were carried out on a one-way coupling atmospheric-ocean model consisted of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) and unstructured, Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). In this study, pseudo global warming experiment methodology proposed by Kimura and Kitoh (2007) was used to construct the climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) based on single ensemble result of CMIP5 experiment on MIROC5 (Watanabe et al., 2008). According to the result, there are significant trends in the distribution of atmospheric air temperature (AAT) and sea surface temperature (SST) in on calculated fields [Figs. 1 (a) and (b)]. 2. Results and Discussion The future potential typhoons and accompanied storm surges were calculated for the changes in only SST case (hereafter, SST-case) and in SST, AAT and relative humidity (RH) case (hereafter, All-case). The decrement of minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) (an increase in intensity) of the future potential typhoon is nearly 10 and 20 hpa lower in RCP 4.5 and 8.5 of SST-case than that in present [Fig. 2]. On the other hand, the decrement of MSLP is approximately by 0.0 and 1.0 hpa lower in RCP 4.5 and 8.5 of All-case than that in present. In the storm surge estimation, the maximum height of the storm surge is by 2.0 ~ 3.0 m and 1.0 ~ 2.0 m larger in RCP 4.5 and 8.5 of SST-case respectively than that of present storm surge [Fig. 3]. On the other hand, the maximum height of storm surge is by -0.5 ~ 0.5 m and -0.5 ~ 1.0 m larger in RCP 4.5 and 8.5 of All-case respectively than that of present storm surge. These increments and decrements in the storm surge intensity can be attributed to the typhoon intensification as well as the changes in a radius of the future potential typhoons. 3. Summary In conclusion, typhoon-generated storm surges around the Philippines could be stronger in the future under a variety of climate change scenarios, particularly RCP 8.5, though the extent of this increase is uncertain as considering the change in different parameters (such as considering only SST and all SST, AAT and RH) yields different results. 4. References Kimura, F., and A. Kitoh, 2007: Downscaling by pseudo global warming method. The Final Report of ICCAP, Watanabe, M. et al., 2010: Improved Climate Simulation by MIROC5: Mean States, Variability, and Climate Sensitivity. J. Climate. 23,

155 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Fig. 3. The maximumm height of storm surge inn SST-case (left) and All-case (right) of RCP 4.5 and 8.5. Fig. 1. Distribution of sea surface temperature (left) and atmospheric air temperature (right) under global warming scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5).. Fig. 2. The minimumm sea level pressure of typhoons on time series in i SST-case and All-case of RCP 4.5 and

156 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Application of chirurgical dredging in contaminated sediments from a tropical coastal environment Julio Cesar Wasserman 1, Maria Angélica Wasserman 2, Sérgio Ricardo da Silveira Barros 1 1 Network for Environment and Sustainable Development, University Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil. 2 Institute of Nuclear Engineering - CNEN, Brazil, After reaching the coastal environment, heavy metals and other pollutants tend to settle in low energy systems and become stable by associating with sulfides or with organic compounds. After the deposition of the pollutants in the coastal environment, a very few processes are able to remobilize these substances, among them very strong storms and variation of the sea level (due to climate change). However, the most radical process that can severely affect the chemistry of these pollutants is dredging operations, thereby, constituting a serious threat for the environment. In developing countries, the commodities based economies heavily depend on large scale and cheap transportation that need very large port facilities. The choice of the location of these facilities consider low energy environments, where smaller protection structures are needed and preferably close to large industrial areas, or urban regions. These are the same conditions for the contamination of the submerged sediments, establishing a conflict between port facilities and the preservation of the environment. In Brazil, presently there are large legal restrictions for the development of new port facilities, because of the environmental impacts of dredging operation (maintenance or new facilities). New dredging techniques have to be developed, reducing ressuspension of contaminants and reducing impacts on disposal sites, and protecting the environment. In the present work, a technique developed by Wasserman et al. (2013) was applied to a dredging planning operation in the Rio de Janeiro coast (city of Macaé). The concept of a chirurgical dredging operation implies a very detailed layers mapping of the contamination of the sediments that is constructed based on the screening evaluation, a mandatory item of the environmental impact assessment regulation in Brazil (CONAMA/MMA, 2012). A maritime terminal that is to be constructed in the coast of Macaé is the subject of the present work, where 41 sediment cores were collected and sliced in two layers of 50 cm each. The sediment samples were analysed for a large number of parameter, including metals, tributhyltin, organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and polyaromatic hydocarbons. In order to better understand the behavior of the contaminants, the granulometry was measured by sieving and total organic carbon, total Kjeldal nitrogen total phosphorus were also measured. The parameters that presented detectable results were plotted in distribution maps. According to the procedure developed by Wasserman et al (2013), the concentrations above the sediment quality criteria for dredging are identified and the contaminated limits are outlined. The procedure establishes that the vertices of the contaminated polygon is delivered to the dredger that will withdraw the contaminated material, layer by layer directly to a Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) while the remainder area will be dredged regularly. The metals lead, copper, nickel and zinc presented measurable concentrations that could be plotted in maps, but all values were bellow the attention limits. The metal chromium and the semi-metal arsenic presented values above the attention limits and the later presented some values above the action level. Most of the concentrations of the other organic contaminants and tributhyltin were bellow the detection limits and no distribution maps were prepared. Although the location of the future maritime terminal is open ocean, the contamination by arsenic is significant. The studied region is subject to logistic activities of the Brazilian petroleum industry, but no significant industrial or urban source of arsenic could be identified. Presently, the agricultural activity in the region is reduced, but there is a historical record of a primitive sugar-cane cultivation that probably used large amounts of arsenic as anti-mould for the thickets. This arsenic has reached the study are through the Macaé River and accumulated in deeper sediments (15-20 meters depth). The results also show an association of the contamination with the geochemical carriers fine grained sediments and total organic carbon. Considering the arsenic concentrations, two maps were prepared, one showing the contaminated areas between surface and 0.5 meters depth (Figure 1), and the second between 0,5 and 1,0 meters depth. The volume that is to be dredged for the construction of the terminal is 682,459 m 3, but the 156

157 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change contaminated volumes, calculated from the maps were 96,465 m 3 and 43,262 m 3 respectively for the layers m and m. The total volume of contaminated sediment is 139,727 m 3, accounting only 20.47% of the whole dredged volume. Figure 1: map showing contaminated areas of the layer m of the sediment. The dark grey areas are the maritime terminal units, the very light grey is the dredging area and the doted surfaces are the contaminated areas with arsenic. According to the procedure developed by Wasserman et al (2013), the contaminated sediment has to be dumped in a special Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) that, in the case of the studied terminal, is a landfill of the dock itself and the remaining, uncontaminated sediments can be dumped in a regular dumping site. A brief cost evaluation shows that the application of the chirurgical dredging procedure significantly reduce costs, because only 20% of the dredged volume has to be destinated to special dumping sites (CDF), that receives impermeable linings and geotextiles. During the dredging of this contaminated material an intense monitoring program has also to be carried out, but it accounts to only 20% of the dredging time. Regardless the reduced costs, the environmental safety is perfectly assured. References CONAMA/MMA Resolução n o 454 de 1 o de novembro de Estabelece as diretrizes gerais e os procedimentos referenciais para o gerenciamento do material a ser dragado em águas sob jurisdição nacional. In: AMBIENTE, C. N. D. M. A.-M. D. M. (ed.) 454. Brasília, DF. WASSERMAN, J. C., BARROS, S. R. & LIMA, G. B. A Planning dredging services in contaminated sediments for balanced environmental and investment costs. Journal of Environmental Management, 121,

158 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Author: René Kolman, Secretary General, International Association of Dredging Companies (IADC) IADC Secretariat, Alexanderveld 84, 2585 DB The Hague, The Netherlands Tel: +31(0) ; Title: Ecosystem services: Framework for an integral decision in maritime projects Abstract: The importance of industrial activity cannot be understated but sustainable activities are necessary to protect environmental resources that are crucial not only in sustaining life but also economic, social and cultural welfare. Over the years, the concept of ecosystem services (ES) has become an integral part of sustainability. ES are different benefits that people can derive from nature such as provisioning services, e.g. food, regulating services, e.g. air quality regulation, and basic material for good life. This concept has also been adopted into programmes across the globe such as the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2020 and even the Millennium Development Goals as healthy and sustainable ecosystems are essential to meeting these goals. The ES framework shows the interdependence of ecosystems and human life. Furthermore, it can help analyse impacts that humans have on the ecosystem and how these changes can benefit people. This paper aims to highlight how the dredging industry can make use of the ES framework in project planning in order to quantify and measure the impact that maritime infrastructure has on the environment. Hence, organisations can make a balanced and integral decision in terms of the project work and the impact on the environment. There are three levels to measuring ES qualitative review, quantitative review of effects, and monetary value. The monetary valuation of ES is useful for a complete environmental cost-benefit analysis and to help weigh investment costs against economic and environmental benefits. In terms of quantitative assessment, each service has its own unit which is most relevant for that service. Carbon sequestration, for example, is expressed in tons of carbon per hectare per year. For the monetary valuation, each of the quantitative units is translated into per hectare per year to form a basis for comparison of scenarios. IADC and the University of Antwerp are currently assessing five maritime projects with the ES framework. The Polders of Kruibeke, a tidal marsh restoration project located in Zeeschelde, Belgium is the first case study. This paper will highlight how organisations can apply the ES system in their projects. It will analyse the project in various stages overview of changes in habitat and land before and after the project, ES analysis per habitat and land use type, description of the relevant ES and mechanisms supporting the ES delivery, and a qualitative, quantitative and/or monetary assessment of the project such as agricultural production, flood protection, and sedimentation and erosion

159 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Abstract for PIANC COPEDEC IX, Brazil October 16-21, 2016 ESTIMATING MAINTENANCE DREDGING FOR PORTS AND ACCESS CHANNELS WITH A RAPID, HYBRID APPROACH W.P. de Boer 1,2, Y.B. van Leeuwen 3, A.P. Luijendijk 1,3, F. Scheel 1 For many ports sedimentation is a serious problem, resulting in significant costs for lifecycle maintenance dredging. Although maintenance dredging can often not be prevented completely, smart design of ports and access channels or layout optimization can reduce the lifecycle costs. Quantitative tools are needed to evaluate different port layouts and arrive at promising solution directions to minimize the dredging costs. Full process-based models can be used for this purpose, but are often computationally expensive and costly to set up, making them less suitable for a rapid evaluation in the early design stages. Rapid assessment tools - based on expert rules and empirical relations - allow for such a rapid evaluation. However, those tools are often less suitable for complex port geometries and tend to focus on individual processes rather than their integral contribution. Here, we discuss a hybrid Harbour Design Tool (HDT) that integrates the relevant physical processes and is capable of dealing with complex port geometries without being computationally expensive. The HDT combines empirical relations for sediment transport, coastline development, channel sedimentation and port sedimentation with the newly developed hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flexible Mesh. The innovative aspect is that all these individual models and tools interact on-the-fly, allowing for almost immediate insights in the effects of different port and channel layouts. In the paper we will discuss the concept and setup of the tool. Furthermore, we demonstrate the tool s capabilities for existing port layouts in the Netherlands and South Africa. Finally, we use the tools to analyse the relation between the port lay-out, coastline development and sedimentation. The concept of the HDT is such that it can also be extended with empirical relations for nautical, ecological and economic aspects, allowing for multi-disciplinary assessments of port layouts. Furthermore, the rapid nature of the tool allows for efficient uncertainty assessments. This can be of large added value in data poor environments, as is often the case in developing countries. The tool can also be useful for research-by-design sessions with experts and stakeholders to arrive at solution directions that are more broadly accepted. 1 Deltares, Harbour, Coastal and Offshore Engineering department, Delft, The Netherlands 2 Corresponding author: Civil Engineering & Geosciences, Technical University of Delft, Delft, The Netherlands 159

160 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Effectiveness of adaptive coastal protection in managing wave overtopping and retaining beach views at the crest of seawalls Ron Cox 1 and Brandon Pearce With a projected sea level rise of approximately 1m over the next 100 years, storm water levels and wave heights impacting our beaches and seawalls are expected to rise leading to increased wave overtopping beyond safe limits. Adaptive forms of coastal protection are required to ensure the long term safety of coastal communities against future wave overtopping caused by large storm events. Within this study various adaptive upgrade options for armoured seawalls including wave deflectors, and back beach washout zones were physically modelled in order to determine their effectiveness in reducing wave overtopping rates under present and future conditions (Figure 1). All physical modelling that was performed at a Froude scale of 1:15 within the 3m wide random flume at UNSW Water Research Laboratory in Manly Vale, Sydney, Australia will be presented in detail at COPEDEC. Wave flume testing seawall options for managing overtopping with sea level rise For a typical case study of a 1 tonne Seabee unit seawall with slope 1:1.5, crest level 4.5m AHD, storm eroded beach with a toe level of -1 m AHD the overtopping rates were measured for a present day design storm water level (tide plus surge) of +1 m AHD and future projected sea level rises of 0.5 and 1 m. The overtopping was evaluated for safety against the EurOtop Manual (2007) recommended safe overtopping limit of 0.05 L/s/m. Even for present day sea levels, results indicated that for large storm events overtopping rates were unsafe for pedestrian activity. With projected sea level rises, overtopping rates became extremely dangerous indicating a need for adaptive protection such as wave deflectors and wash-out zones. Log spiral (Pohl 1992) wave deflectors of prototype heights of 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 m were tested for effectiveness in managing overtopping with sea level rise. For a 0.5 m sea level rise, the 0.9 and 1.2 m high deflectors are sufficient to reduce overtopping rates to safe levels. With a 1 m sea level rise even the highest 1.2 m wave deflector can only provide safety against storm waves of height less than 3 m. Rather than increase wave deflectors to heights that interfere with views of the beach (Figure 2), the use of washout zones (Figure 1) can be successfully integrated with protection whilst preserving and even improving amenity. For a fixed wave deflector height of 0.9 m (selected for providing better sight lines to the water and horizon from restaurants and cafes) washout zone widths of up to 9 m and back land heights up to 1.8 m were physically modelled against a 1 m sea level rise. Only the smallest washout zone of width 3 m and height 0.9 m produced unsafe wave overtopping whilst all other proposed washout zones successfully reduced wave overtopping rates landward of the washout zone well beneath that of limits for safe pedestrian activity. Reduction in wave overtopping rate was largely governed by increases in back land height as opposed to increases in washout zone width. Value of a beach and view - survey of beach users In assessing adaptive coastal protection options it is essential to consider the importance of unobstructed beach views and their significance to an individual s overall beachside experience. Surveys were performed at the popular tourist Bondi Beach and the local community Newport Beach in order to determine the emotional and architectural value of various beach views. In addition an external online survey was conducted to ensure responses were not limited to people that visited the beaches on coincident days but also covered a larger representation of society including those that may not visit the beach frequently. Detailed results of the survey will be presented at COPEDEC. Responses highlighted a strong desire for close beach proximity and unobstructed views of the shoreline, horizon and sandy beach. 318 responses were obtained in total with 103 responses from Bondi Beach, 101 responses from Newport Beach and 114 external responses online. Bondi, being a popular beach destination for not only locals but also for residents from all over Sydney returned a 1:1 ratio of responses between locals and day trippers. This contrasted with the smaller local community beach at Newport where the local resident to day tripper ratio was a much larger 3:1. As also found by Raybould and Lazarow (2009), living close to the beach was found to be a major factor in the frequency of participant beach visits. 91% of Newport respondents were locals visiting the beach at least once a week whilst only 62% of the more diverse Bondi Beach respondents visited on a weekly basis. This is a significant difference from the external on line survey results representing the 1 Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia

161 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change wider population which found that 35% of people only go to the beach on a monthly basis and 43% of people only visit the beach at most once every 3 months over the course of a year. An unobstructed view of the shoreline, horizon and sandy beach was highlighted through the majority of all survey responses as essential to one s positive beachside experience. Shoreline views were consistently rated the most important unobstructed view, closely followed by views of the horizon and then the sandy beach. There were notable differences in attitudes between the three survey groups to importance of beach views and proximity for restaurant and café seating preferences. In general there was high concern for possible future erosion of beaches with sea level rise from all survey respondents. Approximately 90% of all survey groups concluded that they would be greatly affected by a loss of all beach sand since it is an integral part of all beaches. Responses from both Bondi and Newport Beach survey groups showed similar concern rates of 84% and 81% respectively for a 50% reduction in sandy beach width. External survey participants were concerned significantly less about a 50% reduction in sandy beach width with only 47% of survey participants concluding they would be negatively affected. Across all 3 survey groups there were consistent trends for those least concerned with the loss of sandy beach width due to erosion to be those who rarely go on the sand or visit the beach less often. Keywords seawalls, wave overtopping, sea level rise, climate change adaptation, beach amenity References EurOtop (2007) Pullen, T.; Allsop, N. and Bruce, T.: Wave Overtopping of Sea Defences and Related Structures Assessment Manual, August Pohl, R. (1992) An Experiment Study of Wave Run-up On Steep Curvilinear Slope, Journal of Hydraulic Research No. 30:3, , Taylor and Francis, Germany, 2010 Raybould, M. and N. Lazarow (2009) Economic and Social Values of Beach Recreation on the Gold Coast, CRCST Project # Technical Report, Gold Coast, Griffith University, Sustainable Tourism, Queensland, Figure 1 Idealised section profile showing wave deflectors and washout zones Figure 2 Blocking of valued beach views with wave deflector adaptations 161

162 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE ABOUT MARINE FUELS Francisco Costa 1 Danielle Mendes Thame Denny 2 Gabriela Heckler 3 Abstract The maritime trade accounts for about 90% of international freight, in Brazilian exports, this modal is used in about 95% of cases. The notorious importance and usefulness of this modal, either in Brazilian scale, or on a global scale, has awakened the concern of international organizations about its efficiency and sustainable functioning a few decades ago. On this path, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), has several rules on navigation to safeguard and protect the environment. The most relevant to this study is the Annex VI from the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, which sets limits on sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ship exhausts and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances; designates emission control areas; and establishes mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Currently there is a global articulation towards the removal of sulphur chemical composition used in fuels of ships. Forecasts indicate overall reductions, however, in some areas the amount of sulphur is reducing even more dramatically, from 1% until December 2014 to 0.1% in January They form areas of sulphur emission control, Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA), which intend to maintain derivatives sulphur emission levels lower than 0.1%. The overall limit established nowadays by IMO is 3.5%, and projections point out that this overall limit will drop to 0.5% in 2020; this shows the severity and the imminence of the measure. The effects of sulphur in air pollution are already known, however, there are other indirect effects that need to be further researched, especially related to international trade. The overall analyses about the effect of the implementation of SECA's in Europe, USA and the Caribbean indicates it can lead to unknown effects, especially relating to trade balance and environmental compliance. The use of fuel that is in accordance with the above-mentioned standards costs about four times more than the fuels with high sulphur content. Alternative renewable fuels are still insufficient to meet the market demand. Thus, the increase in bunker cost has been estimated at US$50 billion a year, initially paid by the shipowner, which directly affects the navigation price in cabotage and long course; indirectly affecting the whole supply chain, after all, the extra cost is usually diluted in the logistics chain, rising the product price, therefore transferring the extra cost to the customer. Another critical point is the issue about international competition. In areas that have no control of air pollution, does not have such a tight control on the amount of sulphur used in fuel for ships will be unable to supervise and forcefully demand this compliance from ships that there dock. To a global extent, this lack of enforcement can be considered environmental dumping. Therefore international environmental law is essential to deal with the phenomena described above. It renders to be the main precautionary tool to promote the rapid adaptation needed in international trade. This paper compares nationals and internationals laws about sulphur present in the ship bunker, possible impacts in navigation contracts of cabotage and long course, as well as the socio environmental effects. It will also analyse the economic and juridical impacts to the players of the Brazilian shipping industry, in terms of international competition and sustainable development of the 1 Master degree student at Universidade Católica de Santos. Bachelor of Law from the Unidade de Ensino Superior Dom Bosco. 2 Doctoral student at Universidade Católica de Santos, with a grant from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Master of Communication in Contemporaneity, Faculdade Casper Libero. With specializations in: Economic Diplomacy, at the Universidade Estadual Campinas; Tax Law at the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo; Government and Politics at the Escola de Governo da Universidade de São Paulo. Bachelor of Law from the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo. University professor at Fundação Armando Álvares Penteado and Universidade Paulista. 3 Doctoral student at Universität Hamburg,Germany, Master of Juridical Sciences in UNIVALI, With specializations in: Civil Procedural Law, at FURB, Bachelor of Law from FURB. Legal Advisor, Coordinator of the Especialization course of Management of Maritime Transport and Ports, Professor at UNDB

163 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change economy. Those measures will have severe impact on Brazilian air and waters what increases even more the importance of legal analysis of the impacts of the above phenomena to the Brazilian academia. This legal research is based on deductive reasoning, from pre-determined concepts, developing over the arguments and facts perceived in the research which will result in a theoretical examination and analysis of data collected and / or provided by shipping companies that might improve understanding of the phenomenon. The approach method is the dialectic that will work to put current structure in order to overcome it or improve it by evidence of its antithesis, in order to adjust the legal view of the social dynamism that deeply influences the formation of legal standards. The chosen method aims to criticize the current dogma, whether for better understanding, or for its improvement. The research technique will be basically bibliography study, analysing, materials already compiled and published in print and digital media. There will be also consultation of scholars, jurists and authors of recognized work and legal study on public and private international law, dealing especially with international environmental law, international trade and maritime law. Bibliografia BRAUTLECHT, Nicholas. Ship Operators Propose Drones to Hunt Sulfur Scofflaws. Bloomberg Business. June, Available on < >. Access on November 29 th EMSA, European Maritime Safety Agency. The 0.1% sulphur in fuel requirement as from 1 January 2015 in SECAs - An assessment of available impact studies and alternative means of compliance. Technical Report, 13 th December, Available on < Access on November 29 th HPA, Hamburg Port Authority, AöR. Hamburg Port Authority Annual Report Available on < Access on November 29 th IMO, International Maritime Organization. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. Available on < Access on November 29 th KALLI, Juha; KARVONEN, Tapio; MAKKONEN, Teemu. Sulphur content in ships bunker fuel in 2015: A study on the impacts of the new IMO regulations on transportation costs. Publications of the Ministry of Transport and Communications 31/2009. Report from Centre for Maritime Studies, Helsinki, Available on < Access on November 29 th KATTNER, L.; MATHIEU-ÜFFING, B.; BURROWS, J. P et al. Monitoring compliance with sulphur content regulations of shipping fuel by in-situ measurements of ship emissions. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions. 2015, Vol. 15 Issue 7, p p. Avaible on < >. Access on November 29 th MARTINS, Eliane M. Octaviano. Curso de Direito Marítimo. Vol. I, 4a Ed.São Paulo: Manole, SCHINAS, Orestis; BANI, Jian. The impact of a possible extension at eu level of secas to the entire european coastline. Directorate general for internal policies: Policy department b: structural and cohesion policies. Transport and tourism. Available on < TRAN_NT(2012)474549_EN.pdf>. Access on November 29 th

164 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF THE PORT OF PARANAGUÁ-PARANÁ-BRASIL Marco Aurélio Busch Ziliotto Environment and Forestry Engeneer Amanda Gabriela Figueiredo Ramirez Environmental Manager Bruno da Silveira Guimarães Envaironmental and Occupational Safety Engeneer Janelize Nascimento Felisbino Environmental Manager 1. Introduction The Port of Paranaguá, named Dom Pedro II, is located in Paranaguá, Estate of Paraná, occupying an area of approximately 2 km² of the natural space of Paranaguá Bay, with a total area of 677 thousand m². The Port is located within the lagoon estuary complex of Paranaguá (CEP), surrounded by rain forest and Serra do Mar mountain range, connected to the Atlantic Ocean. Thus, due to the peaceful bay environment and the abundance of food, it hosts a native and temporary fauna biodiversity, once it s a favorable environment for species reproduction. In 2002, the Federal Government, through the nº Decree, set the limits of the organized Port of Paranaguá, and with the Federal Law for the Ports nº from 2013, structured the management of the public ports of Paraná, before an autarchy, today a public company, through Estate Decree nº , from July 4 th The Port of Paranaguá is under the responsibility of the Paranaguá and Antonina Ports Management APPA. With a new statute, the environmental issue gained bigger visibility and consequent larger responsibility, with the creation of an Environment Directive Board. This abstract presents experiments and results of the environmental management of the Port of Paranaguá. These are actions being developed within the scope of the Environmental Regularization License and others, within the internal program named Sustainable Port, executed by the Environment Directive Board, supported by the other Executive Director Boards and sectors that compose the APPA structure. 2. Environmental Regularization License The Port of Paranaguá is one of the first public ports to receive the Environmental Regularization License nº 1173, in 2013, issued by the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), the most important license for port environmental management. The scope of the license demands the execution of seventeen environmental programs which contemplates water, sediments, atmospheric emissions, fisheries, aquatic life and mangrove monitoring, heavy metal and hydrocarbon tissue contamination analysis, contaminated areas recovery, solid waste management, effluents, noise, ballast water assessment, traffic management, vector proliferation control, social communication, environmental education and the environmental management program. The APPA sends IBAMA a report twice a year with the results obtained by the program. In compliance with the law, the APPA executes simulated testing for the Individual Emergency Plan PEI (CONAMA No 398/2008) and for the Mutual Assistance Plan PAM (NR 29). This way, it is clear that the Porto of Paranaguá is structured and has a specialized and trained staff to meet any requirements of an oil spill or a fire accident. For greater effectiveness to assist fauna in case of an oil spill accident, APPA developed an Environmental Center (BASE DE PRONTIDÃO)

165 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change 3. Sustainable Port Program The Sustainable Port Program was developed by APPA in order to improve environmental management actions beyond the conditions of the Port s Environmental Regularization License. Within the Program Planning, a number of actions are being executed, some of them listed below: - Automated Sweepings, on the main access routes of the Organized Port, resulting in reduction of grains and fertilizers on the routes. The problem exists because of the cleaning of the trucks on these areas. The planning and execution of this action reduced the accumulation of the products on the margin of the routes and the decomposition odor, turning the area cleaner and reducing the presence of zoonosis vectors. - Water Management, in order to stablish procedures of monitoring the fresh water consumption in all Port s areas, aiming sustainability of the use of hydric resources. In this regard, APPA established, through Service Orders (OS), internal attributions for all its employees, to search for solutions and alternative methods of fresh water use, aiming rationalization and consumption reduction and therefore the economic value. - Environmental Mosaic it is a virtual transparency platform, where information of licenses and environmental studies, APPA s and all the tenants emergency plans are available for all the Port s community, inspection agencies and external public, and shows the engagement of the process of environmental transparency adopted by APPA board of directors. - Porto Escola Project, aims the 5th year students from fundamental school and their teachers at the public school network of Paranaguá. The Project started in 2015, through a partnership between APPA and Paranaguá City Hall, benefiting approximately 60 students. The Porto Escola Project has a purpose to present the relation between the Port, the city and the environment. During the first visit, students assist a technical speech focused on principles of responsible citizenship, health, safety and environment, followed by a field class to Port s primary band. The Porto Escola Project has shown good results, evaluated from the participation and interaction of the teachers and students with the pedagogic staff of the Project. The main perception of the community is been the rescue of the institutional articulation between the city and the APPA. 4. General Considerations The Port of Paranaguá, as presented, is always searching for continuous improvement and good results on the environmental management area, since the port activity is classified as potentially polluter, as defined by the National Environment Policy, since Through the Environmental Development Index IDA, implemented by the National Waterway Transportation Agency ANTAQ since 2012, that has the purpose of analyzing the environmental performance of the Brazilian ports. The Port of Paranaguá has demonstrated growing rates of good environmental performance since the control has been established, reaching on the second semester of 2014 the index of 80,14%, setting the Port of Paranaguá among the four best of Brazil, and there are strong indications of ranking improvement later this year. The success on continued improvement of the process is the result of the joint action between the APPA and its tenants, enforcing environmental, port, health and safety legislation that priories human life, environment and property protection. As a performance goal, APPA established a maximum IDA grade. The results of the Environmental Programs of the Environmental Regularization License and additional actions of the Sustainable Port Program will be presented and detailed on the final article, improving the discussion of these results, based on the actual environmental legislation and bibliographic material. The oral presentation of this work has the objective of disseminating the actions developed by the APPA to others interested in environmental ports management

166 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Hydrodynamic aspects of Araçá Cove in São Sebastião - SP 1. Introduction Consulim, C. E. N.; Lima, A. T.; Masutti, M. B.; Silverio, P.; Zanin, G. R. The Araçá Cove located in São Sebastião-SP is an artificial bay formed during the construction of the São Sebastião Port in 1936 (CAP 2009 cited Teodoro et al, 2011) and it is in the central region of São Sebastião Chanel in its continental margin. The coastal fringes of Araçá Cove are formed by small tips, grooves and islands. On the tips, there are outcrops of biotite-gneiss rock, which is now covered with sand in more protuberant grooves, forming small beaches as Deodato, Pernambuco, Germano and Top. Furthermore, two islands are present in the bay (Pedroso and Pernambuco) in alignment position relative to the outcrops. It features small remnants of mangrove and extensive tidal flat which is exposed in periods of low-water spring tide and it is home to several species of benthic organisms, mainly represented by polychaeta worms, mollusks and crustaceans. In socio-economic terms, it is an area used by some craft fishermen to extract clams and anchoring of their small vessels. This study area is in the port expansion zone of São Sebastião-SP and for years suffered human interventions such as (a) dredging to install the outfall of sewage, (b) the continental drainage basin of Mãe Isabel Stream that flows into the Araçá Cove, contributing to the pollution of the bay due to garbage and sewage originating from diffuse sources and launching of own outfall, (c) urban sewage, (d) marinas and boating activities and (e) oil spills or leaks. In this way, any kind of human actions in the coastal area requires previous planning and environmental studies so that the activity can be evaluated for potential impacts and risks that may arise during the deployment and operation of potentially polluting activities. Regarding the port expansion, the hydrodynamic conditions are among the major environmental variables to be detailed since they both reflect on the quality of the superficial waters and on structural engineering issues. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the hydrodynamics and water quality in the Araçá Cove. Data were collected on several occasions over the environmental studies developed by Companhia Docas de São Sebastião and provide a circulation analysis and renewal of waters of this cove and their effects on quality conditions and standards of surface water in the cove of Araçá. 2. Methodology Quality surface water data for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, DO and fecal coliforms, as well, data from currents, tides, winds, rainfall, salinity, temperature and bathymetry were obtained in different occasions, but together they allow us to draw up a preliminary scenario of the carrying capacity of the environment. Samples of surface water were collected in twelve (12) points, 02 points representing the surface drainage that flows into the bay of the Araçá (Mãe Isabel Stream) and 10 points in the vicinity of said inlet. Samples were obtained at the surface and sub-surface tide conditions and quadrature spring tide, both in the rising tide period, in December Surface samples were sampled by the direct immersion of the vials without preservatives, while the subsurface sample used the Van Dorn bottle. The chemical analysis (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal coliforms) in these samples were performed by accredited laboratory in ISO 17025/2005 standard and followed the guidelines of CONAMA Resolution 357/05. In situ measurements were taken of DO, salinity and temperature in all water samples collected using a multi-parameter probe, HANNA, 9828 model, properly calibrated. Current data were obtained from literature review to the São Sebastião Canal. The winds were obtained from the data series from the Caraguatatuba Meteorological Station, while data on tide were based on the characteristics described in the tide station of the Ocean Studies Foundation - FEMAR to the port of São Sebastião - SP (Code BNDO 50210). Rainfall data were obtained from the time series for the São Francisco E2-045 station (ANA code ). The bathymetric survey was carried out in an automated manner using a notebook installed aboard the probe boat using the Hypack Max 2010 software, together with satellite positioning 166

167 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change devices with differential correction by Omnistar signal (DGPS Hemesphere R-130) and the echo sounder ODOM Digital CVM with 210 khz transducer. The survey was conducted using the horizontal datum WGS Results According to the average monthly rainfall chart, the rainfall in the region is composed of a wet season from December to May and a dry season from June to November. Average monthly rainfall heights ranging from 40 mm in August and 180 mm in January. The average wind direction (resulting wind) indicated that throughout the year there is the circulation of ocean breezes. Between September and February, the most intense winds are from E quadrant, followed by weaker winds from W, while between March and August, the average direction of the winds are from the NE and E quadrants. Sometimes winds from N and NNE quadrants are observed. The wind is the main force in the currents of São Sebastião Chanel and the tide currents are negligible (Kvinge, 1967; Castro 1990; Miranda and Castro, 1995; Fontes, 1995; Silva 1995; Pereira et al., 2007). Thus, winds from NE boost current channel in the longitudinal direction SW. The winds coming from SW, usually associated with the passage of the frontal weather systems, force longshore currents with NE direction. Potential baroclinic effects (due to differences in salinity and temperature of the water in the channel) can be considered negligible in the Araçá Cove, specifically due to low local depth. The horizontal circulation in the Araçá Cove is quite restricted due its low depths that do not exceed 2m depth. Hence the organic contribution the Araçá Cove receives from surface drainage Mãe Isabel Stream, mainly during rainy season (DO: <5 mg/l; nitrate: <0,30 to 54 mg/l, nitrite: <0,02 to 0,02 mg/l, ammonia N: 0,35 to 4,75 mg/l, total P: 0,0363 to 0,85 mg/l; fecal coliforms: until the MPN/100ml) tends to temporarily impair water quality (DO: <5mg/L; nitrate: <0,30 mg/l; nitrite: <0,02 to 0,024 mg/l, ammonia N: <0,20 to 4,81 mg/l, total P: 0,0375 to 0,979 mg/l; thermotolerant coliforms: until to MPN/100ml). Another contributor to the presence of these nutrients in the Araçá Cove corresponds to the outfall, whose launch point is near the tip of the Araçá. The Araçá Cove is connected with the southern portion of the São Sebastião Channel and the renewal of water in this small body of water is effectively carried out by the tide. The estimate of the volume of water in Araçá Cove associated with different tidal ranges (average of the lower low tides, mean higher high tides, medium level and average low tides of syzygy) showed that as the largest tidal range (low tides of syzygy versus higher high tides) the volume of water is about m 3. Considering this volume of water and an average time 6,2h between a low tide and high tide, one has to estimate the volume of water transport for this scenario is about 24 m 3 /s, while considering a condition between the average minimum height of tide (higher low tide versus lower high tide) the transport rate decreases to 15 m 3 /s. 4. Conclusion Thus, it is understood that actions to prevent diffuse releases that still occurring in Mãe Isabel Stream can contribute to water quality improvement in the bay of the Araçá, which is notably eutrophic, since the water renewal in the cove tends to occur within a few days, by the action of the tides, which reflects on the environment's carrying capacity

168 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Hydro-sedimentary modeling, a precious tool for coastal developments : illustration on a port extension project in France. 1. Context Le Dissez A., Lagroy de Croutte E., Walther R. Port-La Nouvelle harbor is located at the mouth of an inlet linking a lagoon system (Bages-Sigean lagoon) and French Mediterranean Sea (micro tidal environment exposed to waves), its home to a very complex hydro-sedimentary dynamics conditioning a highly tenuous ecosystem balance. A project of development of the present harbour is under consideration. In this frame, the harbour s owner, region Languedoc-Roussillon, entrusted ARTELIA with hydro-sedimentary impact study. In order to assess project s impact on its environment and to optimize the design so as to not jeopardize natural hydro-sedimentary balance, ARTELIA developed an efficient methodology based on tridimensional (3D) numerical models for hydrodynamic, sediment transport and morphodynamic calculations. This article presents this methodology, particularly relevant for study of development projects in such complex coastal area. 2. Objectives and means The multiple objectives of the study are the following: - First, studying the present hydro-sedimentary dynamics for a better understanding of the site dynamics ; - Then, forecasting this dynamics in the future considering harbor extension and assessing impacts on shipping conditions within the entrance channel, on hydraulic exchanges between lagoon and sea, on mud deposit within harbour basins and on dredging operations Possibly proposing different port development layouts in order to optimize the design to reduce the impacts. In order to achieve that, three hydro-sedimentary numerical models are developed using TELEMAC modeling system: one three-tridimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model, one 3D model for the deposit calculation of cohesive sediments within the harbor, one 3D model for morphodynamic evolution of sandy sea bed in short (1 year) and medium (10 years) terms. Here are presented the three numerical tools: their goals, their calibration/validation phase ensuring model reliability and accuracy, and their contributions to a better understanding of the local complex hydrodynamics as well as to the impact study. 3. 3D hydrodynamic model: requirements and contributions First the 3D hydrodynamic model is developed using TELEMAC3D module of TELEMAC system, coupled with wave propagation module TOMAWAC. Model s extent and multiple forcing have to be suitable to take accurately into account the respective contributions of waves, meso-scale water circulations, wind effect on free surface slopes, rainfall intakes and evaporation to local dynamics. In order to better understand the complex present hydro-sedimentary dynamics, to help to design an adequate model and to provide a relevant data set for its calibration, a major field campaign of hydrodynamic measurements has been conducted: 6 acoustic Doppler current profilers were deployed during six months to measure waves and currents and characterize circulation patterns of the water masses of the area from the offshore until shallow depths. Water exchanges between the sea and the Bages-Sigean inlet have also been measured with a current profiler located within the inlet, and pressure sensors measured the water levels slopes between the inlet and the sea. Various met ocean conditions have also been recorded: all these data were used to calibrate and validate wave and current models of the area. Thanks to a wide range of forcing, hydrodynamic model results are in a very good concordance with measurements. This critical calibration step ensures the quality of not only the hydrodynamic model but also the sedimentary models ensuing from it. Validated model contributes to increase local dynamic understanding by means of didactic animations of calculated current fields. The next step consists of calculating hydrodynamics under future configuration (with harbor extension) in order to assess potential impact on coastal currents, water exchanges between lagoon and sea, and shipping conditions within the future entrance channel

169 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Figure 1 : A Model extent ; B - Bathymetry ; C Mesh of one horizontal plan 4. 3D model for deposit calculation of cohesive sediments: requirements and contributions Then 3D model for deposit calculation of cohesive sediments is developed by solving suspended transport for one cohesive sediment class (mud) directly in TELEMAC3D. Calibration consists of calculating deposit volumes in one year very close to measured average annual dredged volumes. Once calibrated, this model contributes to increase sediment dynamic understanding within the inlet and present harbor basins. In a prospective way, it helps to assess the impact of the extension project on maintenance dredging operations, and the impact of dredging and dumping operations during extension construction. 5. Multiclass sediment model for morphodynamic calculation of sandy sea bed in shirt and medium terms: requirements and contributions This third model couples 3D hydrodynamic model with sedimentary module SISYPHE (TELEMAC system) that solves sediment transport for graded granulometry (here 4 sizes of sand particles). Calibration is based on average annual volumes of sand dredged within the present entrance channel (short term), and analysis of natural bathymetric evolutions observed during two periods of 30 years and 3 years (medium term). Once calibrated, this model contributes to assess the impact of extension project on sandy sea bed in vicinity of future harbor facilities as well as near conservation areas. As a conclusion, this case study perfectly highlights the efficiency and power of numerical hydrosedimentary modeling for understanding complex coastal site and studying various impacts potentially caused by coastal development, provided that it is supported by a relevant field campaign of hydrodynamic measurements. It also gives a relevant methodology for studying development projects in such complex coastal area. KEY WORDS: 3D hydro-sedimentary numerical modeling, impact study, coastal hydrodynamics, cohesive sediments, morphodynamic of sandy sea bed

170 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Improvements to the Fluvial Sediment Estimation in SMIC (preliminary results) Abstract Janaka Bamunawala 1, Shreedhar Maskey 2, Roshanka Ranasinghe 3, Ad van der Spek 4 and Dirk-Jan Roelof Walstra 5 Sixty percent (60%) of the global population is settled near coasts and estuaries (Kennish, 2003), resulting in most of the world's largest cities in their vicinity. These numbers keep mounting due to ever increasing population and urbanization. On the other hand, coastal and estuary systems are among the most dynamic natural systems, which are affected by a large variety of climate change driven oceanic processes (ex. sea level rise) and terrestrial processes (ex. runoff, fluvial sediment, rainfall) (Kettner, et al., 2009). Furthermore, anthropogenic factors such as large scale river flow diversions, de/re forestation, damming, and dredging/sand mining are becoming very prominent factors, affecting coastal and estuary systems (Syvitski, et al., (2005) and Syvitski, et al., (2009)). Due to the interaction of the above mentioned multiple factors (CC driven and Anthropogenic) and their various scales of geomorphic changes, ranging in time from days to centuries, the quantification of CC and anthropogenic impacts on coasts and estuaries is a very challenging task. Although it now known that coasts and estuaries are affected by both the oceanic and terrestrial processes, most of the studies carried out to date are heavily biased towards a fragmented scrutinization of oceanic processes, resulting in an inadequate understanding of these systems in a holistic a manner. Hence it is very important to study coasts and estuaries in a holistic manner, with due considerations to both CC driven and anthropogenic factors. A good initiative towards this type of studies is presented in Ranasinghe, et al., (2013), where the behaviour of coasts and estuaries was studied as integrated systems with due considerations to its relevant terrestrial processes as well. Although the above study provides a solid base to probe into the interaction of multiple oceanic and terrestrial processes and its impacts on coasts and estuaries, much work remains to be done, in order to improve its generic applicability and output accuracy. One major drawback of the Ranasinghe et al's (2013) approach is its simplified consideration of future changes in fluvial sedimentation. The study presented here, attempts to rectify this shortcoming. In Ranasinghe et al's (2013) SMIC (Scale aggregated Model for Inlet-interrupted Coasts), the change in fluvial sediment supply to coasts was calculated by Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), but only considering the change in rainfall from present to the future time horizon considered. Thus, SMIC does not account for future changes in factors such as temperature, land use and land management practices. However, other studies indicate that these other factors may also contribute significantly to fluvial sediment supply to the coasts in many situations (Syvitski, (2003), Syvitski & Kettner, (2008), Syvitski & Milliman, (2007) and Syvitski, et al., (2003)). In the present study, the BQART model proposed by Syvitski & Milliman, (2007) is adopted with several modifications to compute the changes in fluvial sedimentation by the end of the 21 st century. Syvitski & Milliman, (2007) developed and validated BQART, a globally applicable model to compute fluvial sediment supply as a function of anthropogenic and lithological impact (B), catchment discharge (Q), area (A), maximum relief (R) and temperature (T). The study carried out by Balthazar, et al., (2013) has indicated the possibility of modifying the original BQART model, by incorporating the Human Foot Print Index (HFPI) to incorporate human induced erosion as well. Reservoir impoundments is another major anthropogenic factor, which can reduce the fluvial sedimentation very significantly (Vorosmarty, et al., (2003) and Yang & Lu, (2014). Cumulative reservoir impoundment could be estimated more precisely on catchment basis for cascaded reservoir systems (Yang & Lu, 2014), which will also be incorporated in this study later. These inclusions are expected to enhance the accuracy of fluvial sediment supply estimated. 1 PhD Fellow, Department of Water Science & Engineering, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands 2 Associate Professor of Hydrology and Water Resources, Department of Water Science & Engineering, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands 3 Professor of Climate Change Impacts and Coastal Risk, Department of Water Science & Engineering, UNESCO- IHE, Delft, The Netherlands and Advisor (Modelling Strategy), Harbour, Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Deltares, Delft, The Netherlands 4 Senior Marine Geologist, Deltares, Delft, The Netherlands 5 Programme Manager, Deltares, Delft, The Netherlands

171 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change The preliminary results of the study related to Kelani river basin in Sri Lanka, the 4 th longest river in Sri Lanka indicate that the BQART model estimates of fluvial sediment supply, only with the modification of human induced erosion component, are very different to those estimated by the method adopted by Ranasinghe, et al., (2013) in SMIC. Table 1 shows the the fluvial sediment supply estimates given by the two methods. Since SMIC only computes the percentage difference in fluvial sediment during the time period considered, the present fluvial sediment supply value computed from the BQART model (1.660 MT/yr) was used as the baseline value in all calculations. Table 1: Comparison of fluvial sediment supply estimates obtained with modified BQART and SMIC Fluvial sediment supply (MT/yr) at present Fluvial sediment (MT/yr) by 2100 Change (MT/yr) Modified BQART Model SMIC (same value obtained from BQART model) Clearly, the two methods yield drastically different values with a certain degree of uncertainty. The present observed value for fluvial sediment is the major uncertainty, which will be verified with the future studies to be carried out. Inclusion of temperature and human interference in erosion in catchment and consequently in fluvial sedimentation are the two major reasons that attribute for the large difference in the outputs of the two methods adopted. Note: Brief description of the research In this study, it is expected to improve the fluvial sedimentation calculated in SMIC of Ranasinghe, et al., (2013). It s a part of the PhD research carried out on Holistic modelling of catchment estuary coastal systems in macro time scales

172 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change INSTITUTIONALIZED GREEN PORT STRATEGY AS PERFORMANCE MEASURE FOR PHILIPPINE PORTS Fernando B. Mapalo, Jr. Hector E. Miole (Philippine Ports Authority) 1. Rationale ABSTRACT The environmental performance of Philippine ports is an aspect of operation that has virtually not been measured since the creation of the Philippine Ports Authority in the 1970s. Port performance measures have traditionally been equated in terms of vital metrics such as operational output, productivity and utilization, efficiency, capacity and profitability. For several decades these port performance measures have traditionally been the focus by port authorities and port operators (PA/POs) in the Philippines such that much effort has been poured into physical development, continuous review and simplification of business processes, and regular updating of tariffs in order to make port rates competitive while leaving no quantifiable performance measures in terms of impact the ports bring to the environment. Existing green initiatives by most PA/PO in major Philippine ports are mostly implemented as part of the corporate social responsibility program. Although significant in number, these non-institutionalized green initiatives have varying objectives, hence, there is the long absence of common available data by which environmental performance of the port/s can be measured and benchmarked. The absence of environmental port performance measure is also attributed to the fact that, most of the organizational policies as well as core business processes by respective PA/PO are devoid of specific commitments for the protection and conservation of the environment where they operate. In the light of the Philippines being identified among the countries in the developing world which is most vulnerable to climate change, the threat to life and property, becomes more imminent. Given the extensive coastlines of the Philippines as an archipelagic country where most of the Philippine ports are located, the likely adverse impacts of climate change to the efficiency of port operations should thus be addressed with urgency. By properly managing the impacts of climate change on port operations, the movement of cargoes passing through the ports towards the global supply chain will be seamless and minimally disrupted. These urgent challenges leave the Philippine ports with the imperative to respond, foremost of which is the institutionalization of its various independent green initiatives into a holistic green port strategy. The process of institutionalizing green port strategy requires both hard and soft approaches. Hard approaches involve among others the acquisition and provision of capital-intensive equipment, facilities and technology. However, these approaches take longer periods to materialize (e.g. climate change resilient port infrastructure). Moreover, the impact of green infrastructures once completed are much highlighted on operational and cost impacts. Hard approaches also pose as a resource challenge for a developing country like the Philippines given the huge costs likely involved. Particularly in the case of Philippine Ports Authority (PPA) where funds for the construction and development of ports are primarily sourced from its own corporate funds, the provision of climate change resilient port infrastructure is such a formidable challenge. On the other hand, soft approaches in green port strategy involve mobilization of lesser resources and shorter time required for execution by PA/POs. Its outcomes are easier correlated to environmental impact. Soft approaches may serve as a complementary cost-effective component of a green port strategy. 2. Objectives & Methodology This paper aims to present the pragmatic elements of soft approaches to green port strategy that could be adopted and institutionalized by PA/POs like PPA. The outputs and outcomes of these approaches to green port strategy could practically serve as an entirely new set and common benchmarks of environmental port performance measure by which all the ports under the jurisdiction of the twenty six (26) PPA Port Management Offices (PMOs) in the entire country could utilize

173 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Salient dimensions of these soft approaches are the following: a. Adoption of port authority environmental policy applicable to all PPA ports; b. Greening of core business processes and activities to harmonize with the port authority environmental policy; c. Adoption of environmental tariff and incentives; d. Continuous environmental human capacity-building for port stakeholders. The proponent will be utilizing documentary review and direct observation as its primary methodology. In crafting the proposed framework for the institutionalized green port strategy, review of existing environmental regulations/policies of PPA and the various green initiatives by the PMOs shall also be made. The best practices shall be identified and may be incorporated in the green port strategy. Ultimately, the information that will be generated as a result of the institutionalization of green strategies as port performance measure could also be utilized at the country level to regularly assess the sustainable improvement made by Philippine ports in terms of managing impacts and adaptation to climate change in the most cost-effective ways possible. The results could also have other practical value by serving as an additional literature in replicating the adoption of environmental port performance measure in other developing countries

174 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Navigating a Changing Climate The Action Plan of PIANC s Think Climate Coalition Jan Brooke, Focal Point, PIANC s Think Climate Coalition Arne Nilsen, Technical Director, Aurecon Ben Hodgkin, Senior Engineer, Maritime and Waterways, Royal Haskoning DHV 1. Introduction to the Navigating a Changing Climate Initiative On 6 th December 2015, Transport Day at the Paris Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21), the partners in PIANC s Think Climate coalition launched an Action Plan entitled Navigating a Changing Climate. PIANC s Think Climate coalition continues to expand, but at the time of writing the partners are: - World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure (PIANC) - International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH) - International Harbour Masters Association (IHMA) - International Maritime Pilots Association (IMPA) - International Bulk Terminals Association (IBTA) - Smart Freight Centre (SFC) - European Dredging Association (EuDA). Through the development and delivery of the Action Plan, these partners are cooperating: - to improve sector-wide awareness of climate change; of the challenges waterborne transport infrastructure will face; and of potential solutions or opportunities - to create and facilitate knowledge networks, promoting the sharing of experience and good practice between state and non-state stakeholders at international, regional and national levels - to develop or facilitate the preparation of technical good practice guidance, training opportunities and web-based resources - to provide a coordinated, global focal point: a centre of excellence intended to support the owners, operators and users of waterborne transport infrastructure in building the capacity needed to navigate a changing climate. It is the coalition s aim to move from a situation in 2015 where, with some exceptions, the sector is characterised by low levels of awareness and uncertainty leading to inaction to, by 2020, an informed sector where the owners, operators and users of waterborne transport infrastructure are aware of the issues and have access to relevant resources. To this end, the Navigating a Changing Climate Action Plan describes concrete actions designed to: - raise awareness by expanding the network, encouraging organisations to join as coalition partners or to register as supporters of the Navigating a Changing Climate initiative - promote the uptake of measures to reduce or offset greenhouse gas emissions and encourage a shift towards low carbon waterborne transport infrastructure and operations; - improve preparedness, strengthen resilience and facilitate climate change adaptation in the waterborne transport infrastructure sector; and - encourage new ways of thinking about waterborne transport infrastructure including Working with Nature and identifying sustainable, integrated solutions. 2. Progress with Action Plan Implementation Some actions in the Navigating a Changing Climate Action Plan consolidate and scale up initiatives that were already underway - for example the IAPH World Ports Climate Initiative, PIANC s Working with Nature, and Working Group 178 on climate adaptation for waterborne transport infrastructure on which most of the coalition partners are represented. Other actions were commencing as the Action Plan was published (PIANC Working Group 188 on carbon 174

175 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change management for ports and navigation infrastructure) and some were already proposed (e.g. a new PIANC Working Group on Resilience). The presentation will highlight progress with these and other aspects of Action Plan implementation; it will take into account the international commitments made, and decisions reached, by the parties to the COP21; and it will focus in particular on the need for adaptation. 3. Adaptation to Climate Change Even if the COP21 meetings in Paris in December 2015 reach agreement on limiting warming to less than two degrees, climate scientists are in general agreement that we are already locked in to further change. If we fail to achieve this goal, things will get worse still. It is time to stop using uncertainty as an excuse for inaction. Even if there is disagreement on what is causing the change, change is happening. Adaptation of navigation infrastructure is vital, and the time to act is now. In addition to stressing the opportunities to reduce emissions associated with navigation infrastructure, this paper will therefore focus in particular on the urgent need for adaptation. Climate change effects will vary regionally and often locally; change will not be equally distributed and the most profound effects may be felt in countries that are least well resourced to adapt. Taking into account current projections, the following table highlights some of the main areas in which measures to improve resilience and/or adapt will be needed. Maritime navigation infrastructure may need to adapt to: Increases in the frequency or severity of flooding due to sea level rise or changes in precipitation Increased frequency of extreme wind, wave or storm conditions, potentially exacerbated by sea level rise, affecting the frequency and duration of periods of disruption of operations and requiring improved infrastructure resilience Changes in sediment transport, erosion and accretion affecting navigable depth, or beach, foreshore or built infrastructure integrity Potential for changes in fog characteristics or other visibility issues Increases in water temperature or changes in ocean chemistry, leading to changes in characteristic species with potential consequences for infrastructure integrity, for operations and maintenance activities, and for new developments. Inland navigation infrastructure may need to adapt to: Increases in the frequency or severity of flooding and/or drought due to changes in precipitation patterns Variations in estuarial or river current strengths, affecting the frequency and duration of periods of navigation disruption and requiring improved infrastructure resilience Changes in sediment transport, erosion and accretion affecting navigable depth or built infrastructure integrity Changes in (seasonal) precipitation with potential consequences for water supply or storage affecting lock operations Increasing water temperature leading to changes in characteristic species with consequences for river bank integrity; algae or water weed growth; and the spread of nonindigenous or invasive species The presentation will provide an overview of progress with the various adaptation and resilience strengthening activities ongoing under the Navigating a Changing Climate Action Plan, including progress with PIANC Working Group 178. It will explore the main issues arising; highlight future needs; and discuss evolving experience on good practices

176 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Pollutant Elution Characteristics of Contaminated Sediment Treated by Cement-mixing and Mechanical Dehydration Kouki ZEN, Mitsunari HIRASAWA and Kiyonobu KASAMA Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JAPAN 1. Introduction Management of contaminated sediment on the bottom of river channel or bay is one of the significant subjects to be solved for maintaining the sound operation of channels and ports. In this paper, Cement-mixing and Mechanical Dehydration (CMD) technique developed by authors has been adapted to waste recycling and pollutant stabilization for contaminated slurry-like sediments containing heavy metals, tri-butyl tin (TBT) and tri-phenyl tin (TPT). Unconfined compression test and a series of elution tests were performed to investigate the effectiveness of applying the CMD. 2. Experiment In the study, marine clay containing toxic substances shown in Table 1, called contaminated sediment hereafter, is used for experiment. Properties of marine clay sample are tabulated in Table 2. Specimens were prepared by using a CMD model mold indicated in Fig. 1. Cement-mixed sample was poured into the mold and high loading pressure (5MPa to 20MPa) was axially applied to dehydrate sample under drainage condition. Dehydrated samples were taken out of the mold to perform unconfined compression test and elution test. Table 1 Amount of toxic substances Table 2 Properties of marine clay 3. Strength Characteristics In order to investigate the solidification effect by CMD, samples were taken out from the mold and unconfined compression tests were performed after 28days of curing. Fig. 2 shows the relationship between loading pressure and unconfined compression strength for samples where the 30% of Fig. 1 CMD model mold 176

177 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change slug cement (type B) was mixed. For comparison, Kumamoto Port Clay is also demonstrated in Fig.2. It is found from Fig. 2 that CMD is effective for increasing the unconfined compression strength of contaminated slurry-like sediment. 4. Pollutant Elution Characteristics Three kinds of elution tests were performed in the study. Among them, Table 3 presents the elution of heavy metals tested on the basis of Notification Nos.13 and 46 of the Environment Agency, Japan. It can be understood that the contaminated sediment treated by CMD can prevent the heavy metals in treated sediment from elution, satisfying with Japanese national environmental quality standard, Fig. 2 loading pressure and unconfined Table 3 Elution of heavy metals tested on the basis of Notification Nos.13 and 46 of the EPA, Japan Fig.3 shows the relationship between the ph of solvent and elution of TBT. It is interesting to note that the elution of TBT depends on the ph of solvent and the relationship is represented with an exponential function of ph in the alkaline range of solvent. The same findings are obtained for the TPT as well. This suggest that appropriate attention should be paid in the selection of alkaline stabilizer such as cement 5. Summary/Conclusions The main conclusions obtained from the study are as follows; (1)The CMD technique is effective for increasing the Fig. 3 ph and elution of TBT unconfined compressive strength of contaminated slurry-like sediment, (2)The contaminated sediment treated by CMD can prevent the heavy metals in treated sediment from elution, satisfying with Japanese national environmental quality standard, (3)Elution of TBT and TPT can be expressed by the exponential function of ph in the alkaline range of solvent

178 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Quantifying metal concentrations in water due to dredging operation in contaminated sediments Julio Cesar Wasserman 1, Maria Angélica Wasserman 2 and Gilson Brito Alves Lima 1 1 Network for Environment and Sustainable Development, University Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil/Post-Graduation Program in Sustainable Management Systems. 2 Institute of Nuclear Engineering - CNEN, Brazil, Dredging operations have shown to be a major threat in contaminated, reducing environments (Vale et al., 1998), because the oxidation generated by the strong turbulence dissociate the stable sulfide metallic compounds(morse and Cornwell, 1987) and increasing the contaminants biological availability (Di Toro et al., 1992, Casas and Crecelius, 1994). During oxidation processes in sediments, the increase in toxicity is clear from bio-assays that evaluated the impact of the metals on the aquatic species like the amphipods Rhepoxynius hudsoni or Ampelisca abdita; the oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), snails (Helisoma sp.); polychaete Capitella capitata and Neanthes arenceodentata; copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis (Ankley et al., 1996). Therefore, the assessment and forecast of the metallic concentrations of the water column during dredging is a challenge in Environmental Impact Assessments of the activity. In the present work, we propose a simple model based on local hydrodynamics, metallic concentrations of the sediments and dredging velocities, allowing to preview the concentration of metals in the water column for every position of the dredge. The forecasting of the metals concentrations in the water column is going to be useful for the environmentally correct planning of the dredging operation because in every moment where the limits of Legal water quality criteria (CONAMA, 2005) are attained, the velocity of dredging may be reduced, the amount of suspended matter is reduced and the amount of metals diffused in the water, reduce as well. The present study was applied to the Environmental Impact Assessment of a dredging operation in the coast of Rio de Janeiro (city of Macaé). The applied model is based on the assumption that the dredging operation affects a determined volume of water column (VAD). This volume is defined from the outputs of hydrodynamic modeling that simulate different scenarios of wind, tides and freshwater inputs. The considered value correspond to the volume of water in the simulation of the dredging, where suspended matter overcome the limits of the legal quality criteria. The residence time (T Res ) of the water column is defined for these same scenarios and it is assumed as the time necessary to a particle travel through the affected area. This residence time is different from calculations in closed or semi-closed water bodies. T Res correspond to a sort of step of the model. The dredger and the engineers of the project define the dredging velocities, according to the equipments that are supposed to be deployed and this dredging velocity will yield an amount of sediment to the water column that is given as a % of sediment loss. Since the step of the model corresponds to T Res, the volume of sediment released in one residence time is calculated (M sed ). Finally, the concentration of the water column is calculated for every scenario, simply dividing the amount of ressuspended sediment by the affected volume, as described above. A comprehensive sampling network has to be established in the dredging area, where core sediments have to be collected. Measurements of the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, zinc, chromium and arsenic were carried out every 50 cm, corresponding to a dredging layer. The above mentioned calculations are applied to every sampling point, giving a concentration forecast for the moment the dredge will be in that point and a distribution map is designed as in Figure 1 (example of arsenic in the 0-50 cm layer), showing that in the dark red areas, concentrations in the water column are supposed to overcome the water quality criteria. In these areas, it is suggested that dredging velocities should be reduced to a value where no trespassing of the limits is calculated. A real time monitoring of the water column during the dredging operation allows the calibration of the model and the verification of the safety of the procedure. In the studied area, it was observed that only chromium and arsenic trespassed the legal water quality limits, so a composition of the restrictive areas of both elements should be outlined, as shown in Figure 2, where the dredger must reduce the dredging velocity from 2,000 m 3 hour -1 to 1,000 m 3 hour -1 in all dashed areas. The present model shows that concentrations in the water column generated by ressuspension of the sediments are closely linked to residence time in the location and in the moment of the dredging, so it 178

179 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change can be concluded that the values of the sediment quality criteria for dredging should be reviewed. Concentrations in the sediment would only be harmful to the environment in locations with a low residence time. Figure 1: Distribution of arsenic concentrations in the water column forecast for every dredging position. The dark grey areas limited by a white line overcome the legal water quality criteria and, therefore dredging in these area should be carried out slowlier. Figure 2: Dark grey areas indicate locations where dredging velocity should be reduced to 1000 m 3 hour -1 References ANKLEY, G. T., DI TORO, D. M., HANSEN, D. J. & BERRY, W. J Technical basis and proposal for deriving sediment quality criteria for metals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 15, CASAS, A. M. & CRECELIUS, E. A Relationship between acid volatile sulfide and the toxicity of zinc, lead and copper in marine sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 11, CONAMA RESOLUÇÃO CONAMA No 357, DE 17 DE MARÇO DE Water quality Criteria CONSELHO NACIONAL DO MEIO AMBIENTE - MINISTÉRIO DO MEIO AMBIENTE (ed.). Brasília, DF: MMA. DI TORO, D. M., MAHONY, J. D., HANSEN, D. J., SCOTT, K. J., CARLSON, A. R. & ANKLEY, G. T Acid volatile sulfide predicts the acute toxicity of cadmium and nickel in sediments. Environmental Science & Technology, 26, MORSE, J. W. & CORNWELL, J. C Analysis and distribution of iron sulfide minerals in recent anoxic marine sediments. Marine Chemistry, 22, VALE, C., FERREIRA, A. M., MICAELO, C., CAETANO, M., PEREIRA, M. E., MADUREIRA, M. J. & RAMALHOSA, E Mobility of contaminants in relation to dredging operations in a mesotidal estuary (Tagus estuary, Portugal). Water Science Techniques, 37,

180 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change 9 th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COASTAL AND PORT ENGINEERING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PIANC COPEDEC, IX, 2016 RIO DE JANEIRO, BRASIL SEA TURTLES MONITORING PROGRAM: CASE STUDY OF AÇU PORT BRANDL, C. 1 ; BITTAR, T. 2 ; TAOUIL, A. 3 ; TEIXEIRA, J. 4 Keywords: sea turtles, Açu Port, monitoring program 1. INTRODUCTION The Açu Port is strategically located in the north of Rio de Janeiro State, approximately 123 km from the Campos Basin, where almost 80% of Brazil s oil and gas is produced. The established port has 17 km of docks distributed over its two terminals in a 90 km² area - divided in offshore (T1) and onshore (T2) terminals. The port, which is operating since October, 2014, is prepared for different types of cargos such as solid bulks as iron, bauxite, coal, rocks, containers, as liquid bulks, general and project cargo and oil transport. For the establishment of the Açu Port infrastructure, the project was submitted to the environment agency that, after analysis, required a series of environmental conditions and monitoring programs for conducting the installation phase. In the subject matter, in concern of sea turtles that inhabit the area, a sea turtle monitoring program was required. Five species of sea turtles are known to inhabit Brazil s coastline: loggerhead Caretta caretta, green Chelonia mydas, hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata, olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea and leatherback Dermochelys coriacea. In the Rio de Janeiro State north and central coast are the regions with elevated occurrence of the mentioned species (MARCOVALDI AND MARCOVALDI, 1999). All five species are listed as endangered end/or vulnerable at the national and global level, presented in the Red Book of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with MMA Extinction (Ministry of Environment), the Endangered or Vulnerable Species Red List of IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) and in Appendix I of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) (MMA, 2008; CITES, 2008; IUCN, 2013). The Açu beach, where Açu Port is located, is considered to be a spawning site between the limits of the beaches of São João da Barra e Campos de Goytacazes municipalities. In the mentioned area it has been recorded clutches of loggerhead, hawksbill and leatherback although it is considered to be an spawning site for only loggerhead species. This work presents the result of the sea turtles monitoring program taken as an environmental management measure after installation license issued in 2011 by INEA (State Environmental Agency) for Açu Port. 2. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this work is to present the results from the 62km daily coastline-monitoring program of the area. This monitoring program includes the records of reproductive and non-reproductive occurrences of sea turtles. Also it is going to present an evaluation of the reproductive success, of strandings and mortality causes and assessment of possible relationships between reproductive and non-reproductive events and its relation to the project implementation. 3. METHODS AND STUDY SITE The monitoring coverage area is 62 km which is divided into 08 sections located between Atafona (São João da Barra) and Barra do Furado beach (Campos dos Goytacazes), covering 12 monitored beaches (Figure 1). The program is executed by a trained staff according to the guidelines of TAMAR Project 1 Environmental Analyst at Prumo Logística S.A. 2 Sea turtle monitoring program technical Coordinator at Envitek Engenharia Ambiental. 3 Environmental Coordinator at Prumo Logística S.A. 4 Environmental Manager at Prumo Logística S.A

181 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change 9 th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COASTAL AND PORT ENGINEERING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IX PIANC - COPEDEC 2016 RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL (Projeto Tartarugas Marinhas) which is a Brazilian non-profit organization to protect sea turtles from extinction. Figure 1. Sea turtle monitoring program coverage area. The activity consists in daily monitoring throughout the area in the early hours of the day. During the route, a trained and qualified monitor performs observation and recording the occurrence of reproductive activity or sea turtle strandings. Both reproductive and non-reproductive records are standardized and systematized according to SITAMAR (TAMAR data logging system). Reproductive records refer to the monitoring carried out during the sea turtle breeding season which occurs from October to March each year. In the other hand non-reproductive records refer to occurrences of adult or juvenile animals, observed alive or dead, that reached the coastline. These events are registered by the monitor being logged according to the date, time, position and species measuring specifications. 4. EXPECTED RESULTS This work will demonstrate reproductive and non-reproductive data in areas nearby the Açu Port presenting the developed monitoring techniques. The project started in 2011 and is still ongoing. Results from the monitoring area are daily submitted to TAMAR Project and compiled for the Environmental Agency (INEA) as requested by the environmental license. These data are crucial in monitoring populations, formulating protective regulations, making management decisions and maximizing reproduction. 5. REFERENCES Marcovaldi and Marcovaldi, Marcovaldi, M. A. & Marcovaldi, G.G Marine turtles of Brazil: the history and structure of Projeto Tamar-Ibama. Biological Conservation, 91: MMA (Ministério do Meio Ambiente). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção. Brasília CITES, Lista de Espécies CITES: A reference to the Appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. IUCN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Disponível em: < Acessado em: 22 de novembro de

182 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Shipping Emission Inventory in the North Channel of the Yangtze River Estuary based on Terrestrial AIS Data Xin Yao 1, Junmin Mou 1,2, Xi Chen 1, Ying Liu 1 1 School of Navigation, Wuhan University of Technology 2 Hubei Key Laboratory of Inland Shipping Technology, Wuhan University of Technology Abstract: The North Channel is one of the key channels in the Yangtze River Estuary. Nowadays, as the freight volume and vessel transportation grows rapidly in this channel, the emission features and results cannot be ignored. Based on the AIS, the detailed ship activity data is obtained by analyzing and processing these ship motion data and vessel characteristic. By using power-based bottom up approach, a high-spatial 100m 100m ship emission inventory of air pollutants and GHGs (Greenhouse gases) is developed. Combining the detailed ship motion data, ship position, vessel characteristics and emission results, the emission features of the North Channel are analyzed and the high pollution area is identified. The analysis of the total weight of SO2 NOx PM10 PM2.5 HC VOCs and GHGs(CO2 N2O CH4) will be carried out. From the emission temporal and spatial allocation, the highest emission period of each ship type comes out,and the shipping route comprised the region with the highest emissions can be distinguished.the emission contribution which comes from each ship type to the whole-year emissions inventories will be reckoned. By comparing those contributions to each other and analyzing the outcome, some targeted advices can be provided to reduce the ship emission in the Yangtze River Estuary area. The geospatial ship type specific emission results presented in this paper have increased the accuracy of the ship emission inventory in the North Channel. The method can be used to estimate ship emission in other regions of China, and hence may serve as an input for other researchers and policy makers working in this field. Keywords: marine emission inventory; the North Channel of the Yangtze River Estuary; temporal and spatial characteristics; emission contribution 182

183 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change The Environment Performance Index - IDA, a major tool to assess the environmental management of the port sector in Brazil ABSTRACT The activities of the port sector impact directly and intensively the environment, once they affect the natural ecosystems by introducing nonexistent port facilities and by the transit of their cargo, usually several types of dry and liquid bulks or general cargo. Consequently, there is the introduction of harmful substances as well as undesired products that are aggressive to the environment. For that reason, the port activities should be guided by a sustainable management system, operating in harmony with the environment. In order to achieve this, ports must receive their environment license only after the previous adoption of a large group of measures and environmental impact control instruments. Such measures and instruments should include those that are proper to mitigate and minimize damages that have already occurred, as a result of incorrect behavior or situation. Complementarily, port activities must be planned and arranged in order to reduce the risk of environment offenses. In this context, in 1998, the Brazilian Government created a Port Environment Agenda - a Federal initiative to adjust the sector - whose creation had the participation of the principal agents of the Brazilian Port Sector. The Agenda made clear the need of an instrument to monitor the environmental management of the port sector. Created by law in 2001, the National Waterway Transportation Agency ANTAQ received the obligation to promote a sustainable sector. In order to do that, ANTAQ created an instrument called the Integrated Environment Management System SIGA, which only partially fit that function, as it was a static system. Given the sector dynamics and the need to protect the environment according to Brazilian laws and its modern environmental regulation, ANTAQ guided all its efforts to adopting a new monitoring system that could better evaluate the ports in their change toward sustainable activities. The new system was named Environment Performance Index - IDA. The intention of this paper is to show the IDA index, addressing its demand, conception and final form, structured to supply the Agency with the capacity of monitoring, effectively and properly, the ports adaptation to a new phase. The Index was developed by ANTAQ with the collaboration of the Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Transportation CEFTRU, from the Brazilian University UNB. Based on the environment parameters stablished by Brazilian laws, it consists of inherent elements of a good and sustainable environment system, considering the principal aspects of environmental matters, treated in four groups: Operational-economics; Cultural-sociological; Physical-chemical; Biologicalecological, dealing with environment themes globally. The index was developed by the Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP, a multi criteria decision-making methodology. IDA is the result of the hierarchical treatment of several parameters (or indicators); each one receiving its own weight (weighting system) based on the consideration and expertise of the ANTAQ professionals from its Environment Sector. IDA is addressed to the ports as a questionnaire, and the index value consists of the sum of all questions (scoring system), each one related to a respective environmental parameter. Initially, the Index was applied to public port organizations, showing excellent results in terms of the evolution of environment management process. Nowadays, the Index is being extended to private port facilities. Every six months, the index is collected and the results are shown in form of a rank. This public exposure is extremely positive to the port sector, since ports are normally interested in getting better grades on each evaluation. The IDA became a reference to the Brazilian Port System, showing both strengths and weaknesses in terms of environment issues. Keys words: environment management, port sector, performance index Summary (1) Context of the Environment Management of the Port Sector in Brazil (2) ANTAQ and the Environmental Agenda (3) The First Environmental Monitoring Tool - SIGA (4) The Development of the Environment Performance Index IDA (6) The Application of the Evaluation System (7) The impact of IDA to the Port Sector 183

184 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF WAVE HEIGHT RETURN VALUE ESTIMATION MODELS ABSTRACT: Satish S. (1a), V. Laface (2), Sannasiraj S.A. (1b), F. Arena (2), Sundar V. (1b) (1a) Research Scholar, (1b) Professor (1) Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India. (2) Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Italy. In coastal engineering, it is required to design structures to withstand the wave forces that impact on them resulting from extreme waves. Extreme value theory has provided a framework in which an estimate of anticipated wave height can be made using historical data. By definition, extreme values are scarce and outside the range of the available observations. This implies that an extrapolation from the observed sea states to unobserved territories are required and extreme value theory provides various models to enable such extrapolation. Accurate estimation of extreme wave conditions is critical for offshore renewable energy activities and applications. Increased uncertainty in the model outputs and the unreliability in the estimation of extreme waves become an important issue. The current study aims to ensure the statistical methodology for reliability analysis of ocean wave height return value estimation models. The estimates are based on wave hind cast data, covering a period of 33 years, for six locations in Indian waters and 20 years for one location in Mediterranean Sea. The data used for Indian water locations is a wave field with discrete of 3 hours, computed from wind-wave model, WAM-C4M based on wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global atmospheric reanalysis product (ERA-Interim) for the period For the case study in Mediterranean Sea, buoy data from the Italian buoys network (RON) are processed for the location of Alghero, which is the site characterized by the strongest sea condition in Mediterranean area. The data cover a period of 20 years ( ). Different estimation models to obtain return values used in this study are, the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution and Weibull distribution is fitted to the sample of annual maxima. The method of Equivalent triangular storm model, based on the concept of equivalent triangular sea that enables to replace the sequence of actual storms extrapolated from a given time series of significant wave height H s with a sequence of equivalent triangular storms (ETS). The ETS associated with a certain actual storms is 12 defined by means of two parameters: the triangle Severest storm recorded at Alghero buoy height that represents the storm intensity and is 10 ETS equaled to the maximum significant wave height during the actual storm, and the triangle base 8 determined by imposing the equality between the 6 maximum expected wave heights of actual and triangular storms. A typical example for triangular 4 storm is shown in Fig. 1. In the paper, the analytical solution of the return period R(H s >h) of a 2 triangular storm whose maximum significant wave 0 height is greater than a given threshold h is applied for calculating the return values of H s t(hours) associated with a given return period R. Fig. 1. Severest actual storm and relative ETS storm at Alghero Variability criterions considered are time, space, variability from observed maximum value and buoy data and simulated data. Many precedent studies of extreme values of ocean waves were based on a limited data for lesser number of years. But in this study with 33 years of data in Indian waters, it is appealing to investigate how the estimates obtained from certain data periods compare with estimates from other periods. With this in mind, we not only computed estimates using whole dataset, but also using subsets and analyzed the time variability of these estimates. Space variability is analyzed by considering six important locations along the Indian coast Paradip, Kakinada, Krishnapatnam, Kalpakkam, Kochi and Mumbai. The comparison of the observed maximum value from the given data H s (m) 184

185 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change period with the estimated return values ensures the variability from observed maximum value. Estimates of wave height having different return periods obtained from distributions models mentioned are compared with the by now observed values. In this study, the reliability criterions explained above is used to come up with a better estimation model for the given locations. Comparing the return values corresponding to a return period R equal to the time of available data as shown in the Table 1. It is seen that sometimes they are slightly underestimated respected to the maximum H s observed. Fig. 2. GEV and Weibull distributions is fitted to the sample of annual maxima: Mumbai It is also seen the buoy observations yielding better estimation compared to the simulated ECMWF data for both Weibull and generalized extreme value models. The results obtained from the Generalized extreme value method are remarkably greater than those obtained from weibull estimation model, the comparison between them for Mumbai is shown in Fig. 2. The ETS model provides accurate estimates of the H s return values considering that the slight underestimation is in agreement with the confidence levels. Table 1.Return values h(r) of significant wave height for return period of 30 and100 years at each site in Indian waters and at Alghero (Mediterranean Sea). Point Observed Maximum Weibull GEV ETS 30 year 100 year 30 year 100 year 30 year 100 year Paradip Kakinada Krishnapatnam Kalpakkam Kochi Mumbai Alghero Key Words Extreme Waves, Triangular storm, Variability criterions, Subsets, Underestimation References 1. Caires S., and A. Sterl. 100-Year Return Value Estimates for Ocean Wind Speed and Significant Wave Height from the ERA-40 Data// J. Climate V.18, #4. -P Coles, S., 2001: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values. Springer-Verlag, 208 pp. 3. Boccotti, P., Wave Mechanics for Ocean Engineering. Elsevier Science, New York. 4. F. Arena and D. Pavone, Return period of nonlinear high wave crests, Journal of Geophysical Research C, vol. 111, no. 8, Article ID C08004, 10 pages, Young, I. R., 1994: Global Ocean wave statistics obtained from satellite observations. Appl. Ocean Res.,16,

186 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change The Influence of Tidal Prism on Port of Santos Dredging B. Sc. Thiago Bezerra Correa, M. Sc. Camila Maria Mateus Alves de Souza, Dr. Sc. Tiago Zenker Gireli 1. Introduction Universidade Estadual de Campinas Unicamp Campinas SP, Brazil Santos is a southern coastal city in São Paulo State, where is situated the economically most important brazilian port. In 2014, Port of Santos was responsible for 25,3% of brazilian balance of trade, corresponding to US$116,1 bi (CODESP, 2015). Thus, it has received investments in the past two decades to push its cargo moving capacity, including construction and expansion of terminals, and to increase the depth of navigation channel from 12m to 15m (PAC - Ministério do Planejamento, 2014), so that bigger ships could be harbored in Port of Santos. However, these anthropic interventions might bring side effects on Port of Santos navigation channel stability. As the terminals are built in embankments, it decreases the volume of Tidal Prism of Santos Estuary, a natural flow volume that controls sand deposit on bars (Bruun, 1976). Furthermore, dredging increases the sedimentation rate, because it deviates the channel cross-sectional area from its equilibrium area (Kreeke, 1992). Though there is a natural tendency on increase of tides in brazilian southern coast (Coelho, 2013), which increases the Tidal Prism. Therefore, the study leads to an evaluation of these driving forces on Port of Santos navigation channel stability. Several scenarios were simulated through numerical modeling, combining two key parameters: bathymetry (construction and expansion of terminals and deepening dredging, anthropic driving forces) and temporal changes of Tides (natural driving force). Each simulated scenario has an equilibrium depth, which is related to a sedimentation rate (Gireli & Vendrame, 2012), then for each scenario is calculated the yearly dredged volume in Port of Santos access channel. 2. Materials and methods Using the software AutoCAD Civil 3D, the bathymetry of Santos bay and estuary (region of Port of Santos) was represented in two different times, both georeferenced in WGS84 datum. The first (henceforth named previous bathymetry ) has a boundary with less terminals and it is 12 meters deep in navigation channel, while the second (henceforth named current bathymetry ) has a channel 15 meters deep and wider. CODESP (Companhia de Docas do Estado de São Paulo) conceded the data of both bathymetries. Figure 1. (a) Previous Bathymetry; (b) Current Bathymetry The bathymetry data was exported to Mike 21 (numerical modeling software developed by Danish Hydraulic Institute). The original model was constructed and calibrated based on field survey dated back in 1976 by Sondotécnica (Souza, 2012). After, without modifications, the model s Tidal Prism was similar to the measured by Sondotécnica in 1976, validating the model for this key parameter

187 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change The simulations used nine tidal constituents (M2, Q1, O1, P1, K1, N2, S2, K2 and M3) based on amplitude and phase cotidal maps (Harari & Camargo, 1994). Using the Mike 21 Toolbox Tide Prediction of Heights were estimated the tides on 1976, 2016, 2026, 2036, 2046 and 2056, considering, as well, the growth of sea level in southern coast of São Paulo State and the variation on tidal constituents amplitudes (Coelho, 2013). Then, twelve scenarios were simulated combining each bathymetry with every estimated year s tide. The Tidal Prism (Ω) was calculated indirectly by equation 1 (Keulegan, 1967), the flow through a selected section in navigation channel was integrated during flood tide (T/2). ΩΩ = TT/2 0 VV. aa dddd Finally, the sedimentation rate estimative was given by equation 2 (adapted from Gireli & Vendrame, 2012). The equation gives an exponential sedimentation rate, Y is the annual rate of sedimentation (m³/year), X1 is the depth of the channel (m) and X2 is the equilibrium depth (m). YY = 264,241. ee 0,597(XX 1 XX2 )8 (2) (1) 3. Discussions and expected final results Two driving forces influence on Port of Santos navigation channel stability, the changes in bathymetry and the growth of tides. As mentioned before, the first decreases Tidal Prism, while the second increases it. Preliminary results show that when compared two scenarios with the same tide, but different bathymetry, the Tidal Prism was lower in the current bathymetry. The next step consists on quantifying this sedimentation rate, which depends on the ratio between the current depth of navigation channel and its natural equilibrium depth, which is also influenced by Tidal Prism. 4. References Bruun, P., Port Engineering. 2ª ed. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company. CODESP, Porto de Santos - Relatório anual 2014, s.l.: s.n. Coelho, A. d. L., Análise dos impactos das mudanças climáticas na hidrodinâmica do estuário santista. Campinas: s.n. Gireli, T. Z. & Vendrame, R. F., Aprofundamento do Porto de Santos: Uma Análise Crítica. RBRH - Revista Brasileira de Recursos Hídricos, julho, Volume 17, pp Harari, J. & Camargo, R. d., Simulação da propagação das nove componentes de maré na plataforma sudeeste brasileira através de modelo numérico hidrodinâmico. Boletim Instituto Oceanográfico, pp Keulegan, G. H., Tidal Flow in Entrances Water-Level Fluctuations of Basins in Communication with Seas. Committee on Tidal Hidraulics, Corps of Engineering, U. S. Army: Technical Bulletin, Volume 14. Kreeke, J. V. d., Stability of Tidal Inlets; Escoffier's Analysis. Shore & Beach, january, 60(1), pp PAC - Ministério do Planejamento, Empreendimento: Porto de Santos - Dragagem de aprofundamento - 1ª fase - SP. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 23 abril 2014]. Sondotécnica, Comportamento hidráulico e sedimentos do estuário santista, s.l.: s.n. Souza, C. M. M. A. d., Caracterização hidrodinâmica da Baía e Estuário Santista utilizando a modelagem numérica. Campinas: s.n

188 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Fluid Mud in Santos Harbor (SP, Brazil) Juliane Castro Carneiro, Marcos Nicolás Gallo, Susana Beatriz Vinzon, Laboratory of Dynamics Cohesive Sediments (LDSC) - Coastal & Oceanographic Engineering - PENO / COPPE - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Harbors with deposition of fine sediments can have a layer of high density above the consolidated background with dynamic conditions by the tide and the waves. The presence of fine sediments in estuarine bed responds to complex hydrodynamic processes. Asymmetries tidal associated with gravitational circulation resulting from difference densities. Santos Harbor, located in São Paulo State (southeast Brazil Figure 1), is the most important in the Southern Hemisphere and the first in Latin America, with a significant presence of fluid mud. Figure 1 Localization of Santos Harbour (São Paulo) Fluid mud is a high concentration aqueous suspension of fine-grained sediment in which settling is substantially hindered by the proximity of sediment grains and flocs, but which has not formed an interconnected matrix of bonds strong enough to eliminate the potential for mobility (McAnally et al., 2007). The sediment concentrations in fluid mud can range from tens to hundreds of grams per liter, resulting in bulk densities from 1,080 to 1,200 kg/m3 (McAnally et al., 2007). In estuaries which are used as shipping channels, continuous mud deposition can be a threat to navigability when causing considerable reductions in nautical depth (Wolanski et al., 1992). This problem by the fact that mud, in its unconsolidated and highly dynamic fluid state, can generally not be adequately detected by conventional echo-sounders installed on commercial vessels (Schrottke et al., 2006). Fluid mud can affect navigation. The sharp increase in sediment concentration at the top of the fluid layer, known as a lutocline, can return a false bottom to ship sonar systems. This would indicate a bottom above the actual hard bottom, signifying to the ship s captain that the channel may not be deep enough to sail through (Alexander et al., 1997). Acoustic fathometers, the dominant technology for waterway depth measurement, yield multiple false-bottom echoes where fluid-mud lutoclines are present (McAnally et al., 2015), making water depth determination ambiguous and highly variable. There are studies with acoustic and seismic equipment such as dual frequency echo sounders, but these indirect methods do not determining the characteristics of these deposits to the navigability, being necessary in situ observations by direct methods and samples for laboratory tests. Based on this concept, the aim of this study is the dynamics of fluid mud inside the channel of Santos Harbor compares in situ measurements with laboratory tests. The study was undertaken in order to assist in 188

189 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change the planning of dredging activities and the analysis and identification of areas with fluid mud for management of sediments. Measurements were taken with acoustic and seismic equipment (Dual frequency echo sounder 28/200 khz, Chirp 2/8 khz, Boomer 0,4/2 khz and Sidescan Sonar 100/400 khz), in situ observations by direct methods (Densitune) and sampling for laboratory tests along tidal cycle. Samples of bottom sediments were collected with a Van Veen grab for grain size analysis and rheology tests in laboratory. Grain size analyses were made by laser scattering with Malvern Mastersizer 2000, and the diffraction spectra was analyzed according to the Mie theory, with ultrasound. For rheological analyses was used Anton Paar rheometer with a 22 mm vane test rotating at 1/min. The results of grain size analysis showed that the fine sediments are predominant over the twelve sampled points, which can be classified as silts. Samples at the south edge of the channel had with higher percentage of sand (23%). With respect to rheology, we observed two main behaviors: internal sections had behaviors as cohesion (or shear stress) undrained clay. The density 1200 kg/m 3, samples were well fluid with torque values close to zero. Ferreira 2013 found in Santos Harbor that the bottom sediments are highly compressible with plastic and liquid limit of 81.9% water content, plastic limit of 36.2% and index plasticity of 45.7%. The ratio between the plastic limit and liquid limit was close to 0.4, which is a typical value found in marine mud (Sridharan and Miutra, 2004). In situ observations by Densitune show fluid mud layers range from 15 cm to 120 cm with densities in general kg/m 3 (Figure 2). Figure 2 shows density profiles recorded during the ebb tide at three different points of the section. It is possible observe that the range of 7 hours in the same day, the top of lutocline varied in more than 110cm, under the action of tidal currents. Figure 2 Density profiles measured with Densitune and grain size analysis of samples. The presence of fine sediments interferes with the determination background of time, requiring the definition of a nautical depth consider the fact of the existence of a diffuse interface, where the results of records raditional bathymetric are unrepresentative. With a more detailed knowledge of the bottom morphology, in many harbors fluid mud is used for navigation eg.: Rotterdam (Netherlands), Bangkok (Thailand), Suriname (Suriname), Tianjingxingang (China), Yangtze (China), Liangyungang (China) [6]. In Brazil we have the port of Itajai which navigates through fluid mud (Winterwerp and van Kesteren, 2004). The understanding fluid mud can also increase the efficiency of dredging (dredging tube placement of denser material), as well as to reduce the environmental impacts associated with the activity

190 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Acknowledgments This study was made possible through grants by CAPES and Faperj. Thanks to the Cohesive Sediment Dynamics Lab (LDSC) for the technical support and to our colleagues at the LDSC, Salt and IPT for the help in the measurements. 1. References Ferreira, T. R. S Ocorrência de lama fluida no Porto de Santos. Tese de mestrado em Engenharia Oceânica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. McAnally, W. H.; Teeter, A.; Schoellhamer, D.; Friedrichs, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hayter, E.; Shrestha, P.; Rodriguez, H.;Sheremet, A.; Kirby, R Management of Fluid Mud in Estuaries, Bays, and Lakes. II: Measurement, Modeling, and Management. JOURNAL OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. McAnally, W. H.; Kirby, R.; Hodge, S. H.; Welp, T. L.; Greiser, N.; Shrestha, P.; McGowan, D.; Turnipseed, P Nautical Depth for U.S. Navigable Waterways: A Review. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng. Schrottke, K.; Becker, M.; Bartholoma, A.; Flemming, B.W., and Hebbeln, D., Fluid mud dynamics in the Weser estuary turbidity zone tracked by high-resolution side-scan sonar and parametric sub-bottom profiler Geo-Marine Letters, 26, Sridharan, A., Rao, P. R., Miutra, N Characterization of Ariake and other marine clays. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Lowland Technology, Thailand, vol. 1, pp Winterwerp, J. C., van Kesteren, W. G. M Introduction to the physics of cohesive sediment dynamics in the marine environment. Elsevier, New York Wolanski, E.; Gibbs, R. J.; Mazda, Y.; Mehta, A.; King, B The role of turbulence in the sttling of mud flocs. Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Winter), pp Summary of Full Paper The results of the temporal analyses are going to be detailed in the full paper and presented in the conference

191 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port and Coastal Environmental Issues and Climate Change Vulnerabilities to Climate Change is Not Just for Seaports Inland River Ports Should Also Proactively Address Climate Change Vulnerabilities in their Planning Processes Douglas Daugherty, Gretchen Greene, Greg Reub, Felix Kristanovich, David Moore; Ramboll Environ Ports are critical to global commerce, economic stability and both seaports and inland ports are highly vulnerable to future risks posed by climate change though likely from different aspects of the potential change in the climate. A growing number of port authorities are evaluating potential impacts from climate change and are actively developing procedures to mitigate the financial and other risks as part of their planning process. This presentation explores an evaluation framework for climate change adaptation that can be used to identify vulnerabilities to climate change and prioritize cost effective responses both for sea and inland ports. The framework uses climate change estimates based on historical (e.g. tide measurements, storm events, and rainfall) and projected (e.g. sea level rise, frequency and magnitude of storms, change in rainfall patterns, etc.) data to develop more detailed and accurate assessment of potential climate related impacts on port facilities, particularly from anticipated sea level rise which poses the largest threat to a seaport s operations and from change in rainfall that can impact inland port operations due to river level changes. These projected changes in sea or river levels are then overlaid on key infrastructure, ecological, and land use information to identify vulnerabilities and risks that can then be assessed using a Net Ecosystem Services Analysis (NESA) approach. NESA valuation incorporates the full suite of issues (social, economic and environmental) for decision making when quantifying costs and benefits across a variety of land use and infrastructure types. NESA provides an objective measure for establishing costs and benefits going into the future associated with climate change risk mitigation options that include both modifications to existing infrastructure and/or development of new infrastructure. NESA is employed to provide for objective comparison of options which utilize green and/or soft infrastructure (e.g., wetlands, offshore reefs, etc) in addition to hard infrastructure mitigation options. Incorporation of values associated with ecological or green infrastructure solutions to climate change impacts, provides policy makers with information for objective prioritization of potential climate adaptation strategies across the broadest range of potential options. Prioritization of the type and timing of any mitigation to maximize cost effectiveness (providing the greatest benefit for the least cost across all potential mitigation approaches) can benefit from the NESA approach

192 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering A Nonlinear Channel Optimization Simulation Framework for Port of Brisbane Australia Simon B. Mortensen 1, Bugge T. Jensen 2, Robert Nave 3 1 DHI Water & Environment, Gold Coast, Australia; 2 Force Technology, Lyngby, Denmark 3 Port of Brisbane Pty Ltd, Australia Abstract Port of Brisbane is one of Australia s fastest growing container ports and Queensland s largest general cargo port. The Port of Brisbane Pty Ltd (PBPL) is responsible for the maintenance and development of the port facilities and for maintaining navigable access to the port for commercial shipping. A potential optimization of the main navigational channel to allow for access of 8500 TEU container vessels was identified as one of several proactive planning initiatives that the PBPL wished to preempt as an option for accommodating the ever-increasing demands of the commercial shipping industry. The Port of Brisbane main navigational channel is 78 km long and extends from the Pacific Ocean, through Moreton Bay and into the entrance of the Brisbane River. Inbound and outbound vessels are subject to significantly temporally and spatially varying influences of tides and waves and winds as they pass through the channel and navigating through several confined bends. The software package Nonlinear Channel Optimization Simulator (NCOS) was used in order to complete a comprehensive channel capacity optimization assessment based on hundreds of thousands of time domain simulations of several years of vessel traffic subject to historical temporally and spatially varying tide, wind and wave conditions. NCOS is developed in collaboration between DHI and FORCE Technology and utilizes the combined strengths of detailed wave and hydrodynamic modelling and the accurate physical description of powered vessel response provided by ship navigation simulators conventionally utilized to train pilots and mariners. In order to provide an additional layer of certainty model findings were extensively validated through comparison with detailed on-site field measurements of UKC and full bridge simulator scenario testing operated by the local Port of Brisbane pilots. Using the novel numerical approach it was possible to identify key bottlenecks in the Port of Brisbane navigational channel and propose an accurate and less conservative optimization layout offering significant dollar savings in any future capital dredging costs compared to established and more conventional methods. Included in full paper Brief introduction to the Port of Brisbane channel optimization project Brief overview of conventional methods for assessing channel capacity Description of equational framework behind NCOS and validation against full scale field measurements of UKC and manoeuvrability of large container vessels in the Port of Brisbane. Presentation of PoB operability assessment using NCOS combined with full mission assessment (SIMFLEX4). Conclusion 192

193 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering A PROCEDURE FOR EVALUATION OF THE TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF A VESSEL APPROACH HARBOUR ENTRANCE Sergio Hamilton Sphaier 1), Adriana Pina S. S. Gomes 2) 1) Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) 2) Directorate of Ports and Coasts (DPC) Abstract Considering the growth of maritime trade over the years, new ports and terminals located in Brazil were built or, in some cases, had their design changed to meet this new demand. The construction of new terminals and ports certainly contribute to the region's growth, as well as the social and economic development of the country. The construction of a port or a terminal and their respective access channels requires investment, planning and technical studies for verification of incoming ships and the movement of loads required for the region in its implementation. For technical studies purposes, the Brazilian Maritme Authority recommends the use of report PTC-II-30 (Approach Channels a Guide for Design) in national regulations, which was replaced by Report nº 121, Harbour Approach Channels Design Guidelines, published on January, After the establishment of port operations vessels with different technical characteristics, which the port was initially designed for (ship type) may intend call the port. Then, comes the need for evaluation in order to check if this new operation may be carried out without putting at risk the safety of navigation, human life at sea and protection of marine and coastal environment. The main difficulty observed for ship evaluation is the fact that there isn t any specific procedure nor an available tool to be used for this purpose. After some research, we came to a conclusion that we have found out that a probabilistic tool may be used with Monte Carlo Simulation to perform some tests in fast time. Reference related to the importance of the use of the probabilistic tool was made in the Report nº 121 by the Maritime Navigation Commission. This technology is important not only in the future, but from now on. For this reason, a procedure using this concept for evaluation of the technical feasibility of a vessel approach at brazilian s harbour entrance using Monte Carlo simulation was proposed in this work. The main aim of this paper is to present a procedure that allows the first technical assessment on the feasibility of a vessel approach a harbour entrance, considering the environmental conditions observed in the harbour and also the human element. A software to perform fast-time simulations in was used and a Monte Carlo simulation technique was also applied. The results show that the vessel evaluated may have different maneuverability characteristics in comparison to the design ship and, in some cases, feasibility is reached, whereas in others, it is not

194 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Anchored vessel ship-to-ship operations: environmental limits considering mooring equipments and ship maneuver Tannuri,E.A. ( 1 ), Pereira Jr., J.C. ( 2 ), Ruggeri,F. ( 1,3 ), Lavieri,R.S. ( 1,3 ), Rateiro, F. ( 4 ), Ianagui, A.S. ( 1 ), Haranaka,F. ( 1 ) ( 1 ) Numerical Offshore Tank, University of São Paulo (TPN-USP), Brazil ( 2 ) Petrobras, Downstream, ( 3 ) Argonáutica Engenharia e Pesquisas, São Paulo, Brazil ( 4 ) Technomar Engenharia, São Paulo, Brazil Ship-to-ship (STS) operations have been widely applied worldwide for the last years from military operations to oil/lng cargo transfer, in order to improve operational efficiency. In the last years, the lack of available berths/terminals in Brazil has increased transfers in anchored Ship-to-Ship operations, avoiding pier occupation. This operation is already performed in Brazil and abroad for sheltered locations. However, most of the sheltered locations available have also ecological restrictions, motivating the accomplishment of this kind of operation in non-sheltered regions, i.e. close to the coast and under wave action. These last cases of STS have been investigated in the last years, for instance, FSRU and FLNG operations. This study is focused in the evaluation of the maximum operational condition for oil transfer operation, using conventional VLCC and Suezmax tankers for a given location, close to the Brazilian coast. The first stage of the study computes the minimum required water depth and anchor capacity to provide a safe operation in terms of vertical motions, since the wave height reduces with the UKC. The methodology to define the required UKC followed PIANC Report n using the vessel motions computed in frequency domain using the Response Amplitude Operator (RAOs) in finite water depth. The anchor hold capacity is evaluated for 720 environmental conditions (12h interval of simultaneous wind, current, tide and wave condition), following OCIMF recommendations for a single vessel and side-by-side configuration. For this study it was considered current, wind and second-order wave forces, in order to compute the equilibrium heading, similar to a Turret moored platform

195 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering The second stage of the study was the mooring integrity analysis following OCIMF STS recommendations, selecting thus the required pneumatic fenders and cables properties/arrangement/pre-traction for the mooring design. The static loads due to current and wind were computed using CFD coefficients to evaluate the shadow/interaction effect between vessels, in order to achieve more reliable results compared to the conventional single vessel coefficients. The static second order forces are computed in frequency domain using potential theory considering the side-by-side configuration with some additional numerical treatments/discussion to deal with the resonance of the gap between the vessels. The mooring arrangement (cables+fenders) were modeled as an equivalent linear stiffness matrix applied to the vessel motions computation, also providing a Response Amplitude Operator for the cables/fenders elongation, providing an expedite methodology to compute the cables tension in frequency domain. The incident wave heading applied in the computation of the vessel motions/cables elongation is defined for each condition, based on the STS equilibrium heading defined in the previous stage. The operation uptime is computed based on the cables MBL and compared to a simplified criteria defined by means of the the wave height/period/heading. The third stage of the study was the maneuvering analysis carried out in TPN-USP Simulation Center. Since the operation is executed in non-sheltered regions, the wave action on the tugboats must be carefully evaluated, so three integrated simulators were used. The approaching vessel was in the fullmission simulator, commanded by the maritime pilot. A tug-master commanded a part-task simulator, with the main ASD tugboat in each maneuver. The moored vessel was in the third simulator, emulating the point of view of a second maritime pilot in charge of the maneuver. The other tugboats were commanded as vector forces, and an experienced tugmaster defined the actuation rules depending on the wave height. The three stages of the operation were tested: approaching maneuver, heading control of the moored vessels and disconnection. Important parameters of the operation were monitored, including motions, velocities, cables and towlines tension, tugboat effective forces, etc. Different environmental conditions were tested. As a final conclusion of the study, the limiting wave height and period could be defined for both mooring integrity and maneuvering. Therefore, these results could be used to evaluate the availability to perform STS operation in each region, based on the metocean conditions

196 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering APPLYING SPECTRAL WAVE MODELS FOR THE DESIGN OF PORT LAYOUTS AND ENTRANCE CHANNELS M.P.C. de Jong 1,2, S.P. Reijmerink 1, A. Capel 1 Every textbook description of wave modelling in and around ports will state that diffraction of wave energy is important for that type of application. However, with new ships continuously increasing in size, new port developments consist of ever bigger schemes that include large open basins and manoeuvring areas. Depending on the period of incoming waves from sea, diffraction may play a relatively small role in such major port developments. This is because diffraction will primarily have a rather local effect around diffraction points. This reasoning makes it possible to apply a spectral (phase-averaged) wave model, such as the opensource model SWAN, to calculate the local wave conditions relevant for a large port development. We acknowledge that generally diffraction is not included in that type of wave model. Furthermore, the large entrance channels often included in present-day port development schemes may complicate the local wave situation. However, ignoring diffraction may have a fairly small effect on the overall wave pattern of the large port scheme. In addition, the relatively large levels of directional spreading associated with the shortest wave conditions will aid in modelling the redistribution of wave energy. Within engineering practice, using a spectral wave model for the shortest wave conditions (say <10 s) will make it possible to cover large areas efficiently instead of having to apply more complex (phaseresolving) wave models, such as mild-slope models or even Boussinesq-type models. This is beneficial since particularly modelling short waves with phase-resolving models can be quite computationally demanding. These more detailed models would then only have to be used for the longest wave periods involved (say >15 s). Critical in the proposed approach is to know the boundaries for up to which point a spectral model can still be applied reliably. Deltares knows these practical application boundaries, since we develop a number of wave model types in-house and because we have ample experience in applying the spectral wave model SWAN in several port research and consultancy projects. A number of recent port projects at Deltares involved a large port area and an entrance channel, some of which were modelled with a numerical wave model and a physical scale model. This allowed comparison and validation of the different wave model types available. An example is the work we performed for the new port of Al Faw, Iraq (see Figure 1 below). Particularly when an entrance channel is present, a spectral wave model will generally result in a slight overestimation of the heights of shorter waves entering the inner port area. But in practice that may be preferred over the drawbacks of using more detailed models, which may include much longer calculation times and limitations in the spatial area that can be covered. In our presentation and paper we will use practical examples to present the rationale behind the proposed more lenient approach towards the influence of diffraction in and around major port areas

197 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering Abstract for PIANC COPEDEC IX, Brazil October 16-21, 2016 Figure 1: Example from a recent scale model project at Deltares of a major port development scheme including an entrance channel (Al Faw, Iraq). Figure 2: left panel: results from spectral wave model SWAN (without diffraction); right panel: results for the same wave condition from milde-slope model PHAROS (with diffraction). 1 Deltares, Harbour, Coastal and Offshore Engineering department, Delft, The Netherlands 2 Corresponding author:

198 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Assessment of new port operations using integrated analysis: a case study in Port of Mucuripe (CE, Brazil) Tannuri,E.A. ( 1 ), Câmara, J. ( 2 ), Silva, D.S. ( 2 ), Ruggeri, F. ( 1,3 ), Lavieri, R.S. ( 1,3 ), Rateiro, F. ( 4 ), Masetti, F. R. ( 1,4 ), Haranaka, F. ( 1 ) ( 1 ) Numerical Offshore Tank, University of São Paulo (TPN-USP), Brazil ( 2 ) Petrobras, Downstream, ( 3 ) Argonáutica Engenharia e Pesquisas, São Paulo, Brazil ( 4 ) Technomar Engenharia, São Paulo, Brazil This paper presents the analysis of a Ship-to-Ship (STS) operation in both berths of the Mucuripe Port (CE, Brazil) Oil Terminal. Whereas it is a new operation in this Terminal, state of art engineering tools was used to aid the analysis. A careful review of different aspects of the operation must be done, since this is a new operation in an existing port facility, which was not predicted when the port was originally designed and built. All the procedures are based on the PIANC Report n detailed design phase. Initially, a hydrodynamic model was done to define the waves and current along all the access channel and sheltered area. In the present case, the winds were obtained from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and water level measurements were used to define the long-term level/tide behavior of the port. Those data were used as input to the current flow numerical model in the port area, using the Delft3D-Flow software. The wave data were obtained from the propagation to the shore of WAVEWATCH III (WW3) offshore wave data, using the Delft-Wave software. A CFD model of the vessels in Ship-to-Ship configuration was used to calculate the current and wind forces in both hulls, since most of reference data is related only to single hull coefficients. Wave motions and loads are obtained using the potential software Wamit, with a careful analysis of the numerical mesh. The proximity between the vessels may induce to numerical errors in CFD and potential wave response calculation. A technical visit in the terminal was done in order to collect the technical specification of the mooring equipments (bollards, fenders) and to make a visual inspection of them. An in-house mooring analysis software (Medusa) was then used to calculate the forces in the mooring lines, bollards and fenders for a large range of wind, waves, water level and current combinations. This software is fully configurable and can even model Ship-to-Ship vessels arrangements. It is also possible to perform statistical analysis of the results, indicating the availability of the each berth for the STS operation. Different mooring layouts were tested. The nautical maneuver was performed and analyzed by real-time numerical simulations, with the support of the Mucuripe Port maritime pilots. Different scenarios of wind/waves/current were tested (Regular, Strong, Extreme), and 31 maneuvers were done in the full-mission maneuvering simulator of the TPN Laboratory. The simulations intend to verify if the space to turn the vessel was adequate, considering that the other STS vessel was already at the berth. Furthermore, the bollard pull and the number of tugboats could also be tested, considering the risks associated to the STS operation. In this particular case, a novel procedure of Fast-Time simulation was applied. The trajectories of the vessel obtained in the Real-Time simulations were reproduced for different environmental conditions, considering an optimization algorithm to verify the tug boats bollard pull required for each case. This calculation was done for a large number of scenarios and a statistical analysis of the results indicated the adequate number of tugboats and bollard pull. If hydro/meteo information and prediction system is installed in the port, these results could be used to optimize the allocation of the tugboats in the port. As a final result of the analysis, some restrictions were imposed to the STS operation when longperiod waves reach the port, since they cause large motions in the vessels and increase the load in the mooring lines. Furthermore, the results indicated the advantages of replacing some of the original bollards to quick release hooks in order to provide safer mooring arrangements

199 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering Physical model test on emergency protective measures of breakwater construction process Liu Haicheng 1,2 Yang Huili 2 Tan Zhonghua 2 (Tianjin University Civil Engineering Department, Tianjin , China; Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering, Tianjin , China) On strong wave sea area, emergency protection of breakwater during construction process is problem often faced. For different projects, there are many emergency protective measures. There are different risks and effects for different protective measures. In this paper, different measures were studied by physical model for Ashdod port breakwater project. The wave on project sea area is very strong during monsoon period. And breakwater construction will be suspended and it will be protected by interim protective measures. For the safety and success of the construction, the physical model test of different emergency protective measures during construction process will be studied. The safe and financial interim protective measures to keep breakwater head stable during monsoon season will be studied and recommended in order to guide the phases of the project construction. In this study, the interim protective effect of gabion, gabion chain and antifer units were studied. Compare the stability of gabion, gabion chain, antifer units The study found that stable weight of gabion, gabion chain and antifer blocks was different. The potential risks of different protective measures were analyzed. For example, the production and construction of gabion and gabion chain was complicated, and once the gabions broken up into small rocks under strong wave action it would result in destruction of the entire breakwater. As a result of this study the interim protection of two layers antifer units was found to be superior to the other interim protective measures

200 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering 1. General Barge Unloading Arrangement At Raslaffan Chandramohan P.V. 1 Aggregates to be used in various construction works were to be offloaded from barges at Raslaffan in Qatar. The ocean going Barges were of displacement 12000t. Dimensions of the vessel are: Length overall:120m, Beam:30m, Moulded depth:7.5m, Draught loaded:5.5m, Draught light:1m. The requirement was that two barges should be able to be unloaded at the same time. The proposed operation was for trucks to come on board the vessel and be loaded with excavators first. The trucks would pass on to a floating jetty over a vertically rotating ramp. The floating jetty also would act as turning space for the trucks. After turning around, the trucks would pass to land over another rotating ramp connected to a fixed steel bridge. The arrangement consisted of two berthing cum mooring dolphins for each vessel to resist the horizontal forces. Between the two vessels, a floating pontoon will be located. This will act as the turning space for the trucks as earlier mentioned. This will have three mooring dolphin cum guide on either side. The dolphins will act as guides as the pontoon goes up and down with the tide. The vessels would be moored to other additional mooring dolphins as well. Lay out of the arrangement are shown in Fig 1. Fig 1 Lay out of facilities 2. Location and site conditions The jetty will be put up inside the harbour basin at Raslaffan. Though the basin is protected by breakwaters, vessels at this berth will be subjected to some wave action. A design wave of 1.6m height was considered to compute forces. Bed of the basin consisted of Simsima line stone. Unloading of aggregates will be required only for a short period of 10 years. The structure has to be dismantled thereafter. This has ruled out concrete structures. The option is to go in for steel structures. Bed level at the location is High water level: Low water level: Forces on the vessel from a wave of height: 1.6m and period:12s were taken for computations. Berthing energy and barge impact force were computed for a fully loaded case at an approach velocity of 0.22m/s. Forces were computed by the owners and stipulated to Navayuga Engineering Company for design and construction of the structure. 1 President (Technical), Navayuga Engineering Company Ltd, Plot #379, Road #10, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad , India

201 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering 3. Structural design and piling method 3.1 Fender dolphin Please see fig 1. Each fender dolphin consists of six piles, connected by bracing at the top. The fender dolphin was to be designed for wave/impact forces. Breasting arrangements for the vessel were provided at the upper end of the piles. Since the structure total was made up of steel, concrete cap for the piles could not be envisaged. A thick concrete cap would have provided fixity at the top. This would reduce the bending moment on the piles considerably. To achieve this reduction, heavy steel bracing in two layers were welded to at the top. This was to prevent rotation of the piles at the top. Since the dolphin would be subjected to an external moment, inner row of piles would be in tension while the outer row would be in compression. At the bottom, the steel piles had to be socketed into lime stone. One feature of Simsima lime stone is the presence of cavities. So, end bearing of piles is usually omitted. Full capacity of the piles should be developed from side friction only. Anyway, this would have been the case with tension piles which has no end bearing component. Steel piles could not have been driven into rock. A method had to be devised to obtain the desired resistance. Pile boring was done at an a diameter 400 mm in excess. Steel tube was lowered into the socket and the gap between the rock and cylinder was concreted underwater. Based on computations socket lengths varied from 5m to 3m. 3.2 Mooring dolphin Please see fig 1.There are three dolphins cum guides on each side of the floating pontoon. Each dolphin consists of two piles. The action of the piles is similar to that of fender dolphins mentioned earlier. Besides there are three additional mooring dolphins which consist of four piles. Bracings have been provided at the top. Socketing into rock at the bottom has been done similar to other piles. 3.3 Bridge supports Please see fig 1. These are single piles without any horizontal force on them. They are of small diameter since they are not subjected to bending. Full text of the paper will contain details of the structural design of the steel piles. It will also contain computation details of the socket length. Data on characteristics of the lime stone will be presented. Oral presentation will include discussions with the help of photographs of fabrication of steel tubes and bracing. Piling operations in the basin will also be discussed

202 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Comparison between 2D and 3D Analysis of Open-piled Quay Walls 1. Introduction E. M. Galal 1, M. Mourad 2 and E. Tolba 3 ABSTRACT Open-piled quay wall structures generally consist of a horizontal deck that is sometimes anchored to a rear sheet pile. The deck is supported on vertical and sometimes batter piles, while underneath the deck a slope revetment is lying covered by protective armor layer. Open-piled quay walls are quite complex geotechnical and structural systems and as a consequence their performance evaluation is a challenging task. The main objective of the present study is to compare between the results of 2D and 3D analysis using the finite element program PLAXIS. The analysis have been done for the existing two open-piled quay wall cross-sections (Phase 1 and Phase 2) of the West Port-Said Port as shown in Fig Quay walls geometry. Fig.1.West Port-Said open-piled Quay Walls location The studied Quay Walls are located in West Port-Said Port, which lies to the northern entrance of the Suez Canal as shown in Fig. 1. Quay walls were constructed on 3-phases with lengths of 250 m, 350 m and 350 m, respectively. Phase 1 has a length of about 250 m and width of 34 m, while phase 2 has a length of about 350 m and width of 33.5 m. Both phases has 7 rows of piles ends at level m. Phase 1 resists the lateral loads by the transverse and longitudinal batter piles, while phase 2 resists the lateral loads by connecting the deck to an existed rear sheet pile wall. Fig. 2 shows the geometry of both phases. 1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Port Said University, Egypt, 2 Research Student, Faculty of Engineering, Port Said University, Egypt, 3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Port Said University, Egypt, 202

203 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering Fig.2 Open-piled quay walls geometry; (a) Phase 1, and (b) Phase Geotechnical data The geo-technical investigation carried out at the site reveals that there are considerable variations in the soil profile. The Geotechnical data used in the analysis are listed below in table 1. ZONE SOIL TYPE Top-z (El.-m) ɤ b KN/m3 C Kpa Φ Deg. A Sand B Clay C Sand Table 1 Geotechnical data. 4. Numerical modeling The main goal of this paper is to illustrate and validate the difference between PLAXIS 2D and PLAXIS 3D to model the soil-pile interaction. The main importance of this comparison is to determine appropriate modeling techniques and values for governing parameters to be used in further 2D and 3D analyses. The model tests are analyzed using a plane strain finite element approach, this allows a good representation of the pile group configuration and geometry, without being unduly complicated. Fig.3 shows the typical 2D and 3D finite element mesh of the studied quay wall structure (phase 2). Fig.3 Typical finite element mesh of the quay wall phase 2: (a) 2D analysis, and (b) 3D analysis. 6. Full paper contents The full paper will include the comparison of the results for both studied quay walls obtained from PLAXIS 2D and PLAXIS 3D. The results will be represented by moment, shear, and deflection for the structural elements

204 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering DAMAGES ASSESSMENT AND REHABILITATION OF NORTH BREAKWATER AT A MAJOR PORT IN SOUTH EAST COAST OF INDIA S.Sakthivel 1 S.A.Sannasiraj 2 and R.Sundaravadivelu 3 Kamaraj Port Limited commissioned in 2001, with North and South breakwater, for safe berthing of vessels. The coast is long and sandy and the beach gradient is gentle and exposed to continuous moderate surf. There are number of shoals known as Ennore Shoals North of the North Breakwater. The wave energy is attenuated as the waves travel over these shoals. The mouth of the Ennore creek is located south of the South Breakwater. The north breakwater is of length 3080 m and the water depth at the head section is 11.0m CD(Figure1). The south breakwater is of length 1070 m.the Primary armour at the head section is 6cu.m Accropode for the North breakwater. Figure 1. Layout of Kamaraj Port Limited The Kamaraj Port Limited(KPL) harbour structures were subjected to severe sea states like Fanoos, Nisha, Thane and Neelam cyclones. This study was based on comprehensive review of existing documentation provided to regarding the commissioning of KPL North breakwater, post cyclone survey results ascertaining the causes of damage, assessment of extent of damage and exploring the possibilities of mitigation measure to rehabilitate the northern breakwater damaged stretch due to cyclone Thane and Neelam. The study reveals the displacement of armour stones of North Breakwater from it s as built profile.it was found that the Accropode (6cu.m) units has been disturbed, some Accropodes units had physical structural damaged. Significant movement of the armour units compared with the completion drawings of the breakwater was observed. There is a considerable gap between wave wall and armour units in the north breakwater head section and the under layer unit is exposed. Interlocking and gravity is governing the stability. The observed displacement and structural damage of the Accropodes units is beyond acceptable range

205 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering A detailed field survey and investigation indicates to the flattening of the breakwater side slope, settlement of the section and deterioration of interlocking due to displacements and structural damage of the primary armour i.e Accropodes,in some cases even missing an arm.further, the wave climate has exceeded the design wave height at this location.during this study it was revealed that the extent of damage due to each cyclone in the last four years since 2011 has incrementally deteriorated the North breakwater,thane and Neelam cyclones causing maximum damage.the top level of the north breakwater is increased to +9.0 m CD from +5.85m for rehabilitation work.we are proposing Tetrapod(25T) to satisfy some of the conditions to rehabilitate the damaged North Breakwater as shown in figure 2. The equivalent size of Accropode required for rehabilitation work is 12 cu.m.details of rehabilitation using Tetrapod as the solution due to various factors like site conditions, sea states,construction methodology, and environmental conditions will be explained in detail in the paper. Figure 2. Cross section for rehabilitation of the North breakwater Head section using Tetrapod (25T). 1 Managing Director, Ocean Engineering &Consultancy Pvt Ltd(OECPL) (E.mail: 2 Professor, Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai. 3 Professor, Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai

206 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Hydraulic model studies for proposed fishing port at Messida (wilaya El tarf, Algeria) Abeygoonasekara I.L, Amari M, Dissnayake D.M.S.S, Fernando M.S.L, Perera H. N. R, Ranasinghe D.P.L, Raveenthiran K, Senarathne D.E.N, Silva K.B.A. 1. Introduction Messida is located at El Tarf region of northern Algeria about 700 km eastward to Capital Algiers, close to the border of Tunisia bounded by southern Mediterranean Sea. The coast of Messida comprises with series of small headlands and its coastal morphology presents rocky cliffs and pocket sandy beaches along the shoreline. As a part of consultancy services provided by The Hydro Marine Ingenierie (HMI) for development of fishing port at Messida, hydraulic model studies were conducted by Lanka Hydraulic Institute Ltd (LHI). Location 1 Aouinet Figure 1. Proposed location for Fishery harbor Site Location Location 2 Messida LHI conducted a comprehensive hydraulic model study incorporating both numerical and physical modelling for the proposed development. The most suitable location and orientation for the proposed port was selected according to the results of initial study on wave refraction and wave agitation mathematical modelling simulations. Effect on flow conditions and sediment transport at the vicinity of the port after introducing harbour structures and necessity of maintenance dredging were assessed by sediment transport modelling. Designed breakwater sections for selected variants from the numerical modelling were verified and optimised through 2D (flume) physical model.preferred layout from the numerical modelling and the 2D (flume) model testing were further optimized for wave agitation, stability of structures, wave overtopping and sediment transport by 3D (basin) physical model. 2. Approach and Methodology Nearby two locations were proposed for the fishing port for preliminary studies.the offshore water depth values and near shore surveyed data which provided by HMI were used for the preparation of model bathymetry with reference to the NGA. Three sets of wave data obtained from 1961 over a 20 year period has been considered for offshore extreme wave analysis in a previous study and same were used for wave refraction modelling. Since correlation of wind speed and wave height of wind generated waves coincides with Beaufort scale, the same was utilized in modelling. DHI s MIKE 21 software package was employed for numerical modelling. MIKE 21 Spectral Wave (SW) model was used for wave transformation process, establish the design wave conditions and to derive wave conditions for 2D and 3D physical models. Wave disturbance and its influence on navigation, maneuvering & mooring activities inside the harbour and at the entrance were checked by 206

207 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering MIKE 21 Boussinesq Wave (BW) model for four different variants each on selected two locations. MIKE 21 HD model with nested grid approach and MIKE 21 PMS model was applied to establish flow pattern and wave radiation stresses respectively. Sediment transport was evaluated by MIKE 21 Non Cohesive Sediment Transport Module (MIKE 21 ST). The annual sediment transport rates were calculated considering annual frequency distribution of offshore waves. Model was not calibrated due to unavailability of measured sediment transport data and hence could only be used for comparison. 2D physical model simulations were performed at LHI laboratory wave flume (30m x 0.8m) on each critical profile for two different variants (L2V3 and L2V4). Breakwater sections were tested for stability, overtopping and wave transmission for dominant North-West directed extreme waves of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 year return periods. Model scale of 1:54 was selected considering wave conditions as critical parameter. Figure 2. Harbour Layout (L2V3) for 3D Physical Modelling 3D model testing has been carried out at the LHI laboratory wave basin (35m x 25m) for the selected layout of variant L2V3. Model scale 1:65 was selected again considering wave conditions as the critical parameter. Model bed was fixed for stability and harbour calmness testing and near-shore bathymetry was prepared as movable for sediment transport modelling. Extreme waves approaching from 330 N and 20 N directions were considered for the stability and the overtopping testing in the 3D model. 2% and 25% exceedance level of wave height from direction bands of 20 N and 315 N were selected as the simulation scenarios for harbour calmness testing. Same wave directions were applied for sediment transport modelling to examine the average sediment movement, seabed changes in the vicinity of the harbour, entrance and basin. 3. Results and Discussion Wave refraction model showed higher waves reached from North West direction and design wave heights on breakwaters were higher at location 1 than location 2. The results of wave agitation model indicated all proposed breakwater orientations provide safe working condition for both mooring and navigational functions for all wave conditions arrive at the harbour site. Considering lowest wave heights observed and required port facilities to be provided variants L2V3 and L2V4 were selected for further studies.sediment transport model results indicated eastward net annual sediment transport due to dominant wave from west and no noteworthy change of sediment transport pattern and sediment movement at the port entrance for different variants. Hence accumulation problem would not arise in harbour basin and shoreline change would be insignificant due to rocky headlands and coastline. It was recommended to monitor the shoreline changes at pre and post of construction for further analysis. During initial 2D model testing lee side of breakwater was severely damaged due to high overtopping observed for breakwater section with +6.5m crest level for variant L2V3. Consequently crest level was increased up to +7.5m as a modification and provided good results with acceptable stability and overtopping. Transmitted wave heights at harbour side were safe for operations. The modified section of variant L2V4 was also acceptable for stability, overtopping and wave transmission. Overtopping rate was high for vehicle traffic and pedestrians in both variants hence should avoid in rough sea condition. Intense overtopping was observed over both the main breakwater and secondary breakwater having crest level of +6.5m during 3D stability modelling causing washout of lee side of the main breakwater and onshore harbour area from secondary breakwater. Modified breakwaters performed well for both stability and overtopping. Still overtopping rate was high for vehicle traffic and pedestrians during rough sea condition and hence should be avoided at those times. Wave heights at inner harbour area for operational conditions were always less than 0.4m depicting safe level of harbour operations. Sediment transport model results indicate that the port is well oriented with having minimum effect to natural sediment movement. The paper will elaborate on numerical model setups, interpretation of extracted model results along with procedures of 2D and 3D physical models and modifications conducted on harbour structures to ascertain safe and workable fishing port at Messida. Oral paper presentation will summarize the entire hydraulic model study with more emphasis on physical model studies

208 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Including Tidal Windows into a Discrete Event Traffic Simulation to Improve Navigation in Approach Channels Rodrigo Uchoa Simoes, Student, UFRJ/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, Laissa Régia Sarmento Baltazar, Student, UFRJ/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, Marcos Nicolas Gallo, Professor, UFRJ/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, Susana Beatriz Vinzon, Professor, UFRJ/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, Jean-David Caprace, Professor, UFRJ/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, It has been shown how traffic simulations can be used to improve trade performance of approach channels and port logistic. The main consideration revolve around the efficiency and safety of the port and channel operations that can enter in conflict with operational limits and cause disastrous effect on efficiency. These limits depend on a number of factors such as ship type, ship dimensions, and cargo together with environmental conditions. If a berth is available and conditions are unsafe for an arrival, the ship will have to wait for conditions that are more favorable. This will results in delays and a loss of valuable working time at berths. Two specific situations merits to be highlighted. First, in some approach channels, fluvial currents combined with tidal currents may be too strong at certain stages of the tide to allow some ships to navigate safely. Second, depending on transit times and traffic, it may be possible to use tidal windows to bring in deeper draught ships than would normally be acceptable. This implies that there will be times (access downtime) for which the channel will not be available for such ships. Therefore, there is a need to include theses parameters into traffic simulation in order to improve the channel navigation safety as well as the port efficiency. In order to solve this problem, a discrete event traffic simulation combined with a 2DH hydrodynamic model is proposed in this paper. Both, astronomical tides and river seasonal flows are considered to assess the currents and under keel clearance in a period of one year. Therefore, together with ship speed and draught, the travelling and waiting times probability distributions can be assessed. This model has been applied on case study of the Amazon North Channel (Figure 1). This area has been selected because it is considered critical for navigation due to sandy banks migration, macro tides and limited depths (lower than 10 meters). Also, tide along the channel is predicted through corrections (using coefficients for phase and amplitude) of tide tables at a reference station in the coast, called Curua Grande. Then, a methodology based on water level results from a numerical modelling is proposed to forecast the tide along the channel. This methodology will allow a continuous adjustment and it will consider the seasonal variations of the tide. The preliminary results show the influences of tidal windows on waiting time probability distribution of the ships for both upstream and downstream travels. Finally, this study suggest that the developed model can improve the decision making regarding acceptable tidal windows. It will lead to a better safety and better efficiency of ports and channel operations. Keywords: Tidal Window, Approach channel, Discrete Event Simulation, Inland Navigation, Logistic 208

209 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering Figure 1: Amazon North approach channel (red line), Brazil. Reference station in the coast (black point), called Curua Grande and mud shoaling area (circle) with depths lower than 10 meters

210 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Influence of the navigation channel geometry on silting of Paranagua Port (Paraná, Brazil). SOARES, P. H.; GALLO, M. N.; RANGEL, B. D. A.; and VINZON, S. 1. Introduction The tendency in maritime trade is to increase the vessels size as response to an optimization on the current economic requirements; therefore, ports have had to develop at the same time, increasing his infrastructure and enhance stability navigational channels according to the new demand. As reflex, adaptations are required for the expansion of the operational capacity of ports, especially the approach channels, which tend to be wider and deeper. In this way, the channel sizing tends to accomplish a geometry that ensures safety navigation and optimize dredging operations. Nowadays, one of the main challenges faced by the Ports of Brazil is referred to the constant dredging works required in its access channels. Constantly dredging is an expensive work, but it is strictly necessary to maintain safely operations and permit optimal ship maneuverability (MARCHETTI & PASTORI, 2006). The Port of Paranaguá is located on the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, in Paraná State (Figure 1). It figures in importance as the third principal Brazilian port, being responsible for 11 % of the total maritime cargo movement in the 2015 first trimester. Its maritime access is through the Galheta channel that presents a longitudinal extension of 28.5 km. The channel was opening in 1974 and since that, it has been affected for an intense silting processes, especially in the sector Alfa situated at the mouth of the estuary. Between the years 2000 until 2005, the channel was dredged computed a total volume of m3, 66% of that volume belonged to the sector Alfa (INPH, 2013). In this sense, this work aims to evaluate different geometric configurations on the sector Alfa in the Galheta channel, seeking for an optimal configuration that could reduce frequency dredging operations and dredge sediment volume for the Port of Paranaguá. Therefore this study intends to investigate relationships between channel design in terms of alignment and design depth and the sedimentation processes in navigation channels. Figure 1: Map showing the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC)

211 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering 2. Metodology Alfa Sector s bathymetries (provided by INPH, 2013) were analyzed in two different data sets due to the maintenance dredging frequency of the access channel: (1) period of , with a natural curve alignment channel and (2) period of , with rectilinear alignment channel. Sedimentation rates were calculated for those two periods by creating a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) to each bathymetry and then were created a surface volume comparison for the period, and another to the The calculates were made in AutoCad Civil. A morphological model 2DH (Delft3D) was configured to evaluate the bathymetry evolution and sedimentation rates for alternative scenarios with different geometries of the Alfa sector (alignment and design depth). The model is driven by astronomical constituents (Global Tide - FES2012), waves (NOOA- WaveWatch3), wind (Centro de Estudos do Mar) and fluvial discharge (Agência Nacional de Águas). This model was set up with a detailed grid resolution of about 20-30m in the area of interest and it was calibrated for hydrodynamics. A morphological calibration setting was run with a real bathymetry from 2012 period whose has a rectilinear alignment channel with design depth of 15 m. 3. Results The bathymetric features between the two analyzed periods on the Alfa sector show contrast owing channel alignment differences. The periods exhibit a natural curve alignment channel with depths below 15 m.; its calculated sedimentation rate was 0.56 m³/m²/ano. The periods it s a post dredged stage to achieve a rectilinear channel with 15 m depth. Its calculated sedimentation rate was 0.81 m³/m²/ano. The differences obtained in the sediments rates for each periods analyzed, could be explained as a response to a morphological configuration and the channel geometry. The dredging works determine a rectilinear channel with NW orientation; though, the sediments input by the littoral drift have a SW predominant orientation, flexing the rectilinear axis, tending to form a curvature. This process could be observed in 2005 and 2006, where an interruption on maintenance dredging had as result an alteration in the geometric channel feature, where the south east bank migrates toward the channel base, tending to form a curvature. The same trend was evidenced in the bathymetric evolution analysis for the period between realized by LAMOUR E SOARES (2008). The authors highlight that dredging works accomplished during that period aimed to rectify the south east bank channel, however, the curvature persist, demanding continually maintenance dredging works efforts. The analysis of bathymetric data has shown that the channel with a curved alignment would tend to be more stable. This trend was also observed with the numerical morphological modeling by comparing the calibration setting model (set for ) with a new scenario with curve alignment channel in Alfa sector. Additionally, the model will be used to assess the deepening of the channel to 17m, which is already foreseen in the new dredging plan. 4. Bibliography MARCHETTI, D. S.; PASTORI, A. Dimensionamento do Potencial de Investimentos para o Setor Portuário. BNDES Setorial, Rio de Janeiro, INPH, Seminário interno do projeto Estudos e Pesquisas Acadêmicas para a Elaboração de Projetos de Engenharia/Serviços de Dragagem e Reestruturação/Revitalização do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Hidroviárias-INPH, realizado em 29/03/2013. LAMOUR, M. R.; SOARES, C. R.; CARRILHO, J. C. Mapas de parâmetros texturais de sedimentos de fundo do Complexo Estuarino de Paranaguá Pr. Boletim Paranaense de Geociências. UFPR: No.55, p.77-82,

212 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering International MSE Wall Experience for Port and Coastal Applications Authors: Sankey, John - Terre Armée (USA), Freitag, Nicolas - Terre Armée (France), Gass, Anne-Cécile - Terre Armée (France), Lozano, Robert The Reinforced Earth Company (USA) 1. Overview Land use is often at a premium in ports and along coastal areas just above high water or normal flood stage elevation. This proximity can pose technical challenges leading to costly alternatives when the river bank or seacoast is so narrow that new construction encroaches into the waterway. Under such conditions, retaining structures are required which will be in permanent or temporary contact with either fresh or salt water. Furthermore, the combined forces of water and water borne debris during storms or floods represent additional environmental considerations that need special attention when designing retaining structures. Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) represents a proven alternative to other construction methods and materials used to build marine retaining structures. It is easily adapted to complex location and environmental conditions, with wide acceptance as a sound civil engineering application. MSE structures have the inherent advantages of economy, flexibility and speed of construction. 2. MSE Applications and Development The first MSE walls for marine application were constructed using Reinforced Earth in the early 1970s, soon after development of MSE technology by Henri Vidal. Since these first structures, MSE walls have been used around the world to meet the challenges represented by a variety of geometry and land use needs in port and coastal facilities. With time, the technology has evolved primarily in the type of reinforcements used to meet the site conditions imposed by marine conditions. When steel reinforcements were used, as done with the first MSE walls, the physio-chemical parameters of soils created somewhat more restrictive considerations than those for ordinary dry land structures. Over time, a variety of metals and coatings were evaluated to meet the submerged conditions represented by marine-based MSE structures. Meeting the challenge of salt water conditions in particular has resulted in the development of geosynthetic strip reinforcements

213 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering This paper will look at the reinforcement basis and its evolution over time for MSE walls used in port and coastal areas. Attention will be paid in particular to the types of MSE reinforcement materials available and their durability under the conditions imposed by marine environments. Other major elements used in design will also be discussed including facings, selection of backfill, drainage, protection and hydraulic engineering (panel joint control, scour and drawdown). 3. International Case Studies Brief case examples of marine-based MSE walls will be presented from projects in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Malaysia and South Africa. Challenges addressed by the projects and their contribution to advances in MSE design for marine-related conditions will be discussed. The basis of the full paper will be to summarize and advance the reliability of MSE retaining structures for use in port and coastal projects. With a history of over 50 years, the reinforcement material attributes of MSE walls has changed significantly based upon a better understanding of marine/soil environmental interactions. A historical review with continuing development considerations will be a good reference for conference participants on the subject of MSE walls. Case studies will be specific to port and coastal projects with figures included to let the conference attendee and reader see the demonstrated range of applications. jes:international mse wall experience for port & coastal applications 213

214 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering NAVIGATION CHANNEL AT AMAZON MOUTH: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES VINZON, S.B.; GALLO, M. N. and VILELA, C.P.X. LDSC - Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department COPPE - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, ABSTRACT The North Channel or Curuá Grande Channel, located in the lower reach of the Amazon River, is the main access to a large waterway along the Amazon River and tributaries. The ship drafts is limited to 11,58m at the mud belt located on the continental shelf, where the crossing can only be performed during a high water tidal window. Important to note, there is a large tide variability along the navigation channel, with remote tidal stations for water level prediction, with variations in tidal asymmetry and phase (Gallo, 2004; Fernandes, 2006; Rezende, 2009). Moreover, in the first reach of the path, highly dynamic sand banks also mean a risk for grounding due to their migration (Fernandes, 2010, Fernandes et al. 2015). To contribute to the safety of navigation, improving the water level forecasting and also the establishing of navigable depths, a project was developed in partnership of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Cohesive Sediment Dynamics Laboratory, LDSC/COPPE/UFRJ), the Navy of Brazil (DHN and SSN-4), the IEPA (the Amapa State Institute for Research), and the State University of Rio de Janeiro (Department of Oceanography, UERJ). During the development of this project, 16 theses (5 doctorate and 11 masters) were concluded, contributing for the understanding and guidelines on how to improve the navigation. The final products can be summarized as: 1) operationalization of a hydrodynamic model for water levels forecasting, 2) assessing the minimum frequency necessary for the hydrographic surveys in order to reestablish the navigation channel due to the sandbanks obstruction and 3) investigate the mud belt seeking for defining a Nautical Depth, which may increase the allowed ship drafts. In this work the third aspect is addressed. Figure 1 illustrate the underkeel clearance and nautical bottom definition. Figure 1: Scheme illustrating the concept of Nautical Bottom (from McAnally et al 2015). In situ measurements were performed along the navigation channel, in field campaigns in 2007, 2008 and A current profiler (ADCP) was operated from the field boat recording at least a tidal cycle at each station. An instrumented frame was also used, where a local velocity sensor (ADV), an in situ particle size measurement device (LISST), turbidity and salinity sensor (CTD and OBS) and a densimeter (Densitune) were assembled and lowered along the tidal cycle. Figure 2 show an example of one of this set of measurements

215 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering Figure 2: ADCP measurements along a tidal cycle at station P8 located in the mud belt along the navigation channel, North Channel of Amazon River. Density and suspended sediment profilers were used to evaluate the nautical bottom. The data analysis allowed to define the thickness of the fluid mud layer and its density for the surveyed points. From this information and laboratory analysis of the mud viscosity and yield stress, the criteria described in PIANC 2014 for defining nautical depth was applied. References Fernandes, R. D., 2006; Redução de sondagens na Barra Norte do rio Amazonas.. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia Oceânica) - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Fernandes, R.D.; Baltazar, L.R.S.; Vinzón, S.B., 2016, Dynamics of Sandbanks and the Navigation Channel at the Amazon River Mouth Brazil, IX Pianc-Copedec 2016 Gallo, M.N. 2004; A influência da vazão fluvial sobre a propagação da maré no estuário do rio Amazonas. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia Oceânica) - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. McAnally, W. H., R. Kirby; S. H. Hodge; T. L. Welp; N. Greiser; P. Shrestha; D. McGowan; and P. Turnipseed, 2015, Nautical Depth for U.S. Navigable Waterways: A Review. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering. DOI: /(ASCE)WW PIANC 2014, Harbour Approach Channels Design Guidelines, Report n 121 Rezende M.F. 2009, Propagação da maré na Barra Norte do Amazonas e problemas associados para a Navegação. Dissertação (Mestrado em Mestrado em Engenharia Costeira e Oceanográfica) - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

216 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering On the development of a dynamic underkeel clearance computational code for Santos Port (SP, Brazil) Ruggeri, F. ( 1,2 ), Watai, R. ( 1,2 ), Tannuri,E.A. ( 2 ), Tavares, B. R. ( 3 ), Souza Filho, C. A. ( 3 ), Geraldes, V. N. ( 3 ). ( 1 ) Argonáutica Engenharia e Pesquisas, São Paulo, Brazil ( 2 ) Numerical Offshore Tank, University of São Paulo (TPN-USP), Brazil ( 3 ) Santos Pilots, Brazil The increase of vessel dimensions in the last years combined to the challenges regarding dredging activities in the Santos Port (SP-BR) has motivated the continuous development of aid tools to increase the terminals performance keeping the operational safety. The development of numerical models allowed more accurate predictions of the estuary environmental conditions, mainly waves, current and tide, which combined to the vessel computational model provides the ship motions in 6DoF. These motions can be used for a rational underkeel clearance prediction using real-time measurements, instead of the conventional static rules applied in most of the Brazilian ports. However, it is well known that the ship motions are reduced for short period waves considering large vessels, which can be used to increase the vessel draft. On the other hand, the vessel motions are appreciably for long waves, which can be used to reduce the vessel draft and the risk of bottom touch. The computational code was developed for tankers, bulk carriers and containerships with (partially) loaded draft above 12.0m, considered the most critical according to the nowadays traffic. The PIANC Report n factors are considered in the computation of the maximum safety draft the information regarding current (direction and intensity), wind (direction and intensity), tide and waves (direction, period and significant wave height), vessel operation (entrance or exit) and ship velocity used as input for the computations. The ship related factors considered are the squat, dynamic heel due to turning and wind, wave response and net ukc. In order to simplify the utilization and avoid mistakes in the input data, a large database of vessels was created and summarized in a user-friendly interface, where the characteristics of each specific vessel is defined based on the IMO number, BZ code or vessel name. If a new vessel is operating in the port, the vessel is included in the software database using Lloyd s register information available in a standard xml format. The vessel hydrostatic/hydrodynamic characteristics are then interpolated using the software database if the dimensions are in the ranges of LOA, beam, depth and draft (the ranges were previously defined based on Fairplay records)

217 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering The database contains the maximum wave motions of several points at the ship bottom considering a collection of wave periods, incidence direction, ship speed (encounter frequency correction), underkeel clearance, LOA, beam, depth, draft and ship type (tanker, bulk carrier or containership). The maximum wave motions were computed using potential flow theory and are based on spectral theory and a probabilistic approach, assuming a Jonswap spectrum and the RAOs of each specific point of the bottom. Since the ship geometry (stations) regarding each individual vessel is not available, some standard design ships are assumed and scaled to meet the desired LOA, beam, depth and draft. The squat is computed based on literature regressions according to the Cb, ship speed (corrected to take into account the current effect) and channel geometry, the first one defined based on the hydrostatic properties available in the database for several drafts, the second one defined according to the pilot expertise and the last one computed based on the channel bathymetry. The heel due to turning is computed according to the lateral wind and metacentric height in the database and the wind measured using sensors. The heel due to turning is computed using the ship speed and the turning radius computed from the channel alignment. All computations are performed following PIANC 2014 recommendations. The maximum draft is computed for 300 hundred points in the channel solving for each one a non-linear equation, with the maximum allowed draft as the minimum of the maximum drafts in the several points. The maneuvering margin (MM) is defined based on the pilots experience to guarantee the safety according to the environmental conditions, ship dimensions and available tugs. The software has been tested for several months in the Santos Port to validate the computations and improve the operational process to guarantee the tool reliability. The paper contents are: - Introduction/motivation - Methodology to define the design ship main dimensions in the database - Regressions and data to defined the ship properties and hull geometry. - Methodology for squat and dynamic heel computation - Methodology for ship motions assessment, including the spectral theory. - Numerical results and comparisons. - Conclusions

218 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Portocel the importance of coastal morphology for a greenfield port development By Jens Kirkegaard 1, Patricia Dutra Lascosque 2, Berry Elfrink 3 1. INTRODUCTION Portocel was designed and constructed in the 70ies to serve as main export facility for a new pulp mill at Aracruz in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The site is about 55 km north of Vitória - ES. The original port concept consisted of an offshore breakwater at 16 m water depth sheltering a loading facility. The proposed berth would be connected to the shore by a 1500 m long trestle. This nodredging concept was conceived to avoid problems with the hard rocky beach reef and sedimentation. The present paper describes the considerations leading to the new basic layout of the port as well as the further development of the port to accommodate other infrastructure projects. 2. LOCAL CONDITIONS The reef along the coast has a width of m with a steep sloping seaward face down to 8-10 m water depth. A 600 m wide opening in the reef results in a wide bay with a sandy beach Praia das Conchas (see Fig 1b). North of the site the coast turns towards east and a stable beach is formed up to the mouth of Rio Doce. The coastline in the region is characterized by the presence of a fringing stone reef and rocky headlands with curvy beaches in between them. The beaches have attained their equilibrium shoreline configuration, which implies that northward and southward components of the annual littoral drift are equal in magnitude, leading to zero net transport. The littoral transport is limited to a narrow zone between the reef and the water line. From a sedimentation- and coastal impact point of view, this makes the present location ideal for the construction of a port. Fig 1a: Location of project Fig 1b: Praia das Conchas in 1971 and 1991 The site is exposed to southeasterly swell and shorter waves from east and northeasterly directions. Winds are generally mild and the astronomical tidal range less than 2 m at spring tide. Wind driven currents along the coast are weak with minimal tide driven components. The opening in the reef in front of Praia das Conchas led to the idea to create a port facility directly on the coast instead of an offshore port This would improve the access to the hinterland and the pulp mill. 1 Senior Consultant, DHI, Agern Alle 5, DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark, 2 Director Superintendent, Portocel, Caminho da Barra do Riacho, S/N CEP: , Aracruz ES, Brazil, 3 Senior Coastal Engineer, DHI, Agern Alle 5, DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark,

219 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering 3. SHIPPING The initial development aimed at one berth facility with possible expansion to two berths as the pulp mill was expected to increase the production capacity. The port was initially expected to receive vessel of 35,000 tdw capacity with a possibility to expand to 60,000 tdw bulk carriers with onboard gantry cranes for loading. This size of vessels required initially a water depth at low water of 13.5 m in the approach channel and 12 m along the berth. 4. HYDRAULIC STUDIES An intensive field investigation was conducted in as a basis for the port design. Important was the geological and soil survey aiming at locating the extent of coastal reefs. An extensive metocean study was carried out including wind and wave measurements. Directional wave information was obtained by observations from a fishing boat entering the sea morning and afternoon. Current measurements were conducted by floats launched outside the reefs. Subsequently hydraulic model tests were conducted in order to determine motions and mooring forces of vessels moored along the berths. It was decided to place the berth along the side of the northern reef, and thereby allow the moored vessel heading into the waves. In addition to providing optimal mooring conditions this made it possible to create reclaimed quayside areas on top of the north reef. Later, as the expansions were needed, the concept proved to provide the necessary flexibility for further expansions of berths and facilities. 5. DEVELOPMENTS WITHIN THE PRESENT PORT AREA Within the port area bounded by the two breakwaters it has been possible to expand the port facilities to accommodate three loading berths for tdw bulk carriers. Excavations behind the original shoreline provided space for three barge unloading berths to serve maritime transport of wood logs and produced pulp from facilities in southern Bahia. The barge transport has been a very successful venture eliminating transport of large volumes of logs on the coastal highway. Furthermore space was created inside the port area for the Petrobrás gas terminal at Barra do Riacho. Fig 2: Portocel viewed from NW 6. EXPANSION PLANS In order to facilitate the increasing container trade in Brazil the present plans for expansion calls for larger water depths. The final paper will present the expansion plans. These plans include new outer breakwaters to be constructed in water depths of 15 m and a short dredged approach channel. Part of the project will be fixation of the mouth of the Riacho river located along the northern edge of the port by two jetties at each side of the river mouth. The aim of such fixation is to 1)- create a quality beach for local recreational use, 2)- improve navigation conditions for local fishing vessels and 3)- mitigate negative impacts of the port expansion on the adjacent shoreline north of the port

220 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering PROPELLER ACTION AND BERTH SCOUR PROTECTION Authors: Martin Hawkswood 1, Matthew King 2 and Raphael de Haan 3 Abstract Propeller use is usually the dominant vessel action on berth scour protection. With increasing vessel size and power, more effective scour protection is needed to safeguard the stability and use of berthing structures. The paper will present the results of scale model testing to rock protection under a range of propeller actions and compare them with present guidance. The principal parameters of propeller actions expected in a berth where replicated in the tests: - - variable power / revolutions - various propeller clearance ratios - rudder deployment and deflected flow - ahead and reversal Figure 1. Scale Model Testing The tests were conducted using flow from a 150mm Ø open propeller with a standard rudder applied to both level rock protection and falling edge aprons (Fig 1). The basis of the tests will be presented in terms of Reynolds number scaling, propeller thrust coefficient, rock grading, surface laying tolerance and definition of the threshold of movement. The tests were conducted using a scale model container vessel hull fixed in position along with the propeller. The tests have allowed a comparison of test performance to present design guidance listed in references 1 4. The paper will present comparison graphs and relationships for the principal parameter relative to this design guidance. This may be of use to guide further testing and development of design guidance, particularly with comparison to performance case histories. After Construction After Edge Scour Figure 2. Rock Falling Edge Apron d p Falling edge aprons comprising three layers of rock are now increasing being used as edge protection to mattress and insitu concrete protection types to prevent underscour (Fig 2). The paper will outline and reference these other protection types with regard to their failure modes, reliability of construction and design methods. As these types are more difficult to repair than rock, there is a need for conservative design, reliability of construction and safe edge details like falling edge aprons. 1. B.Sc. C.Eng. M.I.C.E. M.I.Struct.E. Proserve Ltd, (CUR C208 Committee Member) 2. M.Eng. Proserve Ltd, 3. Student, Hogeschool van Amsterdam 220

221 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering Little has been published on rock falling edge behaviour under propeller flow, particularly at various angles of attack or under deflected flow from rudder deployment (Fig 3). The initial results of the scale model testing will be presented and compared with present guidance and a limited amount of performance case history information available. Scour Protection Ub Figure 3. Rudder Deflected Flow The provision of reliable scour protection generally relies upon: - - determination of likely berthing vessels, their likely movement and propulsion actions - scour protection selection and design - reliable construction underwater The paper will suggest a probabilistic approach to estimate the design vessel action and the need for engineers to have a much greater understanding of vessel manoeuvring and scour actions. It will also outline the need for an integrated design and construction approach plus the need and benefits of using a suitable marine quality control system for mattress and insitu concrete protection types. The paper will be of use to Port authorities, Design Engineers, Contractors, Operators plus Research and Guidance Authorities. References: - [1] PIANC Report 180, (2015) Guidelines for Protecting Berthing Structures from Scour Caused by Ships. [2] PIANC Bulletin 109, Römisch, K. & Hering, W., (2002), Input Data of Propeller Inducted Velocities for Dimensioning of Bed Protection Near Quay Walls. [3] PIANC Report of Working Group 22, Bulletin no 96 (1997), Guidelines for design of armored slopes under open piled quay walls. [4] BAW (2005), Principals for the Design of Bank and Bottom Protection for Inland waterways, Bulletin 85, Karlsruhe. [5] Hawkswood, M.G. Lafeber, F.H., Hawkswood, G.M., (2014) Berth Scour Protection for Modern Vessels, PIANC World Congress, San Francisco, USA

222 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Rubber Fender Manufacturing: best practice from formulation to performance measurement Author: Mishra Kumar, Global Technical & Market Support Manager, Trelleborg Marine Systems In a marine fender system, the rubber component is critical in developing the characteristics of the fender system. However, there is generally a limited understanding of rubber compound quality and its impact on fender performance. The role of ingredient selection, mixing and the manufacturing process is poorly understood. Formulating best practice PIANC s Guidelines for the design of fender systems, 2002 highlighted the importance of Velocity Factor (VF) and Temperature Factor (TF) in the design and selection of fenders, and provides direction for reporting and calculating both. It is exceptionally difficult to conduct tests at actual berthing velocities due to the wide range of different fenders and the lack of testing facilities. Fenders are therefore usually tested at 2-8cm/min compression speed, which is drastically lower than a ship s actual berthing speed. To compensate for this, VF is applied to low speed test results to simulate a real life berthing. The performance of a fender is directly proportional to the fender s rubber stiffness, which scales according to the temperature. Fenders are usually tested at 23 ±5 C. However, in the real world, they can be exposed to a much broader range of temperatures. To simulate performance in real world situations, TF is applied. Both VF and TF are highly sensitive to the chemical composition (formulation) of different kinds of rubber compounds. Ingredient selection and rubber compound formulation are also very important factors in determining the efficiency (the ratio of energy absorption and reaction force) of a particular fender. Until recently, understanding chemical composition in rubber fenders was not practiced in the fender industry due to a lack of suitable tests and specifications. After undertaking comprehensive research on the impact of formulation on fender performance, Trelleborg Marine Systems introduced new specifications for stakeholders to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the chemical composition of a given fender, using the Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis, or TGA test

223 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering The TGA test has been well received by the industry. Other high quality manufacturers have followed suit and, currently, the trend in the industry leans towards consultants building requirements for TGA testing into specifications. This is important, because the TGA test determines whether fenders have been produced using a technically superior rubber formulation, one that includes little or no recycled rubber and only reinforcing fillers, like carbon black. Reinforcing fillers improve the mechanical properties of rubber, whereas non-reinforcing fillers, such as calcium carbonate might damage a fender s mechanical properties. The rubber and filler used are critical: 70-80% of a high quality fender s rubber formulation should consist of raw rubber (natural or synthetic) and carbon black, while the remaining 20-30% would consist of ten to fifteen other small ingredients. Raw rubbers, carbon black and these other ingredients are then converted to a rubber compound through a mixing process. Although the TGA test ensures a superior formulation, relying on this test alone is not sufficient to guarantee the rubber compound s quality, or the consistency of finished products. These parameters rely on a superior mixing process. A superior formulation, confirmed by TGA test, when converted to a rubber compound can still be of poor quality due to an inferior mixing process. This can ultimately produce an inferior fender, incapable of absorbing the correct amount of energy. Through ongoing research in rubber compound mixing, Trelleborg has proven the importance of the mixing and manufacturing process in producing a superior rubber compound, and subsequently, a superior rubber fender. This paper will provide insight into the importance of the mixing process, equipment used to manufacture rubber compounds, and the impact of both on the performance and lifecycle of a fender

224 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Authors: : CHRYSOVITSIOTIS Georgios, Sebastien Frulieux, Thierry Jeanmaire The list of records in Dubai grows longer with the New T3 Container Terminal DP World has put into operation the biggest semi-automatic terminal in the world, capable of receiving up to 4 million TEUs (twenty-foot-equivalent units). The T3 container terminal has brought the total capacity of Jebel Ali Port up to 19 million TEUs, divided among its three terminals. It has thus made it possible to receive simultaneously up to 10 container ships of the Ultra-Large-Post-Panamax type. The main works comprised 664,000m 3 of soil consolidation by vibrocompaction over a height of 16m, a diaphragm wall 1.50m thick, 1,926m long and 28.50m deep, 535 supporting wall units and 1,068, 35m long tie rods. 1/Introduction The Project is located at Jebel Ali Port which lies 35km to the southwest of the city of Dubai, strategically located in central UAE, surrounded by Jebel Ali Freezone (Jafza), home to over 7100 companies from over 125 countries. It is the world largest man-made harbor and the largest port in the Middle East, with 67 berths and a size of km 2. In order to meet the market demand DP World (Employer) decided to convert one of its general cargo areas into a state of the art container terminal. The new container terminal is to be known as Container Terminal 3 (T3). The site of the new terminal is the terminal known as quay 10 and a section of an adjacent berth used by the Marine Department known as the West Wharf. These two original berths did not share the same berthing line and the new T3 berthing line does not coincide with either of the original berth lines. The berthing line has been carefully determined to meet the operational requirements of the new terminal without unduly affecting marine risks. The site is on the west side of the existing Jebel Ali Container Terminal 1 (T1). The Employer s plan was to design, construct, commission and equip the new terminal infrastructure to accommodate a targeted 4 million TEU capacity per year when fully operational. As the original quay walls Q10 and WW were offset against each other and did not provide sufficient depth for the new Terminal requirements, a new continuous quay wall of 1862m length is being constructed 33m in front of the original Q10 wall and 10m behind the existing WW wall. For this purpose, a 1150m x 35m large area had to be reclaimed with hydraulic sand fill in front of Q10. The extension of the new terminal included dredging the berth pocket to the existing channel depth, demolition of existing buildings and general cargo facilities, paved backup areas of approximately 78.0 ha, with associated buildings and services, new gates and access road, connection to main services (water, electricity etc.). T3 has been furnished with 19 semi-automated quayside Ship to Shore cranes (STS). They were already fully mounted on delivery and were directly fixed onto their rails. The container stacks will be served by 50 new automated rail mounted gantry cranes (ARMGs) with cantilever loading arms on either side of 10 wide container stacks to service tractor-trailer and external trucks. DP World particularly focused on settlement control and mitigation measures of differential settlements on the quay wall area and stacking yards. Such settlements would have major negative impacts on the cranes operations, due to elevation and alignment of rails. In 2012, the EPC Contract of Terminal T3 was awarded to the JV formed by TOA Corporation (Japanese Construction Group) and Soletanche Bachy (Part of Vinci Construction Group). The main areas of expertise and responsibilities managed by SB were the soil improvement of hydraulic sand fill in front of Q10 and the Design & Build of the quay wall structure

225 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering 2/Soil Improvement The works to be undertaken fall within a seismic risk area, therefore SB decided to reinforce the stability of the quay wall structure by soil improvement. The quality of soil improvement has been checked by SPT, which ensured that soil improvement target for liquefaction control has been met. In the West Wharf, the dense sand with an average SPT of 20 represents no risk of liquefaction and hence no ground improvement has been done in this area. In order to ensure that settlements during the operation of the terminal stay within the required limits and that liquefaction of the ground during earthquakes is avoided, the hydraulically placed fill sand in front of Q10, an area of 1150m x 35m, had to be compacted down to the previously existing sea bed at a depth of 16m. Based on the extensive experience of SB in the UAE with vibrocompaction, this method was chosen to improve the reclaimed ground in front of Q10. The vibrocompaction works were carried out with Menard, a sister company of Soletanche Bachy. 3/Quay Wall Structure The particularity of the quay wall structure is the combination of STS cranes foundations and anchoring system of the quay wall in one and single geotechnical structure. This enhanced the double reduction of construction costs and construction program. This is a major advantage for DP World, who aimed to begin operations at T3 as quickly as possible. Many existing techniques experienced on other projects could perfectly apply to such a structure. However, the specifications of T3 impose a 50 years time life for the quay wall and its anchoring system. SB decided to use a diaphragm wall as a quay wall. The quay wall stability is maintained by an anchoring system based on passive tie rods connected to an anchor wall. This choice of geotechnical structure becomes more and more coherent, based on life times and technical constraints imposed by clients across the world. SB has chosen the excavation methodology using HydroFraises (HF v3.5 and v5 on T3) for a 1500 mm thick, 28.5 m deep wall. The wall is then anchored to barrettes of 800 mm thick and 11 m depth. The barrettes are excavated by an in-house designed excavation tool, called KS (Kelly Soletanche). The anchoring system is based on 35 m long tie-rods formed by 4 individual pieces which are themselves interconnected by couplers and turnbuckles. Insert levels vary between Q10 and WW. They are at ±0.0 m ACD (quay wall side) and m ACD (anchor wall side) for Q10, whereas they are at ±0.0 m ACD (quay wall side) and m ACD (anchor wall side) for WW. 4/Quality Controls The diaphragm wall and the anchor wall were the subject of strict quality controls. In addition to the usual testing of drilling slurry and concrete properties, 49 diaphragm wall panels and 56 barrettes were tested for concrete integrity using the cross-hole sonic auscultation by Soldata. In addition all excavated parts of the diaphragm wall were tested with a cover meter for sufficient concrete cover over the reinforcement steel. All tests showed the quality of the structures to be as designed and as required. Soletanche Bachy finalized the Diaphragm Wall structure construction by mid-july 2014, successfully in terms of quality and client satisfaction

226 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering The New Standards PIANC 2014 and their Impact on the Brazilian Harbor Management Professor Edson Mesquita dos Santos, D. Sc. (ship hydrodynamics), Brazilian Maritime Academy CIAGA, Secretary of Brazilian Working Group of Special Studies of Port Planning - ABNT Abstract The economic prosperity of Brazil depends on trade with other nations. Success to ensure profit depends on the skill of how to meet the needs of global trade. The global maritime trade is increasingly in an interdependent way demanding higher freight and at lower cost. A globalize economy requires the construction of ever larger ships, requiring continuous changes in port infrastructure that has the challenge to keep up with this economic demand. The new guidelines PIANC 2014 for the design of geometric dimensions (vertical, horizontal and curved) of approach channels updates operational limitations and in general the standards are less conservative relative to the old one published in This was possible mainly due to the new hull designs, the better understanding of the maneuverability of the vessel and its behavior in waves, and the use of simulators (numerical and physical models in reduced scale) The new hull designs mainly advanced with the standardization of maneuverability criteria for all new ships larger than 100 meters built from January 1, 2004, recommended in the resolution IMO - MSC. 137 (76) of the International Maritime Organization, which allowed us to estimate, mainly in conceptual form, where the size of the ship together with its maneuverability are suitable to the geometry of an access channel, turning basin, curves and radius curves, etc. Better understanding of the ship's behavior in waves from the definition of the ship linear operator response to force excitation wave (RAO), the significant wave period, the angle of incidence between the wave and the ship's speed allowed the characterization, conceptually, what kind of waves would affect the vertical movements of the ship and defines, in a clearly way, what is an outer exposed channel and an inner protected channel

227 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering The use of numerical engineering simulation tools, with data processing capacity increased at a lower cost, allowed the evaluation of the controllability and maneuverability of a project ship on a specific environment, reducing but not eliminating a huge variety of subjective parameters, which include local operating conditions, the degree of training and experience of the pilots, the availability of tug assistance, the quality of navigational aids and other particular considerations. These numerical simulators need to be properly verified and validated and not replace, yet, tests with physical scaled models to conditions such as the evaluation of the nautical bottom in the presence of fluid mud. The new Brazilian standard for harbor planning (ABNT 13246) sought to faithfully follow the recommended guidelines PIANC 2014, but had to be more extensive because it involves an entire harbor planning, including spatial planning of berth, anchorage, floating terminals and tugs. Were employed as reference other standards already used successfully as the US Army (USACE) manuals, Spanish maritime works (ROM), the Japanese model (CDIT) and in the case of tugs, the recommendation presented in the circular 1101 MEPC, IMO. Another important factor inserted in the guidelines PIANC 2014, was the inclusion of the assessment and risk management, similar to rules already applied in air transport systems. In Brazil, there were clear rules on the definition and assessment of risk, based in the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and 31010, making it necessary to adapt the PIANC standard guidelines to Brazilian risk ABNT Although the standards are much more objective exists borders that prevent automatic implementation of them in Brazil. There is a lack of a database of environmental information in the port area, which can not ensure that the extrapolation of the results, in space and time, are satisfactory, especially in areas where there may be transport of sediments. The new design of ships have different geometries and their maneuverability are defined from the results of sea trials, in deep water, these results are extrapolated to fit standards of behavior for shallow and confined waters, however, few measured results exists to validate them, and in naval architecture, every day arise new documents confirming the need to reevaluate ship maneuver theory paradigms when applied to these new vessels. There is a lack of adequate training pilot, tug master and ship operators. That is, there are a number of variables that require more detailed analysis. This document presents the main variables that are part of the challenges to be met by port administrations, research institutes, pilotage services, companies of port engineering and dredging, tugboat services and all those who are part of port planning, to ensure that the entrance of large vessels are taking into account the new PIANC 2014 and ABNT standards, and thus ensuring that the safety of navigation is maintained

228 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering The role of fresh water discharge on siltation rates in harbor basins Johan C. Winterwerp 1,2) and Wiebe P. de Boer 1) 1) Deltares, The Netherlands, 2) Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Summary Across the world, harbours experience significant rates of siltation, yielding large annual expenses for maintenance dredging. The siltation rate in harbour basins is equated as the product of sediment import into the basin and the trapping efficiency within that basin. It is well known that the import of fine sediments into a harbour basin can be driven by three mechanisms, i.e.: 1. turbulent transport through a horizontal shear layer in the harbour s mouth this shear layer also drives one or more eddies in the basin, 2. tidal filling when the harbour is situated along a tidal river, 3. density currents when a harbour is located along an estuary the effect of density currents by salt-fresh water induced salinity gradients is well known (Eysink, 1989), however, such density currents may also be induced by large gradients in suspended sediment concentration (Winterwerp and van Kessel, 2003). The literature contains a number of engineering rules for assessing siltation rates in harbour basins when one or more of the above processes play a role (e.g. Eysink, 1993; Headland, 1994). Today, state-of-the-art numerical models are also suitable to predict the effects of these processes on harbour siltation. Sometimes fresh water is released within the harbour, as in the case of Harlingen (The Netherlands) where fresh drainage water from polders is discharged into the saline harbour basin. For this case we will show that such a fresh water discharge can significantly contribute to the siltation rate of a harbour. Elsewhere, where warm cooling water from power or chemical plants is released into harbour basins, similar effects may occur. The siltation rates in the harbour of Harlingen are fairly large for its small dimensions, i.e. about 1.2 Mm 3 /yr. Fresh polder water is discharged into the harbour through a sluice through gravity, when the water level in the polder is higher than at sea, hence at low water. Harlingen municipality, responsible for the management of the harbour, asked for an assessment of the contribution of this fresh water release on the annual siltation rates in the harbor. Note that the sediments in this harbour basin originate from open water, i.e. the Wadden Sea, and are not carried by the polder water itself. The study was carried out with an operational version of the Delft3D software package developed at Deltares, The Netherlands. We analysed the three effects of releasing fresh water in the harbour: 1. generation of net outflow through the harbour s entrance, 2. shorting the period of rising water, hence the period of sediment import from sea, 3. density currents induced by entrainment of the fresh water plume in the harbour. With our model we were able to assess the relative contribution of these three processes, and found that the overall contribution to the observed siltation rates in the harbour of Harlingen can be attributed by about 25 50% to the release of fresh polder water. Moreover we found that the fresh water discharge has to be reduced drastically to result in a significant reduction in harbour siltation. Figure 1 shows a typical example of the computed distribution in salinity and suspended sediment concentration

229 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering Figure 1: Distribution of water density (salinity) and suspended sediment concentration along a trajectory in the harbour of Harlingen, The Netherlands (see inlay). It is important to note that the contribution of 25 50% found in the harbour of Harlingen is sitespecific and depends on the relative contribution of the other mechanisms. One may argue that the contribution of fresh (or warm) water releases into a harbour basin may contribute anywhere between. Acknowledgements We like to acknowledge the Municipality of Harlingen, and of Mr. John Walta in particular for financing this study, making data available and their permission to publish the results. Literature Eysink, W.D., Sedimentation in harbor basins small density differences may cause serious effects, Proceedings of the 9 th International Harbor Congress, Antwerp, Belgium, June 1988; also: Delft Hydraulics, Publication No 417. Headland, J.R.,1994. Application of an engineering model for harbor sedimentation, Proceedings 28 th PIANC International Navigation Congress, Section II-4, Winterwerp, J.C. and T. van Kessel, Siltation by sediment-induced density currents, Ocean Dynamics, Vol 53, pp

230 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Wave forecasts using an artificial neural network for port construction works management Muneo Tsuda, Sooyoul Kim, Yoshiharu Matsumi 1. INTRODUCTION In port construction projects, the feasibility of construction by working vessels on a particular day is generally determined empirically from data on waves in the area surrounding the construction site on the day before construction. The wave data adopted in this decision comprise wave observation data and wave forecast data. The Japan Meteorological Agency, private weather forecasting companies, and other organizations typically provide wave forecasts on high wave conditions. Consequently, accuracy is not guaranteed for forecasts on waves of around m in height, which form the standard for evaluating the feasibility of construction in maritime construction works. Furthermore, these forecasts cover a wide area of ocean, and a wave forecast that pinpoints the construction site requires wave deformation calculations on the forecast results in order to take into account shoaling, refraction/diffraction, and other factors. In this study, we develop a real-time wave forecast system that can accurately forecast wave conditions using an artificial neural network in order to execute smooth construction management. Furthermore, we develop a support system that pinpoints the construction site and enables the feasibility of maritime construction works to be evaluated up to 3 days in advance. We test the system by applying it to an actual maritime construction project in Hitachinaka Port. 2. Wave conditions relating to the feasibility of construction works by crane ship Fig. 1 shows the work results for a crane ship used in Kashima Port from July to December 2012, as an example of an evaluation of construction feasibility for a working vessel with respect to wave conditions. In general, the construction feasibility for a working vessel is evaluated from wave height and period. The wave steepness H/L is used here as a wave parameter encompassing these two factors. Also, roll, pitch, heave and other motion characteristics of the working vessel that greatly affect construction feasibility are determined by the natural period of the working vessel and the period of waves, so we use the ratio of wavelength to ship length (L/SL) as a parameter. From the figure, we can see that the wave conditions during operation in tranquil waters and during standby in stormy weather can be categorized according to these parameters. As shown by the curve in the figure, a clear relationship exists between H/L and L/SL as evaluation criteria for the feasibility of construction by a crane ship for example. This means that the feasibility of construction by a crane ship can be evaluated if the wave height of around m and wave period before the day of construction can be accurately forecast. Fig. 1 Wave conditions and feasibility of construction by crane ship 3. Real-time wave forecast system In this study, we developed a real-time wave forecast system using an artificial neural network that is effective for analyzing causal relationships between parameters, and we applied it to an actual construction project. The artificial neural network applied here was a hierarchical model comprising an input layer, an intermediate layer, and an output layer (Fig. 2). The flow of information in this wave forecast system adopts a feed-forward INPUT HIDDEN OUTPUT Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the artificial neural network 230

231 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering structure that propagates from the input layer, to the intermediate layer, and then to the output layer. We adopted the Levenberg Marquardt method as a parameter based learning algorithm. This method finds and optimizes the variable that minimizes the squared error of a nonlinear model combining the Gauss Newton method and the steepest descent method. We used hourly marine phenomena/weather data collected from January to September 2008 for a total of 26 data sets of training data, including NOWPHAS (Nationwide Ocean Wave information network for Ports and HArbourS) in-port, out-of-port, and offshore data on significant wave height, period, and wave direction in Hitachinaka Port, and wind speed, wind direction, and air pressure for Mito, Hitachi, and Choshi. Fig. 3 shows these locations. For the wave forecast, we input these marine phenomena/weather observation data for just before the time at which the forecast is made, and the significant wave height, significant wave period, and wave direction were calculated and output for 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 h ahead. Figs. 4 and 5 show the forecast results for hourly significant wave height for 700 h in the period from January to September 2008, based on marine phenomena/weather measurement data for 12 and 48 h prior, respectively, in order to verify the wave forecast system tuned to make a forecast for Hitachinaka Port. Although spikes of noise can be observed, the system forecasts Hitachi City Mito City Tsukuba City Fig. 3 Hitachinaka Port and weather/marine phenomena data measurement locations waves with good accuracy. In this example, the correlation coefficients between observed values and predicted values 12 h ahead and 48 h ahead were 0.92 and 0.78, respectively. Fig. 6 shows the correlation coefficient between observed values and predicted values according to forecast time, along with the root mean square error. Forecast accuracy tends to decrease for forecasts further into the future, and this tendency was most apparent in the correspondence between forecast results and observation results for significant wave period. Tokyo Hatijo Island Hitachinaka Port Chosi City Fig. 4 Forecast results and observation results for 12 h ahead 4. Conclusion We developed a real-time wave forecast system using an artificial neural network and examined its application to an actual construction project. Although room for improvement remains, accurate wave prediction is possible, enabling evaluation of the feasibility of construction. If a motion analysis of the crane ship and suspended loads can be incorporated into the analysis, an improved evaluation of construction feasibility should be possible. Fig. 5 Forecast results and observation results for 48 h ahead Root mean square error (%) RMSE CC Correlation coefficient Forecast time ahead (h) Fig. 6 Correlation coefficient between observed values and predicted values, and the root mean square error 231

232 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering Wave Tranquility and Morphological Implications of Proposed Fishery Harbour in Mussanah, Oman S. Wickramaratne, I. Abeygoonasekara, K. Maiyourathaan, I.G.I. Kumara 1. Introduction Being surrounded by the Arabian Sea in south and the Gulf of Oman on north west, the waters off Oman s coasts offer ample space for commercial and pleasure fishing. Over the years, fishing has grown to be a very lucrative industry, and as such, the required infrastructure is often in the spotlight. On this ground, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MoAF) of Oman has ventured into an ambitious harbour construction plan for its coastline, involving the creation of 30 new fishery harbours before 2020 (MoAF, 2015). Among many ongoing and upcoming fishery sector developments, Mussanah fishery harbour development project is a key initiative taken by the ministry. Mussanah is a coastal town in Al Batinah Region situated approximately 110km west of Muscat (Figure 1). Proposed Harbour Figure 1- Location of Proposed Fishery Harbour in Mussanah The development of port layout required a comprehensive numerical modelling campaign to ensure safe berthing conditions inside the port, while taking into account probable consequences to morphology in the locale. As such, three key determinants: wave transformation, wave tranquillity, and sediment transportation have been studied. Wave transformation was in very good agreement with Dissanayake et al (2012) who portrayed a similar simulation for a coastal protection scheme located a mere 10km west of proposed Mussanah harbour. Published design and modelling work related to harbours in Al Lakbi, Nabur, Gamdah, and Duqm were also reviewed to obtain a generic understanding of the wave transformation and morphological aspects of Omani coasts (Pemasiri et al., 2008; LHI, 2012 & 2013; and Wickramaratne et al., 2015). 2. Wave Transformation Modelling All modelling tasks required a firm knowledge of nearshore wave characteristics ideally derived for return periods of interest. In the absence of measured nearshore wave data, 12 years ( ) of hindcast data offshore Mussanah were utilised. Percentage of exceedance and return period assessment of such data in turn has resulted in transforming wave statistics to nearshore. The transformation is numerically simulated with MIKE 21 SW software module, and the transformed data is presented in a view to assess the breakwater design work. In addition, percentage exceedance, and cyclone based extreme analysis of wind for the same 12 year period is illustrated. As correctly depicted by Dissanayake et al. (2012), Cyclone Gonu which crossed Muscat in June 2007 was taken as the representative extreme event for the analysis

233 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering Figure 2- Layout of Mussanah Harbour 3. Harbour Disturbance Modelling For a proposed initial port layout (Figure 2), wave tranquillity study investigated the wave disturbance under pre-determined wave attack inside the port basin and at the access channel for all major wave conditions. Wave disturbance coefficients obtained from MIKE 21 BW module were scaled up with the incoming wave height to derive predicted wave heights in the point/area considered. Hence, wave setup inside the harbour for operational and extreme wave conditions has been computed, and their severity was assessed with stipulated guidelines in BS :2012 for safe operation and mooring of fishery harbours. This study has revealed a very satisfactory level of wave tranquillity inside the basin for all critical model scenarios. In particular, landing pontoons, quaywalls, and boat ramp could expect maximum wave heights less than 0.10m under operational conditions and 0.34m under extreme conditions. Thus, given the type of operations intended in the harbour, no significant annual downtime is predicted. Selection of correct orientation of breakwaters in the original design prevents direct wave attack onto the basin and hence the desired calmness. As evident in the modelling process, no alternation of layout is required for better tranquillity. 4. Hydrodynamics and Sedimentation In terms of morphology, a detailed sediment transport study is undertaken with the use of MIKE 21 ST module. Wave characteristics by means of radiation stresses derived from pre-simulated MIKE 21 SW model have been incorporated in the sediment transport simulations. It is noted that onshore sediment sizes have been higher than offshore particle sizes, which is not normally observed. Nearshore mean particle size varies between 0.25mm-0.30mm whereas a distance 1.2km from nearshore contains particles of size 0.1mm-0.2mm. Based on available information, a reasonably accurate sediment map is prepared considering spatial sediment properties. Sediment transport rates across 15 coastal cross sections have been extracted to investigate whether the new port would create significant change in littoral transport pattern. The simulation suggests a net east-to-west sediment movement although its average magnitude remains very low in the order of 10-7 m 3 /s/m. The net annual bed level change varies within ±0.08m. Further, the port entrance recorded a very minute annual transport rate of 50m 3 warranting a siltation free port basin. Summarising all morphological aspects covered in the study, it is deducted that no major implication to the natural sediment transport pattern is expected due to the proposed Mussanah Port. Short Summary of Contents of Full Paper The full paper will present, approach, setup and results of wave transformation, wave disturbance and sediment transport modeling. In addition, it will discuss all important aspects of sediment transport mechanisms in Omani coasts which could bear further ramification in similar commercial projects. Oral presentation will further elaborate on the simulation process, yet with more emphasis on practical aspects of modelling and difficulties associated with quantifying sediment transport rates

234 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF BERTH 208 IN ACCOMODATING BIGGER VESSELS IX PIANC: COPEDEC 2016 NINTH INTERANATIOL CONFERENCE ON COASTAL AND PORT ENGINEERING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Masupha Letsie Malefetsane Setaka Cell: Transnet Capital Projects (TCP) has been appointed by Transnet National Ports Authority (TNPA) to undertake a Research and Development study and structural assessment of Berths 208 to find out if the structure could be able to handle bigger vessels. Site view of Berth 208 Berth 208 was designed by TCP and constructed by Stefanutti Stocks Marine in The structure was designed for a 50yr design period based on a DWT tanker. The quaywall is an open suspended deck on piles concrete structure. The assessment was based on visual observations, historical data and finite modelling of the existing structure as it stands. Loads imposed by bigger vessels ( DWT to DWT) vessels were calculated and applied. Hollow steel sections with infill reinforced concrete were used to form composite piles. The beams were prestressed due to longer spans to reduce the number of piles. The structure is in sound condition. From our findings the structure will be able to handle bigger vessels up to DWT

235 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering COPEDEC IX, 2016 in Rio de Janiero, BRAZIL Hindcasting and surveying ocean waves for the Port of Kamsar, Guinea 1. INTRODUCTION Nguyen Thanh Hoan 1, N. van der Sluijs 2 and A.J. Lansen 3 ABSTRACT Guinea Alumina Corporation (GAC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA), holds a bauxite mining concession in Boké, Republic of Guinea. GAC is in the process of developing a loading terminal and marine infrastructure at the Port of Kamsar (ref. Fig. 1) to export bauxite to the global market. To competitively serve distant markets, benefiting from low long-term charter rates, GAC anticipates the need to accommodate Newcastlemax vessels of up to 208,000 dwt. In order to safely receive such vessels, the current Port of Kamsar requires significant expansion of the existing access channel and/or the use of transhipment facilities offshore. GAC commissioned various pit-to-port feasibility studies aimed at minimizing the total costs per ton bauxite exported for various throughput scenarios. Guinea is located in West Africa, a region known for very long swell waves originating from the South Atlantic Ocean. Feasibility studies of (offshore exposed) transhipment studies rely on detailed and accurate wave information to determine the expected downtime and feasibility of operation. Due to the limited investments into infrastructure in this particular part of the world, detailed data and surveys of hydrodynamic parameters such as waves is often absent. GAC commissioned a detailed wave modelling study to determine the wave conditions at the transhipment location and the export berth. Studies have been supported by surveys of waves, currents and water levels. Part of the surveys were dedicated to capture Very Long Period (VLP) waves, or long bound waves, notorious for the West Africa wave climate and potentially impacting the mooring and operations of vessels at the port. Port Terminal 17 km Channel Transshipper (~25 km from GAC berth) Figure 1. Port terminal locality map This paper will provide insight into key results surveys and wave modelling studies carried out to develop the business case at Kamsar Port. Given the experience that the design of other dry bulk ports in West-Africa are subject to swell waves and very long period wave action, this paper provides 1 Royal HaskoningDHV, 2 Ports and Marine Adviser, Guinea Alumina Corporation, UAE., 3 Royal HaskoningDHV, 235

236 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Engineering relevant conclusions with respect to the wave climate under which the project will be realized in a West African swell wave environment. 2. WAVE MODELLING STUDIES A comprehensive range of studies was carried out for informing the optimization exercise of the project, extending from quantification of sea state conditions through to channel design and full dynamic simulation modelling of the various operational scenarios. The Port of Kamsar has been operating for 40 years, however limited metocean data is on record. GAC engaged Royal HaskoningDHV to assess the wave, wind, current and sediment transport conditions prevailing in the area. Wave Modelling and Survey activities The operational and extreme wave conditions have been determined by setting up a dedicated Mike21-SW model, translating offshore NOAA data to nearshore locations for transhipment and at the export jetty. Due to the long and relatively shallow foreshore of Guinea, an extensive model domain was considered for the modelling activities to be able to apply the wave boundary condition at sufficiently deep waters. The model set-up considered a separation of swell and sea waves. Offshore separation of sea and swell was based on a steepness relation. NOAA offshore wind was applied for extreme conditions of combined sea and swell. The potential impact of squalls was investigated using a separate wave model. Parallel to the modelling activities, a survey campaign was initiated by GAC to collect wave information at the transhipment location, in the access channel and at the berth location and used for calibration

237 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Engineering Figure 2 Model results (Significant wave height) and model bathymetry Model calibration and verification Model calibration of the Mike21 SW model shows that the offshore waves are attenuated by the shallow foreshore. Swell wave heights are in general lower than predicted by the wave model when offshore NOAA waves are translated to the transhipment location. This may be due to the overestimation of the swell boundary condition (no sea / swell separation for individual moments in the NOAA data) or underestimation of the bottom friction in the Mike21-SW model. Refraction patterns indicate that also uncertainties in the bathymetry may lead to underestimation of the wave model, but the effect should be fairly limited. For more extreme waves, inclusion of wind is necessary for correctly calculating wave conditions at the transhipment location. More inshore in the access channel and near the export berth, swell waves are very small and the local sea state becomes purely locally generated. Very Long Period Waves As part of the survey campaign, a tidal recorder was installed which was set up to collect very long period waves with periods exceeding 60sec. Survey results show that VLP waves potentially occur at the berth location and to a lesser extent at the transhipment location, and the impact of VLP waves on vessel mooring and operations is currently being investigated. 3. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS The results of the surveys and wave modelling show that at the proposed nearshore transhipment location, wave heights are significantly lower than at a deeper offshore location. Due to the shallow foreshore, swell waves propagating from an offshore location towards Kamsar lose much of the wave energy. Very Long Period waves are observed in the measurement campaign and need to be considered in design of the project. It may be concluded that at similar locations in West Africa where similar projects will be developed, the measurement of VLP waves will be an important part of any survey campaign

238 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port of Santos The city and port of Santos: proposal to solve the main relationship conflict Authors: Adilson Luiz Gonçalves; Aguinaldo Secco Junior; Tainá Tavares Secco. Abstract The Port of Santos is the largest in South America and there are plans to more than double its operating capacity until The City of Santos has excellent quality of life. Tourist and sports city, internationally known, is considered the "Capital of the Maritime Cruises" in Brazil. Most of its population is concentrated in the insular portion of county, which increases the cost of the urban land, especially in the waterfront neighborhoods like Ponta da Praia, where the main conflict in the port-city relationship occurs: the operation of dry bulk terminals close to urban areas, which cause air pollution and traffic congestion among other problems. The local cruise terminal presents similar problems, located between several dry bulk terminals, impairing the rail and port operation during the cruise season. Moreover, it has other logistical and functional limitations. In this context, reconciling quality of life, the city's image and economic development is very complex, but essential to harmonize all interests involved. This paper proposes a solution for this purpose. Keywords: port-city relationship; cruise terminals; dry bulk terminals; City and Port of Santos. Diagnosis, Proposals and Results The bulk terminal complex called Corridor of Export was installed in the Port of Santos in 1973 during the military government ( ). At that time, the City of Santos was submitted to a federal intervention, without political autonomy, considered as national security area. This terminal was deployed alongside municipal areas in urbanization phase, as provided for in the Municipal Zoning Plan of 1968 for residential use. In addition to this disregard to the municipal legislation, the location of this terminal was later considered logistically inadequate for road and rail operation, placed at the farthest point of land access to the port. Currently, the Ponta da Praia neighborhood is one of the most modern and populous in the city, while the dry bulk terminal complex still operates using some original equipment, with insufficient control of dust and odor emissions, also affecting the inhabitants of other urban areas as well attracting vectorborne diseases, such as pigeons and rats. This is the main conflict in the local port-city relationship. In other hand, the leased area for operation of cruise terminal began operations in 1998 with contract completion scheduled for The current location of the cruise terminal presents logistical and environmental disadvantage as it is located between dry bulk terminals. In addition, during the cruise season the road and rail traffic and other port operations are affected. Another handicap of this current location is that out of the cruise season the terminal remains underused. During the season , 823,903 passengers used this terminal. However, during the season , were 1,120,830 (CONCAIS, 2015), and such demand led to studies for implementation of a new terminal, to be located in the area provided for waterfront revitalization in the region of Valongo, beside the historic center of Santos. The Development and Zoning Plan of the Port of Santos - PDZPS (2006) proposed the transfer of the activities of "Corridor of Export" to another location, far away from urban areas, changing the use of the current area to general cargo operation. This proposal was endorsed by subsequent update studies (2009 and 2012). Consistent with this strategic planning, the City of Santos made changes to its planning legislation, defining areas for port and back-port (cargo storage and logistics platforms) expansion in continental area of the city. It is worth noting that between 1993 and 2012 the Port of Santos, a federal port, had a Port Authority Council - CAP with deliberative character, with the active participation of regional actors. From 2013, the federal government removed the deliberative character of the CAP, centralizing the decisions of the Brazilian port system in Brasília. In the same year, contrary to the existing technical studies and plans, the federal government decided to maintain and expand the operation of dry bulk, extending contracts and launching tender for new leases without previous consulting to the local municipalities. Summing-up: the dry bulk operations at Ponta da Praia are the main current port-city conflict; the current location of the cruise terminal is inadequate, with inadequate facilities and idle periods out of season, in addition to impairing the operations of nearby cargo terminals; there are studies for the implementation of an additional cruise terminal in Santos; there are areas for port and back-port expansion in the continental area of the municipality of Santos; the Ponta da Praia neighborhood is one of the most modern and populous in the city of Santos, also endowed with important tourist facilities and close to other tourist areas

239 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port of Santos Having made these points, the proposal is to transfer the dry bulk terminal complex from Ponta da Praia to the continental area of Santos, far away from the urban areas, and transfer the Cruise Terminal to Ponta da Praia. This solution will allow the construction of a modern cruise terminal, similar to the best currently existing equipment in the world, favoring the use of the non-customs areas for public events and uses, during and after the cruise seasons. This complex would also include: shopping center, convention center, parking and other facilities and attractions, increasing the profitability for operators and investors. The space currently occupied by the cruise terminal would be designed for cargo operation with low environmental impact, with adequate logistics, operating, for example: cellulose or offshore support bases, which are other demands of the Port of Santos. Another important aspect of this new location is the proximity to tourist areas, natural and urban landscapes and public facilities, such as: Municipal Aquarium; Fishing Museum; Sea Museum; the largest continuous beach garden in the world according the Guinness Book of Records; connection with the ferries of Guarujá City, also a touristic destiny; boat tours; eco-tourism, etc. Conclusion We must seek harmony among the expansion projects of the Port of Santos and the interests of the bordering cities in order to reduce the port-city conflicts and ensuring sustainability for this important economic activity. Following this concept, the existing port areas in the island area of Santos, for its proximity to urban areas, must be preferably dedicated to less environmental impact and more value-added cargo operations. Furthermore, the transfer of areas and uses proposed in this paper are also consistent with the laws and previous zoning plans. The cruise terminal in Ponta da Praia, associated with the expected similar terminal in the port revitalization area in the historic center of Santos, will contribute significantly to the improvement of infrastructure, health care and, finally, the tourist image of the City of Santos, adding quality, efficiency, functionality and architectural beauty to the largest Brazilian cruise operation, in the largest port in South America. Thus, this solution will represent, in several aspects, a new landmark in the city-port relationship. References Atualização do Plano de Desenvolvimento e Expansão do Porto de Santos PDEPS. Secretaria de Portos da Presidência da República - SEP/PR, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC, Fundação de Ensino de Engenharia de Santa Catarina FEESC, Laboratório de Transportes e Logística LABTRANS. Florianópolis SC, Disponível em: < Acesso em: 03 dez Concais. Estatísticas Terminal Marítimo de Passageiros Giusfredo Santini Concais S.A. Disponível em: < Acesso em: 04 de novembro de PDZ Plano de Desenvolvimento e Zoneamento do Porto de Santos Conselho de Autoridade Portuária Porto de Santos - Resolução nº 2, de 22 de março de 2006 e texto integral. Disponível em: < e < Acesso: em 03 dez Plano Nacional de Logística Portuária PNLP: Planos Mestres - Sumário Executivo. Secretaria de Portos da Presidência da República - SEP/PR, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC, Fundação de Ensino de Engenharia de Santa Catarina FEESC, Laboratório de Transportes e Logística LABTRANS. Florianópolis SC, Disponível em: < Acesso em: 03 dez PMS - Prefeitura de Santos. Lei nº 3.529, de 16 de abril de Plano Diretor Físico do Município de Santos. PMS - Prefeitura de Santos. Lei Complementar nº 729, de 11 de julho de 2011 Ordenamento do Uso e da Ocupação do Solo na Área Continental do Município de Santos. Disponível em: < Acesso em: 02 dez PMS - Prefeitura de Santos. Lei Complementar nº 730, de 11 de julho de 2011 Ordenamento do Uso e da Ocupação do Solo na Área Insular do Município de Santos. Disponível em: < Acesso em: 02 dez PMS - Prefeitura de Santos. Lei Complementar nº 731, de 11 de julho de 2011 Plano Diretor de Desenvolvimento e Expansão Urbana do Município de Santos. Disponível em: < Acesso em: 02 dez

240 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port of Santos The Green Port concept and the Port of Santos Authors: Bianca Lima Pereira; Enéias Santos da Silva; Tuani de Godoy Ferreira; Adilson Luiz Gonçalves. Abstract The Green Port concept are increasingly applied around the world, receiving important and necessary attention from governments, organizations and national and international corporations regarding to sustainable development of clean processes, not harmful to the ecosystem, aimed above all the continuing practice of preservation of natural resources and spread of knowledge for sustainable activities within the port system. According Zijian Guo (2015), a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University "One of the challenges in the port-city relationship is the sustainable development of both". In practice, environmental management includes routines and administrative operations, as well as clearly defined programs aimed at environmental protection, health, workplace and community safety. According to Porto and Teixeira (2002) "there is much to be done to incorporate environmental vision in day-to-day port", leading to understand that, even considering the importance and scope of the initiatives in question and the realization of such concepts as a competitive differentiator in the various economic sectors, it is necessary to advance in environmental management, in relation to the Brazilian port system. This paper aims to assess the current stage of the Port of Santos in relation to the Green Port concept, identifying deficiencies and demands in order to reduce the negative environmental impact of port operations. Keywords: green ports, sustainability, Port of Santos. Diagnosis, Proposals and Results The research was conducted in the following steps: Study about basic elements of the Green Port concept; Analysis of the current situation of the Port of Santos in relation to environmental issues and possible plans for improvement in sustainable performance of port activities; and Conclusion on the current status and demands for full implementation of the Green Port concept in the Port of Santos. The Green Port concept is based on three topics: Environmental Quality, Economic Prosperity and Social Responsibility. Considering the information obtained during the search about in environmental management at the Port of Santos and its comparison with the known sustainable ports, it was observed that while environmental practices have evolved significantly in recent years, there is still a deficiency in it concerns the infrastructure necessary for sustainable development. The ports considered "Greens" goes beyond the local or international regulations and legislation. They studies, plans and applies innovative technologies, tax incentives, planning of port-city efficient relationship, implementation of programs to improve the sustainable performance of port activities in general, from the design, construction, maintenance and operation. According to the Environmental Performance Index of Organized Ports (IDA), presented by Brazilian National Waterway Transportation Agency ANTAQ, in the second semester of 2014 the Port of Santos was placed in the 12th in the Brazilian port system. IDA considers only the aspects present in the environmental license, with emphasis in the follow aspects: Economic and Operational, Sociological and Cultural, Physicochemical, Biological and Ecological. The Port of Santos has a Department of Environment and Workplace Safety responsible for several positive actions in environmental monitoring of port operations. Supervised by government agencies, this department monitors the following activities: dredging, disposal and treatment of waste, control of water quality, environmental remediation, control of air pollutants emissions, environmental education, etc. However, it performance is hampered by some important factors. Some examples of the shortcomings of the Port of Santos in relation to ports considered "greens" are listed below: 1. Residues which falls of trucks and cars into the road and rail system, also causing unpleasant odors and attracting disease vectors; 240

241 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port of Santos 2. Diversity of standards and legislation, with strategic and managerial decisions centralized in Brasília, according to the new national port legislation of 2013; 3. Paving contributing to accumulation of residues; 4. Insufficient monitoring; 5. Air pollution generated by: emission of particulate matter in the solid grain operations; burning fuel for power supply of ships moored in the harbor; burning truck fuel (about a thousand trucks circulating in the Port of Santos has more than 30 years old, using old technology engines) and locomotives, etc; 6. Transport logistics based on road transportation, with few utilization of railways (around 20%) and practically no use of the waterway regional potential; 7. Location of dry bulk terminals near residential urban areas, etc. Conclusion Based on the research results, there are several causes for the problems encountered in environmental management of the Port of Santos, among them: lack or deficiency in the logistics and constructive planning, over time; lack of air pollution control in obsolete facilities, especially in the operation of dry bulk terminals; centralization of the national port system decisions in Brasilia; and lack of government investment and initiatives regarding to the infrastructure required to implement processes and sustainable technologies. To solve some of these problems, the federal government adopted procedures for the renewal of lease and bidding agreements including new requirements in the environmental context, called "sustainability commitments". However, the question of monitoring deficiency remains. The state government of São Paulo created credit lines for the renewal of the truck fleet. However, as one of the main activities of the port is the dry bulk operation, it is necessary that both trucks and wagons are preferably "hopper" type. Today, this type of vehicle is less than 10% of the fleet. The renewal of the fleet of ships must also contribute to reducing the pollution generate by fuel burn to power supply. However, it recommends provide onshore power supply. Another necessary measure refers to localization of the dry bulk terminals near residential urban areas. The Port of Santos has areas for expansion. The relocation of these activities to appropriate places, associated with the use of pollutant emission control technologies, would contribute to the solution of this main port-city conflict. Finally, improvements in the management system will also be necessary for the implementation of the Green Port concept in the Port of Santos in order to reduce tax increases that could affect their economic, environmental and social sustainability, considering its regional and national importance. References ANTAQ (AGÊNCIA NACIONAL DE TRANSPORTES AQUAVIÁRIOS). O Índice de Desempenho Ambiental IDA. Disponível em: < Accesso em: 20 ago CUNHA, Ícaro A. da [et al.]. Agenda ambiental do Porto de Santos. Santos: Leopoldianum, Green Port, balancing environmental challenges with economic demands. Disponível em: < Acesso em: 18 ago GUO, Zijian. Um dos desafios na relação porto-cidade é o desenvolvimento sustentável de ambos. A Tribuna, Santos, 04 out Porto & Mar, p. C-5. PEREIRA, Newton N. Green Ports: Concepts and Certification for Projects and Operation in Brazil. Disponível em: %20Newton%20CISB%20presentation.pdf. Acesso em: 05 nov PORTO, M. M.; TEIXEIRA, S. G. Portos e meio ambiente. São Paulo: ADUANEIRAS,

242 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port of Santos The potential for inland waterway transport of cargo in the Metropolitan Area of Santos - Brazil Authors: Adilson Luiz Gonçalves; Eduardo Andrade Chaves; Glayce Batista Gomes Leite; Júlio César Reis de Jesus. Abstract The increase in cargo movement in Brazil shows that the current transportation matrix does not meet the demand, as well as impair the mobility of some port cities such as Santos, Guarujá e Cubatão, in the Metropolitan Area of Santos RMBS, where is located the Port of Santos. The inland cargo transportation by waterways favors the mitigation of these problems. Keywords: inland transportation; cargo; urban mobility; Port f Santos. Introduction Brazil has one of the largest river networks in the world, with approximately 50,000 km long, of which only 20,000 km are economically navigable (ALFREDINI, 2005). Already the RMBS has a network of approximately 200 kilometers long, 35 kilometers from full navigability (CODESP, 2010). Despite this significant potential, the inland navigation for cargo transportation, both in RMBS as throughout Brazil, is still underexplored, with few representative, public and private investments, even receiving special attention in the national planning. In this context, the increase in inland transportation by waterways, integrating the other modes available in RMBS, additionally to favor logistically the expansion of the Port of Santos, also will improve urban mobility by the reduction / optimization of the flow of trucks in urban streets, reducing environmental pollution and creating conditions for regional economic growth, favoring other municipalities. Alfredini (2005, p. 659) states that: "The water transport is undoubtedly the most economical to the displacement of large cargo volumes at low unit value from the modal direct competitors, the railroad and the highway, since except for some assumptions ". These assumptions are considered below. Diagnosis, Proposals and Results The negative impacts caused by the predominance of road transportation in the national transportation matrix are notorious: lack of maintenance on roads or roads themselves, overhead roads, etc. Associated with other factors such as the lack of silage infrastructure and insufficient regulatory yards and scheduling loads in the port operation, in short, logistical factors have been responsible for increases in freight, endearing products and damaging their competitiveness in foreign trade, resulting in the so-called "Brazil Cost". These negative impacts also affect urban areas of some port cities, such us Santos and Guarujá, bordering the Port of Santos, the brazilian largest, extending its effects to nearby towns such as Cubatão. It is therefore necessary to seek viable alternative transportation to reduce and / or streamline the movement of cargo to and from the Port of Santos, improving city traffic in the region by integrating transport systems (road, rail and waterway), increasing efficiency in freight transport, reducing costs and improving the quality and productivity of port operations. The inland waterway transport is an alternative of lower impact on the environment when compared to roads and railways. Still, it is necessary that the planning of engineering works required for the development of this mode is done with minimal impact on the environment (PHE, 2013). According to a study conducted by the Port Authority of Santos - CODESP in 2010, the main stretches of the RMBS waterway network were found average depth of 3.50 m, average width of 70 m, average channel 30 m minimum and radius of 50 m. This study identified five routes that can be used especially for the transportation of cargo, particularly containers. However, obstacles such as air draft from some bridges and pipelines need to be solved to allow boat traffic. Based on data from the CODESP and Foundation for the Technological Development of Engeneering FDTE (2013) studies were defined possible routes and strategic areas that may harbor multimodal terminals nearly waterways

243 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port of Santos But some interventions are needed to ensure adequate navigability of waterways considered, such as straightening curves and dredging of rivers to reach the minimum depth of 3 m, which is ideal for navigation pusher type vessels up two barges. For example, the railway bridge over the river Cubatão with an air draft of 2.8 m and range horizontal 20 m, what makes impossible the boat traffic with two barges. The tolerable is an air draft of at least 6.5 m and range horizontal 30 m. Considering the relatively short distances and characteristics of local waterways, the ideal vessel would be composed of a pusher tug and a composition with two barges, which can carry 160 TEU (equivalent container 20 feet) or 80 containers of 40 ' in 2 levels for each barge, according to a study of FDTE. The general arrangement design of train type has total length of 140 m, 60 m of each barge (L) and 20 m of the pusher; m and mouth 15 (B). This means to remove about 160 trucks from the road access routes. Conclusion The mentioned studies shows the significant potential for use of the inland waterways for cargo transportation in RMBS as an alternative and / or support of other modals, by implementation of intermodal terminals. This modal as well as being more advantageous economically, is less polluting than their direct competitors (road and rail). Through the data obtained were determined three possible routes and strategic areas that may harbor intermodal terminals, reducing the flow of trucks to the Port of Santos, improving quality and productivity of port operations, and mitigating impacts on urban areas of the cities of Cubatão, Guarujá and Santos. However, for full deployment, turning the local channels and rivers to waterways, these routes require interventions such as dredging of rivers, changes on bridges and pipelines, and implantation of traffic signalization system in order to provide security conditions for vessels and their cargo. In later stages, as the FDTE study indicates, interventions can be extended to other waterways which use today is hampered by silting and interference with bridges and pipelines. Obviously, this will involve breeding investments. But considering other projects in progress in RMBS and the possibility of developing port logistics support areas and logistics clusters, these investments can be quickly recovered by the increase and sustainable expansion of economic activities to other municipalities, also improving the quality of life for inhabitants. Indeed, this improvement will not comes just offering new jobs as also allowing inland waterway transportation of passengers, benefiting populations of communities nearly, shortening journey times to places of work, study and health services. References ALFREDINI, Paolo. Obras e gestão de portos e costas. 1ªed. São Paulo: EDGARD BLÜCHER, BRASIL. Ministério dos Transportes. Plano Hidroviário Estratégico Relatório do Plano - Brasília, DF, p. Disponível em: < Acesso em: 09 de mar CODESP. Complexo Hidroviário da Baixada Santista Relatório do Grupo de Trabalho para avaliação do potencial logístico e econômico do transporte hidroviário interior de cargas na Baixada Santista. Santos, FDTE- Fundação para o Desenvolvimento Tecnológico da Engenharia - Relatório Técnico: Estudos Hidroviários da Baixada Santista Fases 1,2 e

244 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port of Santos The potential for public transport on waterways in the Metropolitan Area of Santos - Brazil Authors: Adilson Luiz Gonçalves; Aline Reis de Torres; Patrícia de Castro Chinem. Abstract The Metropolitan Area of Santos - RMBS, located on the coast of São Paulo, Brazil, has extensive river system. The public passenger transport exists, but is currently restricted to crossings between the cities of Santos and Guarujá. This paper studies the possibility of expanding the provision of that service to other municipalities by the implementation of waterways. Keywords: inland navigation, public transport, waterways, metropolitan areas. Introduction The public transport on waterways has many advantages according to BNDES (1999): low operating costs per user, high predictability of travel time and high safety, also reducing passenger pollution index. It enables suitability to mass transit and demands low investments on infrastructure that could be shared with other modals of transportation. Considering the population growth of RMBS, favored by the expansion of port activities, installation of Santos Basin Operational Unit of Petrobras; and the current conditions of the highway system, urban roads and streets, this paper presents some proposals about routes and their integration with other public transport modes in order to benefit other municipalities of the RMBS. Diagnosis, Proposals and Results The Origin and Destination Studies - Metropolitan Area of Santos of 2007 (STM, 2008) reveals that the highest concentration of metropolitan travel occurs in the municipalities of: Cubatão, Guarujá, Praia Grande, Santos and São Vicente. The main reasons for travel are: work, school, shopping, health, leisure and others. The city of Santos is the main destination of this travels because it hosts the Port of Santos; several quality public and private high schools and universities; extensive hospital network and health care and the Santos Basin Operational Unit of Petrobras. The port activities are attractive also in Guarujá, while Cubatão, with its industrial cluster, demands highly qualified professionals, most of them living in other cities with better quality of life. The approximately 35 km of existing channels and rivers in RMBS, allow the waterway interconnection between Bertioga, Cubatão, Guarujá, Praia Grande, Santos and São Vicente. However, specific problems of depth and interference caused by road and rail bridges and pipe limit the immediate deployment of waterways in São Vicente and Praia Grande. Excepted these cities, the other municipalities bordering the Channels of Estuary, Piaçaguera and Bertioga favoring the waterway transport as an alternative to land one. Santos and Guarujá, for example, already have regular lines for decades. Another circumstance that favors the waterway expansion is the frequent traffic congestion and railroad conflicts that affect the metropolitan mobility and the accessibility to the city and port of Santos, increasing negative impacts in urban areas. Due to this context, one of the objectives of the Santos Metropolitan Area Strategic Development Plan Santos - PMDE (2014) is deploying a metropolitan waterway system for cargo and passengers. The expectation is that it will be operational by 2030, increasing the offer of this modal, integrated in a multimodal system. However, to confirm the advantages of the public waterway transport pointed out by BNDES some adjustments are necessary, such as the maximum speed allowed on the channel of the Port of Santos, currently 9 is knots (16 km / h). This speed is already higher than the actual average speed of city buses in Santos (12 km / h), but lower than that of intercity buses (23.5 km / h). By comparison, the catamaran boats that operate the line Santos - Vicente de Carvalho, with capacity for 350 passengers, make this crossing of approximately 3 km in just over 10 minutes, respecting the current speed limit imposed by de Port Regulation. Shipping exploration on , which was composed by one of the authors and technicians from the City of Santos and IPT Technical Institute of Research come from the Ponta da Praia, in Santos, 244

245 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port of Santos navigating the Estuary Channel (entire length) and the Piaçaguera and Bertioga Channels, evaluating the condition of waterways. The conclusions were positives with good potential. The boats The use of boats of different sizes allows meeting demand fluctuations that normally occur throughout the day, also ensuring public transport in smaller or remote communities, which has no viable alternative for land displacement. The shipbuilding technologies that use aluminum and, more recently, glass fiber, in catamaran fast ferry design, come with great success. These materials lead to vessel weight / passengers ratios lower than steel and wood, adding: capacity, speed and economy in fuel consumption, as well as faster construction cycle, shorter times of docking for maintenance and repairs, and greater comfort for passengers (BNDES, 1999). Another option is boats using hydrofoils. Both can develop average speeds of about 20 knots (35 km / h). Resulting waterway transport network Analyzing the data obtained from the available studies, the existing structure, interviews with influential actors and field expeditions, was set the first phase of implementation of the waterway system. The proposal is to maintain the currently existing crossing lines, adding them to some others, extending the waterway public transport along the borders of the navigable rivers and channels, including the cities of Cubatão e Bertioga, and seeking to avoid social and economic impacts on lower demand crossings operators. Conclusions The economic feasibility studies subsequently carried out by the IPT indicate that, in addition to shorter journey times, fares would be competitive with land transportation. The expansion of water transportation and its integration with other transport modes provide greater speed, reliability, safety and comfort for users, and lower environmental impact. The environment will be grateful. However, to expand the scope and benefits of that mode of public passenger transport to cities such as São Vicente and Praia Grande, it will be necessary to solve the interferences (bridges and pipelines, most of which was built without the vision the potential waterway transportation in the region. This condition also prevents or impairs the expansion of port, back-port and industrial activities in other municipalities of the RMBS, which would bring sustainable economic growth, improving the quality of life of local people. So to make them viable will be required geometrical adjustments of these interferences. References BNDES. Caderno de Infra-estrutura: Transporte hidroviário urbano de passageiros, Rio de Janeiro, CODESP. Plano mestre do Porto de Santos - Volume I - Versão preliminar. LabTrans - UFSC. Florianópolis, p. CPSP. Portaria nº 3, de 14 de janeiro de Disponível em: < Acesso em: 26 mar MCP. Estudo aplicado de transporte aquaviário por meio de hidrofólios. Guarujá, STM. Pesquisa Origem-Destino 2007 Região Metropolitana da Baixada Santista: Sumário de Dados. São Paulo: Vetec Engenharia, Secretaria dos Transportes Metropolitanos do Estado de São Paulo, 2008, 137 p

246 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port of Santos The railway transport and the Port of Santos: prospects of expansion Authors: Adilson Luiz Gonçalves; Lydia Aparecida Cabral Guarmani; Marcelli Nogueira Linder. Abstract In Brazil, the prevalent mode of transport is road. It's no different in the Port of Santos, the largest in South America. Considering its growth prospects, it is essential the increase of other modes of transport, not just to expand their operational capacity, but also to avoid or reduce adverse impacts in the natural and urban environment. This paper aims to evaluate aspects of the current rail network that accesses the Port of Santos, and analyze / propose measures that increase the use of rail transportation. Keywords: railways; logistics; cargo; Port of Santos. Introduction From the 1950s, the progressive government incentives to the automobile industry become road transport predominant in Brazil. In the same period, rail had few investments, significantly reducing its share in cargo handling. The Port of Santos has a hinterland covering several Brazilian states and especially in the transport of agricultural bulk, distances are significant, which, combined with conditions not always adequate of highways, among other factors, implies more expensive freight resulting the so-called "Brazil cost". To overcome these limitations investments are necessary to diversify and integrate transport modes in order to ensure sustainable and continuous development of the national economy. The National Plan of Logistics and Transport - PNLP, prepared by the Federal Government in 2007, provides a significant increase in the share of waterway and rail modals until 2025 (Chart 1). For the port logistics this increase is a basic condition for any expansion plan. In the case of the Port of Santos, in the same period is forecast to double cargo handling, exceeding 200 million tons per year. Maintaining the current infrastructure access (Chart 2) this goal is unlikely to be achieved. Chart 1 Transport modes in Brazil Source: PNLT Chart 2 Transport modes in the Port of Santos Source: CODESP So, given its extreme relevance in the Brazilian trade balance and the current and projected demands, it is essential that the Port of Santos expand and optimize their access, with the railways with one of his priorities. Diagnosis, Proposals and Results MRS Logística, Rumo-ALL and Contrail Logística SA, local concessionaires of the rail transport in the region, aware of the need for increases on the railways in this market share are making investments in the rail network access to the Port of Santos (GOVERNO FEDERAL, 2015). The duplication Campinas-Santos, made by Rumo-ALL, aims to eliminate bottlenecks and conflicts in the road and rail access to the Port of Santos, also discarding current maneuvering yards. Upon completion of this duplication, increased cargo handling in railways operated by the company will be 165% by 2030, in relation to cargo handled in 2014 (ALL-Rumo, 2015). The Project Contrail, in partnership with MRS, aims at optimizing the trains flow, increasing participation of railways. It has three main focus points: 1 - Use of double stack wagons; 246

247 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port of Santos 2 - Deployment of Rail Centers Cargo Consolidation (CFCCs), located in the Planalto Paulista; and 3 - The Intermodal Terminal of the Port of Santos (TIPS), located in the City of Cubatão. This project will increases capacity by 150%, with the introduction of wagons double stack with a capacity of up to 200 TEU's, reducing road bottlenecks (50 wagons double stack equivalent to 200 trucks), and decreasing two million truck trips per year, reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and accidents on the highways (Revista Ferroviária, 2012). The ViaMar Project from Contern, currently in study, proposes a multimodal complex integrating road, rail and pipeline as well as logistical platforms. This project will aim at expanding flow of charges and reduction of the limitations of current access. Another important aspect of this project is that it will enable the development of the continental portion of the city of Santos, which has areas for the implementation of port and back port activities necessary for the expansion of the Port of Santos. It also allows new urban settlements, necessary to a city that has in it island portion one of the biggest demographic index in Brazil, which is progressively impacting urban mobility. This project will provide operating trains in the hills Sao Paulo-Santos, in both directions, continuously, 24 hours a day, with 26-minute intervals, reducing the boarding time and disembarking at the port, the freight costs, the risks of accidents, loss of cargo and injury to exporters (CONTERN, 2013). Initiative of the federal and state governments, the Ferroanel (rail ring) aims to end the conflict between passenger and cargo trains within the City of São Paulo, impacting directly and positively in the flow of cargo to the Port of Santos. Completion of Ferroanel enables handling 45 million tons of cargo by 2040, 24 million destined for the Port of Santos (PEREIRA, 2014). Conclusion The analysis of these initiatives demonstrates the significant potential for expansion of railways in this region, resulting in reduced congestion and accidents on the roads, also benefiting the environment, because rail transport is less polluting than road. Still about the Port of Santos, the growth of rail transport will also improve road transport efficiency, since the current conflicts will be reduced. This scenario allows bigger and better flow of cargo having a significant positive impact on the Brazilian economy, and represents significant reduction of costs of accidents and freights. These initiatives, coupled with the increase in water transport and intermodality will allow the improvement of productivity and expansion of the Port of Santos. However, it is also necessary to solve other problems of the Port of Santos, as the historical inadequate location of some dry bulk terminals, where it is impossible to deploy adequate rail maneuvering yards, beyond other logistical issues. References ALL. Relatório Anual Disponível em: < Acesso em: 15 de julho de ALL e Rumo logística. Acesso ao Porto de Santos BRASIL Ministério dos Transportes. Relatório executivo do plano nacional de logística e transportes. Brasília. Disponível em: Acesso em: 03 de novembro de CONTERN. Projeto Viamar GOVERNO FEDERAL. Plano Mestre do Porto de Santos Versão Preliminar PEREIRA, Renée. Governo de SP se oferece para tirar Ferroanel do papel Disponível em: < Acesso em: 15 de outubro de REVISTA FERROVIÁRIA. Transporte Sustentável. Junho/Julho

248 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Bahia Blanca s Deepening, maintaining Argentina s deepest Port Main Author: Eng. Gerardo Bessone, Dredging and AtoN department Consorcio de Gestion del Puerto de Bahía Blanca 1. Background Bahia Blanca has natural advantages, located in the innermost border of the estuary of the same name. It has relatively calm waters, a large tidal amplitude provides, with the use of the appropriate window, important natural depth throughout the almost 97 km long access channel. Since the 70 s Bahia Blanca has become Argentina s deepest port. Subsequent deepenings have maintained such status. First, under the orbit of the Argentine Government Administration, decision was taken to conduct capital dredge to provide 40 feet draught (using a tidal window) on the whole system. Later on, at the beginning of the 90 s, another boost came when the depth was set at 45 feet after an ambitious capital dredge which demanded three years to conclude and a total of more than 50 million cubic meters dredged. Every time mayor dredging is done the port receives important development, bolstering its natural advantages. This has been particularly true after Bahia Blanca became the first Self-administration port in Argentina. Change in legislation provided the legal frame to create the Bahia Blanca Port Administration Consortium (Consorcio de Gestión del Puerto de Bahía Blanca) in With it came the concession to private parties of new terminals which brought heavy investment and a diversification of the port activities and cargoes. Today Bahía Blanca operates mainly as a top off port for the ships coming from the upriver terminals (Parana-Paraguay Waterways) which have drafts limited to 34 feet. The fleet that regularly visits the region is composed mainly of Panamax Bulk Carriers that have a typical completion draft of 45 to 46 feet (to fill their holds). This means that the appropriate tide window is needed to cast off. The situation put a lot of stress on the services (tugs and pilots) in the port, required to do many movements in just a few hours a day. This led to cases of downtime because there was just not enough time (and resources) to accomplish the requirements. 2. Going 50 feet Perspective of the arrival of new terminals and port expansion was the incentive in 2007 to begin feasibility studies focused on yet another capital dredge. This time to provide 50 feet with the use of the tidal windows and 45 feet at all times. Doing so would allow the possibility to improve port operation (permitting operation at all times for Panamax Bulk carriers), and it would also provide material for landfills for a much needed port expansion area. It was decided at the time to tackle the project in two phases, first the port basin and the access channel up to km 22, from where natural depth allows safe navigation with draughts well over 50 feet until reaching the anchorage areas. Later, on a second phase, the deepening of the rest of the system providing thus the sought 50 feet throughout the whole system. The first phase was carried out successfully in The works demanded some 9 months and a total of almost 6 million cubic metres were dredged. Two landfills were completed totalling over 60 ha of gained land for future projects. This was possible through financing provided by a CAF loan (amounting to a total of more than 60 Million U$S Dollars), which the Consorcio will repay in throughout the next 10 years. Two types of dredgers were used, a large Trail suction Hopper Dredge (THSD), JDN s Kaishuu, used mainly on the access channel and a Cutter Suction Dredger (CSD), JDN s Marco Polo, responsible for dredging the port basin, and portions of the access channel were the sediments were very consolidated. The material extracted by the Marco Polo was used in the landfills mentioned above. Immediately after studies were begun to initiate the second phase, to assess the best layout (in terms of dredging and operation), volume calculation and sedimentation estimates in order to define the project. Some of these studies are still on the way, and the technical staff of the Consorcio will determine when completed the final project to be finally carried out

249 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management Once this is achieved an International Tender will be held (as was the case with the first phase), and works will be awarded probably in 2017 along with the five yearly maintenance contract (as was the case with the first phase). Through the projects mentioned the Port Consortium seeks to maintain Bahia Blanca status as Argentina s deepest port, fulfilling its development potential and providing the country and region with safe navigation with draughts of up to 50 feet, following thus worldwide trend regarding deeper (and wider) waterways. 3. Summary The paper (and presentation) will include the following topics: Location and description of the Port of Bahía Blanca and it s waterways, it s tidal regime and climate, natural advantages Description of the port facilities and type and volumes of the cargoes, evolution throughout time, and the effect of capital dredge on port expansion Reasons for deepening to 50 feet, estimates for future traffic and terminals First Phase, project design, volumes dredged, landfill construction, equipment used Second phase, project proposed, volumes calculated, studies conducted Conclusions 249

250 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Complex Networks Application for Competitiveness Transport Waterway Brazilian Carlos César Ribeiro Santos; Frederico Garcia Oliveira; Hernane Borges de Barros Pereira The water transport is admittedly a modal high impact on the economies of nations, being the result of several linked factors to the known globalization such as the growth of competitive logistics between industries, the very economic development and the need to expand the geographic mobility that responds the demand for goods. It is a modal of great value to the flow of goods in space, with the formation of networks and flows and communication between producer and market. In this sense, the countries are providing alternatives that optimize their logistics results. It has been the north to be pursued by all those who work with modes of transport, specifically the waterway mode. Improve routes between ports, establishing consistent plans intermodality and multimodality, optimizing the transport of loads, increasing flexibility and reducing the cost actions are constantly persecuted by the actors of the modal referenced here. Following this logic, the use of computer modeling method called Complex Networks, a conceptual evolution and applicability of Social Networks Analysis, has recently been used in Europe to build competitive plans of port management, designing what Ducruet (2012) termed Maritime Networks. A Complex Network consists of a set of vertices (nodes) connected via edges with a nontrivial topographical structure, which may differ depending on its size and complexity. The complex networks differ from regular networks precisely because of its structure where the vertices may contain different degrees. Depending on the purpose of the analysis, such networks can provide the manager with several property analysis metrics, such as major listed below (BRANDÃO, 2010; LIANG, 2007): Density: Ratio of the number of edges in the network and the number of possible edges based on the numbers of us. Diameter or Maximum Distance Geodesic: Ratio of the number of edges in the network and the number of possible edges based on the numbers of us. Size: Normally associated with the number of nodes. Level of a vertex: The degree of a given node based on the number of edges that connect. The network type is related to the degree distribution. Average path length between two nodes: Sum of the shortest paths between all pairs of nodes divided by the total number of pairs. This shows, on average, the number of steps to move from one node to another. Clustering Coefficient: Measure of the number of triangles formed by the edges of a graph. Considering the ports as the vertices of the network and the movement of vessels between the ports as the edges, Ducruet (2012) points out that the Maritime Networks can infer various water transport information such as trade links organized by traders, communications networks between ships, alliances between companies within the maritime economy, the distribution of schedules of ocean carriers and physical flows ships. Such data modeled using softwares such UCINET, Pajek, Siena or Gephi result in strategic information for nations and businesses seeking competitive advantage in the industry. Figure 01 below is a graphical representation of the modeling of a Marine Network based on the movement of containers in Brazil in 2010 between the Brazilian ports using the software UCINET: 250

251 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management Figure 01: Computer Simulation Origin / Destination Mov. Containers in 2010 Source: Own Elaboration from UCINET 6.4 Whereas Brazil has 8500 kilometers of navigable coastline, a port complex that in 2013 handled 931 million tons of bulk cargo and has a port sector accounts for over 90% of the country's exports (ANTAQ, 2013), the implementation of the Marine Networks is fundamental condition for the inclusion of the country in competitive levels achieved by other ports in the rest of the world, particularly those in Europe. Using the method of Maritime Networks can provide to Brazil to build more competitive routings to ports, possibilities of realization strategic plans for gradual decentralization of road network from modeling conducted, adequacy of information from networks for strategic efficiency cargo handling and inclusion of country studies and impacts of Marine Networks in line with other competitive countries. Finally, the full purpose of this article presented here it will be build a computational modeling considering ports (vertices) and drives between ships (edges) of Brazil resulting in a Marine Network, identifying indicators and inferring analysis that denote the importance theme for the country. References AGÊNCIA NACIONAL DE TRANSPORTES AQUAVIÁRIOS ANTAQ (2013). Relatórios Técnicos 2006 a Relatórios de Desempenho Portuário. Brasília. Disponível em < Acessado em: 29/11/2015. BRANDÃO, Wladimir Cardoso, Parreiras, Fernando Silva. Uma Abordagem Baseada em Métricas de Redes Complexas para o Estabelecimento do Grau de Influência de Termos em Documentos. XI Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa em Ciência da Informação. Rio de Janeiro, DUCRUET, C. (2012) 'Port regions and globalization', in T.E. Notteboom. Ports in proximity: Competition and coordination among adjacent seaports, Aldershot: Ashgate, Disponível em < Acessado em: 18/11/2015. LIANG, Zhao et ali. Redes Complexas: conceitos e aplicações. RELATÓRIOS TÉCNICOS DO ICMC. Instituto de Ciências Matemáticas e de Computação. São Carlos,

252 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Improving Container Terminal Productivity by Simulations João Vitor Moita, Graduate Student, UFRJ/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, Jean-David Caprace, Professor, UFRJ/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, Efficiency improvement in container terminal operations can lead to increase service capacity, reduce berthing time and operational expenses of ports. Moreover, being faster in ports allows a ship to transit at slower speeds (slow steaming) and to save fuel as well as to reduce emissions (CO2, SOx, NOx). This paper analyses the operational productivity of a container terminal and shows the effect of the variation of some driving factors on berthing time of ships. Port productivity, i.e., the time needed to move a selected number of containers, is assessed using a Discrete Event Simulation (DES) methodology. The aim of this study is to examine the efficiency of different bay plans arrangements, i.e., localization of the containers to be (un)loaded, considering some variables such as tide, crane speed and number of cranes working at the same time. The parametric port simulation model is created based on a 7 months statistical data set of a real container terminal. The uncertainties and unpredictable events i.e. several types of delays related to operations are implemented using semi-random numbers (stochastic). Calibration of the simulation model is based on dozens of operations of the same ship between January 2014 and August Following the setting of the stochastic parameters included in the model, the simulation is repeated until sufficiently large sets of iterations are available for statistical analysis. Then, the dispersion of results regarding the port productivity are discussed and compared to measured data. Finally, port efficiency results are compared for various bay plans configurations and various driving factors, such as high/low tide, higher/lower crane speeds and multiple crane usage. We advocate that DES provide a good decision assistance tool to perform operational productivity studies for both ship owners (bay plan optimization) and container terminals (layout optimization). Therefore, some patterns and recommendations are formulated to help to improve the productivity at container terminals. Keywords: Container terminal operations, crane efficiency, discrete event simulation, stochastic approach 252

253 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management COPEDEC IX, 2016 in Rio de Janiero, BRAZIL Dredging and Transhipment Optimizations Studies for Port of Kamsar, Guinea N. van der Sluijs 1 and G. Mocke 2 1. INTRODUCTION ABSTRACT Guinea Alumina Corporation (GAC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA), holds a bauxite mining concession in Boké, Republic of Guinea. GAC is in the process of developing a loading terminal and marine infrastructure at the Port of Kamsar (ref. Fig. 1) to export bauxite to the global market. To competitively serve distant markets, benefiting from low long-term charter rates, GAC anticipates the need to accommodate Newcastlemax vessels of up to 208,000 dwt. In order to safely receive such vessels the current Port of Kamsar requires significant expansion of the existing access channel and/or the use of transshipment facilities offshore. GAC commissioned various pit-to-port feasibility studies aimed at minimizing the total costs per ton bauxite exported for various throughput scenarios, thereby optimising: Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) on channel & berth dredging works Operational Expenditure (OPEX) on transshipment, demurrage and port charges The paper will provide insight in the various study methodologies and results that were used to develop the business case. Given that many other ports in Africa and elsewhere in the world are constrained by vessel draft restrictions it is expected that these studies will provide a valuable reference for other channel optimization studies. Port Terminal 17 km Channel Transshipper (~25 km from GAC berth) Figure 1. Port terminal locality map 2. STUDIES A comprehensive range of studies were carried out for informing the optimization exercise, extending from quantification of sea state conditions through to channel design and full dynamic simulation modelling of the various operational scenarios. 1 Marine Advisor, Emirates Global Aluminium, UAE., 2 Ports & Marine Terminals Director (AEM Region), Hatch Goba, South Africa 253

254 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Metocean and Sedimentation studies The Port of Kamsar has been operating for 40 years, however, however, limited metocean data is on record.gac engaged Royal HaskoningDHV to assess the wave, wind, current and sediment transport conditions prevailing in the area. Despite a macro tidal environment metocean conditions were found to be relatively benign at the Terminal location, however, the 17km long entrance channel and offshore transhipment location required special attention to ensure operability & optimal channel dimensions. This included under keel clearance (UKC) studies carried out by Hatch based on PIANC 2014 guidelines. Design and Engineering The current channel is designed for Panamax and Kamsarmax access and is maintained at a level of CD-9.0m. Laden vessels leave at a tidal elevation of CD + 4 to 5m. The dredge depth and transhipment required for Capesize vessels was determined for the following scenarios Dredge scenario 1 - A do-nothing scenario requiring the Capesize vessel to be loaded offshore through full transhipment Dredge scenario 2 - Widening to 180m allowing the Capesize vessels to berth and be partly loaded and the remaining cargo requiring to be loaded offshore through transshipment; Panamax or Panamax TSV Existing 120m channel RL -7~8.0 ave LIGHT MHWN RL 4.0m Newcastlemax Panamax & Panamax TSV Existing 120m channel LIGHT LIGHT 80m widen for Newcastlemax (~4B) RL -7~8.0 ave MHWN RL 4.0m RL -9.0 NO DEEPENIG OR WIDENING. Status Quo situation 200+m channel RL -9.0 WIDEN ONLY to 200+m allowing NMX to enter channel Dredge scenario 3 - Widening to 180m and deepening to ~ CD -11.7m improving load factors at the berth and reducing cargo to be loaded offshore through transhipment. Dredge scenario 4 - Full deepening of the channel obviating the need for transshipment Newcastlemax Panamax & Panamax TSV Existing 120m channel LIGHT FULL 80m widen for Newcastlemax (~4B) RL -7~8.0 ave MHWN RL 4.0m Newcastlemax Panamax & Panamax TSV Existing 120m channel FULL FULL 80m widen for Newcastlemax (~4B) RL -7~8.0 ave MHWN RL 4.0m RL m channel DEEPEN & WIDEN to RL allowing PMX to sail FULL at MHWN RL m channel DEEPEN & WIDEN to RL allowing NMX to sail FULL at MHWN Transhipment Through early engagement with transshipment companies, GAC assessed the various options available in the market ranging from barging and floating cranes solutions to purpose-built Handymax 254

255 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management and Panamax self-unloaders. The various options and their advantages and drawbacks will be discussed in this paper. Dynamic Modelling The dynamic modelling carried out by Hatch tested the vessel operations in the above design scenarios and transshipment options according to various parameters, primarily being: (a) different wave conditions resulting from the metocean studies, (b) tidal levels during spring and neap tides and (c) multiple sailings during one tidal widow. Typical outputs comprised vessel turnaround time, load factors and berth and transshipment utilisation. This model was then used to verify the impact of a reduction in dredging level on the operational parameters. 3. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS The above study results incorporated in a robust dynamic model were very effective in developing the best solutions for transshipment and dredging for various throughput and ramp-up scenarios

256 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Author: René Kolman Secretary General, International Association of Dredging Companies (IADC) Alexanderveld 84, 2585 DB The Hague, The Netherlands Title: Dredging Contracting and Management Innovations Statement: Complex infrastructure projects demand a broad foundation of knowledge. By involving dredging contractors as early as possible, the project can be realised with fewer complications and obstacles and all parties/stakeholders will benefit from a more cost-efficient result. Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) Improves Complex Projects Four years ago in London, a Forum on Early Contractor Involvement was held during which the ECI concept was presented to consultants and clients. Given the strict competition legislation in the European Union (EU), the US and Canada, to name a few countries, a certain degree of scepticism and even resistance was met. How can a contractor give advice without violating regulations on competitive bidding? Why would a client want to make a contractor privy to certain seemingly sensitive details? What is the role of the consultant in guiding the pre-tender information and site investigations? The preparation for large infrastructure projects often consumes an extraordinary amount of time, money, and human resources and is not particularly cost-effective. Some of this inefficiency is caused by traditional procurement methods, which bring contractors into the process after many key decisions have been made. Dr. Dean Kashiwagi, a professor at the Del E. Webb School of Construction, Arizona State University, USA and Coordinator of the Performance Based Studies Research Group (PBSRG), states: The current delivery system is broken. In the present system, project designers who do not know how to scope and cost come on board first. Then the contractors, who are the experts, are forced to be reactive instead of proactive. By telling the vendors what to do, taking the lowest price and negotiating it downwards, the situation worsens, prices increase and performance decreases. Experts should be engaged from the beginning. The present conventional wisdom for preparing a so-called single-stage tender for major infrastructure projects: is inflexible and does not encourage creativity is simplistic and often unaware of relevant engineering and environmental issues does not take advantage of state-of-the-art knowledge and experience that contractors have acquired over time is often based on an old-fashioned understanding of competition, i.e., price differences rather than what is best for a project or long-term economic benefits is based on insufficient data to make good choices resulting in a less-than-optimal solution can result in increased risks, for instance, by underestimating adverse physical conditions can lead to adversarial relationship between contractor and client that does not benefit anyone does not allow contractors to implement appropriate safety programmes ultimately results in a less cost-effective, successful project Answering difficult questions about procurement Consider these questions: When a large infrastructure project is on the drawing board, who is most likely to have the technical know-how to design the project in the most cost-effective manner? Is it the client who has determined that the project is necessary? Is it the consultant who has been advising the client or is it the contractor who will ultimately have to construct the infrastructure project? 256

257 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management These questions have given rise to an honest examination into the efficiency and satisfaction offered by traditional procurement methods and opened the door to considering the concept of preconstruction phase agreements or ECI. The potential obstacles for ECI in infrastructure projects (Mosey,2009) will be discussed and can be summarised as follows: Procedural limitations: legal or regulatory constraints and difficulties in defining assessment criteria Time and cost limitations: a preconstruction phase agreement will probably require additional investments and time to integrate agreements among all team members Personal attitudes: with any new concept, a degree of cynicism, conservatism, bureaucracy and lack of clarity or understanding can be present. The process may seem more complicated and it might require additional contracts. There could also be a sense of disbelief that a project can be conceived of in a better way. Personal investment in the system is necessary Project-related issues: identifying and valuing risk, the criteria for pricing and paying attention to the client s intentions or wishes to reinforce contractual relations Insufficient education and training: time and energy are required to explain the roles of the client, consultant and contractor so that an open exchange of knowledge is possible and benchmarking criteria can be established. New Forum on ECI In the last four years, the need for an improved procurement procedure has been recognised and in some instances implemented. It allowed consultants and clients an opportunity to learn more about the concept, but also confront contractors with obstacles that still remain. The Forum also looked at adjustments made in legislation for instance, the EU had rethought the concept of competitive dialogue and competitive procedure with negotiation. This paper will present these discussions and report the conclusions reached at this Forum and describe case studies where ECI has expedited infrastructure projects

258 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Category: Port Planning and Management Formulating goals towards success for Adaptive Port Planning Applied case: Europoort at Port of Rotterdam Arecco, P. 1,4,*, Hertogh, M. 3, Oosting, M. 4, Taneja, P. 2, Vellinga, T. 2,4, Vervoorn, P. 4 Generally, port infrastructure has a useful lifetime (service, commercial and compliance) of several decades, and a technical (design) lifetime that is much longer. Diverse external factors may imply breaks in future scenarios, modifying one or more of the lifetime aspects. Furthermore, a new economic crisis, shifting of geopolitical power, new technological developments and possible institutional changes are just some examples that may influence any long-term planning. Long term planning begins with a definition of success in terms of the specification of desired outcomes. However, what is port success? Initially, this is considered as a key concept for developing a robust masterplan for Europoort. Because, without a proper formulation of the planning goals for a specific port area; the desired outcomes cannot be pursued. The definition of success is already mentioned as a significant starting step for Adaptive Port Planning (APP) framework (Taneja, 2013). However, it has being developed for the very first time on existing port areas. Consequently, the intention of this paper is to present every acknowledged recommendation and goal selected for analysing port success on existing port areas within the Harbour Industrial Complex at Port of Rotterdam; in particular for Europoort. An extensive literature review was carried out for defining success of an existing port area. Although literature specifically dealing with this topic is very rare; the intention of this study is to break down recommended (guidelines), envisioned (port authorities) and/or attained (clients & global indexes) goals to cluster them and recognize main categories for port success. It is important to mention that the identified categories to assess port success for existing port areas are linked with the Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), which provides fundamental overall guidance to build up sustainable excellence. In other words, for achieving and sustaining success, outstanding performance levels need to be reached in order to meet or improve the expectations of every stakeholder (EFQM, 2012); and as it can be expected, the port sector is not an exception for this. Consequently, based on the literature review and the EFQM model, the subsequent categories are recognized: Competitiveness Financial results Use of space Hinterland connections Economic & social impacts Environmental implications Safety Within each category, different indicators that can be successfully determined are identified. Only indicators leading to significant changes at Europoort are acknowledged. These are clustered in seven goals categories comprehensively defined from the research carried out. The selected indicators are partially based on Port of Rotterdam Key Performance Indicators (KPI s) presented on the Annual Report 2012 (Port of Rotterdam, 2013); though other indicators from Port Development-Port Planning (PD-PP) & Environmental Management (EM) teams and from the project Maasvlakte 2 MP7+ (TGI, TU Delft, & TNO, 2013) are specified for this analysis. To link each indicator to reality, present data for each of these indicators are obtained; some of them are specially worked out for the purpose of this study. In contrast, it is only possible to identify a few envisioned future target values (in 2030 or beyond). Aiming for a complete definition of success, the obtained list of indicators became too extensive. Consequently, workshop sessions with multidisciplinary teams of experts from Port of Rotterdam were carried out in order to prioritise, validate and/or enhance the introduced indicators. *Corresponding author address: 258

259 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management All the collected information during the workshop sessions was carefully processed and analysed. This resulted into an abridged list of indicators (only High Priority and Medium Priority indicators) and recommendations to define and assess the success for Europoort. Low priority indicators are not included due to their negligible influence for planning purposes, and due to time constraints for this study. It is imperative to clarify that almost every elected indicator requires modifications from current versions, to comprehensively define and evaluate the success for Europoort. Moreover, expressly focused indicators for Europoort are also recommended to be introduced. These are specially developed, or compiled from ongoing studies within Port Planning and other departments from Port of Rotterdam Authority. Supplementary to the optimised list of success indicators for Europoort; various general recommendations are suggested for improving the assessment of PoR general success. As it can be expected, this pioneering definition of success for Europoort implies a continuous monitoring and periodically updates in order to be an effective tool for Adaptive Port Planning. Thus, controlling Europoort terminal s and facilities performance by a multidisciplinary and expert team is foreseen as a key aspect for achieving smooth transitions from planning to realisation of sustainable and flexible growth at Port of Rotterdam. References EFQM. (2012). An overview of EFQM Excellence Model. Brussels, Belgium: EFQM. Port of Rotterdam. (2013). Annual Report 2012, Change Your Perspective (Corporate Finance & Control ed.). Rotterdam: Port of Rotterdam Authority. Taneja, P. (2013). The Flexible Port. (PhD Doctoral), TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands. TGI, TU Delft, & TNO. (2013). MP7+ Naar een robuust Masterplan voor MV2 - WerkPakket 2, WP2. In (Ed.): Port of Rotterdam. 1 Port Engineering Graduate School, Department of Transport, Faculty of Engineering, University of Buenos Aires (UBA), Las Heras nd floor, C1127AAR Buenos Aires, Argentina 2 Department of Rivers, Dredging, Ports and Waterways, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands 3 Infrastructure Design and Management,, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands 4 Port of Rotterdam Authority, Wilhelminakade 909, 3072 AP Rotterdam, The Netherlands 259

260 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Hydrodynamics, navigation and mooring simulation tools used for port and harbour design Gabriel MENGIN (1), Olivier BERTRAND (1) & Pierre-François DEMENET (1) (1) ARTELIA Eau & Environnement, 6 rue de Lorraine, Echirolles, France 1. Introduction The proper design and sizing of access facilities and manoeuvring areas is an important part of design of the port infrastructure and of protective structures. The access facilities are essentially the channels and/or inland waterways enabling ships to travel to the shallower water of the harbour and/or berth. 2. Context The manoeuvring areas are used in the final phases of a ship arrival, i.e. during slowing down, taking up tugs, turning and berthing. To create, validate or modify access channels and manoeuvring areas, the ship manoeuvrability under the effect of various environmental conditions (winds, waves, currents, water depth) is to be studied. This is carried out with specific numerical modelling. Once the ship is berthed, checks must be carried out to ensure that the ship movements and tensions in mooring lines do not exceed certain limits, which themselves depend on the size of the ship, the mooring and fendering system, the nature of the loading and unloading operations Mathematical modelling is then used to determine the transfer functions between ship movements and the various hydro-meteorological factors affecting the ship. It is then possible to reduce the vessel downtime by optimising the mooring and fendering system so as to prevent excessive tensions and forces and to stabilise the ship as much as possible. For navigation and mooring studies, forces induced by environmental conditions have to be known. They may be obtained from hydrodynamics simulation with a dedicated CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software. Simulation tools well controlled are capable of providing those realistic and accurate results as input to the investigation and evaluation of port and harbour design. 3. CFD simulation The OpenFOAM 1 (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox is used to simulate complex environmental flows (e.g. wind and current) in interaction with floating structures (see Figure 1 on the next page) in order to give the resulting forces and moments used as input by the navigational and/or mooring software presented in the next sections. To provide simulation tool at an affordable computational expense, GFD (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics) at a larger scale and CFD methods need to be coupled. This approach may be used due to the fact that flow field can be divided into many subdomains dominated by different physical phenomena (turbulence, waves, Coriolis forces ). A Schwarz iterative method for coupling two models/softwares with different time steps, mesh interpolation between structured and unstructured grids, etc. is also under development. 1 Developed by OpenCFD Ltd 260

261 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management Figure 1. Views of the OpenFOAM model: tanker jetty (left) and wind flow around a FLNG ship (right) 4. Ship manoeuvring simulator The ship manoeuvring simulator uses the SIMFLEX software 2 which is controlled interactively via a three-dimensional view of the area studied (see figure below), through an external handle box. The manoeuvres are carried out in real time. The position and trajectory of the ship as well as certain information (speed, ship course, current, wind, etc.) are displayed during the manoeuvre, which means the operator can react to the various events in due time. This information is saved during all tests. The simulations are performed with the participation of the professionals concerned (pilots, captains, etc.) and an expert instructor from the ARTELIA s Shiphandling Training Centre at Port Revel. The desk top simulation system can be sometimes used in two dimensional mode alone, without use of three dimensional visualisation. Figure 2. Views of the SIMFLEX model: bridge view (left) and LNG shuttle moored to FLNG ship (right) 5. Ship mooring simulation The main applications of ship mooring simulation are the analysis of berthing and operability conditions, as well as design of mooring equipment and berthing structures. It enables also to analyse the dynamic behaviour of any floating structure (one or several structures) moored or berthed, as well as towing, stability or seakeeping operations based on the 3D diffraction-radiation solver of the dedicated hydrodynamics software DIODORE 3. Different mooring systems may be simulated such as: spread mooring, SPM (Turret or CALM buoy), Conventional Buoy Mooring (CBM), Yoke, gravity based structure 6. Summary on the proposed paper The proposed paper will focus on the description of the above simulation tools and methods for port and harbour design, through dedicated cases studies. 2 Developed by Force Technology (Danemark) 3 Developed by Principia (France) 261

262 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Innovation flexible dolphins by full scale field test laterally loaded tubular piles by Alfred Roubos 1, Dirk-Jan Jaspers Focks 2, Dirk Jan Peters 3 Abstract Flexible dolphins are frequently applied in ports and waterways. Although there are design guidelines available for most hydraulic and geotechnical structures, clear guidelines for steel tubular flexible dolphin piles were still missing. The objective of this research was to establish a uniform, reliable and economic design approach suitable for designing steel tubular flexible dolphins. At first several benchmarks and desk studies were carried out with relatively simple and advanced methods or analysis, such as Blum, Dpile group, Plaxis 3D and Diana (illustrated in figure 1). Figure 1: Finite element methods Plaxis 3D (left) and Diana (right) The theoretical background of the existing design methods often appeared to be based on a limited amount of prototype testing and also the scale of these tests were relatively small. To improve serviceability and reliability more insight in the structural behavior regarding flexible dolphins was needed. The main focus of this research was therefore on: a) the difference in soil behaviour between static and low-dynamic loading (figure 2a); b) the behaviour of dolphins in slopes in relation to analytical design methods (figure 2b); c) the effects of local buckling near wall thickness transitions and soil filled piles (figure 2c); d) the propagation of vibrations in sandy soils during the installation of tubular piles. Figure 2: a) Dynamic soil reaction b) Effect of slopes c) Local buckling soil filled tubes To validate the benchmarks and to gain more insight in the actual performance the Port of Rotterdam Authority decided to facilitate a full scale field test. During the design process of the test-setup early contractor involvement contributed to an optimisation of the test programme. Static and low-dynamic tests were facilitated, because the test had to represent the load cases of moored ships and of ship berthing respectively. The test programme was subjected to constraints in time, in budget and suitable project locations were limited. For that reason tubular pile sections were selected from stock. Three types of piles, in total eight piles, were tested until failure. These piles were all based on frequently applied typical steel cross-sectional classes regarding ductility and susceptibility to local buckling. Type 1 was a typical class 4 pile with target slenderness (D/t f y /f ref ) of 120 in the strongest, embedded 1 A.A. Roubos MSc, Port of Rotterdam, Port Development, 2 D.J. Jaspers Focks MSc, Witteveen+Bos, Engineering Department, dirk 3 D.J. Peters MSc, Royal Haskoning DHV, Department Maritime & Waterways, 262

263 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management section. Type 2 had a slenderness of 90 in the soil and is assumed to show significant yielding. Type 2 also had several wall thickness transitions. The type 3 piles had a target slenderness of 170 and were filled with sand over the full length of the pile. Three piles were installed on a sloping bed and five in a horizontal harbour bottom. All piles were subjected to a series of static and low-dynamic loads (repetitions and reverse loading). The first test series remained in the range of elastic response. The dynamic tests were executed with a system of cables and pullies and a crane on a floating barge. After the last static test series the piles were loaded until failure with hydraulic jacks mounted in a large steel frame (see figure 3). Figure 3: Top view of static test set-up with large steel frame and screw jacks. To attain reliable measurements a redundant and innovative combination of monitoring systems was developed (e.g. two systems are illustrated in figure 4). These systems were successfully applied and resulted in new ideas for remote sensing and monitoring of port infrastructure. Figure 4: Fiber optic strain sensors in epoxy rasin (left) and the Shape Accel Array Fields (right) Through the full scale field tests a more accurate insight is achieved regarding the actual behaviour of flexible dolphins. Several design methods are verified and validated. Savings up to 15% of material costs seem possible for new dolphins without affecting the reliability level. Less material is necessary by distributing the amount of steel more efficiently over the length of the tubular pile. The measurements to the damping of vibrations in the soil resulted in a significant reduction of site investigation, which is generally undertaken to avoid high risks due to vibrations in the vicinity of unexploded ordnances. The high risk area around a single pile is reduced by 75%. Besides the added value regarding economic optimization and sustainable use of materials also benefits in project planning for future projects are to be expected

264 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Mauritius Port Masterplan by B. Wijdeven 1, R. Clarke 2, S. Goburdhone 3, J.C. Krom 4 Introduction In the period from mid-2015 to mid-2016, Port Masterplan studies were being carried out for Port Louis on the island of Mauritius. Port Louis is the principal gateway of Mauritius and plays a vital role in the national economy, handling about 99% of the total volume of the country s external trade. The port is also catering for transhipment of non-captive container cargo. The volume of cargo traffic transiting at Port Louis Harbour was around 6.9 million tons in Mauritius was once a mono-crop economy based on sugarcane production, but is now more diversified and driven by export-oriented manufacturing, tourism, financial and business services sectors. The island is attracting substantial investment from local and foreign stakeholders to create employment opportunities and to keep pace with global competition. This is positively impacting trade flows to and from the Island. Royal HaskoningDHV was commissioned by Mauritius Ports Authority to update the acting 2009 Port Masterplan of Port Louis. The work was to identify new business opportunities for Mauritius ports and to forecast cargo and traffic flows, to identify needs for extending / upgrading port infrastructure and develop a land use plan for the next 25 years. 1 Team leader & Port Consultant, Royal HaskoningDHV 2 Director, Richard Clarke Marine 3 Deputy Director General, Mauritius Ports Authority 4 Port Consultant, Royal HaskoningDHV 264

265 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management Challenges Challenges associated with future development of the port include: Exploring the potential of Port Louis for container transhipment, increasing performance of the Mauritius Container Terminal, and maintaining and improving market share in a competitive market; Providing wave shelter for the open berth Mauritius Container Terminal whilst at the same maintain operational performance and availability of port facilities, to cater for sustained future growth of container cargo; Developing Port Louis as a bunkering and petroleum/lng hub. Risk assessment and land use planning, and finding the balance between stakeholder interests; Develop small-scale LNG unloading facilities to provide in the islands long-term demand for energy; Unlocking land outside the port boundaries for port expansion, and related challenges in terms of interactions between the port, city and land owners; Adapting existing port infrastructure such as quay walls, jetties, port basins and tank farms to handle a wider range of trades; finding a balance between trade development, waterfront development, cruise facilities, marina development, and preservation of the islands sensitive ecological system. Key items The paper and presentation elaborate a.o. on the following subjects: Review of the islands economy, cargo & traffic forecasts; Container transhipment potential; Port operations & performance, optimization and improved land use in existing port; Port Masterplan study and land use plan, taking into account wave shielding measures for the Mauritius Container Terminal and small-scale LNG import facilities; Quantitative Risk Assessment and the impact on the master plan; Planning of waterfront & marinas

266 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Modeling and optimization of the stowage plan and handling of containers in port yards by rules representation and genetic algorithm The efficiency of a port terminal is essential to allow the increase the flow of containers in a global supply chain. In this paper, we propose the integration of two main problems in a container terminal: the handling of export containers at the port yard and the ship stowage plan problem, considering several ports in the container ship's rotte. The cellular structure of the ship is such that a container can only be accessed only by a particular's cell top. Thus, to remove a container two cases may occur: I. There are no containers immediately above or if there are other containers, they should also be unloaded on the current port. II. There are containers immediately above and these should be unloaded only on forward ports. They are moved to permit the retrieval of the container that must be unloaded in the current port, but must be returned to the vessel. The withdrawal movement and return of a container for a ship is said rehandle movement. The situation (ii) can occur frequently and result in a larger ship berthing time. To avoid such disorder is necessary to develop the stowage plan so that the decision in a port does not entail in many relocation movements in the next ports to be visited. The problem handling containers in the port yard can take advantage of the same knowledge used to solve the stowage plan problem, as there are potential similar characteristics when the organization of containers is obligated to be in stacks, for example, the restriction that a container can only be accessed through the top. Therefore, we present an adaptation of a method that has been successfully employed in the resolution of the problem of the storage plan: the rules representation

267 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management The goal by using the rules representation is to reduce the number of rehandles during the mentioned operations, without employing a binary model that is limited to small instances. As proven by literature, both problems belongs to the class of NP-Complete problems, which justifies the use of heuristics and meta-heuristics. So, our objective is to reduce the number of re-handling during loading and unloading of containers for a given stowage plan and its corresponding movement in the yard. The innovation of this study consists of the application for the first time of an alternative to the use of models with binary variables. Such models have serious limitations in real problems implementation, such as the PCCTP (Avriel et al., 1998). The importance of modeling and joint optimization of the two problems is found in the sense that any improvement obtained in one of the individual processes ends up being lost if there is a bottleneck in the chain. The practical contribution shall be given by the reduction in the amount of information needed to represent decision-making process through a mathematical model. Adding to this, there is the possibility of using the knowledge of the terminal decision maker in the form of rules. Besides, the rules representation have the advantage of using a very compact representation that ensures the generation of feasible solutions. The results obtained with numerical examples show that with low computational time it has been possible to obtain good sequences of feasible movements. Summary of the complete paper: The complete paper will describe in detail the mathematical models for stowage planning and yard operations planning employed in literature and also the assumptions behind them. Although, each problem is a computationally hard problem (e.g. NP-Complete), is desirable and challenging, to achieve an improved port operation planning, a solution that encompass both models constraints. In this sense, the paper will discuss how a solution, that integrates both problems, could be attained through representation by rules combined with simulation. A detailed description of rules created for each problem will be given and will help the reader to understand how practioners could include their expertise in the proposed approach. Finally, computational simulations will present the impact of an integrated planning on stowage planning and yard operations planning

268 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Operational Maritime Weather Forecast for Port Access and Operations using the AquaSafe platform Leitão J. C. (1), Galvão P. (1), Leitão P. C. (1) and Silva A. (1) (1) HIDROMOD Modelação em Engenharia, Lda. Rua Rui Teles Palhinha, N. 4, Piso 1, Leião, Porto Salvo, Portugal Keywords: Port access, forecast, downscale, multi-nesting modelling, AquaSafe 1. Introduction The AquaSafe platform has been set up for several ports in Europe and South America, to support the need to increase productivity and maintain safety. This platform can be used to downscale waves and currents forecasts to a resolution of the order of 10 m and disseminate modelled and measured data in real time. AquaSafe is also being used to support the evaluation of the water depth in navigation channels. These data is displayed in real time in control rooms screens, in mobile Apps and automatic reports via . One of the desktop clients that connects to the forecast server is the Oil Spill Simulator, used in emergency situations (oil spill or search and rescue related operations). The present economic context of rapid growth in the movement of goods in a lot of ports, and the predicted increase in world seaborne trade in the next decade, is key to justify the need for these operational systems. Ports need to increase productivity as they need to cope with growing demand (increase in trade), different demand (growing size of vessels) and the capital and time constraints in growing port infrastructures. 2. Ports scale operational modelling Operational systems, based in the AquaSafe software (Silva, 2012), with forecasts of hydrodynamics and waves, at scales around 20 to 100 m, meteorology, at scales of 4 to 9 km, validated with tidal gauges, meteo stations and wave buoys have been set up in several ports since 2011: Santos in Brazil, Leixões, Viana do Castelo, Sines and Setúbal, in Portugal, and Buenaventura and Tumaco, in Colombia. Validation is a key point in the methodology followed in AquaSafe to run high resolution models in forecast mode. For each Port, quantitative and qualitative validation is done. The qualitative validation is done visually comparing model and measured fields and time series published in real time by AquaSafe software clients in operation rooms, in sites or Apps. The quantitative validation is done via weekly reports generated and disseminated (usually via ) automatically by AquaSafe server, where the RMSE, bias and correlation is computed for each forecast day. A more detailed quantitative validation is also done every 6 months in the framework of auditing reports where the availability of the entire service is assessed along with the models accuracy (e.g. success of external data sources downloads, AquaSafe web services feeding Apps availability). 3. Operational tools focused in ports One of the desktop clients that connects to the AquaSafe server forecasts is the Oil Spill Simulator. This software client is an efficient forecast tool for emergency situations (oil spill or search and rescue related operations) as it relies on hydrodynamic forecasts that are used on a day-to-day basis, for navigation purposes. AquaSafe is also being used to assess the available water depth in navigation channels. By means of integration of the most recent bathymetric surveys and model results (water level, currents, waves and meteorological conditions), it is possible to optimize the dredging effort necessary to 268

269 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management guarantee safe navigation conditions. Two way connection of AquaSafe with Under Keel Clearance systems is underway. AquaSafe was developed using a service oriented architecture. This allows a large flexibility as port authority can choose between the AquaSafe pre-developed interfaces (desktop, web or mobile) or have customized interfaces. 4. Conclusion High resolution operational weather forecasting is making its way into the operation rooms of Port Authorities, but also to cell phones and web pages. The need to keep improving efficiency and safety in maritime transport is presently an important driving force for the development of operational weather forecast. 5. References Leitão P, Coelho H, Santos A, Neves R. (2005). Modelling the main features of the Algarve coastal circulation during July 2004: A downscaling approach. Journal of Atmospheric & Ocean Science, 10(4): PIANC (2012). Use of Hydro/Meteo Information for Port Access and Operations. PIANC s Report, Silva, A. (2009). AQUASAFE: an R&D complement to Bonn Network tools to support Water Safety Plans implementation, exploitation and training. IWA Newsletter, l1(3)

270 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management OPTIMIZATION OF INTEGRATED PORT PROBLEMS USING GENETIC ALGORITHM AND SIMULATION THROUGH RULES 1 Introduction This paper seeks to find an alternative modeling for the challenge of planning the operation of complex systems as port operation planning is. A detailed study case shows how integrated planning of port operations can be done and therefore can serve as a support tool for management of a port. The developed new approach is capable to solve problems that, even decomposed separately into smaller problems, have great computational difficulty to find an exact solution, or even a feasible one. The research approached refers to the berths allocation problem (BAP); quay cranes assignment problem (QCAP) and quay cranes scheduling problem (QCSP). The cranes are still subject to different service charges and dependent work time ranges from the yard events. Examples of these problems are illustrated in Figures 1, 2 and 3. Figure 1 - BAP example. Figure 2 - QCAP example. Figure 3 - QCSP example. The proposed approach employ the results from a simulation to evaluate in an integrated manner the decisions made in each problem. As a consequence, this approach could help charterers to avoid paying charges to the ship-owners due to its extra unplanned use of the vessel. 2 Methodologies Since integrated planning leads to a combinatorial problem, the meta-heuristic Genetic Algorithm was adopted as a search engine for solutions improvement. Genetic Algorithm consists on creation and evaluation of a population of individuals, each one representing one combination of decisions for each problem. The evaluation of each individual consists in translate the combination of decisions for each problem in terms of operations to done in a simulation of the port operations. The manner that decisions fulfill operational constraints in each problem is using representation by rules. Rules are the description of actions that should be done by observing physical and operational constraints. For example, rules for quay cranes movement should observe that one crane could not overpass another one since all cranes share a common rail as illustrate in Figure

271 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management The representation by rules ensures the search of optimal and feasible solutions, but without the computation burden from traditional techniques used in operation research for combinatorial problems, like using binary variables from integer programming. This means representation by rules may deal with real large-scale problems that come from port activities planning. 3. Results and Conclusions The main advantage of the developed approach is to reduce the solutions search space because the union of using simulation and representation by rules does not allow infeasibilities, i.e., solutions that do not fulfill operational and physical limits. This is the reason why the developed approach avoids large computational effort. The Figure 4 shows an example of solution for an integrated problem with five ships, two berths, and four quay cranes. The vertical scale represents space in port and horizontal scale represents the time. Figura 4 Example of Solution to five vessels allocated in two berths. Figure 4 describes in detail the operation of quay cranes and how it affects the time a ship should stay in a port. For example, the first vessel that arrived at berth 2 started its cargo operations with quay cranes 1, 2, and 3 in bays 12, 14, and 16, respectively, at time 4. Then, at time 10 the second vessel arrives and the quay cranes 1 and 2 go to operate it in bays 5 and 7, respectively, so the only crane that operates in vessel 1 is the crane 3 in bay 13. Finally, the cargo operation in the first ship ends with only one quay crane in bay 13. At time 13 all the quay cranes had been scheduled to ship 3 (in berth 2) and ship 2 (in berth 1). So, it is possible to see the coordination of simultaneous scheduling of vessels and quay cranes. The method found good solutions to large amount of scenarios. The rules approached combined with simulation and Genetic Algorithm is a valid alternative way to help the decision maker in port operation planning since it enables the understand of how the decisions made in each problem operation could the impact in overall port productivity

272 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Port developments are core elements for future economic growth in Gabon, West Africa K. Pilegaard, R.G. Bjørndal and P.B. Frederiksen (Ramboll Denmark); M. Utriainen (Ramboll Finland) and L.L. Haaning (Ramboll Management Consulting) 1. Abstract As a part of major initiative to propel the economic growth in Gabon, the Republic of Gabon has aggressively been working on the improvement of the import and export capabilities of the seaports along the coast. In order to overcome logistic limitations and constraints of the existing ports in Libreville, Olam International head quartered in Singapore has partnered with Government of Gabon in establishing a new port, named Gabon Special Economic Zone Mineral Port S.A.. A team of experts from Ramboll Denmark, Ramboll Finland and Ramboll Management Consulting have performed Market Studies, Port Master Planning, Techno-Commercial Analysis and Preliminary Design for the entire new port located in the Gabon Estuary south of Libreville. The new port will include a Mineral Terminal for export of Manganese Ore. The location of the Mineral Terminal has several advantages; it is connected directly via roads and rail line to the mining areas in the hinterland of Gabon, and the geographic location in the Gabon Estuary close to the Atlantic Ocean is perfect for exporting the manganese ore to international markets. The development of a new Mineral Terminal is foreseen to strengthen the Gabonese mining sector significantly, and both Australian and Chinese companies have already established larger mines in the region, which helps to reduce unemployment and to strengthen the national economy in Gabon. The manganese ore will be transported to the Mineral Terminal by trains via the existing Trans-Gabon railway. The port will undergo stage wise developments, and eventually the new Mineral Terminal is designed for annual export of up to 10 million tons Manganese Ore from a jetty berth accommodating bulk carriers with capacity up to 50,000 DWT. In addition to the Mineral Terminal, Ramboll has performed market studies to investigate the possibilities for establishing a Fishing Terminal and a Ship Repair Yard adjacent to the Mineral Terminal. The Gabonese Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers an area of about 200,000 km 2 and contains a substantial amount of fish, especially tuna. However, no Tuna has been processed and exported from Gabon in the past 20 years, because Gabon does not have the required export-agreements and hence no proper handling and processing facilities are available. Instead, the tuna in Gabonese waters are mainly catched by e.g. EU vessels and processed in Europe. By developing a new Fishing Terminal with modern handling and processing facilities, it will put Gabon in a strong position for negotiating the protocols for export to Europe, North America and other continents. This can set the basis for a whole new market of fish processing in Gabon. The development of Fishing Terminal, Ship Repair Yard and Mineral Terminal is a significant opportunity to strengthen existing industries and attract new businesses to Libreville and Gabon. This will improve the local urban developments, reduce unemployment, strengthen the economy and thereby improve the overall living conditions for the inhabitants in the region. One of the challenges in the planning of the new port has been to ensure environmentally sound and sustainable solutions in an area where especially local infrastructure is an essential limiting factor. For instance it can be a challenge to provide sufficient amounts of water for both dust suppression systems in the Mineral Terminal, processing plants in the Fishing Terminal, and general drinking and sanitary water

273 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management Figure: Preliminary Layout of Gabon Special Economic Zone Mineral Port S.A. 2. Paper and Presentation The full paper and presentation will touch upon the following topics, which have all been part of the development of the port master plan: Market Studies, Techno-Commercial Analysis including capacity evaluations and functional planning, analysis of geotechnical conditions, coastal hydrodynamic and sediment transport conditions, and manoeuvring and navigation conditions, assessment of environmental and social impacts, special environmental issues related to handling of manganese ore, Port planning and Infrastructure planning. Also discussions will be included on the challenges in planning a state-of-the-art port in a developing country, where local infrastructure, norms, working culture and regulations can put a bar over the development possibilities

274 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Selection of Criteria for Dredging Prioritizing in Seaports Vanessa de Almeida Guimarães Alexandre Monteiro Domenico Accetta Fernanda Godoy Almeida Moura Gabriela Assunção Siqueira Ilton Curty Leal Junior Suellem Deodoro Silva Thaísa Ribeiro Montenegro 1. Introduction Ports activities are essential to economic development of countries (or specific regions) since it moves about 90% of world commerce volume (SMITH et al., 2015). In Brazil, goods movements reached about 970 millions of tons in 2014, representing an increasing of 9.4% from 2011 (even considering the Brazilian crisis) (ANTAQ, 2011 and 2015). Considering only containers, the report of Agência Nacional de Transportes Aquaviários ANTAQ indicates an increase of 12,2% in containers movement in 2014 (5.7 millions of containers and 8.9 millions of TEUs). In this context, Santos stands out with the highest movement indexes. Given the relevance of the port system to Brazilian economy, Federal Government has sought to develop the integration of transport systems in order to give greater dynamism and competitiveness to Brazilian production chains. The main goal is to extend, efficiently, the transport alternatives for the productive flows (to national and international demand zones), in order to reduce the logistics costs that reaches even 15% of Brazilian Gross Domestic Product GPD compromising the competitiveness of the country, according to Rebello (2011). Therefore, some studies and Governmental Strategic Plans has been developed as National Plan for Logistics and Transport PNLT (MT 2007, 2009 e 2012), General Port Grants Plan PGO (ANTAQ, 2009) and National Port Logistic Plan PNLP (SEP, 2012). However, due to the geographical diversity of Brazilian demand and production zones and the choice for a port, it is necessary to study how to become compatible the port s structure to the dynamics of cargo movements. Besides, the increasing demand for maritime transport worldwide has required the use of larger vessel sizes in order to achieve better economies of scale (Ports Australia, 2014). Therefore, considering the competitiveness growths of this sector, ports managers claim for deeper channel that will support larger vessels. According to Lukens (2000) the increasing on the size of a vessel can promote a decreasing on the transport costs of commodities reflecting in the prices charged through the chain channel (until the consumer). However, costs decrease though there still remains the environmental impacts and costs of dredging (planning and execution) (Lukens, 2000). Fadda (2012) explains that dredging operation has high costs since it requires specific equipment and specialized technique. Then, it is essential a careful planning of the whole process of dredging. It is clear, then, that dredging can cause positive or negative impacts in economic, social and environmental spheres. From the economic standpoint, the net income tend to grow due to the increased demand associated to the opportunity of meeting larger vessels; besides, the existent demand can be meet without compromising the safety of the navigation. Considering the environmental aspect, both the dredging process and the treatment or disposal of the dredge material must be carefully handled since it can impact negatively human health and ecological habitat and species. Regarding the social aspects, 274

275 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management community must be considered in this process in order to not disturbing the culture, recreation, local economic activities and so on. Therefore, the selection of the ports to be dredge has got to be done considering either economic, social, environmental and technical aspects (at least). In this sense, given the demand for dredging coming from the different ports of a country (or region), the limited resources from the government (and/or private agents) and the impacts resulted from the dredging process (in social, environmental, economic and so on), we wonder: which criteria would be the most relevant to prioritizing the ports to be dredge? Then, this paper aims to propose a set of criteria - considered the most relevant by the stakeholders (specific specialist from government, university and companies) to prioritizing the ports to be dredge. As specific goals, we mention: (i) to raise the existent criteria for dredging in national and international literature; (ii) prioritizing those criteria based on specialist research; (iii) in order to set the relevant to the criteria raised in the literature, a multicriteria technique will be applied. Concerning the relevance of this theme, we believe that this paper will contribute to the Federal Governmental polices since those criteria can be used to as support tool to the planning of public and privates interventions in the ports infrastructure. Besides, it is known that National Plans for Dredging will be released in the next years (as continuation of plans that already are being developed), then this criteria can help in the selection process. It is important to highlight that this paper is one of the results of the partnership between Fluminense Federal University and National Institute of Waterway Research - INPH and that the research is currently being developed. Referências ANTAQ - Agência Nacional de Transporte Aquaviário (2009) Subsídios técnicos para identificação de áreas destinadas à instalação de portos organizados ou autorização de terminais de uso privativo em apoio ao Plano Geral de Outorgas - revisão e ajustes da base de dados georreferenciada (relatório final). Brasília. ANTAQ (2011) Anuário estatístico aquaviário Brasília. ANTAQ (2014) Boletim anual de movimentação de cargas: Brasília ANTAQ (2015) Anuário estatístico aquaviário Brasília. Fadda, E. A. (2012) Instrumentos legais aplicados à dragagem no Brasil. Revista Direito Aduaneiro, Marítimo e Portuários, ed. 06, Available at: < Acessed: nov/2015 Lukens, J. L. (2000) National Coastal Program Dredging Policies: An Analysis of State, Territory, & Commonwealth Policies Related to Dredging & Dredged Material Management (Volume I of II). OCRM/CPD Coastal Management Program Policy Series MT - Ministério dos Transportes (2007) Plano Nacional de Logística e Transportes: Sumário executivo. Brasília. MT - Ministério dos Transportes (2009) Relatório Executivo PNLT. Brasília. MT - Ministério dos Transportes (2012) Projeto de reavaliação de estimativas e metas do PNLT: Relatório Final. Brasília. Ports Australia (2014) Dredging and Australian Ports: Subtropical and Tropical Ports. Rebelo, J. (2011) Logística de Carga no Brasil: Como reduzir Custos Logísticos e Melhorar Eficiência? - Sumário Executivo. Sustainable Development Department, Latin America and the Caribbean Region, The World Bank. SEP - Secretaria de Portos da Presidência da República (2012). Plano Nacional de Logística Portuária: Planos Mestres Sumário Executivo. Brasília. Smith, T. W. P.; Jalkanen, J. P.; Anderson, B. A.; Corbett,, J. J.; Faber, J.; Hanayamas, S.; O Keeffe, E., Parker, S., Johansson, L., Aldous, L., Raucci, C., Traut, M.; Ettinger, S.; Nelissen, D.; Lee, D. S.; Ng, S.; Agrawal, A.; Winebrake, J. J.; Hoen, M., Chesworth, S. e Pandey, A. (2015) Third IMO GHG Study International Maritime Organization (IMO), Londres, Inglaterra

276 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management STATE MANAGEMENT OF PORTS SYSTEM IN VIETNAM EXISTING MECHANISMS AND FUTURE CHANGES Author: Tran Thi Tuyet Mai Anh Deputy Director of In t Cooperation Dept., Vietnam Maritime Administration (VINAMARINE) Vietnam with a population of 90 million people, since 1987 has been in the midst of a process of change from a Bureaucratic and Centralized Economy to a Market Economy. This transformation has successfully achieved several development and restructuring targets to reform the legal administrative system and boost investment and trading expansion. However, the country needs to develop more soft and hard infrastructure, as an example the development of a seaport system and the state management of such a system could effectively serve the socio-economic development of the country and seems therefore a fundamental task. Viet Nam has the long coastal line, stretching over 3,260 km on the east side of the Indochina Peninsular. Main international maritime routes run close to the coast of Vietnam. They are the ones from Europe to North Asia, Australia - North Asia, East Asia - America and vice versa. Vietnam, thus has the very favorable econo-political and geographical conditions to develop a system of seaports to serve not only our own demand of local carriers and businesses but also for foreign carriers and businesses by providing them with transshipment services (such as Singapore and Hongkong ) for sea cargoes destined to or passing through this region. Vietnam's ports (terminals) are managed by various terminal management entities without a comprehensive port management system. In recent years, the cargo throughput of major ports has been increasing rapidly so that the necessity for coordination among adjacent ports is increasing, especially in the southern region where two or more terminals are located in close proximity to one another. Vietnam has so long followed the centrally planned economy and thus ports are mainly of the service model. When changing into the market economy and particularly in the trends of globalization and rationalization, Vietnam finds its ports inefficient and the port management system obsolete. The need for change is clear. But the question here is to what model Vietnam will change its port management system. There are various types of port management models in the world, most notably are Tool port, Landlord port, Private port and at the other extreme the present model of port management of Vietnam State Service port. Each one of them has advantages and disadvantages. How Vietnam will apply the principles of one or more than one of those port management model in its concrete conditions is another question to be answered to meet the demand of the national economic development. It is therefore necessary to integrate terminals, potential development areas and private port facilities under a comprehensive management body of port premise and port waters. Channel development and navigation control are their common interest as well as roads and railways in their hinterland. In order to realize good seaport management, a Port Management Body shall be established in each major seaport. Vietnam National Maritime Administration (VINAMARINE) has selected Cai Lan port (3 berths, No, 5, 6, 7) which was a new port with investment from Japanese government s ODA and state budget to implement the new mechanism of port infrastructure management and operation in a pilot scheme. Although it is not an easy task but once the model applied in pilot scheme at Cai Lan proves efficient, we shall apply it to other ports of Vietnam. The decision No.228/2003/QD-TTg dated 6 th November 2003 of the Prime Minister allows the application in a pilot scheme new mechanism of port management and operation. This decision will lay the ground for the port management latter on. The essence of the decision is the lease of the port infrastructure (3 new built berths) by the government, represented by VINAMARINE and the port operator (Quang Ninh Port Company) for the exploitation of the port. The lease as such is quite new mode of port exploitation in Vietnam for the fact that through the history, all Vietnamese ports have been invested by the government (either central or local levels or government ministries or agencies) then entrusted (allocated) to some entities for operation

277 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management In 2005 The Vietnam Maritime Code was revised and there s an article regulate to investments in construction, management and operation of seaports and port access channels. These are never indecated before. According to article 64 the local organisations and individuals, and foreign organisations and individuals shall be entitled to invest in construction of seaports and port access channels in accordance with the existing laws and regulations. The organisations and individuals who invest in construction of seaports and port access channels shall determine modalities of managing and operating the seaports and port access channels. Under the Law, Viet Nam also has Decree No. 21/2012/ND-CP, Decree on management of seaports and maritime channels dated 21 st March 2015 which was guidance all entities the procedure to manage the seaport and maritime channel. Through the successful experience from countries who were operate large port in the world such as Netherland, Belgium, Singapore ect.., Government of Viet Nam has requested that all the seaports infrastruture invested by the state budget after 2005 will be recovered by leasing contract through bidding, so that in 2013 Vinamarine has signed 2 leasing contracts with Sai Gon New Port and Sai Gon Port to lease Cai Mep Container terminal and Thi Vai general cargo terminal in Vung Tau Province. The period of these contracts is 25 years and it can recover the initial investment source of these ports. The lease as such being implemented in a pilot scheme once applied to all ports of Vietnam will make to port management model in Vietnam similar to the Landlord Port type which is being in application in many developed countries. That, on the one hand, separates the state control functions from port operation, and on the other hand assures the recovering of the state investment into the port or allows whoever invest his money into the port to recover his investment, by way of collecting the rent from the port operator and other fees that are due to the government. The port management model in Vietnam is of Public Service type and has demonstrated it weakness in inefficiently exploiting the port infrastructure. While it gave rainfall benefit to some people or group of people by allocating huge amount of state investment to the port companies for their operation it does not assure the state of its benefit and gains from its investment. Such port management model should be changed and in fact is being changed to a new one, somehow similar to the Landlord port type that has been applied in many developed countries with more developed maritime sector and demonstrated its strong points in terms of port efficiency. Although it is a difficult process, the port management model in Vietnam is being changed with its starting point of a pilot scheme lease contract, it will be applied in the whole port system of Vietnam once it has approved its effectiveness At the early of 2015 Vinamarine drafted a new revision of Vietnam Maritime Code, in such new version, Vinamarine proposed to set up a Port Authority or Port Management Body, the experience of advanced ports in the world such as Antwerp or Rotterdam or Hongkong and others could help Vietnam in selecting the right type of port management model for application in the country with its specific socio-economic, political, environmental conditions. In the national assembly meeting in this November, the new Vietnam Maritime Code will be appoved. One among many factors that help the potential success of the new port management model is the change of the legal provisions on port and port management, for which Vietnam is making quite good effort toward a new amendment of the Maritime Code. Implementing the new mechanism of port management and operation is a positive change in the right direction to be more competitive in order to serve better the development of the national economy. To assure the success of the new port management mechanism, in addition to the change of legal provisions, Vietnam needs also to concentrate more effort in making right policies and regulations (under law) for the concrete application of the new model of port management into the real life

278 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management The Ghent Canal Zone Project a successful example of stakeholders involvement in an industrialized urban area Authors: Sim Turf and Veerle De Bock 1. Context and rationale The Ghent Canal Zone is an important logistic, industrial and residential area, located in the highly urbanized northern part of Belgium. Urban neighbourhoods and villages surround the Port Area, most of them close to or even embedded within industrial sites and docklands. Large harbour, road and railroad infrastructures reside in this area, as well as more than 300 companies which offer more than jobs and local inhabitants. All of which claim their part of the available space encompassing around ha. In the early 1990s, local residents were faced with increasingly negative effects of the surrounding industries, including steel manufacturers, coal terminals and waste plants. In the same period, the economic sector wished to expand its activities while nature conservation organizations asked for clear policy measures for bird preservation areas of European importance in the Port Area. Eventually, the region planned to build a more efficient transport infrastructure: a new sea lock giving better entrance to the port of Ghent, a new dock and the reconstruction of the R4 ring motorway. The uncoordinated development of these different activities gradually degraded the urban spatial structure of the area into a chaotic hodgepodge and generated large environmental problems. In 1993, a number of leading policy officials of the regional authority of Oost-Vlaanderen (East Flanders Province) took the initiative to address these issues and founded the integrated Ghent Canal Zone Project. The main objective was to steer the different government levels and sectorial policies towards an integrated development of the entire area. 2. Process and solutions At the start of the project ( ), a small group of spatial planners and officials explored the different issues at stake. They screened for relevant actors, identified their main concerns and interests and developed an initial strategic spatial concept. The latter should be able to present a coherent spatial vision of the future development of the Ghent Canal Zone including a balance between economic, social and environmental issues in order to find a consensus among the different actors and institutions involved. During the second phase of the project ( ), the preliminary strategic spatial concept was gradually developed into a coherent and solid vision, based on further research and the involvement of the residents. A steering committee was put in place, composed of the leading politicians and civil servants of the different governments (local, regional, and national) and the Port Authority. New relevant stakeholders, among which newly formed citizen groups of the villages, entered the process, adding new interests and resources into the project. At the same time, several projects that addressed the environment and living quality in the residential areas were implemented. Also, some strategically chosen mobility problems were solved. In 2007, the project organization geared up to a higher level and installed a Sub Regional Network. Based on the strategic spatial concept and in-the-field experiences of concrete projects, an overall Strategic Development Plan for the Ghent Canal Zone was developed. This strategic plan comprises a long term vision up to 2030 for the sustainable development of the area, a number of milestones and an action program, which is ongoing since In 2013, on the occasion of its 20 th anniversary, the project was critically evaluated. As a result, new objectives were defined and the range of actors involved was further expanded to include local companies and more citizen groups. Recently an impartial regional development coalition has been installed. This network tries to lobby between different actors which have key competences and 278

279 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management resources needed for the realization of the strategic plan objectives. A successful example of the network s actions is the border-crossed process, which involves the Dutch part of the Canal Zone to assert access to the new sea lock. 3. Results and impacts Transparency, stability and legal certainty for all stakeholders and their activities: Based on the strategic plan, existing land use plans were adapted into new formal land use plans. These indicate the quality standards and precise delineations of residential territories in villages and nature conservation areas. These plans also describe the exact locations and conditions of industrial and port area development, a number of buffering linking areas and space for expanded water, road and rail infrastructures. An organically grown and continuously developing project management structure with short and informal communication lines: After years of working together in a dynamic structure and applying a solid methodology, the main stakeholders in the Ghent Canal Zone have built a relation of mutual trust and take advantage of directly informing one another. As such, problems are resolved more easily and results achieved. Fair and just management of difficult policy options and of potential conflict situations: The planning process has proven its capability of quickly detecting and carefully handling (potential) conflicts. As a consequence little or no tensions have escalated into a rock-hard controversy between action groups and the authorities or companies, nor have they led to judicial procedures. This all despite of for example the expropriation of about 200 families for the construction of a new dock. The careful work of the social mediator, employed by the Flemish Government, has played an important part in this. Inclusive and broad-based steering committee = very widely supported decisions: Throughout the development process, adequate cooperation and consultation structures have been worked out. In the steering committee a body of 90 members, NGO s, interest groups and citizens have a voice equal to economic and political stakeholders. As a result, proposals can be tested thoroughly and decisions of the steering committee are widely supported. 4. Conclusion The Ghent Canal Zone Project is nationally acclaimed as an exemplary model for integrative regional development and has been awarded several international awards, such as the ESPO (European Sea Ports Organisation) Award on Societal Integration of Ports. For the next 15 years the further realization of the Strategic Plan will undoubtedly lead to the Ghent Canal Zone as being one of the most sustainable and best managed cross-bordered port areas in Europe as well as supporting optimal cohabitation and embedment within its surroundings. The paper and presentation will give a deeper insight in the role of the different stakeholders and the interactions between them. Furthermore the paper and presentation will focus on the possible win-win situations of an early involvement of the stakeholders

280 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management The integration of port development in the overall infrastructure planning of Manila to ensure future economic growth in Philippines K. Pilegaard, F.B. Knudsen, R.G. Bjørndal, S. Hansen (Ramboll Denmark) and C. Prieser (HPC Hamburg Port Consulting) 1. Abstract With a GDP growth rate of about 7% per year, the Philippines are among the fastest-growing economies in Southeast Asia. Yet much of the Philippines economic and social potential remains untapped; partly due to insufficient transport infrastructure. Experts and politicians agree that a large-scale transport plan for Manila Bay will help solve the problem by interconnecting air- and seaport facilities with improved infrastructure connections. A multidisciplinary team of experts from Ramboll and HPC within market studies, port development, airport planning, transportation planning and urban development have performed a feasibility study for a combined Seaport and Airport project in Sangley, Manila, including development of Special Economic Zones (SEZ). The project named Philippine Global Gateway is envisaged as the new gateway for shipping cargo and flight passengers to Manila and the Philippines. This presentation will focus on the Seaport component of the Philippine Global Gateway Project and the integration of the seaport development as a core element in the overall city infrastructure planning. Due to heavy traffic congestion, Manila experiences serious problems with distribution of containers from the existing ports located in the centre of Manila to users and consumers in the entire Greater Manila Region. In 2014 the Philippine Government implemented a truck ban in order to ease the road congestion in the peak hours. This ban has reduced the port import/export activities significantly and threatens the future growth in the Philippines. The proposed new Seaport and adjacent Special Economic Zones in the Philippine Global Gateway Project will relieve these problems and ensure a strong basis for future development in the Philippines. Figure: Philippine Global Gateway Project. Seaport, SEZ, Airport and Road development plan

281 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management The new Seaport is suggested to be located west of Cavite on reclaimed land in the Manila Bay. This location allows for accommodation of future large vessels and is conveniently close to the main costumers in Metro Manila, Cavite Export Processing Zone and other existing or planned new SEZ. Further, this location will have the lowest impact on existing villages and densely populated areas along the coast, plans for new urban developments, fishing activities and environmentally sensitive areas along the coast. The requirements of the Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS) around the new airport are taken into consideration, and the layout is optimized in relation to water depths and the prevailing wind, wave and current directions. The planning of the new Seaport is based on stage wise developments, which reduces the risk of surplus capacity because it will be possible to delay developments of consecutive stages if the requirement for further capacity is not foreseen at the given time. The new seaport will eventually in 2045 secure space for annually handling of 4 million containers (TEU), 7 million tons General Cargo, 1,5 million tons Dry Bulk, and 17 million tons Liquid Bulk. Oil storage facilities will be established as part of the development plan in order to relocate the existing Pandacan oil depot away from the city centre. Initially, the new Seaport will act as a supplemental port to the existing ports in and near Manila. However, in a longer perspective the seaport may together with the surrounding developing industrial activities and logistic centres as the Cavite Economic Zone become the future logistic gateway to Manila and Philippines. Therefore, the layout of the seaport is also designed to allow for large expansions of port activities after Paper and Presentation The full paper and presentation will touch upon the following topics, which have all been part of the development of the port master plan: Overall market study, Technical studies including analysis of geotechnical conditions, coastal hydrodynamic and sediment transport conditions, Assessment of environmental and social impacts, Port planning and Infrastructure planning. Figure: Philippine Global Gateway Project. Seaport development and terminal plan

282 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Tolu (Colombia) jetty: rehabilitation and maintenance Authors: Luis Cosano López-Fando (Civil Engineer; Freyssinet); Oscar Llamazares Granda (Mining Engineer, Freyssinet), Ángel Rozas Gómez (Industrial Engineer; Freyssinet) 1. Overview Tolu jetty is located in Morrosquillo Gulf, at Caribbean road (km 4). It s a road linking the towns of Tolu and Coveñas, both belonging to Sucre Department (Colombia). The port terminal, which is property of COMPAS, has been submitted between 2014 and 2015 to an important assessment of its structural conditions. Then, repair and rehabilitation tasks have been executed in order to restore its bearing capacity and to extend its service life to the next 10 years. 2. Structure description From structural point of view, since the structure has been executed in four phases, during the years 1980, 1990, 1998 and 1992, the structural typology is not homogenous. Nowadays it is 205 m long and 10 m wide jetty (see detail 1). The structure is composed of a RC slab 0.20 m thick, which is supported by 41 frames (transverse to the longitudinal deck), spaced every 5 meters. These frames are two spans and are 5 meters long, with RC down-stand beams (section 0.50 x 1.30 m & 0.82 x 1.50 m taking into account slab thickness). Longitudinally, the structure has two lateral beams (0.65 x 1.45 m), and a central beam (0.50 x 0.90 m). At the front end of the jetty there are two berthing dolphins (plane dimensions, 9.63 x10.00 m). The structure is supported by steel piles, and / or RC, with H or circular cross sections (H-12, 12, 20 and 22 ). Detail 1: Jetty plan view (include construction phases). Source: Aqua & Terra report Main characteristics of materials: Concrete (minimum): f ck = 24 MPa Steel Rebar: f yk = 420 MPa. 3. Background and client requirements Prior to the works developed by Freyssinet, COMPAS gave to Aqua & Terra an inspection campaign of the port terminal structure. Results of this work were summarized in a report, which stated as a final conclusion/recommendation: to prevent further jetty deterioration it should be rehabilitated. The results of the tests and works carried out according to the client requirements, which description is subsequently collected, give rise to the intervention of Freyssinet described herein. Customer requirements were: 1. Repair to maintain the service compatible to the jetty, 2. Structural retrofitting to ensure the service life for at least the 10 coming years. 4. Preliminary works In accordance to EN-1504 standard (Protection and Repair of concrete structures), a set of preliminary works and laboratory tests were performed on the jetty. These works were carried out in order to determine more precisely the structural conditions. All anomalies or damages were categorized. They were classified taking into account durability and structural safety requirements. 5. Performance criteria The initial scope of works of Freyssinet was limited to the repair and strengthening of beams and slabs. Finally above tidal areas of piles were included in a second phase. Each structural member was classified according to four grades, depending on the number and extent of damages that could be found: red, yellow 1, yellow 2, and green. For each color code, following works were carried out: Red: replacement Yellow 2: defects repair with additional reinforcement (rebar corrosion up to 15% As) Yellow 1: grade 2 defects repair. Green: grade 1 defects repair

283 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management Detail 2: Cad drawing example of beams/slab categorization on platform 1 & 2. Source: Freyssinet. 6. Repair works execution Green and yellow elements were cleaned by high pressure water jetting ( bar). Then, elements to be repaired by patching were delimitated. Concrete was removed with electric hammers (low capacity), rust of corroded rebars was completely removed by high pressure water jetting ( bar), and a thixotropic cement mortar (R4) was executed (hand applied, wet sprayed or poured, depending on structural element and damage grade). A final cement coating was applied to protect the surface from salty water (pollutant ions). Red elements were completely removed and rebuilt with new rebars and concrete. In the connection between the piles head and horizontal structural elements, additional rebars were installed in drilled holes. Cathodic protection systems were also included, using discrete sacrificial anodes. Detail 3: Cad drawing example of repair made on piles. Source: Freyssinet. 7. Conclusions Following the principles and criteria set out in European standard EN-1504, Freyssinet carried out between 2014 and 2015 an important intervention on the deck structures and the piles of Tolu, the COMPAS jetty located in Colombia, in order to restore its structural integrity and to ensure its durability for a period of at least 10 years. This works include in particular concrete repair patches with rusted rebar cleaning, with or without the addition of new rebar, depending on the percentage of the lost steel section, and spraying of repair mortars; and in the worst case, the complete demolition and reconstruction of the damaged structural element. Piles were reconnected to the deck and repaired too. Detail 4: Some views of piles and beams before/after repair activities. 8. Short Summary The presentation and document will include a detailed description of all repairing activities carried out by Freyssinet, as: 1. New test campaign, results and conclusions taking into account previous report made by Aqua & Terra; 2. Damage analysis and repair techniques, according to a damage grade classification; 3. Repair strategies & selection criteria; 4. Works and procedures details

284 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Under keel clearance availability at the Port of Itajaí: A study of channel accessibility during the strong wave event in May 2015 Matthew Turner (OMC International, Australia) and João Dobrochinski (CB&I, Brazil) Located in the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, the Port of Itajaí is one of the principle container ports in South America. The port comprises the terminals of APM, and Portonave as well as the public berths. In 2014, the terminals at Itajaí handled over 1 million TEUs and received over 970 vessels. Although the terminals at the Port of Itajaí are located on either side of the Itajaí-Açu River, access to the berth is via an entrance channel of which the exterior part is exposed to ocean swell waves. Significant vessel wave response can occur during periods of high swell which are generated by storms in the South Atlantic Ocean. As a container port, the Port of Itajaí relies on vessels arriving and departing without delay. Significant costs can be incurred by all parties - liner companies, the terminals, and the port authority if vessels are delayed in entering or departing the port. As open access to the port is vital to commercial operations, port accessibility is a useful criterion to measure the performance of the port. However, while accessibility is a useful metric from a commercial perspective, transit safety is essential. PIANC guidelines state that there are two modes by which vessel grounding could occur: i. loss of manoeuvrability or steerage and the vessel departing from the planned route and striking an object outside the designated channel caused by insufficient Manoeuvrability Margin, or ii. making contact with the sea bed within the designated channel cause by insufficient Bottom Clearance. To avoid either of these modes of grounding, sufficient UKC must be maintained to ensure that predetermined Manoeuvrability Margin and the Bottom Clearance limits are not breached. As environmental and vessel conditions change from day to day, the actual UKC requirements needed to maintain the limits also varies. Rather than calculate the UKC requirements on a transit-by-transit basis, ports typically use fixed allowances to estimate the UKC requirements. The rules at the Port of Itajaí require a transiting vessel to have UKC of at least 15% of draft in the Outer Channel, 10% of draft in the Inner Channel, and at least 0.6m in the Turning Basin. These rules apply to vessels with a LOA of 280m or less and a beam or 40m or less. Larger vessels (up to 306m LOA and 48.2m beam are subject to more restrictive UKC requirements: 25.71% of draft in the Outer Channel and 20.95% of draft in the Inner Channel. Fixed allowances do not vary with the prevailing conditions (waves and tide), so they do not account for extreme conditions. At such times, the port may declare the port closed, from a safety perspective, due to a perceived increased risk of grounding and lack of information about the actual UKC conditions

285 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management From the 12 th to 16 th of May 2015 a high swell event occurred and the entrance channel of Itajaí was closed due to excessive wave heights. This 5-day port closure caused significant delays and costs to the port stakeholders. This paper investigates this port closure event to understand if the full 5-day closure was necessary and understand under what conditions the port could have been open had a dynamic approach to UKC management been in operational at the port. A previous UKC study of the Port of Itajaí concluded that port accessibility could be significantly increased if a Dynamic UKC approach were implemented. Such a system could identify which periods over the 5-day closure period would have been safe from a UKC perspective. However, a lack of environmental data presented a significant limitation of the previous study. Although there is still a lack of real-time measurements at the port, advances in numerical modelling and data measurements at other locations means that this present study is able to investigate the 5-day closure event more accurately than was previously possible. The main dynamic UKC requirements are water level (including atmospheric residual), squat, heel and wave response. These factors vary with the environmental conditions (waves, tides etc.) present along the channel at the time of sailing, as well as the conditions of the channel and the speeds maintained by the vessel. As there is limited measurement data available, this study is undertaken using data derived from numerical models that are able to recreate the prevailing conditions over the study period. Water levels are based on astronomical tidal data (based on the astronomical components defined at the port). These levels are adjusted with data from the global Hycom model to account for meteorological tides/surge. Waves are recreated using a Wavewatch III model (Atlantic Ocean basin, forced with GFS/NOAA wind fields) and a local SWAN model (continental shelf and local domains, forced with wave spectra along the boundaries and GFS/NOAA wind fields). To ensure commercial relevance of this study, the UKC requirements of two post-panamax container vessels, typical of those used by the port s main customers, is calculated over the 5-day study period. While the main focus of this paper is to investigate the closure of the port from an UKC perspective, it is understood that there are other factors that must be considered in declaring the entrance channel closed. One significant factor is that of maintaining safe working conditions for marine pilots. At Itajaí pilots board inbound vessels from a pilot launch, which is a hazardous activity. If the sea state conditions are too rough or windy, boarding cannot be performed safety and the port is effectively closed irrespective of the UKC condition. The results of the study highlight periods over the 5-day analysis period where sufficient UKC was available for a transit to occur. While the availability of these periods is interesting, from the port s perspective, such periods are not usable without a method to accurately discriminate between periods of sufficient and insufficient UKC. To achieve this and increase its accessibility while ensuring transit safety, the port requires access to real-time environmental measurements, forecasts of anticipated environmental conditions for transit planning and systems such as Dynamic UKC to combine the various sources of information into real-time UKC advice. As well as specific recommendations for Itajaí the study will reflect on the potential of the conclusions of this study for other Brazilian ports

286 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Integrated Method for the Development of Optimal Channel Dredging Project Case Study: Terminal Portuário do Mearim Lucas Silveira¹, Lindino Benedet¹, Gustavo Gomes¹, Claudio Loureiro², Andre Marques¹, Valdecílio Pinheiro³ e Luana Taiani¹ ABSTRACT The logistical constraints in central-southern Brazil and increasing agriculture production in the centralnorthern areas of the country are causing a run to develop new greenfield port terminals in North Brazil, specifically in the states of Maranhão and Pará due to its strategic location that allows for cost effective solutions to export grains and import fertilizers. These greenfield port developments often face design challenges, due to the lack of historical oceanographic and hydrographic data and due to the macro-tidal regime and associated strong currents observed in this segment of the Brazilian coast. The coastal stretch from Maranhão State towards the northern limit of Brazil is characterized by large estuarine bays associated with riverine deltas and a broad and shallow continental shelf. This configuration of the coastal environment favors the amplification of tidal astronomic constituents inside the bays (tidal ranges up to 7 m), generating strong tidal currents (up to 3.5 m/s) that pose serious hazards to navigation and force migration of seabed sand banks that cause channel shoaling. Located about 45 km inland inside the Baía de São Marcos, the Terminal Portuário do Mearim is a greenfield port concept that is being studied and designed over the past 8 years as the cargo and economic interests shifted along the time. Initial studies of the port considered a 48 km long navigation channel for 15 m draft vessels, requiring channel depths of 17m. At that time the channel layout was developed following the deepest areas of the bay, aiming to reduce dredging costs. However, in order to follow the deepest portions of the bay, the channel layout had to cross a short shallower section (about 8 m depth), which held much of the capital dredging volume (~ 17 million m 3 ). This channel crossing was not aligned with ebb and flood currents and experienced strong cross-currents and migrating sand banks. Both characteristics presented severe challenges to the project, as the migrating sand banks caused large sedimentation rates of approximately 6 million cubic meters per year, requiring continuous maintenance dredging, and the strong cross-currents caused very difficult navigation conditions. Therefore this initial channel layout introduced significant economic and technical challenges to the project and had to be revisited. In order to overcome those challenges, the navigation channel layout as well as the entire port concept development were reviewed. In this review an integrated analytical method was applied to identify the optimal channel layout and dredging depth that allowed for safe navigation, enabled the operation of the required amount of ships per year while at the same time reduced dredging costs. This method developed by CB&I included an integrated approach combining channel design, hydrodynamic and sedimentation modeling, ship maneuvering simulations and static and dynamic port operation simulations (Figure 1). Traditionally the starting point for navigation channel design is the Design Ship that is defined based on the cargo matrix, available/future fleets and business strategy. Since the use of this approach, as previously described, led to a port that was too expensive and restrictive, a different approach had to be developed. Instead of starting the analysis from a single Design Vessel, the navigation channel was studied for all bulk carrier ship classes from Handysize to Capesize, with drafts ranging from 10 m to 18 m (respecting the upper and lower limits for each class). Although some of these vessels/drafts may not be commercially adequate, they were studied with a purpose of determining which vessel types or drafts would be more cost-effective and meet the cargo matrix requirements. The channel alignment was modified from the previously studied route, in order to avoid the channel segment that had larger dredging requirements and cross-currents. A total of 33 channel designs were developed and evaluated, with initial dredging volumes ranging from m³ to m³. The channel layout was validated for navigation purposes using the ship maneuvering simulator PC- Rembrandt. Minor adjustments in the channel layout were made based on the simulations and the channel operational limits could be determined, stablishing safe navigation with currents below 4 knots and berth maneuvers below 2 knots. These limiting conditions were introduced in an algorithm that could determine, based on a 1 year hydrodynamic simulation, when the safe navigation windows occurred (when the ship could sail along the entire 45 km long channel without facing currents above the pre-determined operational limit). The identification of the navigating windows and the accuracy of the algorithm were further validated in the ship simulator, with simulations being conducted with space-and-time-varying current conditions for several moments within the predicted navigating windows. The results of the navigation windows assessment yielded inbound windows of 13% of the 1 CB&I Brasil 2 Terminal Portuário do Mearim 3 PCN 286

287 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management time per year and outbound windows of 21%. Although the values are apparently low, safe navigating windows occurred every day at high and low tides, with durations of at least 40 min. The assessment of the adequacy of these navigation windows for the operation of the required amount of vessels per year was evaluated in depth in the dynamic operational simulations, described ahead. All of the 33 channel designs were simulated with a calibrated Delft3D morphodynamic model that reproduced the migration of the sandbars within São Marcos Bay over a 5 year period to evaluate channel sedimentation rates. The minimum channel depths and associated sedimentation volume over the 5 year period were determined for each alternative, enabling the determination of the required maintenance dredging interval and volumes. In order to determine the required number of berths, loading/unloading time per vessel and required amount of vessels per year, static operational simulations were conducted based on the specifications of mechanical equipment on the berth and the cargo matrix. These simulations considered average loading conditions for grains, fertilizers and general cargo in similar Brazilian ports. To integrate the channel design and associated CAPEX costs, navigation windows, channel sedimentation rates (OPEX) the loading/offloading operational times, and determine which vessel types/drafts would meet the commercial requirements of the cargo matrix and be more cost-effective, a customized dynamic operational simulator developed by CB&I was utilized. The dynamic simulation tool enabled the identification of answer for questions such as: How many vessels can be operated within a year, considering the navigation windows, number of berths and operational times? Can the cargo matrix be matched? What is the port bottlenecked by: the channel or the number of berths? Is it possible to use the 7 m tidal range in order to reduce the dredging depth? If the dredging depth is reduced and navigation has to rely on tidal level, can the operation meet the cargo matrix requirements? How much can be saved in dredging costs? How the channel shoaling rates affect those savings? And, finally, what is the optimal dredging design, including vessel type and draft, considering costs (CAPEX and OPEX) and commercial aspects? The dynamic operational simulator was set using as input the navigation windows, number and classification of berths (determining type of cargo, loading/offloading times and priority based on required amount of vessels per year) and other operational parameters, such as minimum time interval between consecutive ships. The simulator is based on the premises that whenever the inbound navigation windows are open, there will be vessels available to start the navigation; the port works 24 hours per day; the channel is one-way and the vessel cargo is determined based on the available berth and priority rules. The model runs along one year, calculating every minute the navigation windows status (inbound or outbound), channel and berth usages as well as the status of each vessel along the simulation (sailing along the channel, berthing/unberthing, loading/offloading and associated percentage of completion). As output of the dynamic operational simulations the amount of ships processed per berth along a year (therefore, amount of cargo trade), as well as the berth utilization rates. If the results indicate berth utilization rates higher than what is typically expected (around 60%), there are strong evidences that the operational restrictions are related to the number of berths. Conversely, output berth utilization rates smaller than 60% denote that the navigation channel is the operational bottleneck. The results of the dynamic operational simulations indicated that for any evaluated vessel/draft, the navigation windows (considering current-related navigation restrictions only), number of berths and other operational parameters allowed the operation of more than twice the required amount of ships. Thus, there were opportunities to evaluate dredging cost reduction. In order to achieve this goal, an analysis of the minimum available depth on each channel transit along one year was performed. This analysis was performed to identify how water level restrictions to the navigation windows (removing the windows in lower tidal levels, for example) would affect the operational capabilities of the port and channel. This technique allowed the identification that vessels with drafts up to 11 m could operate without any dredging and that reductions in dredging depth up to 3m for larger drafts could be accepted without affecting the port operational requirements or navigation safety. For example, using tidal windows allowed the reduction of channel dredging depths for Capesize vessels in a way that resulted in a reduction of capital dredging volumes of about 10 million cubic meters. Based on the results obtained with the dynamic simulation tool, it can be concluded that the proposed approach for channel design provides relevant information for the definition of the business model of the port. In technical and economic feasibility analysis, it provides easy access to the impacts of changing vessel class or draft in both the cargo trade capacity and CAPEX/OPEX costs. This information leads to the identification of optimal configuration for commercial interests and internal rate of return (IRR) of the project

288 PIANC COPEDEC IX From 16 to 21 of October Port Planning and Management Figure 1: Schematic flow-chart of the method developed to identify the optimal dredging layout

289 From 16 to 21 of October PIANC COPEDEC IX Port Planning and Management Abstract ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC PORTS THAT TRADE SOY USING DEA MODEL Daniele Moraes Electo de Paiva 1 Nelio Domingues Pizzolato 2 In this paper, an environmental analysis is performed for 7 public ports that trade soy. Theses ports are part of a research program established to identify and report the environmental status of 22 ports. A methodology is proposed to codify the product of this program in order to be used as the input for a DEA analysis while the port environmental index created by ANTAQ is used as the output for the analysis. Applying this data to a classic CCR DEA model, the results generated, alongside with considerations of environmental aspects, helped on the conclusion that the input variables should be considered as part of the indicators used on the Environmental Performance Index estimation. Also, it is necessary to build a better data base related to the environmental aspects in ports, creating more criteria levels. 1 MSc in Science of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. 2 Emeritus Professor, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro - PUC-Rio. MSc in Systems Engineering Management (UCP)

290 PIANC COPEDEC IX 2016

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