1 Table of Contents Chapter: Conserving Resources Section 1: Resources Section 2: Pollution Section 3: The Three Rs of Conservation
2 *Problems related to the use of Fossil Fuels Limited availability Pollution : use of fossil fuels accentuates the greenhouse effect, contributing to global warming and ozone depletion Pollution compromises the health of the organisms living in certain areas Environmental impact: destruction of ecosystems during the extraction It can be costly and dangerous to extract fossil fuels
3 What will be the solution? Lower the use of fossil fuels by increasing the use of alternative energy resources such as solar, wind, water, tidal, geothermal power. Alternative energy sources will not contribute to air pollution or to the destruction of ecosystems
4 1 Natural Resources Natural resources are the parts of the environment that are useful or necessary for the survival of living organisms. Ex: air, water, oil, coal, natural gas, energy from the sun
5 Resources Renewable Resources A renewable resource is any natural resource that is recycled or replaced constantly by nature. Ex: Sunlight, water, air, crops, minerals that are part of organic matter that will decompose ( vegetation in general) Depending on the area, some can be in short supply water in deserts
6 Nonrenewable Resources Natural resources that are used up more quickly than they can be replaced by natural processes are nonrenewable resources. Earth s supply of nonrenewable resources is limited. It is nonrenewable because it takes hundreds of millions of years for it to form Ex: fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, coal. Metals and Minerals are also nonrenewable resources.
7 Importance of Nonrenewable Resources Many manufactured items are made from fossil fuels. Most of the energy we use comes from the burning of fossil fuels. Gasoline Plastic Products made of graphite, iron, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium
8 1 Fossil Fuels Resources Fossil fuels are sources of energy extracted from the environment. Fossil fuels are formed when the remains of dead organisms go through the process of decomposition and are kept under high temperatures and pressure.
9 1 Fossil Fuels Resources Fossil Fuels are nonrenewable resources. Ex: coal, oil and natural gas Importance: most of the energy we use comes from the burning of fossil fuels.
10 General information about Electricity production Electricity is generated by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. To achieve this, you need a turbine to move, generating mechanical energy Next, the mechanical energy will be transformed in electrical energy in a generator Different sources of energy are used to move a turbine
11 Very often, steam is used to drive these turbines Water is turned into steam by the burning of fossil fuels ( coal power plants for example), by heat generated through nuclear fission ( nuclear power plants), by heat from magma ( geothermal power plants. Other sources of energy: wind, tidal and water from dams and nuclear
13 Solar power: Will not use turbines. The photovoltaic cells in the panels will transform the energy from the sun into electrical energy **Problem: expensive
15 Nuclear Power: Uses the heat produced in nuclear fission reactions to produce stem and move turbines. Nuclear fission splits atoms of Uranium generating high amount of energy.
17 Problems: Nuclear Power uranium is a nonrenewable resource nuclear power plants also produce radioactive wastes that can seriously harm living organisms.
18 Tidal and Hydroelectric Power Plants These power plants do not use steam. The source of energy is in the fact that the water is stored in large dams. When the water is released, it has high pressure that it will move the turbines, producing mechanical energy.
19 Water Power
20 Tidal Energy textbook page 736 The constant movement of ocean water generates tides. This movement is a source of energy that can be transformed in electricity
21 ** Water Power It does not contribute to air pollution because no fuel is burned. However, it does impact the ecosystem around it. Building a hydroelectric plant or a tidal plant usually involves constructing a dam. Many acres behind the dams are flooded, destroying land habitats. Tidal basis will also affect the marine ecosystems and can only be built in areas where there is a high difference between the high tide and low tide.
22 Wind Power Plants: The wind will turn windmill blades connected to turbines, making them turn, generating mechanical energy. ** Wind power does not cause air pollution, but electricity can be produced only when the wind is blowing.
23 Wind Power ** Wind power does not cause air pollution, but electricity can be produced only when the wind is blowing.
24 Geothermal Power Plants Uses the heat from magma to produce steam. Geothermal energy is available only where magma is close to the surface
25 Geothermal Reservoir Magma is close to the surface Water seeps down through cracks Magma heats this water and can form steam Hot water and stem are trapped under high pressure in pockets called geothermal reservoirs Reservoirs close to the surface will form geysers and hot springs
26 Heat from Geothermal Reservoirs can be used to generate electricity
27 Chapter 19 - section 2 Pollution **Definition: Pollution is the presence or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects. Pollution affects the air, water and soil.
28 ** Pollution How to avoid Pollution on the water, air and soil can be reduced by: 1) Treating and recycling wastes 2) Reducing the burning of fossil fuels
29 **Sources of Pollution Emissions of greenhouse gases from vehicles, industries, power plants Pollution from chemicals used in agriculture Pollution from live stock farms Pollution from untreated or partially treated sewage Pollution from hospital wastes Volcanic eruptions ( CO 2 and gases that contain Sulfur)
30 **Effects of Pollution Pollution lowers human health Causes environmental degradation putting at risk the biodiversity that exists on Earth Increases the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere Contributes to Global Warming and Ozone Depletion Turns land infertile due to the extensive use of chemicals in crops
31 1) What is a pollutant. Give examples 2) what is smog and how to avoid smog? 3)what is acid rain? 4) what are the effects of acid rain? 5) how can we prevent acid rain? 6) Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless and odorless gas. What are the sources of CO in indoors areas? 7) What is Radon? 8) what are the effects of radon and how to avoid it? 9) what are algal blooms and what are the consequences of algal blooms? 10) what are hazardous wastes? Give examples
32 1) A pollutant is a substance that contaminates the environment. Air pollutants include soot, smoke, ash, and gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides.
33 2) Smog is a form of air pollution created when sunlight reacts with pollutants produced by the burning of fuels. It can irritate the eyes It can make breathing difficult for people with asthma or other lung diseases.
34 Smog can be reduced by lowering the amount of greenhouse gases in the air Car pools Use public transportation Reduce emissions from the industry
35 4) Acid Rain is the result of the reaction of air pollutants from the burning of fossil fuels with water in the atmosphere. These reaction forms strong acids that will precipitate Acid Precipitation has a ph below 5.6 (vinegar ph of 4)
36 5) Acid precipitation washes nutrients from the soil affecting the plants that need these nutrients Runoff from acid rain that flows into a lake or pond can lower the ph of the water affecting aquatic life. EX: If algae and microscopic organisms cannot survive in the acidic water, fish and other organisms that depend on them for food also die.
37 6a) Reduce the use of fossil fuels: Sulfur from burning coal and nitrogen oxides from vehicle exhausts are the pollutants responsible for acid rain. 6b) The use of low-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas or low-sulfur coal - can help reduce acid precipitation. Problem: these fuels are more expensive 6 c)smokestacks that remove the sulfur dioxide before it enters the atmosphere also help. Smokestack - a pipe for the escape of the smoke or gases of combustion
38 7) Sources of indoor CO Fuel-burning stoves and heaters. It is helpful to install alarms or continuously ventilate indoor areas
39 8) Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas given off by some rocks and soil. If can seep into basements and lower levels of buildings Colorless and odorless as CO.
40 9) Radon can cause lung cancer. It is important to use detectors and ventilate the areas constantly.
41 10) Algal blooms results from high amounts of Nitrogen in the water. Nitrogen can reach the water with sewage and fertilizers. Nitrogen will increase algae growth. The death and the decaying of the high quantity of alga will consume too much oxygen. Rest of the life existing in the pond can die due to the lack of oxygen Alga singular Algae plural
42 11)Waste materials that are harmful to living organisms are hazardous wastes. They include: Radioactive wastes from hospitals and nuclear power plants Infectious wastes from hospitals and other treatment facilities And.
43 2 Hazardous Wastes Dangerous chemicals: pesticides, oil, and petroleum-based solvents used in industry. Radioactive wastes from hospitals and nuclear power plants
45 Greenhouse Effect Heat-trapping feature of the atmosphere that keeps the earth at an ideal temperature to support life BUT: the burning of fossil fuels (pollution) increases the greenhouse effect and can contribute to Global Warming
46 Global Warming A rise in Earth s average temperature. Consequences: Melting of polar ice caps causing flooding in certain areas, affecting ecosystems and populations Changing in Rainfall patterns
47 Ozone Depletion The periodic thinning of the ozone layer in polar regions This problem is caused by greenhouse gases called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFCs react chemically with ozone, breaking apart the ozone molecules. Consequences: a higher amount of harmful sun rays (UV) will reach the earth, affecting humans, animals and plants ( skin cancer, affect lungs of animals and sensitive tissues of organisms)
48 Chapter 19 Section 3 The Three Rs of Conservation It is important to reduce the amount of trash we produce. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the average American produces 1,600 pounds (726 kg) a year of trash. This only takes into consideration the average household member and does not count industrial waste or commercial trash
49 TOP 10 COUNTRIES THAT PRODUCE THE MOST WASTE 1) USA / other list brings Mexico as number 1 2) Russia 3) Japan 4) Germany 5) UK 6) Mexico 7) France 8) Italy 9) Spain 10) Turkey
50 Waste: Most solid waste is dumped in landfills. Landfills are lined. This helps prevent pollutants from seeping into surrounding soil. If the landfill is poorly constructed, hazardous wastes can reach and contaminate the water.
51 Wastes Gas produced from the decomposition of wastes in landfills is used as a renewable energy source. In certain areas landfills are not used increasing the risk of human and environment contamination.
52 3 The Three Rs of Conservation Conservation Conservation is important to protect the environment and the population on Earth The three Rs of conservation are reduce, reuse, and recycle.
53 How do we reduce the use of natural resources? walking, riding a bike, avoiding buying things you don t need, look for products with less packaging, buy products with packaging made with recycled materials
54 *Importance of reusing natural resources: By reusing materials, we reduce industrial waste.
57 Recycle To recycle is to convert into a reusable form. When you recycle, you are limiting the extraction of natural resources used in the manufacturing of different products.
What are the different types of resources? Renewable Resources- Resources that can be replaced, given a sufficient amount of time Ex: Food, oxygen, wood, wind, water Nonrenewable Resources: Once used up,
Check the Source! How do people use energy? Energy is the capacity to do work. People use energy to heat and cool their homes, provide light, manufacture goods, produce and prepare food, and move vehicles.
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