2 Get Energized! What are two types of energy? Energy is the ability to cause change. Energy takes many different forms and causes many different effects. There are two general types of energy: kinetic energy and potential energy.
3 What are two types of energy? Kinetic energy is the energy of an object that is due to motion. All moving objects have kinetic energy. The amount of kinetic energy an object has depends on its mass and speed. Kinetic energy increases as mass increases and as speed increases.
4 What are two types of energy? Potential energy is the energy that an object has due to its position, condition, or chemical composition. Potential energy that is the result of an object s position is called gravitational potential energy. Gravitational potential energy increases as the object s height or mass increases.
5 What are two types of energy? A change in the condition of an object affects its potential energy. Stretching a rubber band increases its potential energy. Chemical potential energy depends on chemical composition. As bonds break and new bonds form between atoms during a chemical change, energy can be released.
6 Can objects have potential and kinetic energy at the same time? An object can have both potential and kinetic energy at the same time. A skater has kinetic energy as he moves down a ramp and potential energy due to his position on the ramp.
7 In Perfect Form What forms can energy take? Kinetic energy and potential energy are two types of energy that can come in many different forms. Some common forms of energy include mechanical, sound, electromagnetic, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear energy. Energy is expressed in joules (J).
8 What forms can energy take? Mechanical energy is the sum of an object s kinetic energy and potential energy. It is the energy of position and motion. Sound energy is kinetic energy caused by the vibration of particles in a medium such as steel, water, or air.
9 What forms can energy take? Electromagnetic energy is transmitted through space in the form of electromagnetic waves. These waves are caused by the vibration of electrically charged particles. Electromagnetic waves include visible light, X-rays, and microwaves.
10 What forms can energy take? Electrical energy is the energy that results from the position or motion of charged particles. Chemical energy is a form of potential energy. The amount of chemical energy in a molecule depends on the kinds of atoms and their arrangement.
11 What forms can energy take? The thermal energy of an object is the kinetic energy of its particles. The faster the molecules in an object move, and the more particles the object has, the more thermal energy it has. Heat is the energy transferred from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature.
12 What forms can energy take? The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy. When an atom s nucleus breaks apart, or when the nuclei of two small atoms join together, energy is released.
13 What forms can energy take? What forms of energy can you identify in this pinball game?
14 Space Weather and Technology Space weather includes any activity happening in space that might affect Earth s environment. Space weather can damage satellites and interrupt phone signals and signals to Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Auroras are caused by electrically charged particles of solar winds hitting Earth s magnetic field. They can interrupt airplane communications.
15 Transformers What is an energy transformation? An energy transformation takes place when energy changes from one form into another form. Any form of energy can change into any other form of energy. Often, one form of energy changes into more than one form.
16 What is an energy transformation? In a flashlight, chemical energy is transformed into electrical energy. The electrical energy is then transformed into light and thermal energy.
17 Is energy conserved? A closed system is a group of objects that transfer energy only to one another. Energy is conserved in all closed systems. The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only change forms. All of the different forms of energy in a closed system always add up to the same total amount of energy.
19 Particle Party What is the kinetic theory of matter? The kinetic theory of matter states that all of the particles that make up matter are constantly in motion. Because the particles are in motion, they have kinetic energy. The faster they move, the more kinetic energy they have.
20 What is the kinetic theory of matter? The motion of the particles is random. The individual particles have different amounts of kinetic energy, but their average kinetic energy takes into account their different random motions. Solids, liquids, and gases have different average kinetic energies.
21 How do particles move in solids, liquids, and gases? The kinetic theory of matter explains the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases. The particles in a solid do not move around much.
22 How do particles move in solids, liquids, and gases? The particles in a liquid move much more freely than the particles in a solid. They slide past and tumble over each other.
23 How do particles move in solids, liquids, and gases? The particles in a gas are far apart, move at high speeds, and collide with one another.
24 Mercury Rising How does temperature relate to kinetic energy? Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles in an object. The warmer a substance is, the faster its particles move.
25 How is temperature measured? There are three common temperature scales. They all measure the average kinetic energy of particles. The scales are called Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin.
26 How is temperature measured? In the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales, temperature is measured in units called degrees. Degrees ( ) are equally spaced units between two points. The space between degrees can vary from one scale to another. In the Kelvin scale, no degree sign is used. The unit is just called a kelvin. Temperature is measured with a thermometer.
27 How is temperature measured? The Celsius scale is the temperature scale most commonly used around the world.
28 How is temperature measured? The Fahrenheit scale is used most commonly in the United States.
29 How is temperature measured? The Kelvin scale is used most commonly by physicists.
30 Thermal Energy & Heat
31 Thermal, Under Where? What is thermal energy? Thermal energy is the total kinetic energy of all particles in a substance. Thermal energy is measured in joules (J).
32 What is the difference between thermal energy and temperature? Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of particles. Thermal energy is the total kinetic energy of all the particles. For example, a glass of water can have the same temperature as a lake, but the lake has much more thermal energy because the lake contains many more water molecules.
33 Heat It Up! What is heat? Heat is the energy transferred from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature. Energy in the form of heat always flows from hot to cold.
34 How is heat measured? Heat is measured in two ways. One way is the calorie (cal). One calorie is equal to the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 C.
35 How is heat measured? Heat is also measured in joules (J) because heat is a form of energy. One calorie is equal to 4.18 joules.
36 How is heat measured? In nutrition, 1 Calorie (with a capital C) is actually 1 kilocalorie, or 1,000 calories. To find out how many calories are in food, a sample of food is burned inside an instrument called a calorimeter. The change in temperature in the calorimeter is used to calculate how much energy is released from the food sample.
37 How is heat related to thermal energy? Adding or removing heat from a substance will affect its temperature and thermal energy. Heat, however, is not the same as thermal energy and temperature. Thermal energy and temperature are properties of a substance. Heat is the energy involved when these properties change.
38 How is heat related to thermal energy? Even though two materials might have the same temperature, their thermal energies might be different. Thermal energy depends on how many particles are present in the object.
39 How can heat affect the state of an object? The state of a substance depends on the speed of its particles. Adding energy in the form of heat to a substance can result in a change of state. Removing energy in the form of heat from a substance can also result in a change of state.
40 Keep Your Cool What is conduction? Energy as heat can be transferred in three main ways: conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of energy as heat from one substance to another through direct contact. As long as two objects are in contact, conduction continues until the temperatures of the objects are equal.
41 What is conduction? A conductor is a material that transfers heat very well. Metals are typically good conductors. An insulator is a material that is a poor conductor of heat. Wood, paper, and plastic foam are examples of good insulators.
42 What is convection? Convection is the transfer of energy as heat by the movement of a liquid or gas. Convection occurs when a cooler, denser mass of gas or liquid replaces a warmer, less dense mass of gas or liquid by pushing it upward.
43 What is convection? When water is boiled, the water moves in roughly circular patterns because of convection. This motion is due to density differences that result from temperature differences. The motion is called a convection current.
44 What is radiation? Radiation is the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. All objects, including the sun and all living things, emit radiation. When radiation is emitted from one object and is absorbed by another, the result is often a transfer of heat. Radiation can travel through empty space.
45 Practical Uses of Radiation A solar cooker is a device that cooks food using mirrors that concentrate radiation from the sun. In parts of the world that are far from electricity and clean water, solar cookers are a cheap and portable way to sterilize water for drinking. Many people like to use solar cookers because they do not require any fuel and do not release harmful emissions.
46 Effects of Energy Transfer
47 Check the Source! How do people use energy? Energy is the capacity to do work. People use energy to heat and cool their homes, provide light, manufacture goods, produce and prepare food, and move vehicles. Where does all the energy you use come from?
48 What are sources of energy? The sun is Earth s main source of energy. When it reaches Earth, the sun s energy can be stored in different ways. Useful chemical energy is sometimes stored in minerals. Earth s internal heat, or geothermal energy, is another energy source. An energy source is an available source of stored energy that humans can use.
49 What are sources of energy? A renewable resource is an energy source that can be easily reproduced or replaced by nature. Renewable resources are replaced at a rate equal to or greater than the rate at which they are used. Some examples of renewable resources are sunlight, wind, trees, and crops.
50 What are sources of energy? A nonrenewable resource is an energy source that cannot be produced, grown, or restored as fast as it is used. For example, minerals such as uranium are nonrenewable because they can no longer be formed. Other examples of nonrenewable resources are coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They formed over millions of years below Earth s surface.
51 Running out of Gas! What are some fossil fuels? Fossil fuels are energy resources made from carbon-rich plant and animal remains. Fossil fuels are nonrenewable because they take millions of years to form. Burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, as well as harmful acids and other forms of pollution.
52 What are some fossil fuels? Coal is a sedimentary rock formed from the remains of dead plants at the bottom of ancient swamps. Coal mining can involve removing soil and rocks or creating deep mines. These processes can destroy landscapes and pollute water supplies.
53 What are some fossil fuels? Some fossil fuels are gases that became trapped in rock formations. Methane is the main component of natural gas. Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels. However, it does produce carbon dioxide upon burning, and leaks can be dangerous.
54 What are some fossil fuels? Petroleum means rock oil. It formed from the remains of single-celled aquatic organisms that lived long ago. After petroleum is mined, it is separated into fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Transporting oil can result in spills that pollute the environment and harm wildlife. Burning petroleum produces pollutants.
55 What are some fossil fuels? Natural gas and petroleum are formed from buried organic matter.
56 What transformations do fossil fuels undergo? First, raw fossil fuels are obtained by drilling or mining. Then, they are transported, converted into useful forms, stored, and burned for energy. Each transformation can potentially affect the environment in negative ways.
57 Nature s Storehouse What are some alternative sources of energy? An alternative energy source is a resource that can be used in place of fossil fuels. Solar energy is renewable energy from the sun that can be converted into electrical energy. Solar energy is free and clean. However, the technologies for solar energy aren t widely used. Also, sunlight does not fall evenly over Earth.
58 What are some alternative sources of energy? Splitting the nuclei of a kilogram of uranium atoms releases thousands of times more energy than burning the same mass of coal releases. Nuclear energy is nonrenewable because minerals in Earth s crust cannot be replaced. Nuclear power plants do not produce carbon dioxide, but they produce harmful radioactive wastes that must be safely stored.
59 What are some alternative sources of energy? Hydroelectric energy is energy from fast-moving rivers or water flowing downhill through dams. Hydroelectric energy is powered by the water cycle, so it is a renewable resource. However, flooding the land to produce reservoirs can destroy habitats, and dams can disrupt migratory paths of fish and lead to erosion.
60 What are some alternative sources of energy? Wind energy is a renewable resource generated when the blades of wind turbines turn. Wind energy doesn t produce any pollution. However, it depends on strong winds and can harm birds that fly too close to the blades.
61 What are some alternative sources of energy? Geothermal energy is extracted from heat stored within Earth. It is available near hot springs, geysers, or active volcanoes. Geothermal energy is renewable, but it is found only in specific areas on Earth.
62 What are some alternative sources of energy? Biomass is a renewable resource that includes living or recently dead organic material that can be used as a fuel. Examples of biomass are trees, crops, and decaying organic matter. However, burning biomass releases carbon dioxide.
63 Acid Rain Burning fossil fuels produces sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Acid rain forms when these gases combine with water in the air and fall to Earth as rain. Acid rain harms aquatic life, damages the leaves of trees, and causes substances toxic to trees to be released from the soil. The acids in acid rain react with metals, marble, and stone, affecting buildings and statues.
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