1 Table of Contents Chapter: Conserving Resources Section 1: Resources Section 2: Pollution Section 3: The Three Rs of Conservation
2 Chapter 19 Section 1- Natural Resources What are fossil fuels? *Fossil fuels are sources of energy (such as coal, oil, or natural gas) formed in the earth millions of years ago, from plant or animal remains.
3 Chapter 19 Section 1- Natural Resources What are the reasons why scientists worry about the extensive use of fossil fuels? *Fossil Fuels are available on earth in limited quantities. It will take millions of years to rebuild a good supply of these materials. The more we use them the less we will have in the future.
4 Vocabulary Renewable Resources Non-renewable Resources Examples of all
5 Resources Renewable Resources A renewable resource is any natural resource that is recycled or replaced constantly by nature. Ex: Sunlight, water, air, crops
6 Nonrenewable Resources Natural resources that are used up more quickly than they can be replaced by natural processes are nonrenewable resources. Earth s supply of nonrenewable resources is limited, because it takes hundreds of millions of years to form Ex: fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, coal. Metals and minerals are also nonrenewable resources.
7 Importance of Nonrenewable Resources 1) Most of the energy we use comes from the burning of fossil fuels. 2) Many manufactured items that we need daily are made from fossil fuels. Gasoline made from petroleum Plastic made from petroleum There are several products made from other non renewable resources such as graphite, iron, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium
8 Read the textbook and list 5 problems related to the extensive use of fossil fuels
9 *Problems related to the use of Fossil Fuels Limited availability Pollution : use of fossil fuels accentuates the greenhouse effect, contributing to global warming and ozone depletion Pollution compromises the health of the organisms living in certain areas Environmental impact: destruction of ecosystems during the extraction It can be costly and dangerous to extract fossil fuels
10 What will be the solution? Lower the use of fossil fuels by increasing the use of alternative energy resources that will not impact the environment such as.?
11 Video - Fossil Fuels Yr9Ij0 Copy the questions, leave space to answer
12 Questions from the video Copy the questions 1) 2) 3) 4)
13 ****Natural resources, renewable or nonrenewable, are not distributed evenly around the planet. They are the result of different earth processes that happened due to certain conditions that can t be met everywhere on Earth.
14 **Different types of fossil fuels were formed depending on: 1) The combination of animal and plant debris 2) The period of time the material remained buried 3) The conditions of temperature and pressure during the decomposition
15 ****All sources of energy have advantages and disadvantages. It is important to consider which one is more convenient to use according to availability.
16 General information about Electricity production Electricity is generated by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. To achieve this, you need a turbine to move, generating mechanical energy Next, the mechanical energy will be transformed in electrical energy in a generator Different sources of energy are used to generate mechanical energy to move a turbine
17 *Very often, steam is used to drive these turbines Water is turned into steam by the burning of fossil fuels generating many problems. *Stem to turn turbines can be also created with alternative fossil fuels: 1) through nuclear fission ( nuclear power plants) 2) by heat from magma ( geothermal power plants) *Turbines can also work with other processes different than stem: wind, tidal forces and water from dams IMP: it is not necessary to burn fossil fuels to obtain energy, but nowadays it is still the most efficient method
18 Alternative Sources of Energy chart
20 Solar power: Will not use turbines. The photovoltaic cells in the panels will transform the energy from the sun into electrical energy **Problem: expensive
22 Nuclear Power: Uses the heat produced in nuclear fission reactions to produce stem and move turbines. Nuclear fission splits atoms of Uranium generating high amount of energy.
24 Nuclear Power Problems: uranium is a nonrenewable resource nuclear power plants also produce radioactive wastes that can seriously harm living organisms.
25 Tidal and Hydroelectric Power Plants These power plants do not use steam. The source of energy is in the fact that the water is stored in large dams. When the water is released, it has high pressure that it will move the turbines, producing mechanical energy.
26 Water Power
27 Tidal Energy textbook page 736 The constant movement of ocean water generates tides. This movement is a source of energy that can be transformed in electricity
29 ** Water Power It does not contribute to air pollution because no fuel is burned. However, it does impact the ecosystem around it. Building a hydroelectric plant or a tidal plant usually involves constructing a dam. Many acres behind the dams are flooded, destroying land habitats. Tidal basis will also affect the marine ecosystems and can only be built in areas where there is a high difference between the tides
30 Wind Power Plants: The wind will turn windmill blades connected to turbines, making them turn, generating mechanical energy. ** Wind power does not cause air pollution, but electricity can be produced only when the wind is blowing.
31 Wind Power ** Wind power does not cause air pollution, but electricity can be produced only when the wind is blowing.
32 Geothermal Power Plants Uses the heat from magma to produce steam. Geothermal energy is available only where magma is close to the surface
33 Geothermal Reservoir Magma is close to the surface Water seeps down through cracks Magma heats this water and can form steam Hot water and stem are trapped under high pressure in pockets called geothermal reservoirs Reservoirs close to the surface will form geysers and hot springs
34 Heat from Geothermal Reservoirs can be used to generate electricity
35 Geothermal Power Plant
36 Chart: Advantages and Disadvantages of the different type of energy sources Energy Source Fossil Fuels Water Power Wind Power Nuclear Power Geothermal Power Solar Power Tidal Power Advantages Book page 736 Worksheet Sections 2 and 3 Disadvantages
37 Breaker Boxes one of the most important safety mechanisms in your home. Whenever electrical wiring in a building has too much current flowing through it, these simple machines cut the extra power.
38 Sun s Energy can be collected in two ways: Photovoltaic Cells: convert sunlight into electric current. Solar panels: absorb the heat and are connected to pipes. The heart warms up the water in the pipes. The buildings usually are made of materials that absorb and retain the heat during sunny days, so it will be used when there is no sun Problem: expensive
39 Biomass Energy Energy obtained by the burning of organic matter, such as trash. Advantages renewable, cheap, less polluting, less risky to transport that oil Disadvantages crops are used for energy and not food production, you need a bigger amount of organic matter to produce energy compared to other fuels and contributes to pollution, too.
41 Chapter 19 - section 2 Pollution **Definition: Pollution is the presence or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects. Pollution affects the air, water, soil and the organisms.
42 ** Pollution How to avoid Pollution in the water, air and soil can be reduced by: 1) Treating and recycling wastes 2) Reducing the burning of fossil fuels
43 **Sources of Pollution The burning of fossil fuels Pollution from chemicals used in agriculture Pollution from livestock farms Pollution from untreated or partially treated sewage Pollution from hospital wastes Volcanic eruptions ( CO2 and gases that contain Sulfur)
44 **Effects of Pollution Pollution lowers human health Causes environmental degradation putting at risk the biodiversity that exists on Earth Increases the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (emissions due to burning of fossil fuels) Contributes to Global Warming and Ozone Depletion ( due to the presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere) Turns land infertile due to the extensive use of chemicals in crops
45 1) What is a pollutant. Give examples 2) what is smog and how to avoid smog? 3)what is acid rain? 4) what are the effects of acid rain? 5) how can we prevent acid rain? 6) Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless and odorless gas. What are the sources of CO in indoors areas? 7) What is Radon? 8) what are the effects of radon and how to avoid it? 9) what are algal blooms and what are the consequences of algal blooms? 10) what are hazardous wastes? Give examples
46 1) A pollutant is a substance that contaminates the environment. Air pollutants include soot, smoke, ash, and gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides.
47 2) Smog is a form of air pollution created when sunlight reacts with pollutants produced by the burning of fuels. It can irritate the eyes It can make breathing difficult for people with asthma or other lung diseases.
48 Smog can be reduced by lowering the amount of greenhouse gases in the air Car pools Use public transportation Reduce emissions from the industry
49 4) Acid Rain is the result of the reaction of air pollutants from the burning of fossil fuels with water in the atmosphere. These reaction forms strong acids that will precipitate Acid Precipitation has a ph below 5.6 (vinegar ph of 4)
50 5) Acid precipitation washes nutrients from the soil affecting the plants that need these nutrients Runoff from acid rain that flows into a lake or pond can lower the ph of the water affecting aquatic life. EX: If algae and microscopic organisms cannot survive in the acidic water, fish and other organisms that depend on them for food also die.
51 6a) Reduce the use of fossil fuels: Sulfur from burning coal and nitrogen oxides from vehicle exhausts are the pollutants responsible for acid rain. 6b) The use of low-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas or low-sulfur coal - can help reduce acid precipitation. Problem: these fuels are more expensive
52 6 c)smokestacks that remove the sulfur dioxide before it enters the atmosphere also help. Smokestack - a pipe for the escape of the smoke or gases of combustion
53 7) Sources of indoor CO Fuel-burning stoves and heaters. It is helpful to install alarms or continuously ventilate indoor areas
54 8) Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas given off by some rocks and soil. It can seep into basements and lower levels of buildings Colorless and odorless as CO.
55 9) Radon can cause lung cancer. It is important to use detectors and ventilate the areas constantly.
56 10) Algal blooms results from high amounts of Nitrogen in the water. Nitrogen can reach the water with sewage and fertilizers. Nitrogen will increase algae growth. The death and the decaying of the high quantity of alga will consume too much oxygen. Rest of the life existing in the pond can die due to the lack of oxygen Alga singular Algae plural
57 Algal Blooms
60 11)Waste materials that are harmful to living organisms are hazardous wastes. They include: Radioactive wastes from hospitals and nuclear power plants Infectious wastes from hospitals and other treatment facilities And.
61 2 Hazardous Wastes Dangerous chemicals: pesticides, oil, and petroleum-based solvents used in industry. Radioactive wastes from hospitals and nuclear power plants
63 Greenhouse Effect Heat-trapping feature of the atmosphere that keeps the earth at an ideal temperature to support life ADD: without the greenhouse effect, the earth would be too cold and life would not exist The greenhouse gases - like carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, trap the heat in the atmosphere.
64 Greenhouse Effect If we burn high amounts of fossil fuels, more carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide will be released in the atmosphere. More heat will be trapped, increasing the local temperature and accentuating the greenhouse effect.
65 Global Warming A rise in Earth s average temperature. An accentuated greenhouse effect can contribute to global warming. Consequences: 1) Melting of polar ice caps causing flooding in certain areas, affecting ecosystems and populations 2) Changing in Rainfall patterns
66 The ozone layer: A layer of oxygen in the atmosphere that absorbs most of the the UV rays from the sun. Exposure to too much ultraviolet radiation damages the skin and causes cancer. The ozone layer is very important for the protection of the organisms living on Earth.
67 Ozone Depletion It is the periodic thinning of the ozone layer in polar regions. (ozone hole - size fluctuates during the year) This problem is caused by a type of greenhouse gas called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFCs react chemically with ozone, breaking apart the ozone molecules.
68 Consequences of Ozone Depletion: a higher amount of harmful sun rays (UV) will reach the earth, affecting humans, animals and plants
Table of Contents Chapter: Conserving Resources Section 1: Resources Section 2: Pollution Section 3: The Three Rs of Conservation *Problems related to the use of Fossil Fuels Limited availability Pollution
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