1 True False Click and Drag Artesian wells are naturally under pressure and require no additional pumps to get the water out of the ground. Groundwater recharge is the water from infiltration Groundwater discharge could include springs, artesian wells and artificial wells. Water towers are used only to store water for later use. Natural artesian wells are created, in part, by aquicludes, aquitards and confining layers.
2 What is the general relationship between porosity and permeability? Generally, the more porous a material is the more permeable it is and vice versa.
3 Click and Drag the proper term to match the statement. Water Cycle Water Table Precipitation Runoff Aquifer The complete cycle through which water passes from the atmospher to the Earth and back to the atmosphere. The level below which the soil or rock is saturated with water. A rock or soil layer capable of storing transmitting and yielding water to wells. Water coming from the atmosphere...may be rain or snow. Precipitation not absorbed by the soil.
4 Explain why some people need to use a mound system instead of a regular septic system. Mound system septic systems are necessary when the water table is close to the surface or the bedrock is close to the surface not allowing for a suitable purification area.
5 True False Click and Drag Plumes of contamination are areas of contaminated groundwater that move together. Sand and Gravel aquifers are the easiest to get water from. Water only flows in a Southerly direction in the U.S. Clay and shale are often responsible for creating confining layers. Wisconsin has 6 major aquifers.
6 What three things can people do to reduce water use or prevent water pollution? 1. Use Biodegradable cleaners, use sand instead of salt in the winter, use a car wash vs. home wash 2. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, Compost 3. Dispose of oils, paints and old medicines properly.
7 Click and Drag the proper term to match the statement. Artesian Impermeable Permeable Spring Area where all the pores in the rock are filled with water. Word describing soil or rock through which water can pass. Word describing soil or rock through which water can not pass. Type of well in which water under pressure rises to the surface. Natural discharge of groundwater at the surface. Zone of Saturation
8 Click and Drag the proper term to match the statement. Static Water Level A vertical excavation that taps an underground aquifer. A liquid formed by water percolating through soluble waste material often found in landfills and septic systems. The elevation of the water table above sea level. Volatile organic compounds. VOC's Well Leachate
9 What main three things can water do after it hits the ground as rain? 1. Perculate, infiltrate, soak into the ground or recharge the aquifer 2. Evaporate or undergo transpiration once it has moved through plants 3. Runoff into water bodies
10 Explain the two purposes of the water tower in this picture. 1. Store water and 2. Provide water pressure
11 True False Click and Drag Groundwater usually moves through tiny spaces in rocks and soil. Groundwater is not connected to lakes and rivers. Soil always filters out contaminants such as oil and pesticides preventing them from reaching the groundwater. Most Northern U.S. water comes from Canada. The amount of water a well can produce is determined only by the formation of the aquifer and neighboring wells.
12 Draw 2 arrows on the map to indicate the direction of water flow.
13 Click and Drag the proper term to match the statement. English Rule Appropriation Rule Reasonable Use Rule Groundwater use is a property right under this doctrine. A land owner has the right to use the water under her land at any time and for any purpose. She may also sell or allow others to use her water. Groundwater use is a property right, but water may only be used for reasonable purposes. A property owner may use the water on the land from which it came or elsewhere, as long as his use is reasonable in comparison with neighbors needs and uses.
14 True False Click and Drag Most of the homes in Wisconsin rely on groundwater. Aquifers are large underground lakes which store water. The vadose zone is the saturated zone. The unsaturated zone is above the water table. The water table can change in elevation.
15 Click and Drag the proper term to match the statement. English Rule Correlative Rights Rule Appropriation Rule All land owners in an area have a right to use groundwater. The amount of water each land owner can use depends on the amount of land she owns. She cannot pump more than her share of water, even for use on her land if neighbors don t have enough water to meet their needs. This is the rule of first in time, first in right. Groundwater rights under this doctrine are not connected to land ownership. A person has a right to use groundwater if he has obtained it and put it to a beneficial use such as irrigation, mining, manufacturing, power generation, raising fish, watering animals, household or recreational uses. Water may be used on the land from which it came, or elsewhere. Appropriation rights may be sold or given to others. If a person stops using his share of water for a beneficial purpose, he may lose his right to use the water at all.
16 Click and Drag the proper term next to the item it identifies. List the parts of the following septic system Vent Pipe Septic Tank Drain/leach Field by their proper number below the picture. Groundwater/aquifer Well Purification Area B C D A E F
17 Based on the above picture, which well is most susceptible to surface pollution? Explain.The city well for Boscobel is the most susceptible to surface pollution because it is a shallow well in a valley. Another reason is that the well is drilled into a sand and gravel aquifer that allows water and pollution to flow through it very easily. Based on the above picture, which well is most likely to have the most dissolved minerals? Explain.The city well for Waukesha is most likely to have the most dissolved minerals because it is a very deep well giving the water a lot of time to dissolve minerals as it makes it so far into the ground.
18 Be able to match the following terms to the picture of the hydrologic (water) cycle. Run off Infiltration Sun Condensation Evaporation Precipitation Groundwater
19 What effect does the sun have on the water cycle? The sun causes evaporation and transpiration helping the water cycle. What effect does gravity have on the water cycle? Gravity pulls the precipitation from the sky allowing for infiltration, perculation or recharging of the aquifer, it pulls water from higher elevations to lower elevations within the aquifer and causes surface water to become run-off or flow down hill.
20 Click and Drag the proper term to match the statement. Infiltration Groundwater Transpiration Evaporation Condensation The process by which water is changed from gas to a liquid. The process by which water is changed from a liquid into a gas. Water beneath the surface in a saturated zone. The movement of water into and through a soil. The release of water vapor and waste products through the pores (stomata) of plants.
21 Rate the materials in terms of their permeability. Click and drag the proper material onto the proper line below. These times indicate how long it took 25 ml of water to soak into the following materials. Limestone Sandstone Moist Clay Least Permeable Medium Permeability Most Permeable
22 Given these choices: sand, clay and gravel Which one is most likely create a confining layer? Clay is most likely to create a confining layer. Which two are most likely to create an aquifer? Sand and gravel would make the best aquifers.
23 Why is groundwater clean-up so challenging and expensive? Challenges include finding the polluted water and source(s) of pollution. Groundwater clean-up is expensive because it is very time consuming and resource consuming. It usually takes thousands of gallons of water to flush-out the affected area. This water then needs to be treated to remove the contaminants. If the soil is contaminated, it needs to be removed, treated and buried in a special landfill.
24 True False Click and Drag Gravity helps water flow through the water cycle. Sunlight provides energy to move moisture from the surface of the Earth to the atmosphere. Recharge zones can only be created naturally. Rate of infiltration can partially be determined by the slope of the land and vegetation. It is a good idea to have your septic drain field upslope or uphill from your home well.