Biomass Processes & Technologies Adding Value to Home Grown Resources

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1 FRONTLINE BIOENERGY, LLC Renewable Fuels & Products Biomass Processes & Technologies Adding Value to Home Grown Resources Jerod Smeenk Frontline BioEnergy, LLC Home Grown Energy Conference Morris, MN February 28,

2 Transition to a New Economy Geological Economy Biological Economy 2

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4 Energy Use and Cost in the U.S Wood 3% Other 11% Coal 23% Wood 1% Coal 5% Natural Gas 28% Petroleum 39% Natural Gas 24% Petroleum 66% 96.3 Quads $505.9 billion Source: Energy Information Agency ( 4

5 Motivation for Returning to a Bioeconomy Environmental quality Local and regional (smog, acid rain, waste disposal) Global climate change Excess agricultural production Especially in U.S., but many countries are becoming self sufficient in food production National security Reduced reliance on foreign cartels Rural development Rural economies are not thriving in many parts of the world Courtesy USDA NRCS 5

6 Motivation for Returning to a Bioeconomy 6

7 Biorenewable Resources Organic materials of recent biological origin (commonly known as biomass) 7

8 USDA/DOE Biomass Supply Analysis: 1.3 billion tons Milling residues, 132 Urban wood, 43 Fuel Wood, 47 Ag process residues & manure, 96 Logging residues, 58 Crop residues, 389 Forest thinning, 55 Dedicated crops, 343 Grains for biofuels, 79 This biomass supply could be used to fulfill onethird of U.S. demand for transportation fuel. 8

9 USDA Study: Biomass Distribution 9

10 Biobased Products Fuels Chemicals Fibers Power 10

11 Biorefineries turn biomass into multiple products Plant Science Genomics Enzymes Metabolism Composition Production Trees Grasses Agricultural Crops Agricultural Residues Animal Wastes Municipal Solid Waste Processing Acid/Enzymatic hydrolysis Fermentation Bioconversion Chemical Conversion Gasification Combustion Co-firing End-Uses Transportation Fuels Chemicals Plastics Functional Monomers Solvents Chemical Intermediates Phenolics Adhesives Hydraulic Fluids Paints Dyes, Pigments, and Ink Detergents Paper Fiber boards Solvents Adhesives Plastic filler Abrasives Fibers Electric Power 11

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13 Current Technology: Grain-to-Ethanol Production EtOH Corn Mill Starch Enzymes Cooker CO 2 Distillation DDGS/water Fermenter Releases starch from kernel Breaks starch into sugar Converts sugar into ethanol Separates ethanol from DDGS and water 13

14 Lignocellulosic Biorefinery Lignin gasified to CO and H2 Fiber Lignin Oxygen Syngas Preprocessing Gasifier Holocellulose Gas Cleaning Cellulose Enzymes CO 2 Holocellulose hydrolyzed to sugars Saccharification Catalytic Upgrading Fermenter CO 2 C5 & C6 Sugars Distillation Ethanol or other renewable transportation fuels Ethanol & other fermentation products water 14

15 Thermochemical Biorefinery Fiber Oxygen Syngas Gasifier Gas Cleaning Removes particles, tar, contaminants CO 2 Catalytic or Fermentation Upgrading Converts gases into hydrocarbons Renewable transportation fuel or other products Thermally breaks down all biomass into reactive gases 15

16 Thermochemical Conversion Thermochemical high temperature conversion of biomass into other, useful products Conversion pathways Direct Combustion Thermal Gasification Fast Pyrolysis 16

17 Comparison of Thermal Conversion Pathways Combustion Fuel + Oxygen (usually from air) Hot Exhaust + Ash Gasification Fuel + Limited Oxygen (from air) Producer Gas + Heat + Char + Tar Fuel + Steam + Oxygen (enriched O 2 ) SynGas + Heat + Char + Tar Pyrolysis Fuel + Heat Fuel Gas + Char + Tar Pyrolysis Bio-oil 17

18 Combustion Applications Pellet and corn stoves Wood fired boiler generating 12,000 lb/hr process steam Ottumwa Generating Station 750 MWe coal fired power plant that cofires 17.5 MWe switchgrass McNeil Generating Station 50 MWe wood fired power plant 18

19 Pyrolysis Applications Pyrolysis oil Ensyn Numerous commercial installations Fueled with wood Produce organic resins, food flavoring, and fuel Dynamotive Single commercial installation Fueled with wood Fire pyrolysis oil into a combustion turbine to generate electricity 19

20 Gasification Applications BFC Gas & Electric in Cedar Rapids, IA Ethanol industry for natural gas displacement Central Minnesota Ethanol Primenergy gasifier to fire the thermal oxidizer Fueled with wood High pressure steam with cogeneration Chippewa Valley Ethanol Frontline gasifier to fire boilers and dryers Fueled with DDGS and stover Primenergy Facility in Rossano, Italy 20

21 Points to consider for thermochemical conversion What is the desired end product? heat? fuel? electricity? chemicals? What are the characteristics of the fuel? moisture? size? ash composition? availability? What are the motivating factors? cost of alternatives? tax advantages? renewable? sustainable? Rural development? 21

22 Advantages of each conversion process Combustion Ease of operation Tolerant of high moisture fuels Gasification Use of multiple fuel gas conversion technologies Several end products Pyrolysis Higher energy content in gas Liquid end product Less fuel preparation Less expensive Process difficult fuels with ash separation Potentially lower emissions Extraction/production of chemicals 22

23 Change won t occur until the alternative is less painful than status quo. - author unknown 23

24 Contact Information Jerod Smeenk Frontline BioEnergy, LLC 2521 Elwood Drive, Suite 125 Ames, IA (515) x103 24