The National Bioenergy Center and Biomass R&D Overview

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1 The National Bioenergy Center and Biomass R&D verview Dr. Michael A. Pacheco Director of National Bioenergy Center National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 20, 2004

2 National Bioenergy Center Announced by Dept of Energy Secretary Bill Richardson at the Kansas City Board of Trade on ctober 31, 2000 NREL Role: Coordinate research at DE labs

3 Bioenergy Strategic Goals U.S Dept of Energy Protect national and economic security by promoting a diverse supply of reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy Reduce our dependence on foreign oil Create the new domestic bioindustry National Bioenergy Center Develop biomass-based technologies that will be used by the U.S. transportation fuel, chemical and power industry Help establish technology for large-scale biorefineries based on agricultural residues by 2010

4 Why Bioenergy? Greenhouse warming Natural C 2 cycle is 10X fossil fuels National security 60% of our petroleum is imported Sustainability Potential to replace petroleum-derived fuels and chemicals Rural economic benefit

5 Biomass Share of U.S. Energy Supply (data for 2002) Nuclear 8% Natural Gas 24% Solar <1% Geothermal 5% Biomass 46% Petroleum 39% Renewable 6% Wind 2% Hydroelectric 46% Coal 23% Source: AE 2004 tables (released in December 2003) based on US energy consumption. verall breakdown Table A1 (Total Energy Supply and Disposition), and Renewable breakdown Table A18 (Renewable Energy, Consumption by Section and Source).

6 The Unique Role of Biomass While the growing need for sustainable electric power can be met by other renewables Biomass is our only renewable source of carbon-based fuels and chemicals

7 Concern: Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol (Btu in EtH Minus Btu Used) 40,000 Net Energy Value (Btu/gallon) 30,000 20,000 10, ,000-20,000-30,000 Marland and Turhollow Ho Keeney and DeLuca Lorenz and Morris Shapouri et al. Agri. Canada Wang et al. Shapouri et al. Kim and Dale Wang Graboski Sources of Variation Corn yields per acre Energy required to produce ethanol Fertilizer usage Irrigation practices Accounting for byproducts, e.g. DDG Pimentel Pimentel -40, Source: M. Wang (2003)

8 Fossil Energy Replacement Ratio Energy Delivered to Customer Fossil Energy Ratio (FER) = Fossil Energy Used The road to petroleum displacement is is paved with Cellulosic Biomass Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery Corn Ethanol Gasoline Electricity Source: J. Sheehan & M. Wang (2003)

9 Biomass Chemistry 101 Lignin: 15-25% - Complex aromatic structure - Resists biochemical conversion - Requires high temperatures to convert Hemicellulose: 23-32% - Polymer of 5- and 6-carbon sugars - Easily depolymerization - 5-carbon sugars hard to metabolize Cellulose: 38-50% - Polymer of glucose - Susceptible to enzymatic attack - Glucose easy to metabolize H 3 C H 3 C H CH 3 H CH 3 CH 3 H CH H 3 H CH 3 H H H H H H H H H H H H CH 3 H 3 C H CH 3 H H H H H CH 3 CH 3 H H H CH H H 3 H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H 3 C H H H H H CH 3 H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H

10 2020 U.S. Biomass Supply Potential Millions Dry Tons pe Year Forest Residues Urban Wastes Ag Residues Mill Residues Energy Crops $20 $30 $40 $50 Developing 1 billion ton case for 2050 Delivered Price ($/dry ton)

11 Feedstock Harvesting Research Harvesting technology partnering with equipment manufacturers Single pass harvest of grain & residue Computational modeling Field trials INEEL led research

12 Rapid Analysis Methods for Biomass Fiber ptic Probes Sample DC light NIR Predicts biomass feed performance in biorefinery Feed quality measurement in the field Near Infrared combined with multivariate methods NREL led research Composition Predicted with NIR Glucose Xylose Galactose Arabanose Mannose Lignin Protein Ash Soil Acetyl Uronic Acid Measured Composition (wt%)

13 Rapid Analysis Methods Help Quantify Economic Impact of Feed Variability Number of ccurrences Histogram of Ethanol Selling Price for 735 Stover Compositions Mean = $1.14 Stdev = $0.06 Range = $ $1.00 $1.02 $1.04 $1.06 $1.08 $1.10 $1.12 $1.14 $1.16 $1.18 Ethanol $/gal $1.20 $1.22 $1.24 $1.26 $1.28 $1.30 $1.32

14 Biomass ptions: Blessing and a Curse! Feedstock production, collection, handling & preparation Hydrolysis Acids, enzymes Gasification High heat, low oxygen Digestion Bacteria Sugars and Lignin Synthesis Gas Biogas Biofuels Biobased chemicals Pyrolysis Catalysis, heat, pressure Extraction Mechanical, chemical Separation Mechanical, chemical Bioil Carbon-Rich Chains Plant Products Biobased materials Heat/Power

15 Reducing the Cost of Conversion Platforms Drives Biomass R&D at NREL Bio-chemical Conversion Biochemical Intermediates Biomass Residues Combined Heat & Power By-products Fuels Chemicals & Materials Thermo-chemical Conversion Chemical Intermediates

16 NREL Technology for Future Biorefineries An integrated biorefinery will make use of: Thermochemical conversion technology Biochemical conversion technology Existing technology

17 NREL s Thermochemical User Facility Simulates thermochemical conversion processes Pyrolysis Combustion Gasification Fully integrated Accommodates testing of close-coupled biomass conversion with upgrading Various size scales 0.1 kg/h bench-scale reactors to 20 kg/h NREL led research

18 NREL Technology for Future Biorefineries An integrated biorefinery will make use of: Thermochemical conversion technology Biochemical conversion technology Existing technology Available today

19 Dilute Acid Pretreatment f Lignocellulosic Biomass Untreated Corn Stover 1 ton/day Sunds Continuous Pretreatment Reactor NREL led research Pretreated Corn Stover at 35% solids loading

20 NREL s Enzymatic Hydrolysis Research 3-year Partnerships with Genencor & Novozymes Focus on enzyme biochemistry, cost, and specific activity Investigate enzyme - substrate surface interaction 10-fold reduction in cost of enzyme production E1 from A. cellulotiticus CBH1 from T. reesei Y82 cellodextrin

21 Combined Biorefinery Elements Starch Fermentable Sugars Pre-treatment Starch Hydrolysis Cellulose Hydrolysis Fermentation of Sugars Glucose C5/C6 Sugars C5 Sugar(s) Lignin Residue Product Recovery Ethanol Liquid Fuels Chemicals Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermo-chemical Conversion Heat & Power Fuels & Chemicals Pyrolysis il Syn Gas

22 NREL s Role: Support the Development of New Industrial Biorefinery Concepts USES Fuels: Ethanol Renewable Diesel Power: Electricity Heat Biomass Feedstock Trees Grasses Agricultural Crops Agricultural Residues Animal Wastes Municipal Solid Waste Conversion Processes - Enzymatic Fermentation - Gas/liquid Fermentation - Acid Hydrolysis/Fermentation - Gasification - Combustion -Co-firing Chemicals Plastics Solvents Chemical Intermediates Phenolics Adhesives Furfural Fatty acids Acetic Acid Carbon black Paints Dyes, Pigments, and Ink Detergents Etc. Food and Feed

23 Illustration courtesy of RNL Life Cycle Assessment

24 Potential Benefits of Cellulosic Ethanol J. Sheehan, 2003

25 pportunities other than Ethanol Sugar-derived chemicals Lignin derivatives (BTX, phenols, etc.) Biodiesel & chemicals from vegetable oils Pyrolysis oils from biomass xygen rich cracked stocks Exploring options for refining/upgrading Gasification of biomass Fischer-Tropsch liquids Hydrogen Chemicals

26 Summarizing The Biomass Value Proposition nly sustainable source of hydrocarbon-based fuels, petrochemicals, and plastics Huge U.S. and worldwide potential biomass resource base potential to displace over 50% of U.S. gasoline and diesel consumption with domestic resources Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions Reinvigorate and diversify rural economy New technology advances critical to business opportunity

27 Upcoming DE Solicitation for University R&D in Biomass awards expected Nominally, 3 year awards at $120K/yr Limited to university biomass/bioenergy R&D Research that compliments DE s MYTP BP seeks academic work to complement research being funded at DE Labs Collaboration with DE labs strongly encouraged Access to DE facilities will be made available to students, post-doc s and faculty RFP planned for Summer 2004

28 The National Bioenergy Center is led by NREL and funded by the ffice of Biomass Program within the U.S. Department of Energy