Biorefineries. International status quo and future directions. Ed de Jong / Rene van Ree

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1 Biorefineries International status quo and future directions Ed de Jong / Rene van Ree

2 Contents 1. Biobased Economy 2. Biorefineries - Definition 3. Biorefineries - Categories 4. Biorefineries - Objective 5. Biorefineries - Products 6. Biorefineries - Systems 7. Biorefineries - Systems revisited 8. Conclusions

3 The biobased economy Drivers: Closing the loop: No waste & CO2 neutral. Kyoto Security of supply Agricultural policies Sustainability Economics

4 Biomass demands in the EU and USA EU Targets for the use of Renewable Resources Year Energy 7.5 % % 26%(2030) Fuels 1.4 % 2.8 % 5.75% 20%(2020) Chemicals 8-10%??? US Targets for the use of Renewable Resources Year Energy 2.8 % 4 % 5 % 5 % Tr. fuels 0.5 % 4 % 10 % 20 % Chemicals 5 % 12 % 18 % 25 % and Materials

5 World Biomass demand in 2050 Food / Feed Energy Chemical industry Specialties Wood and composites 10 billion ton biomass for 3 billion ton food 10 billion ton equivalent to 160 EJ 1 billion ton for 0.3 billion top product 1 million ton 2 to 3 billion ton Current production 170 billion ton biomass of which 6 billion ton is used: 1,8 grains 2,2 other food (sugar, vegetables, starch, etc.) 2 wood 0,01 other non food

6 The New Biomass value chain: a new - game 1st Agro logistics Food pretreatment Foodconversion Food production Food Biomass sources Agro food production Logistics&storage production NL production By products Imports & waste New Pre treatment & conversion bioconversion physical&chemical conversion process engineering Existing conversion New production Performance materials Base&platform chemicals Performance chemicals Bio Energy Existing production Biobased Products Biobased materials Bio-based chemicals Bio-fuels Bio-energy Existing non- food: Feed Additives Compost Fibres Waste management.

7 Comparison of the basic-principles of the petroleum refinery and the biorefinery

8 Biorefinery Definitions NREL: A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and value-added chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/biorefinery Cluster of biobased industries producing chemicals, fuels, power, products, and materials. US-DOE: A biorefinery is an overall concept of a processing plant where biomass feedstocks are converted and extracted into a spectrum of valuable products NL: The separation of biomass into distinct components which can be individually brought to the market either directly after separation or after further (biological, thermochemical/chemical) treatment(s) Shell: Addition of Pure Plant Oil into traditional oil refineries

9 Schematic overview of a general Biorefinery concept

10 Which Products? Chemicals Fuels Power & Heat - All Biorefineries should become Heat and may be power independent Materials (Fibres, Starch, Wood) - Can be important (economic) products but are by itself outside the Biorefinery definition Food and Feed - Can be important (economic) products but are by itself outside the Biorefinery definition

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13 Biorefinery Categories Generation I Biorefinery - Dry milling bioethanol plant Generation II Biorefinery - Wet milling bioethanol plant Generation III Biorefinery

14 Biorefinery Development Increase Ethanol production by access to residual starch & increased protein in Coproducts Fractionation of the feedstock to access the high value products prior to ethanol production Integrated Industrial Biorefinery multiple feedstocks fractionated to high value products for economics & fuels production drive scale Fractionation of residues in dry mill for new coproducts from lignin Existing Starch Based Biorefineries: Wet & Dry Mills (Growth limited by co-product markets) Use of residues in a dry mill to increase Ethanol production Fractionation of grain and residues introduction of energy crops in dry mill Progression to the Integrated Industrial Biorefinery

15 General objective There is an agreement about the objective, which is briefly defined as (Kamm & Kamm 2005): Developed biorefineries, so called phase III-biorefineries or generation III-biorefineries, start with a biomass feedstock-mix to produce a multiplicity of most various products by a technologies-mix

16 Biorefinery Systems lignocellulosic feedstock biorefinery which use naturedry raw material whole crop biorefinery which uses raw material such as cereals or maize green biorefineries which use nature-wet biomasses such as green grass, alfalfa, clover, or immature cereal biorefinery two platforms concept includes the sugar platform and the syngas platform

17 Lignocellulosic Feedstock Biorefinery Cellulose biotech./chemical Sugar Raw material Residues Lignocelluloses Lignocellulosic Feedstock (LCF) Residues Hemicelluloses (Polyoses) biotech./chemical Cogeneration Heat and Power, Extractives Fuels, Chemicals, Polymers and Materials Lignin chemical Lignin Raw material

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20 Whole Crop Biorefinery Concept

21 Abengoa Bioenergy Dry milling => Whole crop => Thermochemical

22 Green Biorefinery Concept

23 Sanders, 2004 Composition of Grass

24 Pilot biorefinery line Foxhol (Groningen) (Prograss Consortium) Grass protein (products) white grass protein Protein compound feed Green grass protein Grass juice concentrate Grass juice Fibers Fibers compound feed Ethanol +... Potting soil Construction material + paper Polymer extrusion products

25 Biorefinery two platforms concept

26 Biorefinery concept A Biorefinery is an integrated facility for efficient co-production of materials, chemicals, transportation fuels, green gasses, power and/or heat from biomass (analogeous to today s petroleum refineries) R Secondary thermochemical refinery gasification-based Organic residues Energy crops Aquatic biomass Primary refinery (extraction) (separation) R R R Power and/or heat production R Secondary biochemical refinery Materials Chemicals Transportation fuels Green gasses Power Heat fermentation-based Primary products R: residues.. power and/or heat

27 Thermo-chemical biorefinery concept of ECN Transportation fuels Fischer-Tropsch diesel MeOH Hydrogen Electricity & Heat Combined Cycle Chemicals acids solvents Gaseous fuel CH 4 / SNG Base chemicals acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) Cryogenic distillation Syngas CO 2 removal Chemical industry, sequestering, oil industry (EOR), greenhouses CO 2 H 2 O CO 2 Aqueous scrubber Fertiliser (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Product Gas H 2 CO CO 2 H 2 O CH 4 C 2 H 2 & C 2 H 4 BTX light tars heavy tars NH 3 Tar removal OLGA unit Solvents benzene toluene xylenes Torrefaction Gasification Impregnating reagent heavy tars Fine chemicals light tars Fertiliser minerals (ash)

28 The staged catalytic biomass conversion process scheme Staged (catalytic) biomass degasification Biomass Torrefaction area C Pyrolysis area C Gasification area > 600 C Catalyst? Catalyst? Crude Crude Catalyst? Crude Fuels Power Heat Product separation and upgrading Base / Platform chemicals

29 Unclassified Biorefineries Side and waste streams Most generation III Biorefineries Consortia of different industries

30 Biorefinery Systems - Revisited Dry raw material versus fresh raw material processing (Storage / transportation / etc) (green versus whole crop / lignocellulosic biorefineries) Functionalized versus uniform/simple intermediates (Thermochemical versus physical/(bio)chemical treatments)

31 Biorefinery Systems - Revisited 4 New Categories of Biorefineries: Fresh Functionalized (Grass etc) Fresh Uniform (HTU) After Storage Functionalized (Second generation lignocellulose) After Storage Uniform (HTU / Pyrolysis / Syngas)

32 Biorefineries - Conclusions Formation of Building Blocks should be involved Incorporation of Food and Feed production in Biorefineries must become clear Subdivision of Biorefineries can be better (Fresh After Storage; Functionalized Uniform)