1 Revised 2018 NAME: PERIOD: Key Issue 3: Why Do Industries Face Resource Challenges? ENERGY SUPPLY LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCTION OF THE THREE FOSSIL FUELS 55. In geographic terms, what is a resource? 56. What are two challenges associated with the use of resources? 57. The three fossil fuels are,, and. 58. Which nation is the largest supplier of coal? 59. Which two nations are the largest suppliers of petroleum? and 60. One-third of natural gas production today comes from and. 61. was the primary fuel source of the 19 th century, but was replaced by due to the Industrial Revolution. Mainly due to the diffusion of cars, and/or internal combustion engines, became more in demand in the 20 th century, while is used to heat homes and prepare food. DEMAND FOR ENERGY LEARNING OUTCOME EXPLAIN THE PRINCIPAL SOURCES OF DEMAND FOR FOSSIL FUELS 62. The four primary types of consumption of energy in the United States are: c. d.
2 63. is the nation that is the leader in energy consumption, though the highest per capita consumption of energy is still. 64. Why was OPEC (the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) formed in 1960? FOSSIL FUEL RESERVES LEARNING OUTCOME UNDERSTAND THE DISTINCTIVE DISTRIBUTION OF RESERVES OF THE THREE FOSSIL FUELS 65. In geographic terms, what is meant by proven reserves? 66. At the current use rate, how much more time is there before the proven reserves of coal are likely to run out? ; natural gas? ; petroleum? 67. In geographic terms, what is meant by potential reserves? Resources are considered unconventional if getting them is either not practical economically or environmentally, or if technology is currently unavailable to do it. 68. What are two examples of unconventional resource processes that are now in use? PETROLEUM FUTURES LEARNING OUTCOME UNDERSTAND CHANGING PATTERNS OF OIL TRADE AND DEMAND 69. The largest flows of oil are from to, and from to and. 70. Which nation imports more than 90 percent of its oil? 71. The U.S. supplies most of its oil from and. 72. What is believed to be the reason why alternative energy sources will be in higher demand in the future? NUCLEAR ENERGY LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF NUCLEAR ENERGY AND CHALLENGES IN USING IT
3 73. Nuclear power is considered non-renewable due to the limited amounts of the required material, e.g. uranium, available. However, the big advantage of nuclear power is. 74. Nuclear power supplies percent of the world s electricity needs; is generated in developed countries; countries in are the most highly dependent on nuclear power. 75. In the U.S. nuclear power provides more than 70 percent of electrical needs in, and more than 50 percent in,, and. While states and the District of Columbia have no nuclear power plants at all. 76. Nuclear power plants create electricity through the process of, the splitting of uranium atoms in a controlled environment. 77. If a nuclear power plant has a runaway reaction, what does that mean? 78. What are two examples given in the reading of when a meltdown occurred at a power plant? 79. Why are the problems resulting from the radioactive waste created by nuclear power? 80. List the nations known, or believed, to have nuclear weapons. 81. At the current rate of usage, the proven uranium reserves will last about. Which nation has the highest amount of proven uranium reserves? 82. What is the reason why more breeder reactors have not been built? 83. Why is generating electricity from nuclear power plants more expensive than from coal-burning plants? 84. What is nuclear fusion? ENERGY ALTERNATIVES LEARNING OUTCOME IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY AND CHALLENGES TO USING THEM 85. What are examples of nonrenewable energy sources?
4 86. What are examples of renewable energy sources? 87. What is the second-most-popular source of electricity after coal? What country in South America depends primarily on this type of energy? What country in North America gets 60 percent of its electricity from this type? 88. What is the source of biomass fuel? 89. What are three types of crops that can be processed into biomass motor-vehicle fuels?,, 90. What are three limitations on increasing the use of biomass for fuel? c. 91. What are two positive reasons for using wind-generated power? 92. What is a drawback for developing countries in using wind-generated power? 93. For some people, what are two criticisms of using wind-generated power? 94. What is the source of geothermal energy? 95. What three nations are the leading producers of geothermal power?,, Name the city in Iceland where nearly all the homes and businesses are heated with geothermal steam. SOLAR ENERGY LEARNING OUTCOME COMPARE PASSIVE AND ACTIVE SOLAR ENERGY
5 96. The ultimate renewable energy source is energy, provided by the Sun. This energy source is of benefit to all countries, but especially in the countries where other energy sources might be too expensive. 97. What are three benefits to using this source of energy? c. 98. How do passive solar energy systems work? 99. What is the explanation for why solar energy did not become more popular in the U.S. in the second half of the 20 th century? 100. How do direct, active solar energy systems work? 101. How do indirect, active solar energy systems work? 102. What are examples in developed countries where solar-generated electricity is already in use? 103. What are limitations associated with electric-powered vehicles? How have auto manufacturers dealt with these limitations? 104. Where is the largest concentration of potential customers for solar power to be found in the world today? AIR POLLUTION LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION AT GLOBAL, REGIONAL, AND LOCAL SCALES
6 105. In geographic terms, when does pollution occur? 106. What are the causes of most of the current air pollution? 107. In geographic terms, what is meant by the greenhouse effect? 108. The Earth s protective ozone layer is threatened by pollutants called, such as Freon once commonly used in refrigerators and air conditioners What causes acid precipitation? 110. How does acid deposition affect water, soil, and buildings? 111. What are the three basic components of urban air pollution? c According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a specialized agency of the United Nations concerned with international public health issues, where are the 20 most polluted cities in the world today? The city with the world s most polluted air is at six times what is considered the safe amount. WATER POLLUTION LEARNING OUTCOME COMPARE AND CONTRAST POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION 113. Why do aluminum producers often located near sources of hydroelectric-power?
7 114. The heaviest demand for water today is for,, and What is the difference between nonconsumptive and consumptive water usage? 116. What is the main reason why North America has the world s highest per capita consumption of water? 117. In geographic terms, what is biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)? What happens if there is too much waste discharged into a water source? What happens if there is a run off of fertilizer into a water source? 118. What is point source pollution? Two main sources include: 119. What is the primary cause of nonpoint source pollution? SOLID WASTE POLLUTION LEARNING OUTCOME DESCRIBE PRINCIPAL STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING SOLID WASTE POLLUTION 120. What makes up the largest share of solid waste generated in the U.S. today?
8 121. In geographic terms, what is the function of a sanitary landfill? What is a problem associated with the use of landfills? 122. What states are the greatest exporters of most solid waste?,, What states are the greatest importers of this waste?,, 123. What is believed to be the world s largest landfill? It is about twice the size of and is caused by. makes up 90 percent of the trash floating in the oceans Examples of hazardous waste include Medical problems that can result from breathing air or consuming water contaminated with toxic waste include.