2 1.Think About It Why is it that the water in your bottle could have been drunk by George Washington?
3 2. The Hydrosphere: An Overview The hydrosphere is ALL the water on/in/over Earth s surface (Groundwater, rivers, lakes, oceans, clouds)
4 3. The Hydrosphere: An You must write 2 notes from the video. watch?v=ipwwojtt3ku Overview
5 4. The Structure of Hydrosphere Oceans about 97% of water found here. Landmasses 3% of water found here.
6 5. Of the Freshwater on Earth 90% is in the form of polar ice caps and glaciers. Alaska s Glacier Bay
7 6. Of the Freshwater on Earth Most of the remaining 10% is groundwater. Alaska s Glacier Bay
8 7. Of the Freshwater on Earth Only a small fraction is in rivers, streams, and lakes. Alaska s Glacier Bay
9 8. The World s Water Supply Oceans 97.2% - thousands of years Ice caps and glaciers 2.15% - tens of thousands of years
10 9. The World s Water Supply Groundwater -.31% - hundreds to thousands of years Lakes -.009% - tens of years
11 10. The World s Water Supply Atmosphere -.001% - nine days! Rivers and streams % - two weeks
12 11. The Water Cycle The Water Cycle
13 12. Watersheds and Stream Systems A stream is runoff water that begins to flow more permanently in a channel.
14 13. Watersheds and Stream Systems 1. A large stream is called a river. 2. The smaller streams that feed into it are called tributaries
15 The Rivers of North Carolina
16 14. Fresh Water Locations Surface Water What is the difference between a watershed and a river basin? Both terms describe land that drains into a river, stream or lake
17 15. Fresh Water Locations Surface Water River Basin: the term used to describe an area that drains into a large river Watershed: the term used to describe an area that drains into a smaller river or stream
18 North Carolina Watersheds
19 North Carolina River Basins
20 16. Watersheds The watershed of the Mississippi River is the largest watershed in North America!
21 17. Larger river basins are made up of many interconnected watersheds Example: Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins are made of many small watersheds
22 18. The water in a watershed runs to the lowest point a river, stream, lake, or ocean
23 19. Rivers What is a river? A large channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope made of many streams that come together
24 20. Streams What is a stream? A small channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope made of small gullies
25 21. Lakes What is a lake? A body of water of considerable size contained on a body of land
26 22. Groundwater What is groundwater? The water found in cracks and pores in sand, gravel and rocks below the earth s surface
27 23. Groundwater What is an aquifer? An underground storage area of water made of permeable rock Water has less pollutants because they are filtered out by rocks and soil
28 24. How water moves underground Where does groundwater come from? Precipitation! Precipitation can evaporate, run off the surface or soak into the underground.
29 25. How water moves underground Where does groundwater come from? Water trickles down between particles of soil and through cracks and spaces in layers of rock.
30 26. Effects of different materials. What are permeable materials? Materials that are full of tiny, connected air spaces, that water can seep through.
31 27. Effects of different materials. What are impermeable materials? Materials such as clay and granite that water cannot seep through easily.
32 28. Water Zones 3 Types of water zones Unsaturated zone Water table Saturated zone
33 29. Water Zones The unsaturated zone is the layers of soil and rock above the water table that contain some moisture AND air. They are not saturated.
34 30. Water Zones The top of that saturated zone is called the water table.
35 31. Water Zones The area of permeable rock or soil that is totally filled with water is called the saturated zone.
36 Water Zones
37 32. Groundwater Storage The depth of the water table varies in swampy areaswater table is almost at surface, in arid regions - water table is far beneath surface Green Swamp, FL
38 33. Groundwater Storage If the water table is high, it is more likely to flood. low, it is less likely to flood.
39 34. Groundwater Storage The water table fluctuates (changes) with the seasons and weather conditions because it depends on rain to recharge it
40 35. Wells A water well is a structure created in the ground by digging or drilling accessible groundwater in underground aquifers.
41 36. Wells An aquifer is where the groundwater is stored underground.
42 37. Wells The well water is drawn up to the surface by a pump.
43 38. Other Surface Waters What is a wetland? An area where the water table is at, near or above the land surface long enough during the year to support adapted plant growth
44 39. Other Surface Waters What are the types of wetlands? Swamps, bogs, and marshes Swamp: a wetland dominated by trees Bogs: a wetland dominated by peat moss Marshes: a wetland dominated by grasses