Second Generation Biofuels: Technologies, Potential, and Economics

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1 Second Generation Biofuels: Technologies, Potential, and Economics Charles E. Wyman Ford Motor Company Chair in Environmental Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology and Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department Bourns College of Engineering University of California Riverside, California Energy Week 2009: Energy, Development and Climate Change Biofuels Session World Bank Washington, DC April 2, 2009

2 Acknowledgments Ford Motor Company The BioEnergy Science Center, a U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Research Center supported by the of Biological and Environmental Research Office in the DOE Office of Science DARPA Mascoma Corporation Mendel Biotechnology National Institute of Standards and Technology, award number 60NANB1D0064 USDA National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program, contract US Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program, contract DE-FG36-07GO17102 The University of California at Riverside The University of Massachusetts, Amherst Numerous past and present students, coworkers, and partners who make our research possible 2

3 Petroleum and Transportation Petroleum is the largest source of energy for the world, supplying about 1/3 of total About 2/3 of world petroleum reserves are in the Mideast About 2/3 of petroleum goes to transportation Transportation is highly dependent on petroleum Transportation is a large source of greenhouse gases Need to find sustainable alternatives to petroleum for transportation to avoid future transitions and reduce greenhouse gases 3

4 Options to Reduce Petroleum Use More public transportation/drive less miles An important opportunity Counter to historic trends Drive more efficient vehicles Low hanging fruit not taken advantage of Synergistic with new fuels Change the source of fuels Must be sustainable to avoid GHG emissions Sustainable fuels also avoid future transitions 4

5 Sustainable Alternatives for Transportation Sustainable Resources Primary Intermediates Secondary Intermediates Human Needs Sunlight Wind Ocean/ hydro Biomass Organic Fuels Transportation Geothermal Electricity Hydrogen Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Batteries 5

6 6

7 Cost of Cellulosic Biomass vs Petroleum Cost of oil, $/barrel 7 Equivalent energy Equivalent weight Cost of biomass, $/ton

8 Cellulosic Biomass Composition Cellulose 43% Hemicellulose 27% Lignin 17% Other 13% Agricultural Residues Cellulose 45% Hemicellulose 25% Lignin 22% Extractives 5% Ash 3% Woody Crops Cellulose 45% Other 9% Municipal Solid Waste Ash 15% Lignin 10% Hemicellulose 9% Other carbohydrates 9% Protein 3% Cellulose 45% Hemicellulose 30% Lignin 15% Other 10% Herbaceous Energy Crops 8

9 2007 U.S. Petroleum Use for Transportation 27.7 quadrillion Btus 9

10 Fuel Options Biomass Feedstocks Cellulosic Biomass (wood, wood wastes, corn stover, switch grass, agricultural waste, straw, etc.) Chemical Structure: cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin Corn Stover Bagasse Corn Cane sugar Triglycerides from Vegetable Oils, Corn Grain Gasification Fast Pyrolysis Liquefaction Pretreatment & Hydrolysis Hydrolysis Algae G.W. Huber, S. Iborra, A. Corma; Chemical Reviews 106, 4044 (2006). Water-gas shift Hydrogen Gasoline Methanol MeOH Synthesis Syn-gas Olefins CO + H2 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Alkanes (Diesel Fuel) Steam-Reforming Aromatics, hydrocarbons (Gasoline) Hydrodeoxygenation Bio-oils Aromatics, light alkanes, (Gasoline) (Sugars, Acids, Zeolite Upgrading Aldehydes, Direct Use (Blend with Diesel) Emulsions Aromatics) Hydrodeoxygenation Alkyl benzenes, paraffins (Gasoline) Lignin Aromatics, coke (Gasoline) (coumaryl, Zeolite upgrading coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols) C 8 -C 13 n-alkanes, Alcohols Aqu. Phase Proc. C5 Sugars Furfural MTHF (Methyltetrahydrofuran) (Xylose) Dehydration Hydrogenation C6 Sugars Levulinic Levulinic Esters Dehydration Esterification Acid MTHF Hydrogenation C6 Sugars (Glucose, Fructose) Fermentation Ethanol, Butanol, Alkanes Sucrose (90%) Glucose (10 %) All Sugars APD/H C 1 -C 6 n-alkanes Alkyl esters (Bio-diesel) Transesterification C 1 -C 14 Alkanes/Alkenes Zeolite/Pyrolysis C Hydrodeoxygenation 12 -C 18 n-alkanes Direct Use Blending/Direct Use Aromatics, alkanes, coke Zeolite Hydrogen Aqueous or S.C. Reforming Key: White - Chemical Conversion Green - Biological Conversion Blue - Both Chemical & Biological Conv. 10

11 Biological and Thermochemical Conversion Biological routes High selectivity High yields possible Opportunities for advanced technologies Substantial experience with starch and sugar Low temperatures, pressures Ethanol can replace gasoline But Slow Specific to certain substrates Not commercial for cellulosics Thermochemical routes Rapid Broad range of substrates Robust Substantial related commercial experience Can make diesel or jet fuels But Generally large scale High temperatures, pressures Product clean up can be costly Less control of by products Keys: cost, efficiency, environmental benefits, markets 11

12 Biological Processing of Biomass Biological processing of cellulosic biomass offers the potential of high yields vital to economic success stoichiometry and energetics High selectivity also reduces problematic byproducts Biological processing can take advantage of the power of biotechnology to dramatically reduce costs Ethanol is a natural product for biological conversion processes 12

13 Biological Processing of Biomass Biological processing of cellulosic biomass offers the potential of high yields vital to economic success stoichiometry and energetics High selectivity also reduces problematic byproducts Biological processing can take advantage of the power of biotechnology to dramatically reduce costs Ethanol is a natural product for biological conversion processes 13

14 Ethanol Ethanol, ethyl alcohol, fermentation ethanol, or just alcohol Ethanol is one of the broader alcohol family of chemical form ROH in with R for ethanol has two carbon atoms: C 2 H 5 OH Beverage alcohol (mixed ethanol/water) referred to in Sumerian language in Mesopotamia in about 2500BC Used in beverages, solvents, medicines, lotions, tonics, cologne, rubbing compounds, organic synthesis Clear, colorless, volatile, flammable liquid that is completely miscible with water Excellent fuel properties for SI engines High octane 98 (RON + MON)/2 High heat of vaporization 14

15 Ethanol Ethanol, ethyl alcohol, fermentation ethanol, or just alcohol Ethanol is one of the broader alcohol family of chemical form ROH in with R for ethanol has two carbon atoms: C 2 H 5 OH Beverage alcohol (mixed ethanol/water) referred to in Sumerian language in Mesopotamia in about 2500BC Used in beverages, solvents, medicines, lotions, tonics, cologne, rubbing compounds, organic synthesis Clear, colorless, volatile, flammable liquid that is completely miscible with water Excellent fuel properties for SI engines High octane 98 (RON + MON)/2 High heat of vaporization 15

16 Historical and Projected Cellulosic 700 Ethanol Costs Cost reductions to date Future goal NREL Modeled Cost Enzyme Feedstock Conversion

17 Key to Advances To Date in Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosics Improved pretreatment to increase yields from hemicellulose and cellulose Improved cellulase enzymes to increase rates from cellulose, reduce enzyme use Integrated systems to improve rates, yields, concentrations of ethanol (SSF) Overcoming the diversity of sugars Recombinant organisms ferment all five sugars to ethanol at high yields 17

18 Economic Impact of R&D-Driven Improvements Increase hydrolysis yield Halve cellulase loading 3% 13% Overcoming the recalcitrance of biomass Eliminate pretreatment 22% Simplify biological steps - CBP 41% Simultaneous C5 & C6 Use Increased fermentation yield Increased ethanol titer 2% 6% 11% Improving production of targeted products Increased ethanol titer following CBP 6% 18 Error bars denote two different base cases 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Processing Cost Reduction From Nature Biotech

19 Drought resistance Opportunities to Advance Cellulosic Biomass Faster growth/higher photosynthetic efficiency Low fertilizer need Higher carbohydrate content for biological conversion Higher lignin content for thermochemical conversion Less recalcitrant structure 19

20 Commercial Fermentors 20

21 Laboratory Fermentors 21

22 First-of-a-Kind Technology Scale-Up/Extrapolation Performance vs Scale of Operation Performance ? Scale of Operation, tons/day 22

23 Cash Cost for Corn Stover Ethanol Feed rate = 2,000 tons/day Ethanol production = 62.7 million gals/yr Ethanol yield = 89.6gals/ton Item Cost, $/gallon ethanol Cost, $/gallon gasoline equivalent Feedstock ($50/ton) Sulfuric acid ($200/ton) Lime ($70/ton) Nutrients ($70/ton) Labor Total without enzymes $0.674 $ Sale of excess power Not included Not included Amortization of capital (>$4/annual gallon) >0.800 >

24 Key Challenge to Commercializing Second Generation Biofuels: Petroleum Price Swings Each time prices increase, interest grows When high prices result in recession, interest wanes Because petroleum processing facilities are paid for, they can handle lower prices than alternatives that need to provide adequate return on capital Investors will not risk the large cash outlays for sustainable projects, and nothing will happen unless we counter this cycle 24

25 The Valley of Death for New Technology Low development cost High risk Increasing development costs Greater perceived risk/uncertainty Higher application costs Longer time commitment Higher uncertainty Low risk - demonstrated Known return Often Federal funds Often private funds New concept Development & scaleup 1st demonstration plant Commercial use 25

26 Closing Thoughts We have been threatening to reduce petroleum consumption since about 1974 Since 1974, the world has used about 900 billion barrels of oil of the more than 1.1 trillion barrels used to date Consumption has increased from 56.7 million bbls/day in 1974 to 84.6 million bbls/day in 2006 There are now reserves of about 1.1 to 1.3 trillion barrels of oil if we include oil sands in Canada This amount of oil would last about 40 years at current consumption rates New discoveries will extend this deadline some, but increasing consumption will reduce it We have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels measured at Mauna Loa from 330 ppm in 1974 to 386 ppm in 2008 When will we really do something substantial to stop this trend? There is hope with recent investments by BP, Shell, others 26

27 Questions?? 27