1 Earth s Energy and Mineral Resources Chapter 5, Section 1, Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1) is the ability to cause change. 2) Most current energy sources that are used to generate electricity are, which means they are used up faster than natural processes can replace them. 3) such as oil, natural gas, and coal formed from the remains of swamp plants and other organisms that were buried and altered over millions of years. 4) Coal is a rock formed from decayed plant matter. 5) is a liquid hydrocarbon that is often called petroleum. 6) is the most abundant fossil fuel, a rock that contains at least 50 percent plant remains 7) Hydrocarbons can be extracted from coal to form liquid and gaseous. 8) As decaying plant material loses gas and moisture, carbon increases. 9) The 4 stages of coal formation are peat, lignite coal, bituminous coal, and coal, the cleanest-burning type of coal. 10) Over millions of years, the buried remains of microscopic marine organisms form and. 11) is a layer of organic sediment. 12) is a soft brown coal with less moisture. 13) Compact, black, brittle coal is coal. 14) is a thick black liquid formed from the remains of microscopic marine organisms. 15) Plankton are marine organisms that decay to form petroleum. 16) Natural gas is a gaseous that often forms with oil, but lays above it, since natural gas is a lighter molecule. 17) The rock layer, usually beneath a shale layer, in which petroleum and natural gas accumulate is called. 18) Americans obtain most of their from oil and natural gas. 19) is used mostly for heating and cooking. 20) is used in many ways including as heating oil, or gasoline, and in manufacturing. 21) Fossil fuels are from the ground through mining or pumping. 22), in which upper layers of rock and soil are removed to expose coal, is used when coal deposits are near the surface.
2 Chapter 5, Section 1, Nonrenewable Energy Resources - Continued 23) Another name for strip mining is mining. 24) A type of coal mining that uses an angled opening and an air shaft is called. 25) Since oil and natural gas are under pressure, they can be from a deposit, up a narrow pipe, to the surface. 26) is the amount of a fossil fuel that can be extracted at a profit using current technology. 27) The current reserves of coal will last about years. 28) United States reserves of natural gas will last about years. 29) The ice-like substance,, located in ocean floor sediments, are believed to contain high amounts of flammable methane and might someday be a useable source for clean-burning methane. 30) fossil fuels will help slow down the current consumption rate. 31) is an alternate energy source produced from the fission, or splitting, of uranium atoms. The sun is a natural fusion power plant 32) When the of a heavy element is split, lighter elements are formed and is released. 33) Nuclear energy is considered a energy resource. 34) One problem with nuclear energy is that nuclear power plants produce highly radioactive ; the EPA has determined that nuclear waste must be stored and contained for at least years. 35) is the fusing of low-mass materials to form higher-mass substances, is a potential source of clean energy. 36) Current do not exist to allow fusion in a controlled manner. 37) Fossil Fuels include COAL, OIL, and NATURAL GAS!
3 Chapter 5, Section 2, Renewable Energy Resources 1) energy resources include the Sun, wind, water, and geothermal energy. 2) is energy from the Sun and can be active or passive. 3) South-facing windows act as solar collectors, warming exposed rooms. 4) Solar cells collect the Sun s energy and convert it to electricity. 5) Solar energy is clean and renewable but it is not readily useable on days or at. 6) A uses a large number of windmills to generate electricity. Wind is non-polluting, produces no waste, does little harm to the environment and is free! 7) Few regions of the world have enough wind to generate electricity. 8) Wind does not blow, so it is an unreliable energy source. 9) To use wind energy consistently, an area needs to have a wind that blows at an speed. 10), using water wheels, has been used for hundreds of years all over the world to grind grain and cut lumber. 11) is when electricity is generated from running water, usually flowing over dams. This type of energy uses waterpower. 12) Dams can create environmental problems. Upstream lakes fill with and downstream increases. 13) Land above the dam is and wildlife habitats are damaged. 14) is energy obtained from hot magma or dry, hot rocks inside the Earth. This is the energy that erupting volcanoes have! 15) Geothermal Energy is currently being used in and the western US. 16) Digging for the hot, dry, rocks or magma pools, and maintaining the dig, could use more energy than would be taken from it. Digging also destroys in the same way as digging for fossil fuels does. 17) energy resources, such as, energy from burning organic material, can be replaced in a relatively short time such as during a human life span. These are not inexhaustible! 18) Burning, the most commonly used biomass fuel, can cause pollution and disrupt natural habitats when trees are cut down.
4 19) Biomass fuel, such as corn, can be distilled into an, such as ethanol, and mixed with another fuel. 20) If ethanol is mixed with gasoline, the mixture is called, which is a cleaner, more efficient fuel. 21) Currently, the production processes for fuels, such as ethanol or gasohol, use more energy than is produced. 22) Trash-burning power plants can burn to generate electricity, but the resulting air pollution and toxic ash residue can present problems. 23) When garbage is burned, is produced. The heat turns water into. The steam turns. The turbines run generators to produce. 24) In a Geothermal Plant, is collected from the hot, dry rocks. The heat turns water into. The steam turns. The turbines run generators to produce. 25) In a Hydroelectric Plant, the force of running water turns. The turbines run generators to produce. 26) In a nuclear reactor, the heat released during the reactions, turns water into. The steam turns. The turbines run generators to produce.
5 Chapter 5, Section 3, Mineral Resources 1) are deposits of useful minerals; metals are obtained from mineral resources. 2) are deposits in which a minerals exist in quantities large enough to be mined at a profit. 3) Copper, found in electrical wires, comes from the mineral. 4) Iron, found in bed frames, comes from the mineral. 5) Aluminum, found in cans, comes from a mixture of minerals called. 6) Stainless steel, which contains chromium, comes from the mineral. 7) factors such as supply and demand determine whether a mineral deposit is an ore. 8) To extract a useful substance from an ore, it must be concentrated and, smelting is one method of refining some ores. 9) is a process that removes unwanted elements from a mineral. 10) The waste rock that must be removed before a mineral can be used is called. 11) mineral resources are any mineral resources not used as fuels or as sources of metals. 12) Non-metallic mineral resources can be grouped into minerals and materials. 13) Industrial minerals include (for silica for glass making), (for table and road salt). 14) Mineral resources that are used in abrasives (sandpaper) are and. 15) is made of crushed stone or a mixture of gravel and sand. Aggregate is mixed with cement and water to form. 16) Nonmetal mineral resources used for include aggregate (for concrete), gypsum (for plaster, wallboard), and stones (such as granite, limestone, and sandstone). 17) uses old materials to produce new ones and helps reduce the demand for mineral resources. 18) are non-renewable! Black Gold! 1) While digging for fresh water, a thick, black, smelly substance called was discovered. A nick-name for oil is. 2) Today, many oil companies are drilling beneath the for oil.