LNG Basics for Petroleum Engineers

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1 LNG Basics for Petroleum Engineers Michael Choi Retired 1

2 To help protect your privacy, PowerPoint has blocked automatic download of this picture. Primary funding is provided by The SPE Foundation through member donations and a contribution from Offshore Europe The Society is grateful to those companies that allow their professionals to serve as lecturers Additional support provided by AIME Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program 2

3 Present an Overview of LNG Plant Oman LNG Plant Why LNG? Pre-Treatment Required Typical Multi-Trains Plant Natural Gas Liquefaction Thermodynamics Commercial Liquefaction Processes Equipment for Liquefaction Unique Auxiliary Facilities Novel Plant Concepts Concluding Remarks 3

4 Stranded Gas Looking for Markets LNG Proved to be Most Economic for Distances >1,500 Mile Volume Reduction of 600:1 Transported in Insulated -162C & 1 atm. Supply Demand 4

5 LNG Process & Equipment? Big Refrigeration System Compressor/Driver Refrigerant Condenser Evaporator (Process Heat Exchanger) Similar to the AC System in Our Home! 5

6 Typical 2-Train LNG Plant Gas Gathering Make- Up Fuel Train 1 Fuel Inlet Gas Reception Gas Inlet Gas Treating NGL Recovery Liquefaction LNG Storage 1.5 Bcfd Liquid LNG Train 2 NGL Fractionation 8 Mtpa (1.1 Bcfd) Condensate Stabilization Propane Storage Butane Storage Condensate Storage Propane.73 Mtpa (27 Mbpd) Butane.5 Mtpa (17 Mbpd) Condensate 1.2 Mtpa (34 Mbpd) 6

7 Typical 2-Train LNG Plant Gas Gathering 1.7 Bcfd Inlet Gas Reception Liquid Gas Make- Up Fuel Inlet Gas Treating Train 1 NGL Recovery Liquefaction Inlet Gas Reception Inlet Gas Treating NGL Recovery Pipeline NGL Amine Fractionation Manifold for Scrub CO Train 2 & Column/KO H 2 2 S Removal NGL after C3 Pre-Cool Fractionation Deethanizer Pig Receivers <50 ppm Primarily & < 4 ppm C4+ to Prevent Freezing Inlet Vapor Separator Compression Sulfur LNG Recovery Heat Value Unit if Important H 2 S for US & Condensate Slug Catcher Mol Sieve European Stabilization Dehydration* Markets Depropanizer & Treating < 100 ppb 1,070 btu/scf Max 95% Condensate & 200 psig Stabilization VP Mercury Vapor Need Removal* Turbo-Expander for High <.5ppm Multi-Stage H 2 S & <15ppm ColumnS Activated C3+ Carbon Removal Debutanizer Adsorber Vapor & Compressor Treating 95% & 70 psia psig <.5ppm De-Odorized H 2 S & <15ppm S LNG Storage Propane Storage Butane Storage Condensate Storage Fuel LNG 9 Mtpa (1.2 Bcfd) Propane.73 Mtpa (27 Mbpd) Butane.5 Mtpa (17 Mbpd) Condensate 1.2 Mtpa (34 Mbpd) 7

8 180,000 M 3 LNG Tank Full-Containment Tank to Reduce Impound Area & Improve Safety Approx. 75M Dia x 40M H Insulated for <.05%/D of Boil-off Top Entry In-Tank Pumps Total Capacity Based on Tanker Size (135,000 M 3 ) Plus 4+ Days Production 8

9 Inside the Tanks Single-Stage Multi-Stage Tank with Pump Caissons 9

10 LNG Loading System 16 Chiksan Type 3+1 LNG Arms 3,500 M 3 /Hr/Ea. 10,500 M 3 /Hr 140K M 3 Tanker 4+1 Systems 14,000 M 3 /Hr Qmax & Qflex 200K+ M 3 1 Vapor Return 10

11 Cost of Refrigeration Methane or Nitrogen Cost/Btu Removed Ethylene Propane Air/Water -162C 25C Temperature 11

12 Natural Gas Liquefaction Processes 25C Gas Cooling Temperature Min. DT Condensation Liquid Sub-cooling -162C ΔH (Enthalpy - Heat Removed) 12

13 Cascade LNG Process Most Straight Forward of All Processes Kenai Plant Continuous Operation 1969 CoP License, Plant Build by Bechtel 80F Temperature -260F Propane Refrig. 1st Stage CoP Optimized 2nd Stage Cascade Refrigerant Cycle 3th Stage 1st Stage Ethylene Refrig 2nd Stage 1st Stage 2nd Stage Methane Refrig.. 3th Stage ΔH (Enthalpy - Heat Removed) Kenai, Alaska 13

14 C3 Precooled Mixed Refrigerant Process Most Widely Used Licensed by APCI 1 st Plant in Algeria Operating Since 1972 Plants Built by KBR, Chiyoda, JGC, FW 80F Temperature Propane Refrig. 1st Stage 2nd Stage 3th Stage Propane PreCooled Mixed Refrigerant Cycle Mixed Refrigerant -260F ΔH (Enthalpy - Heat Removed) QatarGas LNG Plant 14

15 APCI AP-X Process Largest Train 8 Mtpa Overcome Spiral Wound MCHE Limit First Unit Started in 2009 (QG-II) No Plants Outside of Qatar APCI Supplies Process Design Cold Boxes Spiral Wound Exchanger Turbo-Expanders 15

16 All Processes Use Similar Equipment GE MS7001 FB Gas Turbine Most New Plants Use Large Gas Turbine (& Combined Cycle) to Drive Refrigerant Compressors Some Older & Smaller Trains Have Steam Turbine Drives Many Peak Shaving Plants on Electric Drives Use Large Process Type Centrifugal Compressors Main Difference is in the Cryogenic Heat Exchangers 16

17 Main Cryogenic Heat Exchanger Use by Mixed Refrigerant Process Air Products & Chemicals & Linde: Spiral Wound Ex. Max. Diameter: 5,030mm Height: ~55m Stainless Steel Core 25mm Aluminum Tubing Externally Insulated Chill & Liquefy Gas From 34ºC to 152ºC At 55 to 69 Barg 17

18 APCI s MR Main Cryogenic Heat Exchanger (MCHE) Spiral Wound Design 18

19 Heat Exchanger for Cascade Process Plate Fin Exchanger Cold Box Configuration Many Manufacturers Use Extensively in Air Separation Cascade & Other LNG Processes 19

20 Advances in LNG Plants Onshore Conventional Design Near-shore GBS Design Offshore Steel or Concrete Floater 20

21 FLNG is about to be Reality Shell Prelude Floated out of dry dock in Dec mtpa of LNG capacity Start-up expected in 2016 Petronas Kanowit EPC in progress 1.2 mtpa of LNG Capacity Scheduled for deployment in 2015? 21

22 Conclusions LNG Liquefaction Process Same as AC System in Our Home Pre-Treatment Facilities Can Dwarf Liquefaction System Mole Sieve Dehydration & Mercury Removal Required Gas Treating & NGL Extraction May be Needed Stabilized Condensate & Fractionated NGL Add Value LNG Exchangers, Storage & Loading Systems Are Unique Commercial Liquefaction Processes Well Proven, Robust & Can be Optimized for Plant Size, Gas Composition, Sales & Commercial Needs Novel Near-Shore & Offshore Floating Concepts Are Developed 22

23 LNG? 23

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