Energy Resources and Fossil Fuels

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1 Nonrenewable Energy

2 Energy Resources and Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels remains of ancient organisms that changed into coal, oil, or natural gas 2 main problems Supplies are limited environmental consequences from getting and using it

3 Fuels for Different Uses Used for: Transportation Manufacturing Heating and cooling Generating electricity

4 Suitability depends on: Fuel s energy content Cost Availability Safety Byproducts Airplanes wouldn t use coal to fuel the planes Campers wouldn t use airplane fuel to warm up

5 Electricity power on demand Electricity Advantages More convenient Transports quickly across far distances Disadvantages Difficult to store Other energy sources need to be used to generate it

6 How is Electricity Generated? Electric generator Converts mechanical energy to electrical energy Use conductive coil with a magnet Use turbines wheel turns from force of gas or liquid which spins a generator to produce electricity

7 Energy Use U.S. uses lots of energy to transport goods and people by truck and personal vehicle Little incentive to conserve gas because of price Japan and Switzerland use railway systems Small countries so not as much traveling Use greater percent of hydroelectric and nuclear

8 Forming Fossil Fuels Coal Formation Remains of plants in swamps Ocean levels rose and fell Sediment covers swamps Sediment compresses plants Heat and pressure cause coal to form Bituminous More heat with less pollution Lignite More sulfur, so more pollution Creates acid rain

9 Coal Most used fuel source Advantages Inexpensive Not much needed to refine after mining Disadvantages Remove tops of mountains Waste not properly contained Toxic chemicals go into streams

10 Oil and Natural Gas Formation Decay of marine organisms that accumulate on bottom of ocean Buried by sediment Heated Molecules move into porous rock formations

11 Petroleum Also known as crude oil Used for fuel, chemicals and plastics Found in major geologic features Impermeable rock keeps oil from escaping Release pollutants Form smog health problems Oil spills Created emissions regulations and catalytic converters to reduce pollution Double-hulled tankers to prevent oil spills More oil spills from cars than tankers

12 Natural Gas/Methane Used to be burned off as waste when oil found Door to Hell burning since 1971 Now transport gas through pipelines Produces fewer pollutants

13 Fossil Fuels and the Future Need to know the demands of the populations in the future May not need to rely on oil reserves in the future Deep-ocean drilling more expensive Takes many years to make new sources of energy

14 Nuclear Energy Use uranium as a fuel Neutrons shot at uranium nuclei and cause nuclei to split (fission) Releases lots of energy and more neutrons when nuclei split Controlled reaction Uncontrolled reaction atomic bomb

15 Nuclear Power Plants Uranium pellets hit with neutrons Release energy and more neutrons Has control rods made that will absorb some neutrons to keep uncontrolled reactions from occurring If control rods completely lowered, fission stops and reactor shut down Heat released during reactions generates electricity by heating water Steam produced and turns turbine which turns generator producing electricity

16 Advantages Very concentrated energy Doesn t produce air pollution Release less radioactivity Disadvantages Difficult to find a safe place to store waste trying to recycle through transmutation Must be located in areas that are geologically stable for thousands of years Can become out of control 300 safety improvements

17 Nuclear Fusion Powers stars and the sun large amounts of energy Safer energy and creates less dangerous byproducts Needs to be heated to extreme temperatures (100,000,000 ⁰C) Nuclei need to be maintained at high concentrations and properly confined