LNG BUNKERING VESSELS AND CNG CARRIERS -Innovative solutions to improve sustainability- LNG/SHORE POWER Workshop TRIESTE 10 th of March 2016

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1 LNG BUNKERING VESSELS AND CNG CARRIERS -Innovative solutions to improve sustainability- LNG/SHORE POWER Workshop TRIESTE 10 th of March

2 CONTENTS 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR BUNKERING VESSELS 2

3 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION CNG MARKET BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ECONOMIC DRIVERS: Limited Capex, CNG facilities are cheap and easy to be implemented compared to LNG, largest part of the investment is building and operating the vessels; Development of marginal / stranded fields; Supply regional markets; Suitable where limited project footprint are required (logistic, permissions). ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS: Elimination of flared gas (anti-flaring regulations, reduction CO2 emissions); Recovering and commercialization of associated gas avoiding reinjection; Recovering of well-test gas. 3

4 Delivered volume ( Mscf/d) 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION TARGET FIELDS FOR CNG PROJECTS Traditional natural gas transport is achieved through LNG carrier (long distance and high volumes) and pipelines (short distances and high to very-high volumes). CNG system opportunity is fit for medium distance range and volumes up to 500 Mscf/day. NEW BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY CNG Pipeline Distance < 1000 nm Volume > 100 Mscf/day CNG Carrier Distance to market (nm) Distance < 1500 nm Volume Mscf/day LNG Carrier Distance > 1000 nm Volume > 450 Mscf/day 4

5 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION TARGET FIELDS FOR CNG PROJECTS Worldwide CNG opportunities Marine CNG: Favourable for the Mediterranean 5

6 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION SUPPLY CHAIN: LNG vs CNG Capex by item LNG Unloading 30% Loading: Gas treatment, liquefaction and storage Terminals: Onshore in harbor / offshore liquefaction Ships: Sophisticated Receiving: Storage, regasification, harbor / offshore regasification Transport 10% Loading 60% Capex by item CNG Loading 20% Unloading 5% Transport 75% Loading: Dehydration, compression Terminals: Onshore or offshore (buoy/platform) Ships: Simple shuttle carriers with storage Receiving: Decompression and connection to customer 6

7 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION PRESSURE VESSEL TYPES There are four possible pressure vessel type, ranging from well-known full-metallic vessels (type I) to fullcomposite vessels (type IV) without liner, at the edge of technology. Each type has advantages and disadvantages in terms of weight/content ratio, reliability, maintenance, environmental applicability, working temperature, etc. TYPE 1 FULL METAL TYPE 2 METAL + CYLINDRICAL REINFORCED TYPE 3 COMPOSITE + LINER TYPE 4 FULL COMPOSITE 7

8 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION PRESSURE VESSEL TYPES TYPE 1 FULL METAL Typical pressure bar Existing application up to 300 bar TYPE 3 COMPOSITE + METAL LINER Design target bar not yet available - to be developed METAL STRUCTURE WELDED OR HOT-FORMED EXTERNAL FIRE INSULATION ABT.60 mm COMPOSITE STRUCTURE FILAMENT WOUND? mm mm INTERNAL METALLIC LINER (NON- STRUCTURAL) 8

9 Density (kg/m3) Compression factor 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION Density Compression factor METHANE DENSITY AND C.F Methane density and C.F. 300 bar Density = 218 kg/m3 Compress.factor = bar Density = 136 kg/m3 Compress.factor = 0.80 Efficiency -13% HIGHER HEAT DISSIPATION NEEDED LESS COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY Working pressure (bar) 9

10 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY STATUS Driving the choice of the right technology. METALLIC pressure vessel COMPOSITE pressure vessel Currently in-use technology, manufacturing machinery available Several worldwide steel manufacturers of pressure vessels available, production volumes sufficient for ship transport application Rules for pressure vessel available since long time Gas system at 166 bar is an industrial standard Time to market well defined (abt. 24 months) Manufacturing machineries are not available on the market No existing prototypes at 300 bar Variable production cost deeply affected by carbon fiber cost Actual worldwide CF production largely insufficient for ship transport application, new factories are required Applicable rules for composite pressure vessels under development Time to market currently unknown 10

11 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION MAIN CHARACTERISTICS Length Overall: 220 m Breadth: 40 m Depth to main deck: 22 m Draught: 7,2 m Speed: 14 kn CAPACITIES Total CNG volume (w.c): Abt m3 CNG design pressure: 166 bar at 25 C Total CNG capacity: Abt 6,34 MMscm CNG rack system: Patent pending by FC 11

12 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION 12

13 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION 13

14 1. CNG TECHNOLOGY FOR MARITIME TRANSPORTATION 14

15 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM 15

16 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM DESIGN CONCEPT The Brevik technology concept includes the support of an cylindrical tank in a ships hull enabling the ship to transport cold liquids such as LNG (-163 C) the tank design will utilize the hull of the ship in a preferable manner compared to existing independent tank designs. THE DESIGN INCLUDES: Independent «detached from hull» cylindrical tanks; Market leading low boil-off rate (BOR); Proven cargo handling technology; Design flexibility. 16

17 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM PATENTED TANK SUPPORT The patented tank support of cylindrical tanks in a vessels structure allows for ships to be specialized for liquid cargo in an effective and cost efficient way; Applicable for both new builds and retrofittings; Simultaneous construction of ship and tank resulting in shorter build-period; Low technology barriers for yards, builders and suppliers. 17

18 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM TYPICAL LNG TANK WITH SUPPORTS LNG-Tank concept leaves the tank «detached» from the ship hull structure which will again solve stress and structural issues related to ΔT. 18

19 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM TANK DETAILS 19

20 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM SYSTEM DETAILS 20

21 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM SHIP CONFIGURATION 21

22 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM REDUCED PRODUCTION COST & TIME Tanks and hull can be produced in parallel; MAIN FEATURES Low technology barriers. ROBUSTNESS & RELIABILITY Conventional tank design; Simple and effective support system; Self-supported structure, independent from hull. TECHNICAL FEATURES Sloshing phenomenom is minimized by using circular surfaces allowing partial loading and reduced boill-off during transit. OPTIMIZED QUAY TIME Optimized design for cargo handling and loading/offloading. VISIBILITY & MANEUVRABILITY: The minimal height of shelter deck results in visibility similar to ordinary bulk and tankers. PATENTED SUPPORT SYSTEM Patented support system also allowing for retrofitting existing carriers with LNG-cargo and/or bunkering facilities with low cost. 22

23 2. INNOVATIVE LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEM TANK CONSTRUCTION 23

24 - THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION - LNG/SHORE POWER Workshop TRIESTE 10 th of March