Energy Efficiency Indicators: The Electric Power Sector

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1 Energy Efficiency Indicators: 5 Sectors, 5 Challenges Mexico City, Mexico March 2011 Energy Efficiency Indicators: The Electric Power Sector Robert Schnapp Head, Coal, Renewables, Electric and Heat Section Energy Statistics Division International Energy Agency

2 Coverage: Defining the electricity sector Main electric-only plants Main CHP plants Autoproducer electric-only plants Autoproducer CHP plants Distribution losses not included

3 The main source of energy use to generate electricity: World and Mexico, 1973 and 2008 Biofuels and Waste, 1% Other, 0.1% Biofuels and Waste, 1% Other, 1% Hydro, 21% Nuclear, 3% Natural Gas, 12% Coal/peat, 38% World Hydro, 16% Nuclear, 14% Coal/peat, 41% Mtoe Oil, 25% Natural Gas, 21% Mtoe Oil, 6% Other, 0.4% Coal/peat, 1% Biofuels and Waste, 0.3% Other, 3% Coal/peat, 8% Oil, 41% Hydro, 15% Nuclear, 4% Oil, 19% Hydro, 44% Mexico Natural Gas, 14% Natural Gas, 51% 37 Mtoe 259 Mtoe

4 OECD share of electricity production by energy source, % 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Solar/Wind Geothermal Hydro Nuclear Natural gas Each country produces electricity based on its own resources, trading partners, technological developments, laws, and preferences

5 OECD electricity generation,

6 Useful electricity-related information Data from the IEA Balances Electricity generation Consumption by energy sources Electricity consumption by sector Energy efficiency indicator Electricity generation efficiency Energy intensity indicators Electricity per GDP Electricity per capita CO 2 emission per kwh CO 2 emission per capita CO 2 emission per GDP Don t confuse energy intensity and energy efficiency

7 Index (1990 = 100) Key trends in world electricity sector, Electricity generation CO2 emissions Energy use (input) Electricity generation per capita Electricity generation per capita grows significantly less than total electricity generation, CO 2 emissions and energy input

8 Importance of electricity and electricity per capita in OECD, Per capita consumption of electricity depends on electricification, size of population, and electric equipment preferences

9 Efficiency of electricity production from Fossil fuels (%) Norway Argentina Belgium Turkey Portugal OECD efficiency of electric power plants using fossil fuels Netherlands Spain Denmark Italy United Kingdom Japan New Zealand Austria France Germany Korea Mexico Canada Brazil Ireland United States South Africa Greece Poland World Indonesia Hungary Iceland Australia China Switzerland Saudi Arabia Russian Federation Finland Czech Republic Slovak Republic India Sweden 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Average Average Most countries have increased their plant efficiency by several percentage points, but their level depends on many factors

10 2344 OECD total CO 2 emissions and CO 2 emissions per kwh, 2008 Emissions per kilowatthour depend on the types of energy sources used

11 OECD trends in CO 2 emissions from electricity generation, 1990 and Many countries have reduced their CO 2 emissions in the last 18 years

12 OECD percent distribution and transmission losses, % 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

13 Importance of the data The IEA energy efficiency template and the annual questionnaires are important tools to harmonize data for analyzing interactions between the economy and human activity They can be used to assemble all of the data needed to target and evaluate energy efficiency policies and for comparability and global trend analysis To understand underlying drivers (economic activity and structure, income, prices, etc.) To monitor progress and opportunities To evaluate policy effectiveness Energy efficiency information is important for shaping the patterns of energy use and CO 2 emissions Can use data to understand the potential to decouple electricity use and economic growth

14 General electricity data problems Liberalisation of the industry has reduced the general quality of the data CHP heat includes only sold heat, not any used internally which affects the efficiency calculation Data from renewable energy sources and distributed generators hard to gather Plant efficiencies sometimes reported to exceed 100% Calorific values of fuel not always measured accurately Time series have unequal quality as data collection tools change over time

15 Specific issues with Mexico electricity data Great leap forward in the quality of Mexico s data this year, particularly autoproducer data!! Prompt, articulate responses!! 2009 statistical difference increased 250% Non-specified data should be assigned Prior to 2000 all energy sector consumption is in Nonspecified Energy Industry. Later years split it between oil and gas extraction and petroleum refineries For all years, 40-66% of all industry sector consumption in Non-specified Industry 6% of all final consumption in Non-specified Other for

16 Factors affecting trends in energy consumption in the electric power sector Increase plant efficiency with newer technologies Use of CHP plants to use energy more efficiently Energy mix Availability of domestic resources Environmental laws Emissions control equipment

17 IEA 25 Recommendations for improving energy efficiency: electricity Strengthen incentives for utilities to deliver costeffective energy savings to end-users Place energy efficiency obligations on energy utilities Allow energy efficiency measures to be bid into the energy pool on an equal basis with energy supply options

18 Fuel and CO 2 savings potential in 2006 from improving the efficiency of fossil-fuel based electricity production Exajoules Fossil fuel savings CO 2 savings Gigatonnes of CO Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High IEA Non-IEA World IEA Non-IEA World 0.0 Coal Oil Natural gas Substantial fuel savings and CO 2 emission reductions are possible with best currently used and best available technologies

19 Thank you