Imagine a renewable world

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1 Conversion of Woody Biomass to Chemicals, Energy and Materials Shijie Liu and Thomas E. Amidon Biorefinery Research Institute Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry 1

2 Imagine a renewable world 2

3 Outline Introduction Hot-Water Extraction Wood Extract Hydrolysis Membrane Separation Fermentation Solid products Conclusion 3

4 Woody Biomass Chemical components of wood 21% hardwoods 25% softwoods wood Lignin extractives 2-8% carbohydrates 35% hardwoods 25% softwoods hemicellulose cellulose 45% 4

5 Wood Components: Inorganic Components K & Ca (400 ~ 1000 ppm); Mg & P (100 ~ 400 ppm) ; and 70 others Extractives Aliphatic and alicyclic: Terpenes; terpenoids; esters; fatty acids; alcohols; Phenolic: phenols; stilbenes; lignans; isoflavones; Others: sugars; cyclitols; tropolones; amino acids, Hemicellulose Lignin Cellulose 5

6 Incremental Deconstruction Maximize value achievable Minimize energy loss Minimize waste byproducts generation Multiple product mix 6

7 Integrated Biorefinery: Woody Biomass Hot-Water Extraction Residual Woody biomass Co-Gen or CHP Gasification Feedstock Extraction Liquor Unbleached Pulp Alkaline Puling Pulping Chemicals Fuel Pellets Reconstituted Wood Products Electricity and Steam Methanol Acetic Acid Hydrolysis / Separation Food additives: sugar oligomers Sugars Bleached Pulp Paper products or Cellulose products Black Liquor Carbohydrates Separation or Co-Gen Aromatics Plastics Adhesives Solvent Surface agents Xylitol Ethanol Butanol Acetone Hydrogen Lactic Acid PHA 7

8 ESF Biorefinery: Hot-Water Extraction Hydrolysis Fractionation Acetic Acid Methanol Sugars or monosaccharides Aromatics, Furfurals Polysaccharides Fermentation to Ethanol, Plastics, 8

9 Hot-Water Extraction 9

10 Maple Wood Extract Acetic Acid, Methanol Acetyl, Polysaccharides Aromatics, Furfurals Monomeric Sugars Conce entration, mm Methanol, mm time, min Acetyl Aromatics Furfurals Starting conditions: g OD Maple Woodchips g water, 28 C HOAc MeOH Sugars time, min Acetic Acid, mm 10

11 Hydrolysis Depolymerize macromolecules (of carbohydrates) by inserting water molecules between the monomeric units Enzymatic hydrolysis Using a hydrolytic enzyme as catalyst Substrate specific only working with certain polymer and depolymerize at certain location Acid Hydrolysis Using acid (proton) as catalyst Glycosidic bond breakage, no specificity By-product dehydration reactions 11

12 Fractionation Solid-liquid separations Aromatics and/or degraded lignin recovery Xylan or xylo-oligomer recovery Catalyst recovery Liquid-liquid separations Membrane separations for Sugar stream purification Recovery of chemicals 12

13 Nano-Filtration Membrane System 13

14 Membrane Separation Resistances: Osmotic Pressure Friction Porous Solids Model: µ U p = π + U 1+ k a + U 2 2 bu 14

15 Flux versus Pressure 500 Permeate Rate, ml/min Pressure, PSI 15

16 Osmotic Pressure Change i π, psi V 0 /V 16

17 Fractionation of wood extracts Time, minutes C, g/l 10 5 Concentrate Stream Permeate Stream C, g/l Time, Minutes 17

18 Acetic acid concentrations C, mol/ /L 0.10 Concentrate Stream Permeate Stream Time, minutes 18

19 Separation Efficiency Xylose 0.95 R s 0.90 Aromatic Compounds Time, minutes 19

20 Separation Efficiency Acetate Methanol Furfural HMF R s Time, minutes 20

21 Fermentation Ethanol E. Coli Pichia Stipitis Butanol Clostridium acetobutylicum PHA 21

22 Residual woody biomass use Pulping paper and fiber products Fiber board reconstituted wood products Wood fuel wood pellets Biomass energy CHP Hydrolysis: cellulose conversion to platform chemicals Lignin conversion to chemicals and/or energy 22

23 Acknowledgements Christopher D. Wood Raymond Appleby Zhijie (Jeff) Sun Jennifer Putnam Alan Shupe Tingjun Liu Dave Kiemle Houfang Lu Kathryn Gratien Mitchell Graves Ruofei Hu Yang Wang others 23

24 International Biorefinery Conference October 6-9,