Safe Water Network is recognized as a National Key Resource Center by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation KNOWLEDGE PARTNER GRANT PARTNER

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1 Safe Water Network is recognized as a National Key Resource Center by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation KNOWLEDGE PARTNER GRANT PARTNER

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9 1 Dream of Har Ghar Jal will be realized by 2030: Tomar, Press Information Bureau, 22 March Retrieved from

10 2 National Rural Drinking Water Programme, Rajiv Gandhi Water Mission, Framework for Implementation; Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. Retrieved from:

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13 3 Piped water supply refers to a mix of household connections, public taps and handpumps within household premises, or within a 50 meter vertical or horizontal distance from the premises. Household piped water connections refer to piped water connections (preferably metered) within the household. 4 Format C17 - Status Of Rural Habitation With Respect To Drinking Water Supply (As On Date 22/2/2017) Retrieved from:

14 EXHIBIT 1 In 2016, 55% of the rural population was covered under Piped Water Supply Schemes (PWSS) and 15% had access to household connections. By 2030, the Har Ghar Jal goal is to reach 100% piped water supply, and 95% household connections. Timeline of NRDWP Reforms 2016 (Actuals) 2017 (Strategic Plan Goal) 2022 (Strategic Plan Goal) 2030 (Har Ghar Jal Goal) 55% population covered by piped water supply 15% household connections 85% dependence on Ground Water Sources 15% dependence on Surface Water Sources 55% households covered by piped water supply 15% households connections Enabling support to PRI and local communities for managing 10% of water supply systems 90% households covered by piped water supply 50% household connections <10% use of public taps <10% use of hand pumps or other methods Enabling support to PRI and local communities for managing 50% of water supply systems 100% households covered by piped water supply 95% household connections 50% dependence on ground water 50% dependence on surface water Source: NRDWP Strategic Plan ; IMIS

15 5 MDWS Outcome Budget , Page 1. Retrieved from: 6 IMIS. Format C17 Status of Rural Habitation With Respect to Drinking Water Supply (As On Date 22-Februrary-2017). Retrieved from: 7 IMIS. Format C17 Status of Rural Habitation With Respect to Drinking Water Supply (As On Date 22-Februrary-2017). Retrieved from: 8 Safe Water Network analysis. Data on rural population covered by PWS is from IMIS (Format C17 - Status of Rural Habitation With respect To Drinking Water Supply as on Date, data extracted 17-January-2017); baseline rural population data by state is from the 2011 Census. Note 1 : Cost of coverage to bring all states to 100% PWS by 2030 is estimated as Rs 4,96, Crores assuming, that per capita cost in non hills (INR) 9,200, Per capita cost in hills (INR) 15,000; analysis does not take into account YoY rural population growth, and numbers are in 2016 INR (does not account for inflation). Note 2 : Telangana estimate is based on data listed as unverified on IMIS.

16 The National Rural Drinking Water Program and NITI Aayog s Five Year Plans have driven key initiatives and policies in the sector over the years. Timeline of Government Policies EXHIBIT 2

17 Convergence between Government programmes EXHIBIT 3 The MDWS has actively encouraged convergence between the NRDWP and the Swachh Bharat Mission, and also with key programmes and grants at other Ministries. 9 Twelfth Five Year Plan ( ), Report of the Working Group on Rural Domestic Water and Sanitation, p 187. Retrieved from: 10 Manual for Preparation of Detailed Project Report for Rural Piped Water Supply Schemes, MDWS, F.No. W /01/2012-W-I, p Twelfth Five Year Plan ( ) Rural Drinking Water and Sanitation, p3,

18 EXHIBIT 4 A total 55,236 schemes were completed across different States in , of which 99% were reported functional as of January Source: FORM C42 - Details of Completed Schemes ( ). Retrieved from Extracted on 22 Jan IMIS Format 2 - Details of Schemes taken up in , data extracted 30-January 2017 Retrieved from: (As on 22/01/2017)\ 13 IMIS Format 2 - Details of Schemes taken up in , data extracted 30-January 2017 Retrieved from: (As on 22/01/2017)

19 EXHIBIT 5 75% of the total national expenditure on water schemes were made in 5 states Rajasthan, Karnataka, West Bengal, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu Total Cost of Schemes ( ) in INR Crores *Others include Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh Source: Format 2-Details of Schemes taken up in ; Retrieved from: (As on 22/01/2017) EXHIBIT 6 63% of the expenditure in NRDWP water programmes were taken on by States and to 37% was contributed by the Centre Center vs State Expenditure ( ) in INR Crores Source: Format D8 A - Component wise Expenditure (Upto 23/01/2017); Retrieved from: 14 IMIS Format C33- State wise No of Schemes and Total Expenditure, data extracted 30-January 2017 Retrieved from:

20 EXHIBIT 7 81% of the expenditure was made NRDWP-Coverage, WQ, Sustainability and O&M. 19% of the remaining expenditure was distributed among Support activities, WQMS, Component-wise Earmarked Expenditure funding for by bacterial NRDWP in and Crores, chemical contamination, Calamity and DDP. Source: Format D8 A - Component wise Expenditure (Upto 23/01/2017); Retrieved from:

21 EXHIBIT 8 34% (INR 273 Cr) of the INR 800 Crores financial assistance by NITI Aayog for quality affected areas was utilized in six States - Rajasthan, West Bengal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Gujarat, while the remaining 66% (INR 526 Cr) went unutilized. Other* states were not able to utilize funds allocated. NITI Aayog Fund Utilization (INR Lakhs) Other states include Punjab, Maharashtra, Bihar, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Assam, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand Source: Format C 41 A - Monthly Financial Progress out of one time assistance provided by NITI Aayog (INR in Lakhs) Retrieved fromhttp://indiawater.gov.in/imisreports/reports/physical/rpt_nitiaayogfin_s.aspx?rep=0&rp=y 15 IMIS, Format C 41 A - Monthly Financial Progress out of one time assistance provided by NITI Aayog (INR in Lakhs), data extracted 22- February Ibid. 17 IMIS, Format C 40 A - Monthly Physical Progress out of one time assistance provided by NITI Aayog, data extracted 22-February-2017

22 EXHIBIT remote, non-electrified habitations, primarily in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Bihar, were provided with solar energy based pumps between 2015 and 2017 Habitations Covered Under MNRE Assistance ( ) CHHATTISGARH Source: Format - C35 B Coverage of habitations with solar dual pump with MNRE Assistance 18 F. No. W-11044/02/2012-Water-II, dated , MDWS Letter on Solar Energy Based Dual Pump Piped Water Scheme Reg

23 Improving Service Delivery Standards EXHIBIT 10A States are working to improve service delivery standards for drinking water in rural India, moving from the current blend of protected wells, tube wells, hand pumps and stand posts towards metered household piped water connections. 19 Fully Covered (FC) habitations, as defined by the MDWS, are those in which the average supply of drinking water is equal to or more than 40 lpcd. Partially Covered (PC) are those habitations in which the average supply of drinking water is less than 40 lpcd and equal to or more than 10 lpcd. Quality Affected (QA) habitations are those where water samples tested in laboratories have indicated levels of chemical contamination (limited to Arsenic, Fluoride, Iron, Nitrate and Salinity) higher than the permissible limits set by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Definitions from Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, retrieved from 20 Annual Report , MDWS, GOI and Format C-17- Status of Rural Habitations with respect to Drinking Water.

24 EXHIBIT 10B Fully covered habitations increased from 70% in % in Minimum service delivery norms for rural drinking water have remained at 40 lpcd for the last 7 years, with a blend of protected wells, tube wells, stand posts and household connections Snapshot of Piped Water Supply Coverage in 2010 and 2017 EXHIBIT 10C 7,056 piped water supply schemes and non-piped water supply schemes were completed in the year Source: Annual Report, MDWS, GOI and Format C-17 Status of Rural Habitations with Respect to Drinking Water Supply (22/2/2017) Retrieved from: Source: Format C39 - Ongoing Schemes as on 22/05/2017

25 EXHIBIT 11 In , the Ministry budgeted 22% of the INR 5000 Crore NRDWP funding towards Scheduled Caste (SC), and 10% towards Scheduled Tribe (ST) concentrated habitations 21 Analyzed by UNICEF in 2010 based on data from National Family Welfare and Health Surveys in 1993, 1999 and MDWS Outcome Budget , Page 17. Retrieved from:

26 EXHIBIT 12 Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Jharkhand and Gujarat have been able to meet the water needs of more than 90% of their SC concentrated habitations Access to >=40 lpcd water in Scheduled-Caste-concentrated habitations, by State Source: Format C19 - Report On Population Coverage (as on 01/04/2016) Retrieved from ( )

27 EXHIBIT 13 Piped water supply (PWS) as on January 2017 covered 7.3 lakh habitations (42.7%). The national average for PWS has remained at approximately 43% for the last 6 years Piped Water Supply Schemes Coverage ( ) Source: Format C-19 Report on Population Coverage Retrieved from: (1/4/2017) 23 The MDWS defines Piped Water Supply (PWS) systems as those that provide water to various points away from the source of water through a pumping or gravity system and connections through pipelines. Retrieved from

28 EXHIBIT 14 Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand and Gujarat have provided water access to over 90% of their populations at >= 40 lpcd through a blend of hand pumps, stand pipes and household piped water. Access to >=40 lpcd Piped Water Supply (PWS), by State Source: Format C19 - Report On Population Coverage (as on 01/04/2016) Extracted on Retrieved from:

29 EXHIBIT 15 Getting to Har Ghar Jal by 2030 needs INR 4,96,234 Crores of infrastructure investment. 50% of the cost and coverage gap (by population) lies in three states, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar Coverage Gap and Cost, by State 24 Safe Water Network analysis. Data on rural population covered by PWS is from IMIS (Format C17 - Status of Rural Habitation With respect To Drinking Water Supply as on Date, data extracted 17-January-2017); baseline rural population data by state is from the 2011 Census. Note 1 : Cost of coverage to bring all states to 100% PWS by 2030 is estimated as Rs 4,96, Crores assuming, that per capita cost in non hills (INR) 9,200, Per capita cost in hills (INR) 15,000; analysis does not take into account YoY rural population growth, and numbers are in 2016 INR (does not account for inflation). Note 2 : Telangana estimate is based on data listed as unverified on IMIS

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31 Slipped Back Habitations with <40 lpcd, by State, 2016 EXHIBIT 16 Rajasthan reported the highest number of slipped back habitations in 2016, 25% of the total slipped back habitations reported across the country Source: Format F4- Yearly Data Updation (as on 01/04/2016) Retrieved from

32 Slipped Back Habitation Trends, EXHIBIT 17 The slipped back habitations have decreased from 16% in to 3.9% in Source: Format F4- Yearly Data Updation (as on 01/04/2016) Retrieved from 25 Groundwater Scenario of India , by-cgwb-mowr.pdf 26 Press Information Bureau, Per Capital Availability of Water, 27 April 2015, 27 Groundwater Scenario of India , by-cgwb-mowr.pdf

33 Per Capacity Storage Capacity (Billion Cubic Meters), by Country EXHIBIT 18 India has a per capita storage capacity of 385 billion cubic meters, which is very low, compared to other countries. Source: AQUASTAT: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Global Information System on Water and Agricultural Storage Capacity (Billion Cubic Meters), by State EXHIBIT 19 Storage capacity varies widely across States. Maharashtra reports the highest storage capacity at 37.4 billion cubic meters. 28 Ground water development is the ratio of the annual ground water extraction to net annual ground water availability. It indicates the quantity of ground water available for use. Areas with >100% ground water development are classified as over exploited.

34 Quality Affected Habitations EXHIBIT 20 4% of habitations faced water quality issues in as compared to 4.9% of habitations in % of these are located in Rajasthan and West Bengal. Source: Format F4- Yearly Data Updation (as on 01/04/2016) Retrieved from th Five Year Plan , Rural Drinking Water and Sanitation, pg 2

35 EXHIBIT 21 Decentralization of O&M funds to the village level has typically been low or underreported in most states. Karnataka reported high Gram Panchayat level O&M funds. Most other states did not report funds transferred to Gram Panchayat. Amount Transferred for O&M to the Gram Panchayats, by State Source: Format 10 - Financial Report for O&M Expenditure ( )

36 EXHIBIT 22 Total O&M Expenditure in across States: INR Cr O&M Expenditure in (INR Cr) O&M Expenditures Reported in , by State Source: Format 10 - Financial Report for O&M Expenditure ( ) EXHIBIT 23 Implementation Framework and Ecosystem for Replicable Services

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39 30 Source: Format E28 - Habitation Status based on testing ( ) - Only Lab, Retrieved from : Source, Extracted on Ibid.

40 32 EXHIBIT 24 Water Quality Laboratories across States, Districts, Blocks/Sub- Divisions in India

41 EXHIBIT 25 Effective Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) at Centre, State and local levels, help leverage private-sector resources, capabilities and funding towards building and operating sustainable water delivery systems

42 EXHIBIT 26 Entering into Service Agreements with community, public or private operators and personnel is key to ensuring transparent and effective service delivery standards

43 EXHIBIT 27 Institutional capacities and capabilities at the State and Village levels, needed to sustain day-to-day PWS operations

44 EXHIBIT 28 Consumer consultation, grievance redressal mechanisms and effective online tracking and monitoring systems are key to sustainable water delivery

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53 Safe Water Network analysis. Data on rural population covered by PWS is from IMIS (Format C17 - Status of Rural Habitation With respect To Drinking Water Supply as on Date, data extracted 17-January-2017); baseline rural population data by state is from the 2011 Census. Note 1 : Cost of coverage to bring all states to 100% PWS by 2030 is estimated as Rs 4,96, Crores assuming, that per capita cost in non hills (INR) 9,200, Per capita cost in hills (INR) 15,000; analysis does not take into account YoY rural population growth, and numbers are in 2016 INR (does not account for inflation). Note 2 : Telangana estimate is based on data listed as unverified on IMIS.

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