4th Grade. Energy and Natural Resources.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "4th Grade. Energy and Natural Resources."


1 1

2 4th Grade Energy and Natural Resources

3 Energy and Natural Resources Human Energy Use Click on the topic to go to that section Renewable Energy Non Renewable Energy Environmental Impacts 3

4 Human Energy Use Return to Table of Contents 4

5 Energy Do you remember what energy is? Click below to review. Energy is the ability and potential to do things. We have already learned a lot about energy. In this unit we are going to learn even more about energy and how humans use and interact with it. 5

6 Human Energy Use Have you noticed that we use a lot of energy and fuels in our everyday lives? 6

7 Human Energy Use Can you think of more ways that humans use energy and fuels that the pictures didn't show? Think of things that require energy that we must get from somewhere else, instead of things that we do that use our own energy. (Remember, energy is the ability and potential to do things.) 7

8 Human Energy Use Where do you think the energy comes from to do all these things? Discuss with your table and write your ideas below. 8

9 Sources of Energy Energy that humans use usually comes from natural sources. This means that the energy comes from things that can be found in the environment, somewhere on the Earth. What are some natural sources of energy? Click in the box to find out. plants the sun petroleum (oil) coal heat water natural gas 9

10 Sources of Energy The sun, plants, coal, petroleum, heat, water, and natural gas are all examples of natural energy sources that humans use to do many different things. When we talk about energy, some of these energy sources go by different names. Do you know some of their names? Plants used for energy are called biofuels. Water energy is called hydroelectric energy. Heat energy from Earth is called geothermal energy. Energy from the sun is called solar energy. 10

11 What kind of energy do we use most? Which source of energy do you think humans use the most? The second most? Not very much at all? Discuss it with your group. Based on your current knowledge, move the following types of energy into a list, ranking them from the least to greatest usage in the United States. SOLAR BIOFUELS COAL PETROLEUM WIND GEOTHERMAL HYDROELECTRIC NATURAL GAS 11

12 U.S. Sources of Energy This graphic, based on energy use in the United States in 2009, shows how much of the energy that year came from which sources. What do you notice? Does anything surprise you? Were your predictions close? 12

13 Converting Energy Humans "produce" energy from all different sources, but like we already learned about energy, when we say "produce energy" it typically really means that we convert energy from one form to another or transfer it from one place to another. This is because energy cannot be created; energy is conserved. Remember back to the example of solar panels. How do they work? Click below to check your answer. Solar panels turn light energy into electrical energy. Light energy is changed into electrical energy. 13

14 1 Humans produce all the energy they use in their everyday lives on their own. True False Answer 14

15 2 All of the following are natural sources of energy except: A the sun B petroleum C wind Answer D the moon 15

16 3 Do humans produce new energy? Yes No Answer 16

17 4 What is energy that comes from moving water called? A aqua power B hydroelectric power C biofuel D water power Answer 17

18 5 Which of the following sources of energy do humans use the largest amount of? A biofuels B natural gas C petroleum Answer D wind 18

19 Renewable Energy Return to Table of Contents 19

20 What is Renewable Energy? What do you think when you hear the term renewable energy? What do you think it is? Discuss it with your table. 20

21 Renewable Energy Renewable energy is energy that comes from a source that is not in danger of being used up because it can be recreated relatively quickly. The source of energy can be renewed, meaning it won't run out before more is produced. Can you think of some examples of renewable energy? Write your ideas in the box. 21

22 Renewable Energy Sources Did you think of any of these sources of renewable energy? agricultural waste biofuels biomass geothermal power hydroelectric power methane from cows nuclear solar power tidal power wave power wind wood pictures: listverse.com 22

23 Biomass Biomass is living or recently dead biological materials that can be used as fuel or for industrial production. This can be plants grown to generate electricity, animal matter used for production of goods, or biodegradable wastes that can be burned as fuel. 23

24 Biofuels Biofuels are fuels that are made from biomass. Bioethanol and biodiesel are the two main types of biofuels used today. Bioethanol is made from plants. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled greases. ethanol plant biodiesel from soybeans 24

25 Geothermal Power Geothermal power involves extracting heat from the earth to produce energy, usually for heating or electricity. Geothermal power can be used on a small scale, such as heating an apartment complex. It can also be used on a larger scale for energy production through a geothermal power plant. geothermal pump a geothermal power plant 25

26 Hydroelectric Power Hydroelectricity is the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. This usually involves either a dam or a water wheel. 26

27 Nuclear Power Nuclear power extracts useable energy from atomic nuclei through controlled nuclear reactions. Nuclear reactors heat water to produce steam, which is then converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity or propulsion. 27

28 Solar Power Solar power is harnessing the sun's energy to produce electricity. Photovoltaic cells, also called solar panels, are used to capture this energy. 28

29 Wind Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useable form by wind turbines. Wind power is typically converted into electricity or mechanical energy. 29

30 Renewable Energy Think about these different sources of energy. How are they able to be renewed? Why do they not run out? Discuss with your table. 30

31 6 A renewable energy source is defined as an energy source that has little impact on the environment. True False Answer 31

32 7 Renewable energy sources: A have only existed for about 100 years B cannot be replaced once they're used up C are always man made Answer D do not run out 32

33 8 Can renewable energy only be used on a small scale? Yes No Answer 33

34 9 Energy produced using heat from the Earth is called. A hydroelectric power B geothermal power C solar power Answer D biomass 34

35 10 This is a: A nuclear reactor B geothermal power plant C photovoltaic cell Answer D biodiesel plant 35

36 Renewable Energy Use This is a graphic showing World Energy Consumption by Source (in 2010). How much of the energy that we use is renewable? What types of renewable energy are used the most? 36

37 11 Renewable energy makes up about what amount of the word's total energy consumption? A a little less than half B 5% C 1/5 Answer D 1/4 37

38 12 Based on data from 2010, what type of renewable energy is used more than any other type? A biomass B solar C wind Answer D hydroelectric 38

39 Non Renewable Energy Return to Table of Contents 39

40 What is Non Renewable Energy? If renewable energy is energy that comes from a source that is not in danger of being used up because it can be recreated relatively quickly, then what do you think non renewable energy is? 40

41 Non Renewable Energy Non renewable energy come from sources that will run out or will not be replenished in our lifetimes or in many many lifetimes. Non renewable energy sources cannot be renewed, meaning they will run out before more is produced. Can you think of some examples of non renewable energy? Write your ideas in the box. 41

42 Non Renewable Energy Non renewable energy sources are referred to as fossil fuels. These include: coal petroleum / crude oil natural gas Other non renewable sources are: uranium (used in nuclear power*) *Nuclear energy itself is renewable; however uranium the material used in nuclear power plants is not. Therefore nuclear power can be considered both renewable and nonrenewable. 42

43 Fossil Fuels Carbon is the main element in fossil fuels. Fossil fuels formed about 360 to 300 million years ago. It is called the Carboniferous Period because fossil fuels have so much carbon. 43

44 Fossil Fuels Fossils fuels formed when dead plants and animals drifted to the bottom of seabeds and were eventually crushed under rocks and sediment that piled up on top of them. The high heat and pressure created turned these organisms into fossil fuels. That is why there are now underground pockets (reservoirs) of fossil fuels all over the world. 44

45 Coal Coal is a black or brownish rock. Coal is mined out of the ground and then it is burned to create energy. About half of the electricity in the United States comes from coal. 45

46 Petroleum / Crude Oil Petroleum, also called oil or crude oil, is a liquid fossil fuel that is trapped in underground rock formations. Sometimes oils bubbles up onto Earth's surface itself, but usually it is deep underground and we must drill to get it. About half of the world's oil is converted into gasoline. 46

47 Natural Gas Natural gas is also trapped underground. It is made up mostly of methane, which smells like rotten eggs. Like petroleum, natural gas must be drilled since it is far underground. Unlike petroleum, natural gas does not exist in big pockets, so a process called fracking is often used to break apart rocks and release the natural gas they hold. We often use natural gas for heating and cooking. 47

48 13 Fossil fuels must be mined or extracted before they can be used. True False Answer 48

49 14 Fossil fuels are made mostly of: A methane B carbon C gas Answer D liquid 49

50 15 Nuclear power can only be considered a renewable energy source. True False Answer 50

51 16 Were non renewable energy sources created recently? Yes No Answer 51

52 17 Gasoline is made from: A coal B uranium C natural gas Answer D petroleum 52

53 18 What are the three main types of non renewable energy? (not a clicker question) 53

54 Activity 1: Solar Collector How can light energy from the sun be converted into useable heat energy? In this activity, you will build a solar collector. See how a device can collect light energy from the sun and convert it into heat energy that can be used for cooking! 54

55 Activity 2: Solar Sunflower How can light energy from the sun be converted into kinetic energy? In this activity, you build a solar sunflower. See one way that a device can be built to convert solar energy into kinetic energy! 55

56 Lab: Design & Build an Energy Device How can energy be captured and converted? In this activity, you get to design and build your own device that converts energy from one form to another. You are the designer, builder, and tester, so get ready to use what you learned in the last two activities and use your own imagination and creativity! What will you use to build yours? 56

57 Environmental Impacts Return to Table of Contents 57

58 Environmental Impacts The way humans use energy effects the environment in many ways. Whether energy comes from a renewable or non renewable source, it impacts the environment. Sometimes the energy source itself is considered "clean" or renewable, but the way that humans extract and/or convert that energy has many effects on the environment. 58

59 What are some environmental impacts? Can you think of different ways human energy use might impact the environment? Discuss with your tables and write your ideas in the box. 59

60 Environmental Impacts Here are some ways energy consumption can effect the environment: create air pollution emit greenhouse gases produce hazardous waste emit metals contribute to acid rain can be deadly or catastrophic use large amounts of water during production Did you think of some of these? 60

61 Air Pollution Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, and other harmful materials into the Earth's atmosphere. These materials are capable of causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms (animal and plants), and damage to the natural or built environments around them. These materials are often introduced into the atmosphere through energy production. 61

62 Greenhouse Gases Sometimes human energy use releases gases into the air that trap heat and make the planet warmer. These gases are called greenhouse gases. The largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions are burning fossil fuels for electricity, heat, and transportation. 62

63 Hazardous Waste The processes through which energy sources are processed sometime produce hazardous waste. This means that the material that is left over from the processing is harmful to humans or the environment. Hazardous waste is difficult to get rid of. Nuclear energy, in particular, creates a large amount of hazardous waste. 63

64 Acid Rain The production of energy can also contribute to acid rain, rainfall that is polluted and causes environmental harm. Acid rain acidifies streams and lakes, can cause damage to trees, and also make buildings, statues, and sculptures decay quickly. The main cause of acid rain is burning of coal and other fossil fuels. The waste gases from this process combine with water in the atmosphere to form acid. acid rains' effect on a forest acid rains' effect on a sculpture 64

65 Deadly or Catastrophic Effects Some of the ways we produce energy have the potential to be deadly or catastrophic to people or the environment. Dam failures, oil spills, drilling accidents, coal mine collapses, and nuclear meltdowns are all possible as humans use these source of energy. a bird caught in an oil spill a collapsed coal mine 65

66 Use Large Amounts of Water Energy generation, particularly electricity generation, often involves the consumption of water resources. When water is removed from lakes or rivers, as it sometimes is, the aquatic life in those areas are affected. Sometimes water flow is impacted, particularly with hydroelectric power that uses dams, altering the natural flow of water in a habitat. Other energy production methods put polluted water back into the environment, hurting the wildlife that relies on it. Click picture to view an infographic about water and energy. 66

67 19 Humans usually use natural sources for energy without impacting the environment. True False Answer 67

68 20 A renewable energy source cannot negatively impact the environment. True False Answer 68

69 21 What does energy production sometimes emit that causes the Earth to heat up? A acid B greenhouse gases C polluted water Answer D oil 69

70 22 Which of the following is true about water? A The way we convert energy requires a lot of water. B There is so much water in the world that we can use as much as we need. Answer C Using too much water is not much of a problem. D It is easy to get water anywhere. 70

71 23 It is easy to choose one type of energy source that has the smallest impact on the environment and can meet all our energy needs. True False Answer 71

72 Complicated Impacts This graphic gives us an idea of how complicated it is to try to figure out the best possible energy solution. Different energy sources have different impacts, and depending on what a person or a place cares about most, it affects what type of energy is used. Overall, though, it is true that non renewable resources often have a large negative affect on the environment. 72

73 Research Project Where are energy and fuels derived from? How do the use of energy and fuels affect the environment? In this research project, you will become an expert on one energy type and then find a way to communicate what you have learned to others. 73