Cultural intelligence and organisational culture: the mediating role of cross cultural role conflict, ambiguity, and overload

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1 11. Organizational Behaviour Competitive Session Cultural intelligence and organisational culture: the mediating role of cross cultural role conflict, ambiguity, and overload Amadeus Kubicek School of Management and Marketing, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia Dr Bhanugopan Ramudu School of Management and Marketing, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia Professor Grant O Neill Curtin Business School, Curtin University, Perth, Australia

2 Page 1 of 21 ANZAM Organizational Behaviour Competitive Session Cultural intelligence and organisational culture: the mediating role of cross cultural role conflict, ambiguity, and overload ABSTRACT: The study examined the mediating roles of Cross Cultural Role Conflict, Ambiguity, and overload (CCRCAO) in the relationship between Cultural Intelligence (CQ) and Organisational Culture (OC). Survey data were collected from a sample of two hundred and ninety nine (299) respondents from four (4) different countries. The results showed that there is a positive relationship between CQ and CCRCAO, however a negative relationship was found between CCRCAO and OC. Furthermore, the results revealed that CCRCAO did not mediate the relationship between CQ and OC. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed. Keywords: Cross Cultural Role Conflict, Ambiguity, and overload, Cultural Intelligence, Organisational Culture 1

3 ANZAM 2015 Page 2 of 21 While the nature, understanding, and consequences of cultural intelligence (CQ) and organisational culture (OC) has been enhanced, research gaps still exist between the relationship of CQ, OC and cross cultural role conflict ambiguity and overload (CCRCAO) and their interactive relationships. The results of cross cultural studies may not be generalised in these areas. For example, as Asian countries are characterized by collectivism, employees may identify more with organisation than their Western counterparts (Ahlstrom, 2012; Foley, Ngo, & Loi, 2006; Frone, 1990). Moreover, OC may have variance in such countries possibly impacting on the influence and abilities of CQ practice, compounded further with the possibility of cultural or cross cultural conflict, ambiguity and/or overload. An attempt has been made to fill this void by conducting studies that blend multi-ethnicity from theory-based research that advances the understanding of organisation behavior and critical management Secondly, little is known about the impact of CQ on CCRCAO. When individuals have a high degree of CQ in their ability to culturally adapt (Earley & Ang, 2003) it is important to investigate how the CQ may affect cross cultural conflict, ambiguity and the resultant overload. Thirdly, while research has considered CCRCAO either as a predictor or an outcome variable, this construct is investigated as a possible mediator between CQ and OC. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have explored this notion and we therefore investigate whether CCRCAO may serve as a mechanism through which several contextual factors in the workplace affect the culture and task performance within the organisation. In view of these research gaps, we attempt to explore the relationships of CCRCAO, CQ and OC across a range of country clusters to engage the theory of the four factor model of CQ, OC theory, and role stress theory (CCRCAO). LITERATURE REVIEW AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT Relationship between CQ and OC OC may affect an organisation by influencing behaviour and performance outcomes (George, Sleeth, & Siders, 1999) and has consequently been categorised (Balogh, Szabó, & Gaál, 2011) as clans, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy. Clans represent cultures in organisations that have an internal focus and are flexible (Borgulya & Barakonyi, 2004). Research conducted by Yitmen (2013) 2

4 Page 3 of 21 ANZAM 2015 highlights this relationship between OC and CQ. CQ at the organisational level is the capacity to reconfigure its capability to manage effectively in culturally diverse environments (Yitmen, 2013). The study examined the concept of organisational CQ through a competitiveness framework and supported the notion of organisations leveraging CQ as a driver for cross-cultural competence. Studies conducted in Hungary by Balogh, Szabó, & Gaál, (2011) examined the relationship between the CQ of local respondents and the OC of several hundred companies. The study examined what type of OC respondents prefer, while identifying their levels of CQ. Noting correlations between CQ and the preference type of OC, the study noted a high percentage preferred a clan-type of culture, whilst the smallest proportion of respondents preferred a hierarchical environment. Moreover, higher level CQ respondents favoured adhocracy, lower level CQ respondents preferred hierarchy-type organisational cultures (Balogh et al., 2011). We therefore posit that: H1. CQ has a positive relationship to OC CQ and the relationship between CCRCAO CCRCAO in this context refers to a process tied to a wider span of time Hecht (2001). The sequential aspects of role conflict and role overload give reason to expect these widely experienced perceptions of role difficulties may have different effects on the state of mind and task performance, mainly oriented to the limits on choice that are imposed (Hecht, 2001). The concept of cultural meanings explained by Hecht (2001) may be in keeping with the idea of adaptability and the proposition of CQ. Thus, people who report greater feelings of role conflict and role overload may well report significantly lower levels of psychological well-being compared to those who experience these feelings less frequently. As there is limited research measuring the effects of both of CCRCAO and adaptability variables simultaneously, it is asserted that cultural adaptability have positive contributions in a cross cultural environment to role conflict and role overload on psychological or emotional well-being. 3

5 ANZAM 2015 Page 4 of 21 However, given the differences that distinguish these processes conceptually, it appears that role conflict will have the greater effect on well-being and subsequent decision making when it comes to risk choices. The most important finding in research published by Hecht (2001) is that role overload and role conflict have different effects on psychological well-being impacting on decision making. Critical task performance may stimulate role conflicts by making significant otherwise latent inconsistencies in priorities and expectations. The stresses in critical tasks may be consequential to role performance structures and organisational frameworks (Peterson et al., 1995) in that role senders may inadvertently create ambiguity fuelling conflicting expectations with incompatible or difficult-to-prioritise requirements. A conceptual base for predictions about links between culture adaptability and role stress is therefore needed. Therefore we propose the following hypothesis: H2. CQ has a positive relationship to CCRCAO The relationship between CCRCAO and OC Ambiguity, uncertainty and lack of determination can be a natural state of things in the knowledge intensive companies (Alvesson, 2002). A culture aware of ambiguity may use a form of normative control in which experts act freely, but at the same time participate, of their own will, to the drawing of regulations of their own autonomy (and creating conditions that would ensure their own control). It acts as a powerful form of normative control leading to the appearance of high levels of loyalty and work attachment among autonomous employees. Solving the managerial dilemma of ensuring a balance between autonomy and control leads to a form of control based on normative and cultural processes, rather than on hierarchy and structure (Leovaridis & Cismaru, 2014). The tensions inherent to activity should be mediated through a strong organisational culture would promote selfdiscipline (responsible autonomy) and the integration of the individual in the organisational environment (an environment characterised by low levels of formality) so that employees would have confidence in the company and work in its best interest (Alvesson, 2002) Glazer and Beehr (2005) modelled a framework highlighting the connection of all three work stressors i.e. role ambiguity, conflict, and overload to have significant impact upon anxiety within the 4

6 Page 5 of 21 ANZAM 2015 context of organisation impacting on the effective commitment to task performance. Meta-analysis has shown that role ambiguity and role conflict are reliably related to several antecedent and consequent conditions (Fisher & Gitelson, 1983; Frone, 1990) which we assert may include OC. As such, the following hypothesis is put forward: H3. CCRCAO has a negative relationship to OC The mediating or moderating role of CCRCAO between CQ and OC Citing whether CCRCAO has a mediating role between CQ and OC, mediator variables will be discussed. The moderator function of third variables partitions a focal independent variable into subgroups. The mediator function of a third variable represents the generative mechanism through which the focal independent variable is able to influence the dependent variable (Baron & Kenny, 1986). Based on the literature and research put for forward, we hypothesize CCRCAO may be a mediating variable between CQ and OC. As Hecht (2001) asserts, a variety of concepts and consequences to Role Conflict and Role Overload are often overlooked, and therefore defining role conflict and overload to different and separate dimensions, suggest conflict, ambiguity and overload occurs when demands associated with one role interfere directly with an ability to satisfy the demands of another role leaving rise to the concept of adaptability. In a cross cultural environment, adaptability is the paramount notion to CQ (Lang & Markowitz, 1986) providing an assumption for scope to suggest the mediator function of a CCRCAO represents the generative mechanism through which the focal independent (CQ) variable is able to influence the dependent variable (OC). This leads to the following hypothesis: H4. The relationship between CQ and OC is mediated by CCRAO Data survey Data was collected through self-administered surveys with a total of 299 respondents. Country of birth was limited to four countries that aligned to the synthesized cultural clustering of countries 5

7 ANZAM 2015 Page 6 of 21 (Ronen & Shenkar, 2013). Industry or profession in which respondents are employed were categorised in eight risk type industries that included aviation / airline, rail transport, shipping and maritime, natural resources sector, construction, manufacturing, medical. Measures Survey questions were drawn from validated measures to highlight the dependent variable Organisational Culture (OC), the independent variable Cultural Intelligence (CQ), and the mediating variable Cross Cultural Role Conflict, Ambiguity, and Overload (CCRCAO). Dependent Variable OC The study adopted the forty (40) item version of the OC profile measure (Cable & Judge, 1996; Judge & Cable, 1997) which has been widely used in literature (Sarros, Gray, Densten, & Cooper, 2005). To assess individual preferences for organisational cultures, respondents were asked to rate forty (40) items based on How important is it for this characteristic to be a part of the organisation you work for?" The categories ranged from "most desirable" to "most undesirable" on five (5) point Likert scale ranging from 1 (0 percent) to 5 (100 percent) Independent Variable CQ CQ was measured with the 20-item, self-reported Four Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence Scale developed and validated by Ang et al. (2006). The scale includes four items for meta-cognitive CQ, six for cognitive CQ, five for motivational CQ, and five for behavioural CQ. Respondents were asked to use a seven-point Likert type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) to indicate the extent to which each item described them (S Ang, Van Dyne, & Koh, 2006). Mediating variables CCRCAO Cross-Cultural Role Conflict, Ambiguity, and Overload was measured using a scale developed by Peterson et al (1995) that included Five role ambiguity items, three role conflict items, and five role overload items retained their factor structure in the countries studied (Peterson et al., 1995) and was therefore used in this study utilising a five (5) point Likert-type scale 1 = Strongly Disagree, and 5 = Strongly Agree. 6

8 Page 7 of 21 ANZAM 2015 Control variable Consistent with previous research, a number of control variables were included to indicate the range of age, country of birth, language skills, country of schooling, highest level of formal education attained, industry or profession, home base country, country of sign-on for duty, duration of employment with the current organisation, employment status prior to joining their organisation. Organisations were considered within professions that were considered high risk and that also engaged an ethnically diverse workforce. Key to the cultural ethnicity component of the study, country of birth was considered as the basis for country cluster. Analysis and results Summarised in Table 1 is the means, standard deviations and zero-order correlation matrices for all variables. PCA indicates that CCRCAO is loaded into 3 factors. The responses loaded onto three (see Table 2), exceeded Eigen values of 3. The three significant factors, namely cross cultural role conflict, ambiguity, and overload (CCRCAO) (α = 0.85), and cultural intelligence (CQ) (α = 0.86), and organisational culture (OC) (α = 0.83), emerged from the analysis, showing high factor loading and correlation values and hence exceeding the recommended value of 0.70 (Nunnally, 1978) Furthermore, all the three constructs and dimensions had convergent validity as their average variance extracted (AVE) rates are above the accepted threshold of 0.5 level (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). Insert Insert Table Table 11 about about here here A nested model approach was employed using SEM to examine the relationships within mediated models (Tokar & Jome, 1998) SEM was employed using LISREL 9.1 in order to establish measurement models which concurrently address complex behavioural relationships prevailing in each model (Shook, Ketchen Jr, Hult, & Kacmar, 2004). The consideration to having an adequate fit 2 required that all indices must be measured against the following criteria: X / df < 3.00: GFI, CFI, and NFI > 0.90: and RMSEA < 0.08 (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006). Each model 7

9 ANZAM 2015 Page 8 of 21 included three first-order latent variables that include organisation culture (OC), cultural intelligence (CQ), and cross cultural role conflict, ambiguity, and overload (CCRCAO). Insert Table 2 about here This is illustrated in the direct effect model (M 1 ) and partially mediated model (M 2 ). However, the partially mediated model (M 2 ) included all paths between latent variables taking into consideration recommended hypotheses relationships testing (Anderson & Gerbing, 1998). Table 3 shows the goodness of fit indices of all the models. The indices showed that Model 1 (direct effect) (M 1 ) resulted in favourable RMR, GFI, CFI and RMSEA whereby RMR = ; GFI = 100; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA = The paths from CQ and CCRCAO to OC were significant. Insert Table 3 about here Based on overall goodness of fit (GFI) statistics (1.00), the partially mediated model (M 2 ) yielded satisfactory fit statistics: Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (= 1.00), the Normed Fit Index (NFI) (= 1.00), the Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI) (NA), the Incremental Fit Index (IFI) (= 1.00), and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) (= 0.099), chi - square x 2 = 0.000, P - value = , df = 0, Standardised RMR (SRMR) = Furthermore the GFI statistics for the Fully Mediated Model (M 3 ) showed a less than favourable result. Table 3 illustrates results of the Direct effect model and Indirect effect model. The results of the structural model demonstrate a positive significant relationship (ß = 1.38; p > 0.05) exists between CQ and OC, supporting Hypothesis 1. Additionally, a positive relationship (ß = 0.21; p > 0.05) between CQ and CCRCAO was found. This result supports Hypothesis 2.The analysis revealed a negative relationship albeit negative (ß = ; p > 0.05) between CCRCAO and OC supporting Hypothesis 3. To test the mediation effect of CCRCAO we employed hierarchical multiple regression analysis Table 4 illustrates that controlling for demographic variables, CQ has a positive significant Insert Table 4 about here 8

10 Page 9 of 21 ANZAM 2015 relationship with OC (ß = 0.138). Additionally, results do not support the mediating effects of CCRCAO on the relationship between CQ and OC (ß = ; p < 0.05). The hypotheses were tested following recommended and established procedures (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Judd & Kenny, 1981; Preacher & Hayes, 2004) which included the Sobel test (Sobel, 1982) and bootstrap technique. The Sobel test (Sobel, 1982) was conducted to ascertain if the mediating effect is significantly different from zero as illustrated in Table 4. Results of this test confirmed the association between CQ and OC was not significantly mediated by CCRCAO (ß = 0.689; p 0.05). Finally, the bootstrap analysis was conducted to examine the indirect effects of CQ and OC through CCRCAO with 5000 re-samples. Controlling for the number of staff employed, professions, industries, education level, age of workforce (years) results did not demonstrate a significant indirect relationship of CQ on OC (ß = 0.037; p < 0.05). Therefore, these results provide support for Hypothesis 4. Insert Table 5 about here Discussion Insert Table 6 about here Our study looked to several underpinning theories to understand the nature of the interactive effects of CQ, OC, and CCRCAO. We have observed its relationship to OC within our study to determine whether the constructs of conflict, ambiguity, and overload impact on the adaptability of ethnic cultural nuance within an organisational framework across high-risk industries. Drawing on prior inductive research, the notion of the relationship between CQ and OC highlighted the concept of organisations utilising CQ as the basis for cross cultural competence to increasing organisational performance. We observed the desired culture of organisations by respondents in our study to have a causal relationship to not only their adaptability to being in a flexible organisational environment, but also the need for certain intrinsic values to be represented in that organisational cultural environment for example, supportiveness stability. 9

11 ANZAM 2015 Page 10 of 21 Implications for theory The first contribution we believe derived from our study was expanding and demonstrating a direct relationship between CQ and CCRCAO within a preferred organisational culture context. Based on the theory and elements of CQ (S Ang & L Van Dyne, 2008; S. Ang & Inkpen, 2008; S. Ang, Van Dyne, Koh, & Ng, 2004; Brislin, Worthley, & Macnab, 2006; Earley & Ang, 2003). The impact of conflict, ambiguity, and overload can be deemed to be a negative one in most western environments, however such notions may be considered to have more tolerance in some cultures (Pathak, Chauhan, Dhar, & Van Gramberg, 2009). Drawing upon role stress theory from prior research (Glazer & Beehr, 2005; Hecht, 2001; Jamal, 2010; Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964; Peterson et al., 1995) our attempts investigating the relationship between CQ and CCRAO fall in line with the concept of intercultural situations where individuals are consciously aware of others cultural preferences before and during interactions, and they adjust their mental assumptions during and after interactions (Brislin et al., 2006; Triandis, 2006). Based on the evidence of prior research, our studies expanded on these theories to highlight the level of adaptability and cultural awareness a positive effect on cross-cultural conflict ambiguity and overload. The second contribution implicated from our study adds further light to the relationship of theories between CCRCAO and OC. For example, ambiguity and the want for normative control (Leovaridis & Cismaru, 2014) and the vulnerability that characterise knowledge intensive organisations (Alvesson, 2002) uncovers important questions to balancing autonomy and control within preferred organisational cultures. Frone s (1990) studies presented clear evidence suggesting that most of the correlations of CCRCAO are influenced by other variables, one of which we assert is OC. While this supports a major tenet of Kahn s (1964) role episode model, it is at odds with the results of narrative reviews examining the moderating effect of individual difference variables. While narrative reviews have generally suggested support for individual difference moderating variables, (Fisher & Gitelson, 1983; Frone, 1990), it is believed to be mixed and inconclusive (Frone, 1990). Our studies reveal that CCRCAO has a direct, albeit negative relationship to preferred OC. This alludes support for Leovaridis & Cismaru (2014) suggesting the desire for normative control within OC. 10

12 Page 11 of 21 ANZAM 2015 Our final contribution to the four factor model of CQ and OC theory invsetigating the mediating relationship of CCRCAO between CQ and OC. As Baron and Kenny (1986) suggest, a mediating third variable is that point where an independent variable (in this case CQ) influences the dependent variable (OC). Our assertion provided the notion that varying levels of CCRCAO might act as a causal conduit, either positively or negatively in between CQ and OC. Our research on theory gauging CCRCAO as a mediator between these variables found limited information. As the results of our study highlight CCRCAO not to be a mediating variable between CQ and OC, we suggest this notion adds to the aspect of the validity of influences and non-influences to the research methodology of mediating and moderating effects, notwithstanding the direct and indirect relationship of CQ and OC. The lack of support in CCRCAO to be a mediating variable is based on the research evidence available. We believe ours is the first study to consider CCRCAO as a mediator between CQ and OC. Implications for practice Our research suggests there are a number of practical implications. Firstly the current findings imply that CCRCAO will have a negative effect upon organisation culture that may in turn affect the efficiencies of cross cultural task performance (Dekker, 2002, 2006; McAleese & Hargie, 2004; Rassin & Muris, 2005). For example, high industries such as aviation, construction, medical, natural resources sector rely on accurate instructions, combined with a clear understanding of the components and risks to the tasks being performed. Any ambiguity or misunderstanding as a result of work overload or conflict may lead to costly error in the performance of the task (Pandey & Kumar, 1997; Reason, 2006; Reyna, 2008). The issue of globalisation has offshore operations resulting in joint-venture projects and cross-cultural subsidiaries. Being able to culturally adjust in these environments provides greater scope in not only lessoning the prospect of conflict and misunderstanding (S. Ang & L. Van Dyne, 2008; S. Ang, Van Dyne, & Tan, 2011; Bartel-Radic & Lesca, 2011) that may also align a desired culture of the organisation. Such compositions may in fact be the more probable scenario today, and in this respect our findings point to several possible remedies. Recognising the ability to be cultural adaptable from the recruitment and selection stage through CQ inventories and other psychometric 11

13 ANZAM 2015 Page 12 of 21 testing assists in filtering and detecting the willingness of the candidate to culturally adjust or at least be receptive to cultural difference (S Ang & L Van Dyne, 2008). Limitations and directions for further research We believe a multi-wave / longitudinal data collection approach may prove beneficial if including gender as a category for analysis, based on the nature of the methodology and timeframe. As our approach was purely quantitative, the inclusion of a mixed method approach may serve to identify further contributions to this study. While our study had respondents from forty nine (49) different countries overall, insufficient strength in respondent numbers from most countries were not included in the study. Based on the concept of cultural dimensions (Hofstede, 1980) and country clustering (Ronen & Shenkar, 2013) we narrowed down four (4) significant country clusters. However, focusing national stereotype as opposed to individual propositions should be investigated with caution as studies put forward by Peterson et al (1995) assert role stresses varied more by country than by personal and organisational characteristics. In this context, we responded to this suggestion and believe there is substantial evidence supporting our interpretation of the results whereby country must have a relational demography framework in so far as a country cluster (Ronen & Shenkar, 2013) and maintain it is important to consider the specific context in which we conducted our study in this context. The current study therefore allows stronger conclusions to be drawn in some respects, compared to many other studies in this area (Irving & Coleman, 2003; Jamal, 2010). As our results focused primarily on high risk industries, a lack of possible generalizabilty posits further research. Other research in line with our findings (Browne et al., 2009; Caprar, 2007; Nair & Vohra, 2012) suggest that culture and the ability to adapt and comprehend in an organisational or team setting very much relies on the context of the preferred environment. As we conceptualise the notion of preferred environment to be desired setting we emphasize an ethnically diverse workplace in an organisational setting and recognise cross boarder environments and organisations operating offshore. We consider our work as a starting point for future research to uncover other antecedents that may be considered as a mediating variable between CQ and OC exploring the different outcomes of mediation or moderation and recommend researchers engage a more systematic examination of the interactive effects on of these constructs to determine whether the pattern of our findings may be generalised. 12

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15 ANZAM 2015 Page 14 of 21 Frone, Michael R. (1990). Intolerance of ambiguity as a moderator of the occupational role stressstrain relationship: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior ( ), 3(4), 309. George, G, Sleeth, R, & Siders, M. (1999). Organizing culture: Leader roles, behaviors, and reinforcement mechanisms. Journal of Business & Psychology, 13(4), Glazer, Sharon, & Beehr, Terry A. (2005). Consistency of implications of three role stressors across four countries. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(5), Hair, J. F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., & Tatham, R.L.. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Hecht, Laura M. (2001). Role Conflict and Role Overload: Different Concepts, Different Consequences. Sociological Inquiry, 71(1), Hofstede, G. H.. (1980). Culture s consequences - International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Irving, P. Gregory, & Coleman, Daniel F. (2003). The moderating effect of different forms of commitment on role ambiguity-job tension relations. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 20(2), 97. Jamal, Muhammad. (2010). Burnout among Canadian, Chinese, Malaysian and Pakistani Employees: An Empirical Examination. International Management Review, 6(1), Judd, C. M., & Kenny, D. A.. (1981). Process analysis: Estimating mediation in treatment evaluation.. Evaluation Review, 5, Judge, T. A., & Cable, D. M. (1997). Applicant personality, organizational culture, and organization attraction. Personnel Psychology(50 ), Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A.. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. New York: Wiley. Lang, Dorothy, & Markowitz, Martin. (1986). Coping, individual differences, and strain: A longitudinal study of short-term role overload. Journal of Occupational Behavior ( ), 7(3), 195. Leovaridis, Cristina, & Cismaru, Diana-Maria. (2014). Characteristics of organizational culture and climate in knowledge-intensive organisations. Romanian Journal of Communication & Public Relations, 16(2), McAleese, Donna, & Hargie, Owen. (2004). Five guiding principles of culture management: A synthesis of best practice. Journal of Communication Management, 9(2), Nair, Nisha, & Vohra, Neharika. (2012). The concept of alienation: towards conceptual clarity. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 20(1), doi: Nunnally, J. C.. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Pandey, S., & Kumar, E. S. (1997). Development of a measure of role conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management, 8(3), Pathak, R. D., Chauhan, Vinit Singh, Dhar, Upinder, & Van Gramberg, Bernadine. (2009). Managerial effectiveness as a function of culture and tolerance of ambiguity: A cross cultural study of India and Fiji. International Employment Relations Review, 15(1), Peterson, Mark F., Smith, Peter B., Akande, Adebowale, Ayestaran, Sabino, Bochner, Stephen, Callan, Victor,... Setiadi, Bernadette. (1995). Role Conflict, Ambiguity, and Overload: A 21 nation study. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), doi: / Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F.. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, Rassin, Eric, & Muris, Peter. (2005). Indecisiveness and the interpretation of ambiguous situations. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(7), Reason, James. (2006). Human Factors: A personal perspective. Paper presented at the Human Factors Seminar Helsinki. Reyna, Valerie F. (2008). A Theory of Medical Decision Making and Health: Fuzzy Trace Theory. Medical Decision Making, 28(6), doi: / x Ronen, S., & Shenkar, O. (2013). Mapping world cultures: Cluster formation, sources and implications. Journal of International Business Studies. doi: doi: /jibs

16 Page 15 of 21 ANZAM 2015 Sarros, James C., Gray, Judy, Densten, Iain L., & Cooper, Brian. (2005). Chapter 8: The Organizational Culture Profile Revisited and Revised: An Australian Perspective. Australian Journal of Management (University of New South Wales), 30(1), Shook, Christopher L., Ketchen Jr, David J., Hult, G. Tomas M., & Kacmar, K. Michele. (2004). An assessment of the use of structural equation modeling in strategic management research. Strategic Management Journal, 25(4), Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological methodology 1982 (pp ). San Francisco:Jossey-Bass. Tokar, David M., & Jome, LaRae M. (1998). Masculinity, vocational interests, and career choice traditionality: Evidence for a fully. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(4), 424. Triandis, Harry C. (2006). Cultural Intelligence in Organizations. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), doi: / Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Koh, C. (2008). Development and validation of the CQS: The cultural intelligence scale. In S. Ang, & L. Van Dyne, (Eds.). Handbook on Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement and Applications (pp ): Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Nielsen, T. (2007). Cultural intelligence. In S. Clegg & J. Bailey, (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies (Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Yitmen, Ibrahim. (2013). Organizational Cultural Intelligence: A Competitive Capability for Strategic Alliances in the International Construction Industry. Project Management Journal, 44(4), doi: /pmj

17 ANZAM 2015 Page 16 of 21 Table 1 Correlation analysis The means, standard deviations and zero order correlation among all the study variables (N=299) No. Item Mean SD Pairwise correlation Industry or profession Home base country ** Country of sign-on for duty Years of experience with organisation Previous employment within industry **.958** ** **.151** -.171** 6 Age **.263**.271**.469** Fluency in any other language besides **.227** English 8 English as native language ** -.145* ** ** 9 Country of birth **.820**.793** *.305**.184** -.174** 10 Country of education **.806**.777** *.272**.208** -.201**.907** 11 Education level **.286** **.213**.177** **.296** Cross-Cultural Role Conflict, Ambiguity, and Overload Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Organisational Culture Profile * **.213**.249** **.153**.221** **.233**.320** ** **.143* ** Note: ** indicates correlation significant at 1% level (2-tailed) and * indicates correlation significant at 5% level (2-tailed). 16

18 Page 17 of 21 ANZAM 2015 Table 2 - Factor and reliability analysis Factors Variable description Mean Std. Deviation Loading Cronbach's alpha AVE Role Conflict (CCRCAO) Role Ambiguity (CCRCAO) Role Overload (CCRCAO) Meta-Cognitive (CQ) Cognitive (CQ) Situations in which there are conflicting requirements Incompatible requests from two or more people Clear planned goals and objectives for my job Know exactly what is expected of me Know what my responsibilities are Certain about how much responsibility Responsibilities are clearly defined Feel overburdened in my role Workload is too heavy Amount of work interferes with the quality I want to maintain Conscious of the cultural knowledge when interacting Conscious of the cultural knowledge in interactions Knowing legal and economic systems of other cultures Cultural values and religious beliefs of other cultures Marriage systems of other cultures Arts and crafts of other cultures Rules for expressing non-verbal behaviours in other cultures Motivational (CQ) Interacting with people from different cultures Confident to socialise with locals Deal with stresses of adjusting to a new culture Enjoy living in cultures that are unfamiliar Behavioural (CQ) Competitiveness (OC) Social Responsibility (OC) Supportiveness (OC) Emphasis on Rewards (OC) Performance Orientation (OC) Confident to the shopping conditions in a different culture Change verbal behaviour in a cross-cultural interaction Pause and silence to suit different cross-cultural situations Vary the rate of speaking when in a cross-cultural situation Change non -verbal behaviour in a cross-cultural situation Alter facial expressions when a cross-cultural interaction Organisation emphasis on quality Organisation being distinctive Organisation being reflective Organisation being socially responsible Organisation having a clear guiding philosophy Organisation being team oriented Organisation being people oriented Recognised for collaboration Recognised for fairness Recognised for opportunities for professional growth Recognised for high pay for good performance Recognised for enthusiasm for the job Stability (OC) Recognised for stability Recognised for being calm Recognised for security of employment Recognised for low conflict

19 ANZAM 2015 Page 18 of 21 Table 3 - Goodness of fit measures and latent path coefficients Absolute predictive fit Comparative fit df ECVI NFI NNFI CFI IFI GFI RMR SRMR RMSEA Model 1 (Direct Effect) NA Model 2 (Partially Mediated) NA Model 3 (Fully Mediated) NA The df of model 2 is zero, which means that the model is "saturated" (i.e.: Number of distinct sample moments equals to the Number of distinct parameters to be estimated): In general this means that there is an exact solution that AMOS found. However in practical point of view one cannot derive any useful conclusion from such model. 18

20 Page 19 of 21 ANZAM 2015 Table 4 - Hierarchical regression analysis Dependent variable: Organisational Culture (OC) Independent and control Variables Categories (dummy variables) Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 1: Control variables Standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Industry or profession of employment Aviation / Airline Rail Transport Shipping / Maritime Natural Resources Sector Construction Medical Manufacturing Home base country Australia Singapore United States of America United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Country of sign-on for duty Australia Singapore United States of America United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Years of experience with organisation Up to 6 months months to 11 months year to 3 years years to 9 years years to 14 years years to 20 years Previous employment within industry Age 18 to 21 years to 25 years to 30 years.2356*.2378*.2203* 31 to 35 years.2318**.2302**.2132* 36 to 40 years to 45 years to 55 years Fluency in any other language besides English English as native language Country of birth Australia Singapore United States of America Country of schooling Australia Singapore United States of America United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Education level Junior High, i.e. Year 10 or equivalent High School, i.e. Year 12 or equivalent Trade or equivalent qualification Diploma qualification Associate degree or partly completed undergraduate degree Bachelor degree Post graduate certificate or diploma Masters degree Step 2: Independent Variable Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Step 3: Interactive effects Cross Cultural Role Conflict Ambiguity & Overload (CCRCAO) ** CQ x CCRCAO R * 0.247** R

21 ANZAM 2015 Page 20 of 21 Table 5 - Sobel Test Test statistic P value Model 2 (Partially Mediated) Model 3 (Fully Mediated) *The Sobel test results show that CCRCAO is not mediated between CQ and OC. 20

22 Page 21 of 21 ANZAM 2015 Table 6 - Bootstrapping analysis coefficients Estimate S.E. Bootstrap SE Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI Boot P

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