7 Smart Steps For OSH Excellence

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1 7 Smart Steps For OSH Developed & Presented by: Aswadi Che Omar ITS Management Sdn Bhd By the end of this program, you should be able to: Understand that OSH actually is everybody s business. Know & play active roles in helping OSH-MP15 to be achieved. Know the smart & practical steps to mobilize OSH vehicle at the organization level effectively & efficiently. 1

2 First Thing First, Let s Make Clear Some Of The Terms The OSH term will be used all the way in this discussion as an abbreviation for a quite long term, Occupational Safety & Health OSH through this discussion will mainly focused on occupational activities. The word Safety alone will not be using in this discussion to avoid misinterpretation by our sub-conscious mind. What Is OSH? Let s make clear the meaning first: Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) - It is a field of study with cross-discipline knowledge focuses on managing occupational risk with the main objective to eliminate / minimize the impacts on people who are dealing with the risks 2

3 7 Common Misconceptions 7 Common Misconceptions That Lead To Unwanted Outcomes 1. Safety First! 2. Security should be put under Safety too! 3. OSH is 100% SHO s responsibilities for the organization. 4. SHO is the secretary for SHC. 5. The more we know about OSH, the more we have to comply; then it is better not to know! 6. OSH is nothing to do with business survival. 7. Zero Accident is the best OSH goal forever. 3

4 #Safety First! Does the slogan Safety First! which we see everyday really trigger our mind towards positive behavior? Where is the action verb in the slogan? 4

5 Misconception #1 #Safety First! When we say anything repeatedly everyday, subconsciously our mind will process it and will manifest it through our action; whether it is right or wrong. The question is, why just Safety first, not Health? Is Health not important to us? Why not Health First or Safety & Health First or perhaps OSH First? Causations Of Occupational Death Causation of Occupational Death Percentage (%) Cancer 34 Injuries 25 Chronic Respiratory Diseases 21 Cardiovascular Diseases 15 Others 5 Based on the above statistic, 75% of occupational death contributed by occupational diseases and only 25% contributed by occupational accident. Source: ILO

6 Industrial Accidents In Malaysia ( ) Industrial Accidents (IA) Source: SOCSO Occupational Diseases In Malaysia ( ) Occupational Diseases (OD) Source: SOCSO 6

7 This Is How Usually We Think & Act Safety Culture Safety First Safety Immediate Effect (Acute) OSH Culture Health Healthy Culture Practice Good OSH! Accidents Prevention Incidents Prevention Long-term Effect (Chronic) Health First Diseases Prevention Do it right the first time. Anon 7

8 # Security should be put under Safety too! Misconception #2 # Security should be put under Safety too! What commonly you call SHO at your workplace? You call it with longer title Safety Officer isn t it? Safety Officer is Pegawai Keselamatan ; sounds like Pengawal Keselamatan too. What do you call Security Officer in Bahasa? The fact is, Occupational Safety and Security are quite different things. So, why don t we just use SHO instead of Safety Officer starting from now on? 8

9 #OSH is 100% SHO s responsibilities for the organization Misconception #3 #OSH is 100% SHO s responsibilities for the organization. Really? Who said so? Do you really know the SHO s roles & responsibilities? Do you know the existence of OSHA 1994? Sect. 15 & Sect. 24 in OSHA 1994 are for whom? Is it worth for your family members putting on blame to the SHO if you died when an occupational accident happened? 9

10 #SHO is the secretary for SHC Misconception #4 #SHO is the secretary for SHC. Perhaps you have your own experience as a secretary for a club or society during your school or college time. That s why you have the paradigm that SHO is the person who has to take minutes during SHC meeting; as a secretary, as mentioned in the SHC Regulations Do you think that your paradigm and current practice is correct based on your interpretation from the regulations? 10

11 #The more we know about OSH, the more we have to comply; then it is better not to know! Misconception #5 #The more we know about OSH, the more we have to comply; then it is better not to know! I have heard this statement coming out from a president of an important association after a seminar while having a chit-chat with him. By ignoring all the OSH matters including legislations, you think that we will free from occupational harms and legal actions? It is not the matter that we are free from the harms, but it is the matter of we don t realize that the harms have already affected us. 11

12 #OSH is nothing to do with business survival Deepwater Horizon Disaster Misconception #6 #OSH is nothing to do with business survival. Profit = Revenues Expenses The higher the revenues and the lower the expenses the higher the profit for the business. Without realizing it, incident will reduce the revenues (lower productivity) and will increase the expenses (incur direct and indirect costs); so the profit will be lesser. So, you still want to treat OSH as not important activities in your business? 12

13 # Zero Accident is the best OSH goal forever! Pyramid Of Accident 1 Fatality 3 Lost of Days First Aid 400 Property Damages Near-miss accident TYE/PEARSON/BIRD Why near-miss accident info so important? 13

14 Misconception #7 # Zero Accident is the best OSH goal forever! Perhaps the intention of setting this goal is good. Usually, from the goal and objectives, derive Key Result Area (KRA) / Key Performance Index (KPI). Some of the personnel will not report the incidents involved with the intention to support the goal, objectives, KRA & KPI. Do you think that it is a good sign & practice? Perhaps 100% Safe Actions & Conditions as OSH goal is better to be promoted instead. Shall not do the act (harm) that could endanger yourself and others Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h (HR Ibnu Majah) 14

15 OSH: Whose responsibilities actually? An Incident Scenario (1/3) An incident happened; hazardous toxic gas released from just a normal business premise. Just because a worker didn t follow the SOP, a process sparked into a chain reaction and end up as a disaster. Incident took place in the middle of the night while most of the residents living nearby and surrounding the business premise were sleeping The gas is very hazardous, odorless and water soluble; caused suffocation and could lead to death. 15

16 An Incident Scenario (2/3) Emergency alarm triggered and activated but did alert nothing to the residents. Residents didn t know how to react to the situation causing many casualties. Survivors were sent to nearby hospitals, doctors painstakingly try to identify symptoms because they didn t know what actually happen (problem). Thousands of people died on that night alone. Media from all over the world made special coverage about the disaster. An Incident Scenario (3/3) Special press conference were conducted by the Prime Ministers and other relevant ministers and agencies. The PM instructed thorough investigation to be conducted immediately. Most of local TV channels broadcast live telecast from the scene for several days. As usual, every where public talk about the issue when it is still hot. And bla bla bla (please complete the story on your own) 16

17 The Questions Are: 1. Is this scenario possible to happen here? 2. Who should be blamed in this incident? 3. Whose responsibilities to prevent the incident from happening? 4. What do you expect will happen after quite sometime? 5. Do you think that all parties involved learn their lesson pertaining to the incident? 6. Do you think the incident can reoccur in the future? 7. Why? (for both Yes or No answer for Q6) OSH: Back To The Past OSHA 1994 is routed from HASAWA 1974 (UK). Meaning; both of the acts have the same framework and approaches; based on selfregulation which was introduced by Lord Alfred Robens. Robens introduced this philosophy: Responsibilities to ensure safety and health at the workplace lies on those who create the risk and those who work with the risk. 17

18 Robens Style Legislation To ensure this legislation style is a success: Every stakeholders in OSH especially employers & employees should know & play each role effectively & efficiently General duties of care Employers should consult employees pertaining to OSH matters & improvement Safety & Health Committee (SHC) Safety & Health Officer (SHO) will play his/her role as an advisor to the top management and also as coordinator. OSH will be governed through issuance of Improvement & Prohibition notices. Enhancing Robens Approach Who else should play their active roles besides those who create the risk and those who work with the risk? 18

19 Occupational Incidents : Bigger Perspective Source: Tripod Causation Path When The Role In OSH Has Not Been Played Effectively By.. (1/3) Employees, they themselves might lose their lives or suffer from other immediate / long-term effects. Employers, they might lose their businesses or gain less profits. Enforcers, compliance to the related legislations might be taken lightly by the relevant parties. Local authorities, residential areas and town centers might be developed in the buffer zone of major accident hazard industries. 19

20 When The Role In OSH Has Not Been Played Effectively By.. (2/3) Mass media, the public might not be aware of the importance of OSH and not taking serious about it. Hospitals, they might not be prepared with proper antidotes / medicines for specific hazardous chemicals using by nearby industries. Bomba, they might jeopardize their manpower's life without knowing what materials / chemicals are they dealing with. When The Role In OSH Has Not Been Played Effectively By.. (3/3) Government, the country might lose skill workers, have less productivity, have to pay more compensation and fall to the much lower rank of worldwide incident rate benchmarking. Colleagues, more workloads and stressed are to be expected. Family members, they themselves might lose their beloved one and source of income too. Public, perhaps they will be affected too when disaster strikes any of the nearby industries. 20

21 Aligning Our OSH Direction With OSH-MP 15 Vision Of OSH In Malaysia Towards Safety Culture Safety Culture OSH Strategic Drivers Enhance competencies of officers & OSH practitioners Strategic alliance Increase enforcement activities Focus on critical sectors (SME, BC, Agriculture, Transportation & School Conduct R&D Enhancing leadership (gov) Regulate OSH-MS National policy framework on OSH Enhance tripartite co-operation Promote preventive culture New skill & competencies are acquired & developed Strategic alliance at regional level Increase enforcement activities Focus on soft issue, ergonomic, stress & etc. R&D structured & defined Enhancing leadership (employers/union) OSH-MS in place. Enhance public awareness on OSH Self regulation become a practice National policy & framework on OSH established Promote preventive culture & well practice Create an expert group in various field & skill Strategic alliance at international level Increase enforcement activities Focus on new emerging hazards. R&D research outcomes driven Enhancing leadership (Social Partners & Public) OSH-MS as part of business. Standard Setting Enforcement Promotion Source: DOSH M sia

22 Vision Of OSH In Malaysia By DOSH Towards Safety Culture ; through 3 stages: 1. Standard Setting ( ) Outcome : OSH Ownership 2. *Enforcement ( ) Outcome: SelfRegulation 3. Promotion ( ) Outcome: Preventive Culture Source: OSH-MP 15 : DOSH M sia About The OSH-MP 15 (1/2) OSH-MP 15 stands for Occupational Safety & Health Master Plan For Malaysia It is the 2nd stage from a series of 3 consecutive 5year action plans ( ). Provides a much needed strategic vision and direction for work safety and health in Malaysia. Focuses on building and sustaining the culture of self-regulation, preparing to enter the stage of preventative culture. Source: OSH-MP 15 : DOSH M sia 22

23 About The OSH-MP 15 (2/2) Will reinforce and build upon the main existing OSH legislative frameworks such as OSHA 1994, FMA 1967 etc. Will help raise knowledge and awareness on OSH and its importance and benefits, and thereby commitment to OSH. Will form a basis for streamlined and coordinate action by an entire spectrum of Key Stakeholders and Social Partners. Source: OSH-MP 15 : DOSH M sia The Stakeholders & Social Partners In OSH The Government NCOSH DOSH NIOSH SOCSO MoH Other agencies Politicians Social Partner Employers Employees GLCs OSH Practitioners The Insurance Industry Higher Learning Institutions Source: OSH-MP 15 : DOSH M sia 23

24 OSH-MP 15: The Aims To build a safe, healthy and productive pool of human capital by creating, cultivating and sustaining a safe and healthy work culture in all organisations throughout Malaysia. Source: OSH-MP 15 : DOSH M sia OSH-MP 15: The Objectives To increase awareness and knowledge in OSH and commitment to OSH in all undertakings both big and small business; To reduce the rates of workplace injuries and associated fatalities; To reduce the number of occupational lung diseases, occupational noise induced hearing loss and occupational skin diseases; and To minimize their adverse impacts on efficiency, productivity and business performance. Source: OSH-MP 15 : DOSH M sia 24

25 The Malaysian Model: The OSH Culture Way To Building A Safe, Healthy and Productive Pool Of Human Capital Source: OSH-MP 15 : DOSH M sia When everybody thinks somebody will do it, in the end nobody did. Anon 25

26 Organization s Active Roles Towards Achieving A Fast-track Improvement Of OSH Thru 7 Smart & Pragmatic Steps How Organization Can Play Active Roles In OSH? (1/2) OSH is everybody s business; employers and employees are the main Social Partners in OSH-MP 15. SHC will be utilized effectively as a meeting platform between managements & employees to discuss & coordinate all OSH matters direct with top management (employer). SHO, as a smart advisor to the top management & and the secretary for the SHC will play his/her roles to advise the top management & to educate all the SHC members in getting the best commitment from them in achieving the OSH goals. 26

27 How Organization Can Play Active Roles In OSH? (2/2) Employers first will provide all the relevant OSH trainings especially to the SHC members. Well knowledge SHC will then work together as a teamwork in setting and work out the strategies to make the workplace safe & healthy for everybody. All personnel (without exceptional) will then take charge their own roles and responsibilities in OSH in achieving the OSH goals for their own good sake. The 7 Smart & Pragmatic Steps 1. Set up a proper SHC and provide proper trainings for all the committee members. 2. Identify all requirements from OSH legislation aspects and OSH-MS followed by conducting Gap Analysis. 3. Conduct Pre Risk Assessment. 4. Set the OSH objectives and provide all the resources. 5. Set up relevant functional committees under SHC accordingly and provide proper trainings. 6. Set & execute Action-Plan accordingly using PDCA. 7. Measure performance, audit frequently and practice Kaizen. 27

28 The Approached Model The 7 Marvellous Smart Steps are based on the model below typical OSHMS model INPUTS PLAN DO POLICY/OBJECTIVES Vision & Mission Nature of Business Legislations Third party inputs HIRARC Make Arrangements Assign Responsibility Arrange resources Enforce Procedure Supervise Respond Emergency Train Communicate etc Safe & healthy Workers Productivity Organisation Image CHECK ACT Monitor Surveillance Inspect Investigate Audit Record & Analyse Corrective Action Review Improve No man is an island. Anon 28

29 Step #1 Set up a proper SHC and provide proper trainings for all the committee members. Properly Setup & Develop The SHC Since SHC will be the main player for OSH in the organization, the SHC itself should have the proper setup on the very first place. Then, the SHC should be equipped with all required knowledge & skills in order for them to perform their functions & roles effectively & efficiently. 29

30 Establishing The Proper SHC The structure The leaders The members The functions The training Proper SHC The Structure As required in the SHC Regulations 1996, SHC should have a chairperson, a secretary, employer reps and employee reps Ideally, the best SHC is to have: The chairperson who can make all the decisions; an employer or his/her authorized manager shall be the chairperson of the SHC (Reg 6(1) SHC 1996). The secretary who is passionate and have a very good knowledge in OSH Head of departments from all organization s SBUs Passionate employees in OSH from each organization s SBU 30

31 Common Structure Of SHC Chairperson Secretary Employer Reps Employee Reps (Reg 5(2) SHC 1996) * if no. of employees <= 100: - no. of employer reps >= 2 - no. of employee reps >= 2 * if no. of employees > 100: - no. of employer reps >= 4 - no. of employee reps >= 4 (Reg 8 SHC 1996) * shall be able to represent the various sections of a place of work Proper SHC The Leaders The chairperson should have basic knowledge about OSH and aware the important of proper OSH management for the business survival. He/she should have the authority to make any decisions especially pertaining to resources matters during SHC meeting. Good leadership and communication skills will be advantages for both the chairperson and SHO. 31

32 Proper SHC The Members Commonly, appointing the employer representatives is quite straight forward; usually no issues on that. Most of the time, appointing the employee representatives is quite tricky; depend on each employer s intentions. Anyhow, it is better appointing the employee reps who can talk & dares to voice out the facts & realities rather than appointing the yes man. Proper SHC The Functions (1/3) Most of the time, the SHC members don t know the function of SHC itself and their functions as a member. Without having clear functions & roles of the SHC and as a member, how can we expect the SHC to function effectively. We too can expect what will happen to the SHC meeting which should be conducted at least 3 month-once if they don t know their functions. 32

33 Proper SHC The Functions (2/3) Here are some of the basic functions of SHC: 1. Re-examine and recommend amendments to the OSH policy. 2. Help develop rules and systems. 3. Help develop and review the OSH program. 4. Analyze incident trends and statistics. 5. Conduct safety inspection and recommend preventive and corrective actions. Proper SHC The Functions (3/3) 6. Conduct immediate incident investigation and recommend corrective action. 7. Investigate complaints of unsafe practice / conditions and recommend corrective action. 8. Help develop promotional and educational programs. 9. Discuss the report and recommendations from SHO, enforcement officers and etc. 10. Advise the employer pertaining to OSH matters. 33

34 Proper SHC The Training Each of SHC member including the chairperson should be trained for the SHC functions and other relevant OSH trainings (Reg. 28 & 29 SHC 1996) As fundamental, main SHC members should attend these OSH trainings: 1. OSH Management 2. Effective Safety & Health Committee 3. Risk Management (HIRARC) 4. Accident Investigation 5. OSHMS and Auditing Notes: 34

35 Step #2 Identify all requirements from OSH legislation aspects and OSH-MS followed by conducting Gap Analysis. Conducting Gap Analysis The employers should ensure that all relevant OSH legislations are complied. Gap analysis between legislation requirements and current situation will help determine the incompliance. The employers too may proactively use the OSHMS standards as their best practice approach in OSH management. So, the gap analysis between the OSH-MS standard requirements and current situation will help them for benchmarking. 35

36 Gap Analysis Relevant OSH Legislations Two (2) main acts: AKKP/OSHA 1994 (Act 514) AKJ/FMA 1967 (Act 139) Other acts to consider: Employment Act 1955 (Act 265) Electricity Supply Act 1990 (Act 447) Fire Services Act 1988 (Act 341) Petroleum Act 1984 (Act 302) Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304) Etc.. Gap Analysis The OSH-MS Among OSH-MS standards can be used as references: MS 1722: 2011 OHSAS 18001: 2007 ILO OSH-MS

37 Step #3 Conduct Pre Risk Assessment. Conducting Pre Risk Assessment Based on our nature of business / operation, we should at least know the common hazards that exists in our workplace. Pre risk assessment will give some initial and rough ideas & inputs about the hazards & types of emergencies that exist in the workplace and how serious are they. Walk-thru survey and some documents review including legislations, plant layout, process flow, chemical inventory list and etc. are some of the methods might be considered for this purpose. 37

38 Risk Management Model Source: DOSH HIRARC Guideline Among Important Inputs From The Pre Risk Assessment Common hazards based on business nature Hazardous chemicals Machines or operations that need special permit Special competency needed Trainings needed Types of emergencies etc. 38

39 Step #4 Set the OSH objectives and provide all the resources. Setting the OSH objectives OSH objectives should be blended with the organization s direction. The OSH objectives should complement other objectives such as for sales, productivity, quality, environment and etc. Without objectives, we can t know exactly where are we going, whether are we on track or not, and whether have we arrived or not? 39

40 Organization s Direction Vision D I R E C T I O N Missions/Purposes Core/Shared Values Goals (Sales) Objective Goals (Productivity) Objective Objective Strategies Action Plans Action Plans Objective Goals (OSH) Objective Strategies Strategies Action Plans Action Plans Objective Action Plans Action Plans APPROACH ACTIONS Organization s Vision, Mission / Purpose & Values Example from Dow (a chemical company) Vision To be the most valuable and respected science company in the world. Mission / Purpose To passionately create innovation for our stakeholders at the intersection of chemistry, biology and physics. Values Integrity Respect for People Protecting Our Planet 40

41 OSH Goals & Objectives Example: OSH Goal (wider scope) To be OHSAS certified All employees are competent for their task OSH Objectives (narrow scope S.M.A.R.T) 100% of personnel will undergo OSH awareness training 100% of incidents including near-miss to be reported & investigated Reduce 50% from previous year s Incidence Rate S.M.A.R.T Principle Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time-frame 41

42 OSH Goals & Objectives Will Provide You The Base For: Direction & Target point Baseline Track What & whom to benchmark with Data to be recorded Specifications Minimum requirements Failures Compliances OSH Policy While objectives provides the direction for the organization, the policy on the other hand provides the guideline for the company to base their decision. Without OSH policy, it is like a tram without the railway; will cause a lot of deviations in moving ahead and difficulties in achieving the objectives. 42

43 OSH Policy Should Have The Soul (1/3) OSH policy is not just a piece of paper; it actually is a very important document as starting point for OSH management at the workplace. It starts with the employer shows his/her seriousness to everybody that OSH is as important as other business activities such as sales, production, quality, environment and etc. The employer will then state the consulted OSH goals in the policy. OSH Policy Should Have The Soul (2/3) Then, in order to prove that he/she is really committed in succeeding the goals, the employer will stress the points that he/she will provide all the resources needed including the financial, time, manpower and etc. The employer will state the arrangements supposed to be in achieving the goals such as to provide all relevant trainings, investigate all incidents, ensuring necessary supervision and etc. 43

44 OSH Policy Should Have The Soul (3/3) Not only that, the employer will also clearly state who is responsible to implement the arrangements such as top management, managers, supervisors, SHO, employees or all personnel. Then when the OSH policy being communicated effectively to all personnel, every personnel will know and perform each roles and responsibilities effectively in achieving the OSH goals set by the employer. Notes: 44

45 Step #5 Set up relevant functional committees under SHC accordingly and provide proper trainings. Strengthening The SHC Relevant sub-committees for the SHC should be determined properly in ensuring the operation is smooth, effective & efficient. The findings from the pre risk assessment may help to determine the sub-committees to be established. Effective delegation can be done through these structured sub-committees. Relevant trainings are to be provided to each subcommittee member in ensuring each of them can perform his/her functions & roles accordingly. 45

46 Common Sub-Committees For SHC Risk Management Team Accident Investigation Team First Aid Team Emergency Response Team System & Audit Information, Communication & Promotion Common Sub-Committees For SHC Chairperson Secretary Risk Management System & Audit IC & Promo Evacuation First Aiders Incident Investigation ERT Fire Fighting Chemical Spillage HAZMAT 46

47 Among The Important Trainings For The Sub-Committees 1. Risk Management Team HIRARC, CSDS and etc. 2. Accident Investigation Team Accident Investigation 3. First Aid Team Occupational First Aid 4. Emergency Response Team ERP, Fire Fighting, Chemical Spillage and etc. 5. System & Audit OSH-MS & Internal Audit 6. Information, Communication & Promotion All the above trainings plus Train The Trainer and etc. Notes: 47

48 Boosting The Committee 10 Tips For Effective Committee Each team member has a task. Ensure basic knowledge and interest among members. 3. Training and continuing education for members. 4. Provide latest information to the members. 5. Frequency and resolution of the meeting. 6. The speed of decision making and action. 7. Widespread publicity about the committees activity. 8. Recognition / appreciation to the members. 9. Good leadership of the chairperson. 10. Always hold good teamwork spirit. 48

49 Boosting The Meeting 10 Tips For Meeting Effectively (1/2) 1. Schedule the meeting wisely. 2. Having clear objectives for each meeting and be given early to all members as "homework. 3. Plan the agenda and time allocation thoroughly. 4. Start the meeting on time and adhere to the agenda. 5. Having a competent chairperson. 49

50 10 Tips For Meeting Effectively (2/2) 6. Train the meeting members to have professional ethics. 7. Not too formal but not turn into a "market. 8. Speed of decision making. 9. Decision / Proposal / Action recorded and should have "accountability", "dateline" and "status. 10.Minutes of meetings are distributed as soon as possible. Less is more.. Anon 50

51 Boosting The Agenda Important Items To Be Discussed (1/2) 1. The status of each action-plan from the dynamic master action-plan list 2. Complaints of "unsafe acts" and "unsafe conditions" 3. Identified and reported hazards 4. The results from regular inspections and safety audits 5. Corrective, preventive and temporary control measures 6. The incidence and outcome of the investigation 51

52 Important Items To Be Discussed (2/2) 7. Incidence trends 8. Causes and effects for relevant problems 9. OSH performance 10. OSH training programs and planning 11. Recent developments in OSH 12. Review and Kaizen 13. Any necessary relevant OSH matters Notes: 52

53 Boosting The Communication Advanced Communication Model 53

54 Main Filters That Influence Our Behaviors Deletion Distortion Generalization Filter 1: Deletion Millions of bits of information stimuli happening to us each second, only around 126 bits per second we conciously aware; a lot of information being deleted Therefore, we need to check the party which we are communicating with whether they have understood and remembered all the important information send to them 54

55 Filter 2: Distortion We all ditsort (did you spot the distortion?) information in our minds Our mind likes to exaggerate from a piece of information we get. Imagining Having This Car? 55

56 Filter 3: Generalization A generalization is when we take one piece of data or information and assume that other things within that category are the same or that the pattern will be repeated. Most of the generalizations take the forms of beliefs; that s because beliefs are often little more than generalizations. Imagining Working At Their Workplace? 56

57 Some Relevant Communication Skills Promoting OSH Receiving complaints Giving instructions Giving training Discussion Presenting a report / proposal Advising / influencing senior management Interviewing witness / victim of incidents Tips On Promoting OSH 1. OSH awareness training to all personnel. 2. Make OSH is part of the KPI of all personnel. 3. OSH activities are ongoing and involve all personnel. 4. Practicing leading by example. 5. Effective 2-way feedback system. 6. Extending posters and signage. 7. Handle every OSH issue seriously. 57

58 Tips On Receiving Complaints It is good to practice active listening: Tips On Giving Instruction It is good to ensure the given instructions: Start with big picture first Clear Brief Accurate Complete In a proper sequence Checked regularly for the understanding 58

59 Tips On Giving Training It is good to know the learning styles of the audiences. VAK: Eyes Accessing Cues 59

60 VAK: Other Cues Body Posture Breathing Pattern Rate of Speech Visual Audio Kinesthetic Upright Relax Slouch Rapid Moderate Shallow Fast Well paced Slurry Tips On Discussion It is good to practice 6 Thinking Hats. 60

61 Tips On Presenting Report / Proposal It is good to consider: Concise Clear and confident Related graphics / charts Cost-benefit analysis SMART principles used if applicable ALARP principle is used if applicable Tips On Advising / Influencing Top Management It is an advantage to know the DISC behavioral styles. 61

62 Tips On Interviewing It is good to consider combining various types of questions: Opened Closed Clarifying Leading Annoying Notes: 62

63 Step #6 Set & execute Action-Plan accordingly using PDCA. Set & Execute Action-Plans (1/2) Basically, previous steps have provided us some important inputs on what to do next (planning): from Step #1 trainings to be arranged for the main SHC members. from Step #2 all the legislations and OSHMS requirements to be complied & conformed. from Step #3 all the relevant control measures for the main identified hazards and emergencies. 63

64 Set & Execute Action-Plans (2/2) from Step #4 all the necessary action-plans to be taken in ensuring the OSH goals and objectives will be achieved. from Step #5 all required trainings for all sub-committee members plus action-plans from each SBU in the SHC. from Step #6 risk management activities, recommendations from incident investigation findings and also OSH-MS implementation. Typical Cycle Of OSH-MS The cycle of OHS-MS such as MS1722 & OHSAS by adopting PDCA INPUTS PLAN DO POLICY/OBJECTIVES Vision & Mission Nature of Business Legislations Third party inputs HIRARC Make Arrangements Assign Responsibility Arrange resources Enforce Procedure Supervise Respond Emergency Train Communicate etc Safe & healthy Workers Productivity Organisation Image ACT Corrective Action Review Improve CHECK Monitor Surveillance Inspect Investigate Audit Record & Analyse 64

65 Planning For Success Implementation HIRARC is the most important process in the planning stage for an OSH-MS. Preventive Culture outcome which has been targeted for the 3rd stage of Malaysia s OSH Vision; critically relying on a good risk management HIRARC. Risk-Based Decision Making (RBDM) should be instilled to all personnel for whatever activities to be performed. Fail to plan is plan to fail. Anon 65

66 Risk Management HIRARC Risk = Hazard X Exposure Workplace You & all of us (Hazard Identification) Hazard HIRARC (Risk Control) (Risk Assessment) Exposure Occupational Risk 66

67 Risk = Hazard x Exposure Occupational Risks Exists When Occupational Activities Exists Workplace Premise Some of these hazards are: 1) Obvious 2) Concealed 3) Developing 4) Transient Physical Hazards Biological Hazards Chemical Hazards Psychosocial Hazards Ergonomic Hazards Risks May Come From Every Angle; 4M1E Extra Considerations And Mechanisms To Cover Every RISK HAZARD IDENTIFICATION (HI) RISK ASSESSMENT (RA) RISK CONTROL (RC) Towards HOLISTIC, DYNAMIC, SYSTEMATIC and PRAGMATIC Implementation In Achieving OBJECTIVES 67

68 Sources Of Harms 4M1E Man (The way people carry out their work) Machines (Installation, layout and design of equipment) Materials (Substances such as chemicals in the workplace) Methods (Shortcut, work practice, etc.) Environment (Media) (Quality of air in the workplace, amount and placement of lighting, noise, vibration etc.) Methods Of Hazard Identification How to identify hazards : 1. Workplace observation & inspection 2. Process review 3. Documents and publications review 4. Measurement of the atmosphere 5. Monitoring of the environment 6. Medical surveillance of workers 7. Accident & incident investigation 8. Analysis and brainstorming 68

69 Case Study: What Is The Hazard? Hazard : Driving forklift with blocking vision. Assess The Risk Magnitude Likelihood Scale: Severity Scale: 1 Likelihood( ) x Severity( ) = Risk( ) So, how serious is the risk? 69

70 Risks Assessment Matrix Severity(S) Likelihood(L) Risk Control Hierarchy High Risk Level 6. PPE Hazard 1. Elimination 2. Substitution 3. Isolation 4. Engineering Control 5. Administrative Control Low A L A R P Exposure ALARP : As Low As Reasonably Practicable 70

71 Recommended Risk Controls (Hazard : Driving forklift with blocking vision) 1. Stop work; change driving method reverse driving; 2. Provide Forklift Safety training to all forklift drivers; 3. Establish SOP for Forklift Safety Handling; 4. Provide supervision for this kind of operation; and 5. Provide proper PPE. HIRARC In Action HIRARC - TOP SIGNIFICANT TABLE Area / OSH MASTER ACTION-PLAN LIST PLANNED ACTIONS TARGET START FINISH PIC STATUS 71

72 Sample Of OSH Master Action-Plan List No. Planned Actions Target 1. Provide Forklift Safety training All forklift drivers 2. Establish SOP for Forklift Safety Handling All types of forklift 3. Provide supervision for forklift operation All shifts 4. Provide proper PPE for forklift operation All forklift handlers Start Finish PIC Status Do (Act the Plan) The dynamic master action-plan list is very useful & effective as reference for to-do list and also for monitoring purposes. Generally, with the dynamic process of HIRARC, it supposedly will always provide us with info of new coming hazards. Thus, will always put us in front of preventing incident strategy. This list will help us in the future in determining our OSH performance in term of proactive measurement. 72

73 Step #7 Measure performance, audit frequently and practice Kaizen. The Kaizen Movement P D A C KAIZEN (Continuous Improvement) 73

74 Measure The Progress, Audit And Kaizen We should gauge every single important aspect to make sure that each of them is performing accordingly in achieving the objectives. For any pitfalls, we should seriously find all the possible root causes and solve the problem by applying relevant solutions, review the effectiveness of the solutions and do improvement where necessary. Not to forget; document them and communicate it back. We should measure our progress all the time..from every single important aspect! 74

75 Some Of Monitoring Aspects & Relevant Tools Equipments, appliances, working conditions Through walk-thru and workplace inspection Environment and atmosphere Through environmental monitoring and atmospheric monitoring Level of exposure Through health surveillance, biological monitoring and hearing test OSH management system Through audit and management review Benchmarking with other companies / industries Through benchmarking and etc. Types Of OSH Performance Indicators Leading Indicators (Positive Performance Indicators PPIs) Proactively monitor the implementation of OSH-MS Use preventive approach Demonstrate improvement in positive or preventive actions (such as the training of staff and procedural compliance) Lagging Indicators (Outcome Indicators) Reactively monitor the failures / outcomes Use corrective approach Demonstrate failures or negative outcomes (such as an increase in the number of injuries or cost of workers compensation claims) 75

76 Types Of Performance Measurements Can be either: Quantitative - an indicator that can be counted or measured and is described numerically. For example, number of safety audits conducted. Qualitative - an indicator that would describe or assess a quality or a behavior. For example, worker ratings of management commitment to achieving best practice in OSH. Among Common Outcome Indicators Lost-time injury (LTI) Fatality rate; Incidence rate; Frequency rate; Severity rate; No. of Occupational Poisoning & Diseases cases; No. Dangerous Occurrences cases; Lost days 76

77 Among Common PPIs Percentage of compliance to legislation; Percentage of training completed; Frequency of walk-thru and workplace inspections carried out; Number of corrective actions completed on time; Availability of competent persons; Frequency of emergency drills and exercise carried out; and Speed of emergency response. Audit Various Scopes Audit on OSH-MS implementation; Audit of actual state of plant and equipment against statutory requirements - monthly audits and random checks; Audit of accident investigation reports against hazard control reports; Audit of OSH meetings to determine that problems are dealt with; Audit of inspection reports to check participations; and Audit of minutes of meetings; 77

78 Management Review (1/3) [OHSAS 18001:2007] Top management shall review the organization s OSH management system, at planned intervals, to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness. Reviews shall include assessing opportunities for improvement and the need for changes to the OSH management system, including the OSH policy and OSH objectives. Records of the management reviews shall be retained. Management Review (2/3) [OHSAS 18001:2007] Input to management reviews shall include: a) results of internal audits and evaluations of compliance with applicable legal requirements and with other requirements to which the organization subscribes; b) the results of participation and consultation; c) relevant communication(s) from external interested parties, including complaints; d) the OSH performance of the organization; e) the extent to which objectives have been met; f) status of incident investigations, corrective actions and preventive actions; g) follow-up actions from previous management reviews; h) changing circumstances, including developments in legal and other requirements related to OSH ; and i) recommendations for improvement. 78

79 Management Review (3/3) [OHSAS 18001:2007] The outputs from management reviews shall be consistent with the organization s commitment to continual improvement and shall include any decisions and actions related to possible changes to: a) b) c) d) OSH performance; OSH policy and objectives; resources; and other elements of the OSH management system. Kaizen Culture In OSH Kaizen (continuous improvement) should be applied in every aspect of life including OSH. It is good enough making small improvement everyday continuously rather than big improvement just once a while through special project only such as Kaizen Blitz. Kiken Yochi Training (KYT) or Hazard Prediction Training should be considered as routine activity each time before start work. Toyota Production System (TPS) spirit should be instilled to make Kaizen success at the workplace. 79

80 Conclusions OSH is everybody s business; everybody should be responsible for it including employers and employees. We should aware about the existence of OSH-MP 15 and actively participate in ensuring the success of the OSH-MP 15 and also the OSH vision for Malaysia. The 7 Marvelous Steps introduced in this program is very useful in realizing both of them as for us at the organizations level (Social Partners). Q&A 80

81 For Choosing ITS Management Sdn Bhd As Your Training Provider If you have questions or require further assistance later, please to Subject: Attn: Trainer s Name Other inquiries, please to 81

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