Revised Program Document January 2015

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1 KPI 8 Revised Program Document January 215

2 PFWGfainiti

3 PEDP3 PROGRAM DOCUMENT i

4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Following agreements reached at the program Mid-Term Review, Bangladesh s Third Primary Education Development Program (PEDP3) is a six-year, sector wide program covering Grades 1 through 5 and one year of pre-primary education (PPE). PEDP3, led and administered by the Government of Bangladesh s line agencies, aims to establish an efficient, inclusive and equitable primary education system delivering effective and relevant child-friendly learning to all Bangladesh s children from PPE through Grade 5 primary. PEDP3 is made up of four Components: Teaching and Learning, Participation and Disparities, Decentralization and Effectiveness, and Planning and Management. These are further broken down into six Result Areas: Learning Outcomes, Participation, Reducing Disparities, Decentralization, Effectiveness, and Program Planning and Management. Results in these areas are achieved through activities in twenty-nine sub-components. Most activities affect all primary schools in Bangladesh. Some activities reach out to all primary school age children participating in either formal or non-formal education. As a result of the Mid-Term Review, the program period has been extended from five to six years. It will now end in 217. At the same time the program cost was revised upward from BDT billion to BDT 765 billion (a BDT billion, 28% increase). Applying an updated exchange rate, which has depreciated from USD1=BDT7 to approximately USD1=BDT78 in 214, the total revised program cost is USD 9.81 billion (up by USD 2.33 billion from USD 7.48 billion in the original estimate (when calculated at the new exchange rate)). BACKGROUND PEDP3 is the third in a series of large investments in education over the past twenty years. Supported by significant contributions from DPs, PEDP3 s scope is the entire primary education sector. This is reflected in the PEDP3 results and financing frameworks that encompass all interventions and outline all the public funding required for the development and maintenance of the pre- and primary education systems. The first Primary Education Development Program (PEDP I: ) consisted of several projects managed and financed separately by eight DPs. It focused on ten objectives that cover the themes of strengthening enrollment, increasing completion, providing quality inputs and an enhanced monitoring approach. Recognizing that project-based approaches of this kind did not necessarily lead to long-term institutionalization of achievements, the Government and DPs jointly agreed to adopt principles of a sector-wide approach (SWAp) in efforts to achieve highquality primary education in future. The Second Primary Education Development Program (PEDP II: ) was a coordinated and integrated sub-sector program driven from within the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE). PEDP II focused on quality improvement, institutional capacity building, and systemic reform. PEDP II was the first education sector program to include many SWAp principles in its design.1 Coordinated by a lead agency, PEDP II was financed by the Government and ten DPs through a management and financing structure implemented in parallel to the Government s existing mechanisms. 1 Sector-wide approach ii

5 This Third Primary Education Development Program incorporates additional features of a sectorwide approach in matters of financial management, donor harmonization, and program scope. PEDP3 continues many of the quality improvement, institutional, and systemic reforms introduced under PEDP II with an increased focus on how inputs are used at the school level to improve learning outcomes in the classroom and raise primary school completion rates. POLICY BASIS Since the country s independence in 1971, efforts have been continuous to achieve universal primary education. This aspiration was explicitly reflected in Article 17 of the Constitution, which states that this goal should be achieved through establishing: A uniform mass oriented and universal system of education and extending free and compulsory education to all children to such stage as may be determined by law. The Constitution also states that Bangladesh will provide primary education that is relevant to learners and society s needs. The aspirations contained in this foundational document are embedded in subsequent legislation, policies, strategies, and programs. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has made laudable commitments to universal and relevant primary education that have led to a broader commitment to inclusive, quality primary education. These commitments align with the core goal of PEDP3 and are described in Bangladesh s 21 National Education Policy (NEP). In particular, PEDP3 embodies four policy directions for primary education which are described in the NEP: Establishing an integrated school system under a framework that unifies public, NGO and private providers; Improving quality through reduced class size, improved teaching practices, and a focus on ICT literacy; Decentralizing primary education administration and management; Engaging in partnerships with NGOs and the private sector. The NEP also describes the GoB s commitment to gradually expand primary school through to Grade 8. The success of this commitment relies on the strength of the foundation; namely, PPE and Grades 1-5. PEDP3 s contribution to that policy reform will be to focus intensively on meeting the challenges of effective delivery of inclusive, quality education from PPE to Grade 5 and ensuring satisfactory student learning. It also supports technical assistance for a comprehensive study to assess and help lay the groundwork for implementing the policy on integration of Grades 6-8 into primary education. No changes are foreseen for the PEDP3 program development objective, its scope, and its 29 sub-components, any of its KPIs or the Results Framework in relation to the integration of Grades 6-8 into primary education. PEDP3 KEY FEATURES Scope, goals and objectives: The scope of PEDP3 is the whole primary education sector plus gradual inclusion of one year of PPE. PEDP3 s goal is to provide: quality education for all our children. This is being approached through the specific objective: to establish an efficient, inclusive and equitable primary education system delivering effective and relevant child-friendly learning to all Bangladesh s children from pre-primary through Grade 5 primary. Results based management: Program implementation is being carried out through resultsbased-management (RBM). Progress across the six Result Areas is monitored through fifteen Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Results in these areas are being achieved through activities iii

6 and outputs in twenty-nine sub-components. RBM is a flexible model; plans can be adjusted to improve performance. Performance based financing: In PEDP3, performance is directly linked to external financing. More than 75 percent of Development Partner finance is triggered by achieving outputs in nine sub-components designed incrementally to improve primary education and build systems, including institutional changes and complex reforms. These nine sub-components are monitored through Disbursement Linked Indicators (DLIs). The relevant proportions of DP funds are disbursed based on the number of DLIs fully achieved that year. The remainder of DP funding referred to as fixed tranche is released on the basis of satisfactory program performance, including a review of sector progress documented through the KPIs, monitoring reports and safeguards compliance. While program progress is reviewed on an on-going basis, including through regular working group meetings and the bi-annual Joint Consultative Meetings, an annual assessment is conducted at the Joint Annual Review Mission, which is used to determine the fixed tranche. The DP financing reimburses the GoB for expenses incurred under specific Program Budget Heads (PBHs) in both the development and non-development budgets These PBHs are part of MoPME s economic heads of account under the GoB system. Use of Government s financial management and monitoring systems: PEDP3 uses GoB systems for financial management and monitoring. The program follows an agreed combination of Government and Development Partner systems for procurement and reporting. Under this financing model, DPs place their contributions into a Consolidated Fund managed by the Ministry of Finance where DP financing is integrated into funds from many sources. Financial processes follow the Government s regular procedures, and PEDP3 is managed as any other GoB funded program. Some DPs provide funds for technical assistance to support PEDP3 implementation. These do not flow to the Consolidated Fund and are managed directly by the relevant DPs. Joint Financing Arrangement: The GoB and DPs entered into a Joint Financing Arrangement (JFA). The JFA describes Development Partner contributions and disbursement schedules, joint consultation and decision making processes, Government reporting requirements, joint review and evaluation procedures as well as specifics regarding procurement, audits, financial reports and other matters. PEDP3 COST ESTIMATES PEDP3 was initially estimated to cost USD 8.34 billon over five years at an exchange rate of USD1=BDT7. Following the extension of the program by one year, and an increase in exchange rate to USD1=BDT78, the updated program cost is USD 9.81 billion. It includes USD 5.55 billion in the revenue budget and USD 4.26 billion in the development budget (including USD 1.93 billion for discrete projects). Development partners originally committed USD 1.15 billion. The GoB has requested additional financing of USD.667 billion to support the extension. This would equate to approximately 17.5% of the total cost. This is currently being considered by DPs. External financing will support both the revenue and development budgets with approximately 4% of DP funds supporting development expenditures and approximately 6% supporting revenue expenditures. Discrete projects are excluded from DP financing. iv

7 CONCLUSION PEDP3 s objective is to establish an efficient, inclusive and equitable primary education system delivering effective and relevant child-friendly learning to all Bangladesh s children from PPE through Grade 5. The Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) believes that the design for PEDP3 described in this document will achieve that objective. Building on the successes and lessons learned over the past twenty years, the Government is confident that PEDP3 will continue bringing the infrastructure, training, curriculum, textbooks and materials, school based responsibility, classroom learning, program management, and regulatory arrangements together to promote the achievement of the aims put forward in the National Education Policy. v

8 PREFACE RATIONALE FOR UPDATE TO PEDP3 DOCUMENTATION The Development Project Proforma for the Third Primary Education Development Program (PEDP3; ) sets out expectations for the Mid-Term Review (MTR) of the program, after which changes or modifications will be reflected in the Revised DPP (RDPP) of PEDP3 for approval of the Economic Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC). The MTR of PEDP3 was undertaken between June 213 and September 214. The original version of the Program Document, Implementation Guide and Annexes (211) have been updated to reflect the decisions endorsed at the MTR Retreat in March 214, the Joint Annual Review Mission of May- July 214 and the MTR Closure and Additional Financing Appraisal Mission of September 214. The Program Steering Committee and ECNEC endorsed this document in January 215. THE PEDP3 MID-TERM REVIEW PROCESS The PEDP3 MTR was a joint stocktaking by the Government of Bangladesh and Development Partners (DPs) participating in PEDP3. This process noted achievements in specific areas of the program as well as progress more broadly in the primary education sub-sector. At the outset of PEDP3, the MTR was envisaged as an opportunity to assess results of PEDP3 to date in relation to projected targets, to review and fine-tune implementation processes and to set out steps to fully achieve program objectives. During the initial design of PEDP3, agreement had been reached on specific annual targets for the twenty-nine sub-components until the mid-term of the Program in Year 3. The targets for Years 4 and 5 were broadly outlined, and a major task of the MTR was to re-examine and specify more detailed annual targets for the remaining years of the Program on the basis of implementation experience. Led by an Oversight Committee chaired by the Additional Secretary (Development) of the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) and a Technical Committee chaired by the Director General of the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE), the MTR was informed by six major studies: an internal evaluation and five independent, in-depth studies. The Internal Evaluation was led by DPE, and engaged all key implementing stakeholders in constructive reflection on progress to date. This was complemented by the five pieces of deeper independent research: 1. An Economic Analysis of the macroeconomic context and economic costs of forward-looking policy scenarios for primary education; 2. A Financial Management Analysis of the mechanisms for financial management and fiduciary oversight that assessed implementation of PEDP3 through government systems; 3. A Governance and Institutional Analysis of the structures for Government leadership and coordination, and partnership used in PEPD3; 4. A Quality Study that assessed the extent to which the quality interventions are being implemented as planned, and to tap into stakeholders perspectives on possible synergies between key PEDP3 interventions to transform the quality of teaching and learning in the classroom; and 5. A Population Projection Study to develop a year-wise picture of the prospective school-age population (6-14 year olds) and therefore the potential demand for schooling for these age groups. The MTR identified accomplishments, challenges, gaps and concerns, and resulted in agreement on priorities to move forward during the remainder of the program. These are reflected in updates to the policy matrix and core technical elements of this document including the: Program Matrix, vi

9 Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix, PEDP3 implementation organograms, costing tables, Procurement and Financial Management Action Plan, Environmental Management Framework, Social Management Framework, and the G&IE Action Plan. These form the core modifications to both the updated Program Document and RDPP. The process and conclusions of the MTR are set out in detail in the PEDP3 MTR Report. CONCLUSIONS OF THE MID-TERM REVIEW Highlights among the conclusions of the PEDP3 MTR include the following decisions relating to program financing: The extension of PEDP3 to December 217. As endorsed by MoPME in February 214, PEDP3 activities will close in June 217. A six-month period of program closure will follow (to December 217). During this time activities for a follow-on program are anticipated to start. There will be an increase in the overall program cost, reflecting the extension of the program. Year 6 targets have been agreed for 26 sub-components, of which 6 are Disbursement Linked Indicators (DLIs): Textbook Production and Distribution, Diploma in Primary Education, the Grade 5 Primary Completion Exam, Decentralized Governance and Management, Annual Primary School Census and Sector Finance. Final Year 3 targets for three DLIs (Teacher Education and Development, Needs-based Infrastructure Development, and Teacher Recruitment and Deployment) will be amended. Highlights also included the following decisions driving a continued increase in the provision of quality education: The focus of PEDP3 on improving the quality of inclusive primary education was reaffirmed. The Diploma-in-Education (DPEd) will be expanded and institutionalized as the national pre-service qualification for all government primary school teachers. In the remaining life of PEDP3, innovative approaches will be explored to facilitate the enrollment of every newly recruited teacher under the program, building towards the long-term goal to reach all government primary teachers. Contact hours between students and teachers will be increased through a number of mechanisms. This includes appointment of more teachers, and increasing in-school teaching time of teachers by limiting number of shifts and extending teaching hours. An in-depth study will be undertaken to develop an evidence-based phased strategy to further increase teacher-student contact hours. Enforcing minimum standards, strengthening Government-NGO (GO-NGO) collaboration, increasing capacity and awareness of teachers and stakeholders, and appointing more teachers will fortify the focus on quality in delivering Pre-Primary Education (PPE). To support equity of provision, expansion of PPE will be more effectively targeted to reach the children most in need. A baseline census will be taken of all children out-of-school. This will inform and improve scaled up efforts to reduce drop out and overcome the barriers to education for those still out of school. Finally, the following decisions were made to support the consolidation and extension of system strengthening activities undertaken through PEDP3: There is shared commitment to further build on improvements to data collection and analysis systems. This includes continuing to improve these tools and use data for evidence-based policy decisions. This will take place across all levels of the system (e.g. Annual Primary School Census, Annual Sector Performance Report, Education Household Surveys, National Student Assessments, live database for infrastructure vii

10 development, modernizing monitoring, etc.). Strategic studies will be carried out to support evidence-based policy making. This will include third party validations and documentation/dissemination of best practices. Evidence will be garnered from the use of School and Upazila plans and funds, which will be used to guide and support decentralized management and governance, as well as to tackle emerging concerns such as low teacher-student contact hours. More flexibility will be introduced in budget allocation at Upazila level, to support development of Upazila Primary Education Plans that cater more effectively to the local needs. Improvements in communication and mobilization of stakeholders, particularly at local level, will be made to strengthen and broaden the support base for quality primary education. Improvements will be made to achieve more effective planning, utilization and monitoring of TA. The proportion of contracts to be procured through e-procurement will be increased, aiming for 1 percent by 216. Lessons from existing public private partnerships will be explored and brought to greater use in primary education for the remaining duration of PEDP3. As one element of this, the GO-NGO Guidelines will be disseminated, updated and expanded for the support of activities including Second Chance Education and Pre-Primary Education. A streamlined Program Support Office for PEDP3 will be established at MoPME and DPE on the basis of Terms of Reference agreed by MoPME, DPE and DPs. viii

11 REVISED PEDP3 DOCUMENTATION The revisions to the PEDP3 Program Document have been completed as amendments to the original document. For the most part, changes have been made to reflect decisions taken at the Mid-Term Review of the program. These mostly relate to implementation and have been made to ensure that the program continues to adapt to the realities on the ground. The changes are reflected in the RDPP. On the basis of the Program Document and RDPP, corresponding amendments are made to the annexes of the Joint Financing Arrangement (JFA) required for signature by the GoB and all participating DPs. The DPs will ensure that their bilateral agreements with GoB are amended accordingly as required. As well as amendments to the content, the structure of the document has been updated to increase accessibility of the document for readers who are unfamiliar with the program. Figure 1 below shows the structure of the original PEDP3 Programme Document. Figure 1: Original Structure of PEDP3 Program Document Original Programme Document Main Text Implementation Guide Annexes 5 Annexes 4 Chapters 7 Sections 5 Appendices 1 Attachment Figure 2, below, provides a high level outline of the Revised Program Document. ix

12 Figure 2: Structure of Revised Program Document Revised Program Document Program Overview Implementation Guide 8 Chapters 4 Chapters 4 Annexes While the structure of the document is amended, the information contained within the document covers the same areas. This is outlined in Figures 3 and 4, which highlight where information contained in the original Programme Document can be found in the Revised Program Document. The only exception to this is the removal of Annex 2: Development Coordination, which was utilised in the design of the program to understand the education sector context more broadly. On the left hand side of each figure is an outline of the Original Programme Document. On the right is the Revised Program Document structure. Section titles within the original Program Document can be found in brackets under the title of the Chapters within the Revised Program Document. This indicates where existing information has been moved to in the new document. Figure 3: Original Main Text compared with Revised Program Overview Main Text 4 Chapters: 1/ Programme Description 2/ Implementation Arrangements 3/ Programme Financial Analysis 4/ Cost Estimates Summary 3 Appendices: 1/ Macro-Economic and Social Context 2/ Education System Analysis 3/ The Primary Education Context 1 Attachment 1/ Disbursement Linked Indicators* Program overview Chapter 1: Program Context (Appendix 1/ Macro-economic & Social Context) (Appendix 2/ Education System Analysis) (Appendix 3/ The Primary Education Context) Chapter 2: Program Description (Chapter 1/ Programme Description) Chapter 3: Program Governance and Management (Chapter 2/ Implementation Arrangements) Chapter 4: Fiscal Analysis (Chapter 3/ Programme Financial Analysis) (Chapter 4/ Cost Estimates Summary) * Disbursement Linked Indicator Matrix is now included in the Implementation Guide x

13 Figure 4: Original Implementation Guide and Annexes compared with Revised Implementation Guide xi

14 DOCUMENT OUTLINE PEDP3 PROGRAM DOCUMENT... i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... ii Introduction... ii Background... ii Policy Basis...iii PEDP3 Key Features...iii PEDP3 Cost Estimates...iv Conclusion... v PREFACE... vi Rationale for update to PEDP3 documentation...vi The PEDP3 Mid-Term Review Process...vi Conclusions of the Mid-Term Review... vii REVISED PEDP3 DOCUMENTATION... ix DOCUMENT OUTLINE... xii INDEX OF TABLES... xv INDEX OF FIGURES...xviii ACRONYMS... xx PROGRAM OVERVIEW... 1 INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAM OVERVIEW... 2 CHAPTER 1: PROGRAM CONTEXT Macro Economic and Social Context... 3 Economic Growth... 3 Poverty reduction... 3 Gender... 4 Education, Employment and Productivity... 5 Choosing Work over Schooling... 7 Progression Through Grade Disparities The Education System Sector Overview Education Sector Finance Government Policy, Priorities and EFA Objectives Pro-Poor Impact in Education The Pre-Primary & Primary Education Context Pre-Primary & Primary Education System Management and Governance Government Priorities in Pre-Primary & Primary Education Primary Education Finance... 2 CHAPTER 2: PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Introduction Lessons Learnt From PEDP II PEDP3: Scope, Logical Framework and Components Component 1: Teaching and Learning Component 2: Participation and Disparities Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness Component 4: Planning and Management Component and Sub-component Descriptions Component 1: Teaching and Learning Component 2: Participation and Disparities Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness Component 4: Planning and Management CHAPTER 3: PROGRAM GOVERNANCE & MANAGEMENT Governance Structures and Communication PEDP3 Organizational Structure PEDP3 Coordination and Communication xii

15 PEDP3 Program Support Staffing Requirements Financial Management and Disbursement Arrangements Critical Risks and Mitigation Measures CHAPTER 4: FISCAL ANALYSIS Resource Envelope MoPME Budget Estimates PEDP3 Financing Foreign Assistance Economic and Financial Analysis Cost Summary Tables IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE INTRODUCTION TO IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE CHAPTER A: SUB-COMPONENT DESCRIPTIONS AND PEDP3 PROGRAM STRUCTURE A.1. Component 1: Teaching and Learning Result Area 1: Learning Outcomes A.2. Component 2: Participation and Disparities... 8 Result area 2.1 Participation Result area 2.2 Disparities A.3. Component 3 Decentralization and Effectiveness Result area 3.1 Decentralization Result area 3.2 Effectiveness A.4. Component 4 Planning and Management Result Area 4 Program Planning and Management A.5. Distribution of Sub-Components among Implementing Units CHAPTER B: PROGRAM MATRIX B.1 Update of PROGRAM Matrix CHAPTER C: MONITORING, EVALUATION AND REPORTING C.1 Monitoring C.2 Evaluation C.3 Reporting Progress reporting Financial reporting C.4 Disbursement Linked Indicator Matrix C.5 Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix CHAPTER D: IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS D.1 Functions and responsibilities School and Community Upazila, District and Division Implementation Administration Supporting Agencies D.2 Strategic Direction Consultation D.3 Staffing Requirements CHAPTER E: FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT E.1 Procurement E.2 Disbursement Arrangements E.3 Development Partners' contributions E.4 Funds Flow E.5 PEDP3 Budget Heads (PBH) E.6 Financial Reporting E.7 Procurement and Financial Management Action Plan CHAPTER F: RISK MANAGEMENT CHAPTER G: TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ARRANGEMENTS G.1 TA coordination and management Indefinite Delivery Contracts xiii

16 G.2 Revised Proposed PEDP3 TA Mapping CHAPTER H: DETAILED COST ESTIMATES ANNEX 1: POLICY MATRIX ANNEX 2: UPDATED GENDER AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION ACTION PLAN PEDP3 Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Background Goal The PEDP3 M a i n s t r e a m i n g Gender and IE Action Plan: Qualitative Studies/research to be undertaken Implementation and Monitoring Mechanism of Gender and IE Action Plan ANNEX 3: SOCIAL MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK ANNEX 4: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK xiv

17 INDEX OF TABLES Table 1.2 (i): Primary Education GER and NER from Table 1.2 (ii): Secondary Education Enrollment, Table 2.3 (i): PEDP3 Program Structure Table 2.3 (ii): Summary of Key Performance Indicators Table 2.4 (i): Budget for Component Table 2.4 (ii): Budget for Component Table 2.4 (iii): Budget for Component Table 2.4 (iv): Budget for Component Table 3.2 (i): Summary of PEDP3 Staffing Requirements Table 4.1 (i): Resource Envelope by Scenario (USD billion)... 5 Table 4.3 (i): Comparison of Original and Revised Program Costing of PEDP3 (billion) Table 4.3 (ii): PEDP3 Budget Estimate (USD billion) Table 4.4 (iii): Education Sector-Disbursement of Project aid in ADP (billion) Ta le. ii : I di ative S hedule of DPs Dis urse e ts Table 4.4 (iii): Indicative sum ary of DPs Dis urse e ts Ta le. illio s illio s i : evised PEDP Budget y Co po e t I eptio to Ju y year i BDT Table 4.6 (ii): Revised PEDP3 Budget by Component by Currency Type (Inception to Jun 217) Table 4.6 (iii): Revised PEDP3 Budget by Expenditure Category by Currency Type (Inception to Jun 217) 61 Table A (i): PEDP3 Program Structure Table A.1 (i): Budget of Result Area 1: Learning Outcomes Table A.1 (ii): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (iii): Budget of sub-component Table A.1 (iv): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (v): Budget of sub-component Table A.1 (vi): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (vii): Budget of sub-component Table A.1 (viii): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (ix): Budget of sub-component Table A.1 (x): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (xi): Budget of sub-component Table A.1 (xii): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (xiii): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (xiv): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (xv): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (xvi): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (xvii): Activities of sub-component Table A.1 (xviii): Activities of sub-component xv

18 Table A.1 (xix): Budget of sub-component Table A.2 (i): Budget of Result Area 2.1: Participation Table A.2 (ii): Activities of sub-component Table A.2 (iii): Budget of sub-component Table A.2 (iv): Activities of sub-component Table A.2 (v): Budget of sub-component Table A.2 (vi): Activities of sub-component Table A.2 (vii): Budget of sub-component Table A.2 (viii): Activities of sub-component Table A.2 (ix): Budget of sub-component Table A.2 (x): Activities of sub-component Table A.2 (xi): Budget of sub-component Table A.2 (xii): Budget of Result Area 2.2: Disparities Table A.2 (xiii): Activities of sub-component Table A.2 (xiv): Budget of sub-component Table A.2 (xv): Activities of sub-component Table A.2 (xvi): Budget of sub-component Table A.2 (xvii): Activities of sub-component Table A.2 (xviii): Budget of sub-component Table A.2 (xix): Indication of classrooms required from preliminary review Table A.2 (xx): Categorization of school by student numbers Table A.2 (xxi): Proportion of schools by category of crowding by school type Table A.2 (xxii): Activities of sub-component Table A.2 (xxiii): Budget of sub-component Table A.3 (i): Budget of Result Area 3.1: Decentralization Table A.3 (ii): Activities of sub-component Table A.3 (iii): Budget of sub-component Table A.3 (iv): Activities of sub-component Table A.3 (v): Budget of sub-component Table A.3 (vi): Activities of sub-component Table A.3 (vii): Budget of sub-component Table A.3 (viii): Activities of sub-component Table A.3 (ix): Budget of sub-component Table A.3 (x): Budget of Result Area 3.2:Effectiveness Table A.3 (xi): Activities of sub-component Table A.3 (xii): Budget of sub-component Table A.3 (xiii): Activities of sub-component Table A.3 (xiv): Budget of sub-component xvi

19 Table A.3 (xv): Activities of sub-component Table A.3 (xvi): Budget of sub-component Table A.3 (xvii): Activities of sub-component Table A.3 (xviii): Budget of sub-component Table A.4 (i): Budget of Result Area 4: Program Planning and Management Table A.4 (ii): Activities of sub-component Table A.4 (iii): Budget of sub-component Table A.4 (iv): Activities of sub-component Table A.4 (v): Budget of sub-component Table A.4 (vi): Activities of sub-component Table A.4 (vii): Budget of sub-component Table A.4 (viii): Activities of sub-component Table A.4 (ix): Budget of sub-component Table A.4 (x): Activities of sub-component Table A.4 (xi): Budget of sub-component Table A.4 (xii): Activities of sub-component Table A.4 (xiii): Budget of sub-component Table A.5 (i): Distribution of Sub-Components among Implementing Units Table B (i): Program Matrix including Components, Result Areas and Sub-components Table C.3 (i) Reports required for PEDP3 Disbursement Table C.4 (i): Disbursement Linked Indicator Matrix Table C.5 (i): Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix Table D.3 (i): Detailed PEDP3 Staffing Requirements Table E.3 (i): Indicative Schedule of DPs Dis urse e ts Ta le E. ii : I di ative su ary of DPs Dis urse e ts illio s illio s Table E.5 (i): PEDP3 Budget Heads Table F (i): Summary of Risks and Mitigating Measures Table H (i): Detailed Cost Estimates by Component by Year (USD,) Table H (ii): Detailed Cost Estimates by Expenditure Category by Year (USD,) Table A2 (i): PEDP3 Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Matrix Table A2 (ii): Suggested Qualitative Studies to be undertaken to mainstream Gender and IE in PEDP3 and beyond xvii

20 INDEX OF FIGURES Figure 1: Original Structure of PEDP3 Program Document... ix Figure 2: Structure of Revised Program Document...x Figure 3: Original Main Text compared with Revised Program Overview...x Figure 4: Original Implementation Guide and Annexes compared with Revised Implementation Guide... xi Figure 1.1 (i) Average Education Level Attained by Each Age Group... 6 Figure 1.1 (ii) Education Level, Gender, and Location of Workers... 6 Figure 1.1 (iii) Urban and Rural Wage Premiums of Education and Formal Work... 7 Figure 1.1 (iv) Wages (BDT) and educational attainment Figure 1.1 (v) Student Progression from Grade 1 to Passing HSC... 9 Figure 2.3 (i): Logical Framework of PEDP Figure 2.4 (i): Result Chain of Component Figure 2.4 (ii): Medium and Long-term outcomes of Component Figure 2.4 (iii): Result Chain of Component Figure 2.4 (iv): Medium and Long-term outcomes of Component Figure 2.4 (v): Result Chain of Component Figure 2.4 (vi): Medium and Long-term outcomes of Component Figure 2.4 (vii): Result Chain of Component Figure 2.4 (viii): Medium and Long-term outcomes of Component Figure 3.1 (i): PEDP3 Implementation Partners Figure 3.1 (ii): PEDP3 Coordination and Communication* Figure 3.1 (iii): PEDP3 Program Support Office (PSO) Figure 4.1 (i): Public Expenditure on Education by Ministry (USD billion) Figure D.3 (i): Ministry of Primary and Mass Education Organogram Figure D.3 (ii): PEDP3 Implementation at MoPME Figure D.3 (iii): PEDP3 Implementing Agencies Figure D.3 (iv): Organogram of DPE Figure D.3 (v): DPE Administration Division Organogram Figure D.3 (vi): DPE Policy and Operation Division Organogram Figure D.3 (vii): DPE Training Division Organogram Figure D.3 (viii): DPE Finance and Procurement Division Organogram Figure D.3 (ix): DPE Planning and Development Division Organogram Figure D.3 (x): DPE Monitoring and Evaluation Division Organogram Figure D.3 (xi): DPE Information Management Division Organogram Figure D.3 (xii): DPE Program Management Division Organogram Figure D.3 (xiii): DPEO Organogram Figure D.3 (xiv): NAPE Organogram Figure D.3 (xv): DPE Division Office Organogram xviii

21 Figure E.6 (i): PEDP II Disbursement Model Figure G (i): PEDP3 TA Process and Sector Development Outcomes xix

22 ACRONYMS ADPEO APSC AUEO BANBEIS BBS BDT BNFE C-in-Ed CPEMIU Dip.Ed. DLI DP DPE DPEd DPEO DRR DSHE EEPs EiE EFA EMIS FAPAD FY GDP GER GIR GNP GoB GPS HIES HQ HRDM HRM HSC HSCE ICT IE KPI LGED LOC M&E MDG MoE MoF MoLM MoPME MTMF NAPE NCLS NCTB NEP NER xx Assistant District Primary Education Officer Annual Primary School Census Assistant Upazila Education Officer Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Bangladesh Taka Bureau of Non Formal Education Certificate in Education Compulsory Primary Education Implementation and Monitoring Unit Diploma in Education Disbursement Linked Indicators Development Partner Directorate of Primary Education Diploma in Primary Education District Primary Education Officer Disaster Risk Reduction Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education Eligible Expenditure Programs Education in Emergencies Education for All Educational Management of Information System Foreign Aid Project Audit Directorate Financial Year Gross Domestic Product Gross Enrollment Ration Gross Intake Rates Gross National Product Government of Bangladesh Government Primary School Household Income and Expenditure Survey Headquarters Human Resources Development and Management Human Resource Management Higher Secondary School Certificate Higher Secondary School Certificate Examination Information and Communication Technology Inclusive Education Key Performance Indicators Local Government Engineering Department Learning outcome competencies Monitoring and Evaluation Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Education Ministry of Finance Ministry of Labor and Manpower Ministry of Primary and Mass Education Medium-Term Macroeconomic Framework National Academy for Primary Education National Child Labor Survey National Curriculum and Textbook Board National Education Policy Net Enrollment Ratio

23 NFE NGO PEDP I PEDP II PEDP3 PPMS PSC PSQL PTI RDPP RMG RMS RPM NGPS RNGPS ROSC SLIP SMC SME SOAN SSC SWAp TA TOT TVE TVET UEO UN UPEP USD xxi Non Formal Education Non Government Organization First Primary Education Development Program Second Primary Education Development Program Third Primary Education Development Program Program Performance Monitoring System PEDP3 Steering Committee Primary School Quality Level indicators Primary (Teacher) Training Institute Revised Development Project Pro Forma Ready Made Garment Risk Mitigation Strategy Results and Program Matrix Non-Government Primary Schools Registered Non-Government Primary School Reaching Out-of-School Children Project School Level Improvement Plan School Management Committees Small and Medium Enterprises Statement of Audit Needs Secondary School Certificate Sector-wide Approach Technical Assistance Training of Trainers Technical-Vocational Education Technical-Vocational Education and Training Upazila Education Office United Nation Upazila Primary Education Plan United States Dollar

24 PROGRAM OVERVIEW 1

25 INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAM OVERVIEW This section of the Third Primary Education Program s (PEDP3) Program Document (PD) presents readers with a strategic understanding of PEDP3 as a whole. It is intended to provide readers with an appreciation of the context in which PEDP3 operates and the way in which the program is structured in order to achieve its broad-reaching goals. Program activities are explained in greater detail in the Implementation Guide. The first chapter of the Program Overview is a synopsis of Bangladesh s macro-economic and social contexts, followed by an outline of the education sector as a whole and the pre-primary and primary education sub-sectors specifically. This provides readers with an understanding of the opportunities and challenges created by the operating environment in which PEDP3 exists. Chapter 2 focuses on the PEDP3 program structure. It first identifies the lessons learned in the Second Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP II) that influenced the development of PEDP3. It then gives a macro level outline of PEDP3, including descriptions of the four components, six Result areas and 29 sub-components that combine to form the program. This section includes the PEDP3 logical framework, the results chains that guide each of the four component areas and the program s Key Performance Indicators. An outline of each subcomponent is also included. Chapter 3 provides readers with an understanding of the PEDP3 Governance and Management approach. It identifies the key decision-making and governance platforms that are in place to guide the program, outlining the participants and the regularity of meetings. It also highlights the program s key actors and the formal communication and operational mechanisms that complement the informal mechanisms that are used on a daily basis. Chapter 4 gives insight into the financial arrangements supporting the PEDP3. Chapter 4 outlines the resourcing envelope under which the PEDP3 is required to operate. It outlines the source of financing, including the contribution made to the program by DPs, and finally presents an indication of the financial stability of the overall program. Also included is detail on the costings of PEDP3 greater costing detail is also provided in the Implementation Guide. The Program Overview provides readers with a macro-level understanding of PEDP3. By reviewing the operating environment in Chapter 1 readers will better understand the context of the program as a whole when it is outlined in Chapter 2. This is then complemented by an outline of the overarching management, governance and financing frameworks in chapters 3 and 4. This background helps readers better understand the rationale for the priorities both within the components themselves and in the way in which the program is delivered. These are then outlined in great detail in the Implementation Guide. 2

26 CHAPTER 1: PROGRAM CONTEXT 1.1 MACRO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXT Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It has a population of approximately 155 million people, with 31% under the age of 15.2 As such, providing primary education to all Bangladesh s children requires significant and sustained focus and investment from the Government of Bangladesh and all other actors within the Primary Education sector. The Government has maintained a commitment to education as both a basic human right and as a means for achieving development goals. This has contributed to economic growth, social transformation, poverty reduction, and helped curb population growth. This section describes Bangladesh s macro-economic and social context in more detail, particularly as it pertains to the progress and challenges in education development. Economic Growth GDP Growth in Constant Price: The economy has experienced stable growth in GDP since 21 reaching 6.2 percent in FY12, although this was estimated to slow to 6. percent in 213 as a result of political unrest during the national election period.3 In 28 the per capita GDP exceeded USD 6 for the first time, reaching an estimated USD 845 in 213. GDP Growth in Current Price: Average consumer inflation moderated to about 7 percent in FY13, from 8.7 percent in FY12. In 212/13, GDP was estimated at BDT 1,38 billion, up from 6,95.7 billion in 29/1. Agriculture is a significant source of economic growth and has a fundamental role to play in the struggle against poverty. Agriculture contributes 21 percent of GDP and involves 48 percent of the labor force. Labor-intensive non-agricultural sectors, including garments and manufacturing, also registered phenomenal growth between 1995 and 21 - estimated at 12 percent per annum. Poverty reduction Bangladesh s stable GDP growth underpins significant improvements in poverty reduction, whereby levels of human poverty have decreased faster than the decrease in income poverty. As Bangladesh experienced an annual economic growth that averaged 5.8 percent over 2-21, poverty declined by 1.8 percent per year. The percentage of people living on less than USD 1.25 per day fell from 58.6 percent in 2 to 43.3 percent in 21 a rate that was 6 percent faster than in the rest of the developing world, excluding China.4 Infant and child mortality has declined by half since 199 and fertility rates declined similarly over the same period.5 This situation is due largely to the positive effects of substantial public and non-state investment in education, health, and social empowerment activities. Reflecting the decline in fertility and mortality, the change in population pyramids for the years 2 and 21 shows a lower proportion of children and an increase in the number of working age adults. The 2 The World Bank, Seeding Fertile Ground: Education that Works for Bangladesh, 213. At the time of writing the GDP growth rate for 213 had yet to be confirmed 4 The World Bank, Coutry Assistance Strategy Progress Report, November Viewing changes over a longer historical period is even more striking. Between 1971 and 211, life expectancy at birth increased from 39 to 69 years; infant mortality rate decreased from 15 to 37 and the under-5 mortality rate fell from 225 to 46; and the total fertility rate decreased from 6.9 children to

27 latter increase largely outpaced an increase in the share of the elderly. These trends combined with the decrease in the share of children resulted in a lower overall household dependency ratio at the end of the decade. Some 61 percent of poverty reduction is accountable to labor market-related factors such as increasing labor income especially rising labor income in the farm sector and the incomes of unskilled labor in the non-farm sector.6 In the first part of the 2-21 decade, the increase in wages in the non-farm sector was the most important factor contributing to poverty reduction. Three important poverty reducing shifts were taking place: workers moving away from agriculture and towards manufacturing and services; workers moving away from daily and selfemployed work and towards salaried jobs; and an increase in the level of education in the work force. During the second half of the decade, more of the poverty reduction occurred in the farm sector, which, in particular, experienced a significant increase in labor income largely due to an increase in real rural wages. This additionally reduced the gap between the urban and rural wages (the World Bank Poverty Assessment, June 213). Although much has been accomplished, Bangladesh remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The challenge to reducing poverty is exacerbated by vulnerability to shocks such as sudden large scale and severe flooding, cyclones, and droughts, which have devastating consequences for the poor. In addition, despite significant improvements in access to healthcare the most notable effects being the decline in the immunization gap between the poor and nonpoor chronic malnutrition is pervasive across socio-economic strata affecting 56 percent of the poorest and 32 percent of the least poor children. Because education is widely recognized as a strategy to support poverty reduction, the Government is committed to strengthening the entire education sector primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Gender Gender, viewed in terms of women s opportunities and public participation has seen major changes in recent decades. Among these are the sharp increase in education attainment for girls;7 rapid growth of the garment industry as the major source of formal sector jobs for women who now comprise some 9 percent of its labor force; legislative provisions to ensure a minimum number of women in national and local governments; and the use of micro-credit that has had benefits for women s income generation as well as their access to health and other social services. Very successful family planning programs have led to reduced fertility rates and the noted decline in the numbers of school-age children. These changes result from a range of forces including government leadership and policy implementation, advocacy across the public, private and community sectors, innovation within civil society organizations, and actions of individuals and households. Broad challenges remain nonetheless. Women s work tends to be in the low-wage side of formal employment and informal sector activity, and the gender gap in earnings is significant. Women s economic opportunities are further hampered by inadequate access to market-relevant training, high illiteracy levels, and particularly heavy household work burdens. Home-based enterprises, seemingly adapted to limitations of women s mobility and family responsibilities, have been important but have also contributed to reinforcing restrictions on women s mobility outside the home. The number of women elected to public office has significantly increased, but it is difficult for locally elected women to have a voice in political and policy arenas. Sectoral policies increasingly refer to women s involvement and rights, and the Ministry of Finance introduced an innovation in 6 7 The World Bank, Seeding Fertile Ground: Education that Works for Bangladesh, 213 By 211, the poorest quintile of women had a higher level of education than all women had in Bangladesh in

28 preparing the Medium-Term Budget Framework (MTBF), requiring participating ministries to point out the impact of their strategic objectives on poverty reduction and women s advancement. Analysis and use of such data by ministries planning and implementation staff are, however, generally weak. For primary education, access has improved to the extent that female enrollments now outnumber those of males. Even while girls still have significant problems regularly attending school in rural, remote areas, DPE s Annual Sector Progress Reports (ASPR) over show, on average, lower drop-out rates for girls compared with boys, and lower years input to graduation for girls compared to boys (latest available data are 6.1 years and 6.5 years input to graduation for girls compared with boys, respectively).8 Over this same period, the gender parity index of the Gross Enrollment Ratio revealed distinctly lower school participation of boys compared with girls in the more economically prosperous belts of the country, suggesting that in those areas, boys may be opting for work rather than schooling. Parity that favors girls in these key indicators is at odds with a definition of equality that aims for equality of opportunities and outcomes for boys and girls. Yet in regard to quality of learning in the classroom, it is noteworthy that some studies are showing that girls receive less attention from teachers than boys, with consequences for both performance and confidence. Moreover, private tutors are widely used to compensate for weaknesses in schools and teaching. Surveys have found that the level of household expenditures on tutoring are lower for girls than for boys, and that boys generally have tutoring over a longer period of time than girls. MoPME and DPE are addressing gender-related challenges through the Gender and Inclusive Education (G&IE) Action Plan, and are monitoring gender-disaggregated results of the Annual Primary School Census, a major source of sector performance data, along with the Primary School Completion Exam and the cyclical National Student Assessment results. Education, Employment and Productivity Since the 197s, the Government has implemented a pro-poor social policy aimed at the elimination of poverty and social inequality. Since the 199s, Bangladesh has executed progrowth policies aimed in part at increasing employment at home and overseas. To a large extent, these policies operate in tandem: by improving the education profile of the working population. Figure 1.1 (i) illustrates how the proportions of educational attainment differ considerably across age groups. Among the age group 5 59, 48 percent of men and 67 percent of women have no education. The proportion with no education declines with younger age groups, and shrinks to 16 and 13 percent for males and females aged It is also noteworthy that an absence of education was higher among females in older generations, but the gender gap dwindles and even reverses for younger generations. Developing human capital, especially among women, impacted economic growth during the past decade. Similarly, there is an increase in the proportion of young workers with secondary education. 8 Directorate of Primary Education, Annual Sector Performance Report, 214 5

29 Figure 1.1 (i) Average Education Level Attained by Each Age Group Source: Seeding Fertile Ground: Education that Works for Bangladesh, 213. Note: The sum of all education levels for each age group by gender equals 1. HSC = Higher Secondary Certificate; JSC = Junior Secondary Certificate; and SSC = Secondary School Certificate. Further analysis of the Educational profile of the Bangladeshi labor market shows that of the 56.7 million people in the labor force (89 percent informal, mostly with low education levels), 64 percent have less than a primary education and 96 percent have less than a secondary education. The pattern is similar for both males and females, but considerably different between urban and rural areas (Figure 1.1 (ii)). In urban areas, the share of workers with no education is 28 percent, while the share is 45 percent in rural areas. Secondary-level school dropouts, including Junior Secondary Certificate (JSC), Secondary School Certificate (SSC), and Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC), represent 14, 15, and 3 percent of the work force, respectively. The share of JSC and SSC workers is larger among the female workforce than among male counterparts. Only.2 percent of workers have a technical diploma, and 3.7 percent of workers have more than university degrees. Figure 1.1 (ii) Education Level, Gender, and Location of Workers Source: Seeding Fertile Ground: Education that Works for Bangladesh, 213. Further analyses of these data also indicate that as education attainment increases, workers move from agriculture to manufacturing and services. This means a move from sectors with lower 6

30 productivity to sectors making a higher contribution to GDP per capita. 9 Low productivity can curtail macro economic growth. Two of the many factors diminishing productivity are low by better tailoring learning conditions to the learner. Choosing Work over Schooling Although schooling is offered fee free, there are costs associated with sending children to school. The Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) conducted in 21 reported that the average expenditure on education by households was BDT 925 (urban households averaging BDT 1,796; rural households averaging BDT 64), but no breakdown was given by level of education. At the national level, percent of the educational expenditure is incurred for males and percent for females. A study by CAMPE found private expenditure per student in government primary schools to average BDT 2,554 per student, with the figure rising significantly by grade level, from BDT 432 in Grade I to BDT 3,862 in Grade 51. The decision to keep a child in school through and beyond the primary level is influenced by economic factors such as the comparative opportunities available in the workforce and wage differences between no school, primary school, SSC and HSC. A large proportion of the population is so poor that the real and opportunity costs of sending a relatively young child to school create a barrier to continued participation. Sending a child to school represents a real and often significant loss of income or labor to the family. The distribution of education attainment impacts the distribution of income among Bangladesh s population. Higher returns to education in the formal sector imply that education is in greater demand in the formal sector than the informal sector, especially in urban areas. There is a significant wage premium for working in the formal sector where, on average, a formal worker earns 22 percent more than an informal worker (Figure 1.4 (c)). Informal workers have lower returns to education compared to formal workers, especially those with upper education levels (SSC and above), although the difference does not exist for primary or JSC graduates. The wage premium of a formal worker is much bigger for urban workers than for rural formal workers. Figure 1.1 (iii) Urban and Rural Wage Premiums of Education and Formal Work Source: World Bank, Seeding Fertile Ground: Education that Works for Bangladesh, 213. In 28, about 4 percent of all employed people 15 years and older earned less than BDT 4, a month. As illustrated in Figure 1.1 (iv), about 49 percent of workers in the lowest wage 9 In 29, the comparative productivity of the three sectors in USD was: Agriculture D82; Services D213; Industry D11 1 CAMPE, Financing Primary and Secondary Education in Bangladesh, 27 7

31 category have primary school education or less compared to 4 percent of those with tertiary degrees. The same figure illustrates that the comparative wage advantage is greatest at Senior Secondary School level. Figure 1.1 (iv) Wages (BDT) and educational attainment 28 1% 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% % <SSC >1 BDT BDT < BDT 2% 49% 49% SSC/HSC/Equiva lent 4% 78% 18% < BDT BDT Degree Equivalent 4% 9% 6% Masters Equivalent 4% 92% 4% >1 BDT Source required: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Data, 29 Progression Through Grade 12 Given that the highest wage premium is linked with obtaining the SSC, investments in primary, and secondary school receive the most return when students progress through the education system. In Bangladesh, only 49 percent of the students who enroll in Grade 1 reach grade 1 (Figure 1.1 (v). Given the private costs to schooling, children from the lowest income quintiles are unlikely to be amongst the SSC recipients. Given the public investment in education, failure to complete primary school reduces the effectiveness of economic growth and poverty reduction strategies that rely on education s knock-on effects. 8

32 Figure 1.1 (v) Student Progression from Grade 1 to Passing HSC Student progression from GRADE 1 to HSC Pass (29) 1% 95 Transition, from grade 1 8% 77 6% 4% 2% 49 All Boys Girls % Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 29. Disparities Income: There remains considerable inequality in the distribution of income, particularly between rural and urban populations. Urban populations generally have higher incomes through involvement in small to medium enterprises or working in industries. Meanwhile, the rural population experiences chronic shortages and are more affected by regular natural disasters. Chronic poverty, unemployment and underemployment lead to widespread migration from rural to urban areas increasing disparities within urban areas and between urban and rural locations. Within urban areas there is growing income disparity between slum dwellers and all other urban populations. People living in urban slums often have lower access to services than people living in the most deprived rural areas. To overcome these challenges, Bangladesh continues to address poverty reduction through economic growth and targeted development policies. Literacy: The national literacy rate increased from 68 percent among young adults aged to more than 82 percent between 2 and 21 (HIES). Similarly, both male and female literacy rates are increasing, with women aged recording the largest improvement between 2 and 21. Specifically, female literacy rates progressed from 65 to 83 percent and male literacy rates rose from 7 to 81 percent in the same period. The poor benefit most from literacy programs as evidenced by the literacy rate increasing by 16 percentage points for the poor and 7 percentage points for non-poor. The literacy divide isolates much of the non-literate population from employment opportunities in the industrial sector, and makes access to assistance in form of micro-credits much more difficult. Since 22, Bangladesh has engaged in various non-formal education programs including two Post-Literacy and Continued Education Projects for Human Development (PLCE-1 and PLCE-2). However, the strategy of focusing on providing literacy skills to the projects target groups was not accompanied with continuing education classes that provide life and vocational skills training, or income-generation and micro credit programs. Learning Outcomes: Social disparities affect education outcomes, mirroring broader geographical and socioeconomic disparities. The National Student Assessment 213, conducted by DPE, revealed that only 25 percent of grade 5 students master grade-equivalent competencies in mathematics. Disparities were observed among different divisions, types of schools (i.e. GPS perform better than NNGPS), and students with different household background. Students from 9

33 poor households perform about three-fourths of a year behind their wealthier counterparts in Bangla and half a school year behind in mathematics. Working Children: Disparities in the quality of life between working and non-working children are sharp. An estimated 3.55 million children aged 7-14 years were in employment during There is a direct link between child labor and education as nearly 5 percent of primary school students drop out before they complete Grade 5 and many gravitate towards work. Urban Slums: Bangladesh is experiencing one of the most rapid urbanization processes in Asia with about 53 million people living in urban areas in 21; the population of slums is estimated to be approximately 7 million people. While 55 percent of slum households are poor - a share that is even larger than the rural poverty rate (3 percent) - 23 percent of slum occupants live in extreme poverty (Seeding Fertile Ground, 213). Fifty five percent of adult slum inhabitants over the age of 17 have never been to school and among those who have attended, the educational attainment of adults living in the slums is much lower than that of their rural counterparts. Research has demonstrated that slums have supply constraints, with less access to educational resources and schools, while they also have the highest rate of out-of-school children.12 Urban slums are also generally have worse access to basic services than most low-performing rural areas.13 The GER in slums is 91 percent, compared to 11 percent nationwide. Similarly, NER is 62 percent in slums compared to the national rate of 77 percent. For secondary education, the current GER and NER in the slums are comparable to the 1995 national rates. Children from poor and extremely poor households in the slums also attend school far less than their non-slum urban peers, especially at earlier ages of schooling. Ethnicity: It is estimated that there is a population of 2.5 million tribal and ethnic minorities living in Bangladesh. They mostly live in tribal areas and are very poor. Access to appropriate education for minority children generally lags behind that of non-minority children. The National Education Policy, 21 (NEP) calls for educating tribal and ethnic minorities in their mother tongues, and the government is continuing efforts begun under PEDP II. UNICEF, Investing in Vulnerable Children, 21. World Bank, Seeding Fertile Ground: Education that Works for Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 29 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS),

34 1.2 THE EDUCATION SYSTEM Education plays a key role in Government s strategies to reduce poverty and drive economic growth, social development and good governance. Over the past 2 years the number of institutions and proportion of enrolled students has grown at every level and Bangladesh s success in achieving gender parity in both primary and secondary education is acknowledged worldwide. However, the quality of education has not developed at the same pace, particularly in institutions serving the poorest children. Persistently low learning outcomes throughout primary and secondary levels reduce the value of both public and private investment in education at the macro and household levels. Poor quality education leading to poor learning outcomes influences attendance and dropout rates at primary and secondary levels thereby raising the cost per cycle completer. Uneven distribution of learning opportunities and outcomes by regions, poverty, and social groups also requires a response. Sector Overview The Bangladesh education system provides education through both formal and non-formal channels. The Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) is responsible for basic education comprised of compulsory free formal primary education, delivered by the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE). Literacy and non-formal education is the responsibility of the Bureau of Non-formal Education (BNFE). The Ministry of Education (MOE) is responsible for secondary and higher education; it also oversees madrasah and other religious schools. More than 5 NGOs also provide some form of primary education. Many of these are non-formal centers that assist children from disadvantaged groups to integrate into the formal school system from Grade 3 or above. The private sector collaborates with government to provide the bulk of services at the secondary and tertiary stages while the government is the major provider of preprimary education (i.e. one year of pre-primary offered in GPS and NNGPS schools targeting five and six year-olds) and primary education. A brief description of each level follows. Pre-primary Education: Traditionally early childhood care and education, including preprimary school, was delivered with support from NGOs and community schools. Through the NEP (21), the Government has now mandated the mainstreaming of pre-primary education for five and six year-olds into government primary schools. This is complemented by the Operational Framework for Pre-Primary Education in Bangladesh created by MoPME in 28. In 213, there were 1.83 million children enrolled in pre-primary GPS/NNGPS, more than double the enrollment in PEDP3 s baseline year of 21. The percentage of Grade 1 students with PPE increased from 5 percent in 212 to 67 percent in 213. Every GPS has received 5, BDT for procurement and preparation of supplementary teaching learning materials in the form of PPE operational cost. The government has created 37,672 additional posts of assistant teachers (one for each GPS) for PPE classes.14 As well as PPE classes delivered through GPS and NNGPS there are a number of other actors working in the pre-primary space. The Ministry of Women s and Children s Affairs, the Ministry of Chittagong Hill Tracts Affairs and the Ministry of Religious Affairs operate pre-primary classes through a range of projects, as do a number of NGOs and other organizations. In a recent survey conducted by Education Watch, a total of seven types of schools were identified as providers of pre-primary education. These include kindergartens (27.9% of total PPE services), 14 Education Watch, State of Pre-Primary Education in Bangladesh,

35 government primary schools (23.1%), NGO operated non-formal schools (21.7%), mosque based schools (12.4%). non-government primary schools (1.8%), madrasas (3.3%), and high schools.8%).15 Primary Education: In 213 there were 16,858 primary schools in Bangladesh (comprised of fourteen types of schools) enrolling 19,584,972 children in Grades 1-5 (ASPR 214). The overall gross enrollment rate in formal primary schools in 213 was 18.6 percent (compared with 18.4 percent and percent in 25 and 211 respectively). The net enrollment rate was 97.3 percent (compared with 94.7 percent and 99.9 percent in 25 and 211 respectively). There were approximately 466,58 teachers, of which 9 percent had a professional teaching qualification of either Certificate in Education (C-in-ed.), Diploma in Education (Dip-in-Ed), Bachelor of Education (B. Ed), or a Masters of Education (M. Ed) (91 percent of teachers in GPS and 86 percent in NNGPS). This is up from 82 percent in 211. Moreover, 89 percent of teachers received continuous professional development training in 213, albeit of short duration (threeday refresher seminars). This is a significant increase from 211 (76.5 percent). It is estimated that 51 percent of the schools (GPS 51 percent and NNGPS 46 percent) met the student teacher ratio of 46:1 in 212, compared with 45 percent in 211. Table 1.2 (i): Primary Education GER and NER from Measure Total Students in grades 1 5 all schools Students in grades 1 5 aged 6 1, All schools Population of children aged ,957,894 18,432,499 19,3,21 19,584,972 14,937,517 17,239,81 17,69,96 17,551,6 15,751,788 18,168,788 18,29,967 18,33, Boy Girl Boy Girl Gender parity index GER (%) All Gender parity index NER (%) All Source: ASPR 214 In 213 there were 37,7 GPS (35.3 percent of total schools) and 22,632 NNGPS (21.2 percent of total schools) (ASPR 214). A broad range of schools make up the remaining 43.5 percent including privately run primary schools (known as KG schools) (13.2 percent), schools run by the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (9.3 percent) and Madrasahs Attached to Ebtedayee (5.2 percent). Calculating a transition rate to secondary education is hindered by the fragmentation of the education statistical system. Based on the latest figure of BANBEIS published in 28, the transition rate was 97.5percent, representing a steady increase from 92.4 percent in 25. Secondary Education: Participation in secondary education has burgeoned in the past 3 years. By 212, the GER was 64 percent and NER was 57 percent. 15 Education Watch, State of Pre-Primary Education in Bangladesh,

36 Table 1.2 (ii): Secondary Education Enrollment, 212 Measure Gross Enrollment Rate Total Boys Girls Net Enrollment Rate Adjusted Net Enrollment Rate Note: Includes School, Madrasah and Vocational enrollment Under the current system, seven years of secondary education is provided in three levels: three years of junior secondary (Grades 6 to 8), two years of secondary (Grades 9-1), and two years of higher secondary (Grades 11-12) school. At the end of Grade 1 students take the public Secondary School Certificate examination (SSC) conducted by the Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Educations. The higher secondary education course is a two-year program offered by intermediate colleges or by intermediate sections of degree or master colleges. At the end of Grade 12 students take the Higher Secondary School Certificate Examination (HSSC). The Ministry of Education and the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) administer secondary education. Junior Secondary and Senior Secondary education is offered through government and nongovernment providers acting collaboratively. Government schools comprise only about 2 percent of the secondary schools while 98 percent are non-government schools. The non-government schools receive 1 percent salary support (equivalent to basic pay) for approved teachers. In 211 there were 19,7 junior secondary, secondary schools, and colleges (with school sections) enrolling around 7,51,218 students. The general education stream enrolls about 8 percent of all secondary school students while just under one fifth (18 percent) of all students at secondary level are studying in madrasahs, and 2 percent study in Technical-Vocational Education and Training (TVET). Retention of students in secondary education is one of the major challenges. Girls outnumber boys in secondary education - the NER increased from 44 to 55 percent for girls and from 32 to 45 percent for boys between 2 and 21 (HIES 21). The gross enrollment rate in junior secondary and secondary education is about 46 percent for boys and 57 percent for girls. Wastage is high completion rates for the general secondary education cycle are 42 percent for boys and 34 percent for girls, while for Madrasahs the rates are 5 percent for boys and 36 percent for girls -- representing a loss to the country and households who invest in the future of their children. Technical-Vocational Education and Training (TVET): The TVET system consists of: (i) various service providers, including public, private, non-governmental organization (NGO), and industry trainers; (ii) various target audiences, including secondary and post-secondary students, unskilled youth and vulnerable populations, people with previous work experience, or workers who are currently employed; (iii) various modalities such as long and short courses, informal training, and on-the-job training; and (iv) various types of skill levels including an array of industry-specific skills, basic numeracy and literacy skills, and behavioral and communication skills. Formal TVET consists of SSC, HSC, and Diploma courses. These programs are provided by public and private institutions, most of which are under the supervision of Directorate of Technical Education (DTE) or the Bureau of Manpower, Employment and Training (BMET). About 5, students are enrolled in 3 formal TVET institutions, of which 8 percent are public. Thirty percent of the enrollment is in large public institutions. The remaining students study in small private institutions. Male graduates outnumber female graduates. 13

37 A total of 11 Government Ministries administer accredited VET programs. MOE oversees all Technical schools and colleges, which form the vast majority of the system. The Directorate of Technical Education (DTE) is responsible for the planning, development, and implementation of technical and vocational education. Other Ministries involved in this sector include: the Ministry of Labor and Manpower (MoLM); the Ministry of Local Government; the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA); the Ministry of Forestry; the Ministry of Textiles; and the Ministry of Defense. Additionally, a number of ministries offer training through non-accredited courses, such as basic training in livestock, pisciculture, and poultry farming provided by the Ministry of Youth and Sports to those less than 3 years of age. Tertiary Education: The third stage of education consists of two to six years in colleges and universities. In 212 there were 3547 colleges and 13 universities of which 32 are public.16 The autonomous University Grants Commission (UGC) manages both public and private universities. Between 2 and 21 the tertiary GER improved from approximately 7 to 1 percent reaching total enrollments of 3,557,48.17 Total enrollment in colleges was 3,44,32 (including 1.38 million females i.e. approximately 45%)13 and 513,56 in universities (only approximately 26% of which are female).18 The total number of teachers in tertiary education was 118,254 in 212, with in colleges and 22,681 in universities.19 Non-formal Education (NFE): The Bureau of Non Formal Education (BNFE) under MoPME is responsible for non-formal education programs, which are implemented through NGOs. NFE programs include parenting, early childhood care and education, pre-primary, non-formal primary education, adolescent education, adult literacy, post-literacy, vocational education, equivalency education, and quality of life improvement. There is a wide range of non-formal institutions: more than 5 NGOs run Learning Center (only grade 1 or grade 1-2 etc.) or fullfledged primary education programs (BNFE, 212). BNFE operates a non-formal education program and maintains a NFE database. Through the Reaching Out-of-School Children (ROSC) project DPE runs one-teacher learning center, known as Ananda schools. A total of approximately 32, students were enrolled in 12, ROSC center as of 213 (ASPR, 213). BRAC runs the largest NFE program with approximately 67,815 students in 22,618 schools or center either managed directly by BRAC or through 441 partner NGOs (ASPR, 213). Further precise information on NFE coverage is difficult to obtain, as identifying the total demand for out of school children is a difficult undertaking. Madrasah Education: Four types of Madrasah (Dakil, Alim, Fazil and Kamil) provide education at each level (Ebtedayee or primary sections can be found in each type of madrasah). There are also separate Ebtedayee primary schools. In 213, there were 9,336 Madrasahs enrolling 3,87,77 students and 139,894 teachers (BANBEIS data). Five of the Madrasah were government operated. In addition, there is a large number of Quomi Madrasah delivering religious education. 16 University Grants Commission, Annual report 212, 213 and BNFE, Government of Bangladesh Country Report, Government of Bangladesh, HIES, World Bank, Education Sector Review: Seeding Fertile Ground, 213; BANBEIS, available at: 212; and Annual report 212, University Grants Commission, University Grants Commission, Annual report 212, 213; and BNFE, Government of Bangladesh Country Report,

38 Education Sector Finance The education sector accounts for the largest share of program expenditure in the national budget at approximately 14 percent in and represents 2.11 percent of the GDP. The allocation to MoPME was 47.5 percent of the total education budget, or 11,36 Crore Taka. The amount Bangladesh spends on education has remained relatively stable in the last 1 years, oscillating between percent of GDP over 2-28, while countries like India and Nepal have had rations ranging from percent of GDP over the same period. Between 2 and 28, Bangladesh s total spending on education was between 14 and 16 percent of the government s budget on education. However, the average amount of public spending on education for all developing countries in 28 was around 18.7 percent, reinforcing that Bangladesh needs to boost expenditure in the education sector. Sector finance issues are discussed in detail in Chapter IV. Government Policy, Priorities and EFA Objectives Across the GoB s policy documents four policy directions for education are emphasized. These are: (i) Establish an integrated school system encompassing pre-school to higher secondary levels under a framework that unifies public, NGO and private providers. (ii) Ensure quality improvement through reduced class size and improved teaching practices. (iii) Decentralize primary education administration and management. (iv) Engage in partnerships with NGOs and the private sector. The Government s current education vision is articulated in the NEP. The Policy is derived from a political manifesto and from the Government s commitment to the goals of Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals. This is further expanded upon in Annex 1: Policy Matrix. The following table provides highlights of the Government s primary education policy and the related EFA objectives. Government Priority Universal, compulsory, free and inclusive primary education: The education policy calls for primary education that is universal, compulsory, free and inclusive meeting at least minimum acceptable standards for all. The teacher student ratio should be over time reduced to 1:3. School management committees (SMC) are to be given more roles in the management of schools. Head teachers are to be responsible for internal supervision of schools. For external supervision and monitoring, AUEOs and local government should be involved. The ability to achieve this objective has been enhanced by the recent nationalization of formerly Newly Nationalized Primary Schools (NNGPS). This allows the formal primary education system to reach an even greater proportion of children. Proposed changes include a year of pre-primary and the extension of free, mandatory primary school 15 EFA Goals EFA Goal 2: By 215 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.

39 education to a total of eight years. Implementation will be gradual over the next decade. PEDP3 contributes only TA to support a careful planning exercise to develop the roadmap for extension beyond Grade 5. Increase total schooling: The total pre-tertiary schooling will be increased from 1 to 12 years. Pre-Primary Education: In 212 the Government introduced one-year of pre-primary education in all GPS nationwide. The entry age is between 5 and 6 years. A team of experts has developed a textbook and teacher s guide under the supervision of MoPME. This has been integrated into the delivery of the curriculum. This has also been enhanced by the recent nationalization of formerly Non-Registered Government Primary Schools (RNGPS). This allows the formal primary education system to reach an even greater number of children. This has been supported by the recruitment of 15, new PPE teachers to date, with an additional 63,672 to be recruited by the end of the program. Multiple delivery modes in basic education with common core curriculum and standards: The policy establishes mandatory core subjects for primary-level education: Bangla, English, mathematics, Bangladesh studies, social environment and climate change, and information technology and science. The core curriculum will be followed in government, non-government, private schools and madrasah. Literacy and non-formal education: A project to launch a literacy initiative to serve 4.5 million people in the age-group years has been approved recently (February, 214) by the government with a budget of TK 4,526 million. EFA Goal 3: Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programs. EFA Goal 1: Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children. Goal Statement: EFA goal 6: Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. EFA Goal 4: Achieving a 5 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 215, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults (Dakar Framework, 2). In Year 5 a 1-year NFE strategy will be developed that outlines the future direction of NFE. Quality improvement in tertiary education: Tertiary education institutions, both public and private are to establish and maintain quality standards within an agreed framework. Student assessment to discourage rote learning: Teachers will base assessment of learners achievements on terminal examinations and continuous evaluation. Assessment should aim to strengthen cognitive, affective and skills domains rather than memorization. Teachers status, incentives and training to 16 EFA Goal 3: Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programs. (Dakar Framework, 2) EFA goal 6: Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. EFA goal 6: Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.

40 improve quality: Teacher recruitment, training, professional support and remuneration are the crucial to improving quality in education. Governance and management: Management of primary education will be decentralized to the extent possible with greater involvement of community and parents and greater authority for schools. Enhanced education resources: The NEP calls for public expenditure for education to increase from the present 2.11 percent of GDP to 6 percent, but at least to 4.5 percent, in 1 years. Bangladesh's religious education system: The madrasah system will reinforce the importance of science and information technology. Gender and Inclusive education: This is a major concern of the new policy which addresses the rights of girls, ethnic minorities, urban slums, and children who are physically disabled to access the full cycle of education EFA Goal 5: Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 25, and achieving gender equality in education by 215, with a focus on ensuring girls full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality (Dakar Framework, 2). Pro-Poor Impact in Education Pro-Poor Education Programs: In Bangladesh 56 percent of all government subsidies on primary education benefit the poor, who comprise around 5 percent of the total population. Primary enrollment inequities stemming from household poverty have been reduced by 5 percent between 2 and 21 (The World Bank, 213). Public spending on non-formal education targets children unreached by formal schools (such as ROSC and BETHRUWC) and adults who are illiterate, nearly all of whom are poor. Efforts to provide Basic Education to poor children are also enhanced through NGOs (such as BRAC schools) whose pro-poor education programs continue to contribute significantly to breaking the cycle of poverty. Poverty Linked to Children Dropping Out: Pro-poor education policy in Bangladesh directly addresses outcomes that disproportionally affect poor children: low enrollment, low retention, and poor learning outcomes. For the poorest families, the opportunity costs of sending a relatively young child to school create a significant barrier to increasing the number of years of school participation. For a family to send an income-earning child to school represents a significant loss of income to the family. Government s response to the high dropout and low daily attendance rate at primary schools has been to supply free textbooks, tuition waivers, introduce a conditional stipend program, and provide school feeding. Stipends and School Feeding: The Primary Education Stipend Project provides approximately 2.7 million students with a monthly stipend amounting to Tk. 1 for children from a one child family, and Tk. 125 for children from a multi-child family. The stipend is provided upon the condition that the child is regularly attending school. A total of 157, Lakh Taka has been allocated to this project across 72 Upazilas in 2 Districts. Second Chance Education: While the priority of the GoB is to ensure that all children enroll in Primary School at an appropriate age, it is recognized that this is not always achieved for a 17

41 number of reasons. Second Chance Education acts as a safety net for children who do not enroll on time or do not complete their primary education. In 213, 23 percent of primary school age students were not in school, compared to 4.8 percent at program outset.2 Through addressing the needs of children who have never enrolled in primary school, or who have dropped out of school, each child will be given a second chance to learn. 1.3 THE PRE-PRIMARY & PRIMARY EDUCATION CONTEXT In Bangladesh, primary education is a compulsory five-year cycle for children aged six to ten years of age. From 212, formal schooling has been expanded to also provide one year of preprimary for children aged 5 years of age. A policy emphasis on universal enrollment has created a formal education system that now serves over 19.5 million students in Grades 1-5, up from 12 million in 199. Another 1.83 million students were enrolled in pre-primary classes, taking total enrollment in the formal pre-primary and primary system to million.21 During the same period, the number of young people who completed the primary cycle doubled and the participation of girls increased to the point where more girls now enroll and complete formal primary school than boys. An estimated 2.5 million learners participate in non-formal primary education, however precise information on NFE coverage is difficult to obtain. There also may be some double counting of NFE and students between the major projects.22 Learning outcomes and completion rates, however, have not kept pace with advances in participation and gender parity in spite of investments in infrastructure and improvements such as teacher training, curriculum revision, textbook provision, materials supply and other quality inputs. This section provides an overview of the systems in place to continue driving successful outcomes in Education in Bangladesh. It first outlines the education sector s management and governance structures, before outlining the government priorities in this sub-sector. This complements the analysis of priorities provided in the previous section. It finally provides a brief overview of the financing in place to support the further development of pre-primary and primary education. Pre-Primary & Primary Education System Management and Governance Governance: The Compulsory Primary Education Act (199) and the National Education Policy (21) govern the primary education system. To assure the equivalence of public education services across the country, a regulatory environment has been established specifying the school calendar, classroom teaching schedule, curriculum, syllabi, and expected learning outcomes. This framework may be expanded to include equivalence of non-formal as well as formal education. A regulatory framework supportive of education decentralization will enable many centralized functions to be carried out at subsidiary levels. In addition to a revised governance framework, adequate resources including human resources will be needed to fulfill decentralized mandates Institutional Management: The primary education system comes under the purview of MoPME, which is responsible for overall policy direction. DPE, within MoPME, is responsible for primary education management and administration. The administrative structure consists of 2 Directorate of Primary Education, Annual Sector Performance Report, 213 & 211 Directorate of Primary Education, Annual Sector Performance Report, Directorate of Primary Education, Annual Sector Performance Report,

42 central, division, district, Upazilas, and school levels. Divisions manage the registration of nongovernment schools. The district primary education office is responsible for teacher management and production and distribution of textbooks to the Upazilas. The Upazila Education Office provides support to GPS and NNGPS by ensuring teacher salaries are paid, inspecting schools, and distributing textbooks. Recent advances in evidence-based planning and results based management are being mainstreamed. This entails strengthening data gathering and data management through routine school census and examinations as well as special studies and national assessments of learning outcomes. In the second half of PEDP3 the program will continue to build on improvements to data collection and analysis under PEDP3, there is shared commitment to further improving these tools and using data for evidence-based policy decisions. This will take place across all levels of the system (e.g. Annual Primary School Census, Annual Sector Performance Report, Education Household Surveys, National Student Assessments, live database for infrastructure development, modernizing monitoring, etc.). School Management: School Management Committees (SMCs) were instituted in Bangladesh to engage the main stakeholders (i.e. parents, teachers and local community) in the development of their schools. A case study of 12 good performing schools compiled by DPE reported that an effective SMC was an important factor behind the success story of all those schools. In efforts to decentralize many school management functions, the Government is currently reviewing the structure and functions of the SMC to make it a more effective body with responsiveness and accountability to the school community. SMCs take a lead role in the preparation and implementation of school level improvement plans (SLIPs). Government Priorities in Pre-Primary & Primary Education Improving quality and expanding to reach inclusive coverage are two of the Government s highest priorities for primary education. In particular, learning outcomes and cycle completion rates must improve significantly. A concerted effort is needed to bring in the most marginalized populations. Teaching and learning: The policy priority is for a child-friendly teaching/learning environment assured in all schools. New teaching methods being introduced, expanded and institutionalized include: 1. Student-centered activity-based learning (e.g. group work, pair work, creative work and reflective practice, peer tutoring, coaching etc.); 2. Continuous assessment for Grades 1 and 2; 3. First terminal, second terminal and annual exams to be provided for Grade 3 and above with a completion test after Grade 5; 4. Stipends are to be given up to Grade 1 based on results of a public exam; and 5. Grade 5 completion exams should be held on common question papers with proper invigilation and monitoring. Horizontal Expansion: Under the NEP, Government is gradually expanding support for nongovernment primary schools. These include schools run by NGOs and Ebtedayee Madrasahs. Developing realistic registration regulations and gradually offering support to improve learning in the non-gps schools and NFE center are two significant challenges. In line with the NEP, a unified framework and eligibility criteria for GoB support to different types of schools and enlistment of learning center will be developed gradually to reduce disparities between them. Inclusive Primary Education: This aims to ensure equitable access to primary education and positive learning outcomes for all children, including those from marginalized backgrounds. 19

43 Inclusive education aims for all primary school-age children to complete good quality primary education. Improved access is achieved by reaching the unreached, particularly disabled, working children, children in difficult circumstances, and children belonging to ethnic minorities or living in remote areas. Tribal children are encouraged to learn in their mother tongue. Ensuring appropriate learning environments and infrastructure (e.g. separate toilets for male and female students that can also cater for those with disabilities) is also critical when attempting to improve access. Primary Education Finance Of the total education sector budget, the primary education sector receives the largest share approximately 47.5 percent in This has ranged between 45 and 47.5 percent since 291. The share of primary education sector in the GDP was about approximately 1 percent in , and has ranged between.94 to 1.3 percent since

44 CHAPTER 2: PROGRAM DESCRIPTION 2.1 INTRODUCTION As outlined in Chapter 1, Bangladesh has accomplished over a 2-year period what it has taken some countries many decades to achieve.23 The education system serves over thirty-three million (33,568,51) students from preschool through to higher education through both formal and nonformal channels (BANBEIS, 212). In 213, the primary school system served over 19.5 million students in grades 1-5, up from 12 million in 199. Another 1.83 million students were enrolled in pre-primary classes, taking total enrollment in the formal pre-primary and primary system to million. With the support of DPs, many new schools have been constructed, additional trained teachers are in place, and schools are better informed to reach children marginalized by disability, language or extreme poverty. As a consequence, enrollment rates have increased, student-teacher ratios improved, student absenteeism has declined, and the numbers of disadvantaged children in school has increased. Both GER and NER have continued to rise, reaching 18.6% and 97.3% respectively in 213. The average student absenteeism for primary schools has dropped from 23 percent in 25 to 14 percent in 212. In 212, 39, 629 students with special needs were enrolled into primary schools and the teacher-student ratio for all primary schools was 1:42 (public: 1:5, and private: 1:35).24 However, much remains to be done to build on this progress. The education system must prepare all children with the knowledge, personal qualities, thinking and creative skills required to achieve Bangladesh s goals for economic and social development. Attention is focused on improving learning outcomes, increasing completion rates, and narrowing performance gaps between regions and socio-economic groups. This document outlines the role that PEDP3 will play in driving these efforts to increase the standard of education for all children. This chapter begins by identifying lessons learned from PEDP II. The chapter then outlines the scope and expected outcomes of PEDP3. These are communicated by first outlining the logical framework of PEPD3 before highlighting desired progress under each of the four main components of the program. The chapter concludes by outlining which divisions or other agencies are responsible for driving results in each of the sub-component areas. 2.2 LESSONS LEARNT FROM PEDP II In a significant step towards a sub-sector wide approach, many of the lessons learned from PEDP II regarding program management are included in PEDP3 s design. In the design phase of PEDP3 the GoB developed a concept note that identified the lessons learned from PEDP II and how these should be incorporated into the design of PEDP3. These lessons are highlighted below. Using Government procedures: PEDP II was a coordinated and integrated subsector program with a focus on quality improvement, institutional capacity building, and systemic reform. Coordinated by a lead agency, PEDP II was financed by the Government and eleven development partners through a management and financing structure that was parallel to the Government's." Prior to PEDP II, multiple implementation mechanisms brought in by parallel projects created a management burden, particularly when Government s own rules were not followed properly. In PEDP II, the DPs aligned more closely to Government rules and regulations. However, this did not apply to fund flow arrangements, and the PEDP II financial According to the United Nations Development Program s (UNDP) Human Development Report 21, Bangladesh is ranked third among 95 countries in terms of improvements in education, health and inequality. 24 BANBEIS online database, Available at:

45 management systems were still overly complicated. This impacted on timely implementation of activities. Using Government systems to support management (including financial management) and implementation of activities is incorporated into the PEDP3 design. Donor and Government Harmonization: Increased donor alignment under PEDP II enabled more focused and coordinated interventions than previously found in large, DP-supported projects. PEDP3 s design increases donor harmonization and utilizes a Joint Financing Arrangement signed by GoB and all participating DPs to confirm adherence to a common resultsbased approached, under a funding modality and disbursement framework that uses existing government systems. The design of PEDP3 also strives for a more robust governance structure that better facilitates linkages and synergies between actions managed by the respective DPE divisions and other government ministries and agencies. Focus on results: The PEDP II design was ambitious relative to DPE capacity, had many and diverse activities, and underestimated the impact of the primary education system s size and inherent geographic and communication challenges. PEDP3 s design is focused on Result Areas and outcomes, rather than solely on inputs; following clear criteria to plan interventions according to assessments of need, rather than implementing a pre-defined supply-driven approach; and following an implementation schedule that is developed through consultations with implementing units. Indicators and Assurances: Under PEDP3, targets take into account both the baseline situation and institutional capacity. PEDP3 design is cautious around deliverables that require actions or decisions by other ministries or regulatory bodies. Communication and Public Perception: PEDP3 is broad in scope, complex in nature and is driving reforms to both pedagogy and educations systems. It is important that the diverse range of stakeholders both understands and has motivation to work towards these ambitious program goals. DPE developed a communications strategy to improve understanding of the PEDP3 s distinctive approach at district, Upazila, school, and local community levels. Aided by the yearwise milestones set out for the program s Communications sub-component, the communication strategy is to be translated into specific actions to carry out on an annual basis. Technical Assistance (TA): Under PEDP II, TA was sometimes underutilized, unfocused, or ineffective. Often, DPE counterparts lacked capacity or time to utilize, manage, and monitor the assistance. Under PEDP3, GoB and all DPs adhere to a Common TA Framework, regardless of source of financing for the technical assistance. Support under this Common Framework is demand based and linked to specific products and results. During the design stage of PEDP3, a thorough needs assessment was conducted to project TA needs over the program s lifetime; this was updated at the MTR which identified that TA was still underutilized and narrowly targeted. Innovative plans have been designed to scale up the effective use of TA engagements post-mtr. 2.3 PEDP3: SCOPE, LOGICAL FRAMEWORK AND COMPONENTS Scope: PEDP3 is a six-year, sector wide program covering Grades 1 through 5 and one year of pre-primary education. The objective is to establish an efficient, inclusive, and equitable primary education system delivering effective and relevant child-friendly learning to all Bangladesh s children from pre-primary through Grade 5. PEDP3 is organized into four components. Under these components sit six Result Areas. Results are achieved through activities in twenty-nine subcomponents. Some activities reach out to all primary school age children whether they participate in formal or non-formal education. Others may affect only one of these groups. Logical Framework: PEDP3 has been developed to ensure that all elements of the results chain form a cohesive program logical framework. Program inputs and their subsequent outputs are 22

46 strategically linked to each of the four component areas and their respective Result areas, of which there are six. The inputs and outputs drive outcomes and results across each result area. Figure 2.3 (i) outlines the logical framework of PEDP3. Figure 2.3 (i): Logical Framework of PEDP3 Quality education for all our children. Learning Goal/Impact Purpose/ Objectives Result Areas of PEDP3 To establish an efficient, inclusive and equitable primary education system delivering effective and relevant child-friendly learning to all Bangladesh s children from pre-primary through Grade 5 primary. Learning Result Areas: 1. Learning Outcomes 2. Universal Access and Participation and 3. Reducing Disparities Better learning outcomes across all grades and subjects Increased GERs and NERs 4. Upazila and SchoolLevel Planning Decentralized; 5. Increased Effectiveness of Budget Allocation Delegated functions Grade 5 PECE pass rate increased Number of input years per graduate Percentage of schools meeting composite school-level quality indicators Components of PEDP3 Outputs Increased primary completion Increased transition from primary to secondary level COMPONENT 1 Teaching and Learning COMPONENT 2 Participation and Disparities COMPONENT 3 Decentralization and Effectiveness COMPONENT 4 Program Planning and Management Revised curriculum and textbooks Strong foundation for schooling through PPE Devolution Plan in place Improved sector planning and RBM partnership Teachers implementing childcentric teaching methods Integration of marginalised children into mainstream schooling Separate functioning toilets for girls Learning materials available Increased attendance of marginalised children SLIP grants in place Schooling uninterrupted by natural disasters Strengthened staffing and capacity within the field including at schools, PTIs and field offices Exposure to IT tools and resource Greater awareness of benefits of schooling amongst community. Adequate and safe infrastructure, facilities and 23 More terminal competencies achieved Survival rate Gender parity Outcomes 6. Program Planning and Management SCR standard achieved Evidence based program development and studies STR standard achieved Trained SMC members delegated authority

47 equipment Curriculum and Textbooks Adjusted teaching/learning methodologies Gender and Inclusive Education included in NEP PPE Policy Teachers recruited, trained and deployed Field level offices and PTIs adequately staffed Stipend Program Updated curriculum, training and teacher guides Inputs IT resources School feeding Second Chance Education SLIP/UPEP grants and other funding Strengthened data collection and examination processes Capacity building (MoPME, DPE, NAPE, NCTB, and DPE field office) Recruitment and promotion rules and career path Better use of ongoing monitoring systems Integration of DRR and EiE integrated into programming Communication Strategy Better school infrastructure Table 2.3 (ii) outlines the distribution of sub-components across each component and associated Result Area. 24

48 Table 2.3 (i): PEDP3 Program Structure Component 1: Teaching and Learning Component 2: Participation and Disparities Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness Component 4: Planning and Management Result area 1 Learning Outcomes Result area 2.1 Participation Result area 2.2 Disparities Result area 3.1 Decentralization Result area 3.2 Effectiveness Result area 4 Program Planning and Management 1.1. Each Child Learns Second chance and Alternative Education (NFE) Targeted Stipends Field Level Offices Strengthened Grade 5 PECE Strengthened 4.1 PEDP3 Management and Governance Pre-Primary Education School Health and School Feeding Decentralized School Management and Governance Teacher Recruitment and Deployment 4.2 PEDP3 Financial Management School Level Leadership Development Annual Primary School Census 4.3 Sector Finance Organizational Review and Strengthening National Student Assessment 4.4 Strengthening Monitoring Functions 1.2 School and Classroom-based Assessment 1.3 Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened 1.4 Production and Distribution of Textbooks Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education 1.5 ICT in Education Communications and social mobilization 1.6 Teacher Education and Development Education in Emergencies Needs based School Environment Improvement Needs based Infrastructure Development 4.5 Human Resource Development 4.6 Public Private Partnerships

49 The remainder of this section outlines each result area. It highlights the expected outcomes and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as well as any other reforms that help measure progress towards achieving those outcomes. Component 1: Teaching and Learning Result Area 1: Learning Outcomes Anticipated Outcome: All children acquire expected grade-wise and subject-wise learning outcomes, or competencies, in the classroom. Reforms: Fresh pedagogies, teachers accountable for each child s learning, revised curriculum and textbooks, classroom and school-based assessment. Policy areas: Policy Area Curriculum Teacher Education and Development Current Policies Competency levels (expected common learning outcomes) for each of the grades/subjects established. Integrated national curriculum framework for all primary schools is approved by GoB with agreed common core subjects (common learning outcomes) plus optional elective subjects established Requirement for multilingual education is endorsed by the National Education Policy Minimum qualifications for pre- and primary teachers are specified in the NEP. The DPEd is being implemented to replace the Certificate in Education as the initial training for primary school teachers. Policy Directions under PEDP3 MoPME approves policy for multi-lingual education for instruction in mother tongue in the early years with transition to the national language ensuring full competency in both languages by the end of grade 5. Comments Close collaboration is required between NCTB, MoPME/DPE and NAPE regarding curriculum development and dissemination Several actions on MultiLingual Education are being prepared and implemented: approved pre-primary education curriculum has multi lingual provisions, and textbooks in 5 languages are being prepared. Medium-term policy direction is to study the move of DPEd from an inservice to a pre-service program for all government primary school teachers. KPIs: 1 Percentage of Grade 3 Students Who Achieve Grade 3 Competency (boys, girls and all): in Bangla and Mathematics 2 Percentage of Grade 5 Students Who Achieve Grade 5 Competency (boys, girls and all): in Bangla and Mathematics 3 Grade 5 Primary Education Completion Examination pass rate (boys, girls and all). Component 2: Participation and Disparities Result Area 2.1: Universal Access and Participation Anticipated Outcome: All children participate in pre- and primary education in all types of schools (formal, non-formal, madrasah) 26

50 Reforms: One year pre-primary education through GPS and NNGPS; equivalency of formal and non-formal education; broadening the concept and mainstreaming inclusive education; providing education in emergencies and disasters; improving communications Policy areas: Policy Area Current Policies Pre-Primary Guidelines on roles and responsibilities for delivering pre-primary education by government and nongovernment providers issued by MoPME NEP already endorsed NFE provided by NGOs and CBOs. Second Chance and Alternative Education Targeting Criteria for targeting, prioritizing, sequencing and packaging needsbased interventions for boys and girls developed and approved by MoPME. Policy Directions under PEDP3 Guidelines for GO-NGO collaboration reviewed and updated, including setting minimum standards for all pre-primary education provided NEP and NFE strategy synchronized Framework for equivalence between formal and nonformal primary education prepared and endorsed by MoPME and mechanisms for implementing elements of the equivalence framework are developed Implementation plans for needs-based interventions on criteria for sequencing, packaging and phasing are authorized. Comments To implement the PPE policy the existing PPE Expansion Plan will be revised in light of nationalization of RNGPS, which will operationalize the minimum standards as well as needs-based criteria Equivalency framework will ease movement of students between non-formal and formal systems, enable some NFE learners to receive free textbooks, and permit students completing the primary cycle through NFE to take the terminal examination. Needs-based interventions are essential for success of primary education and PEDP3. Implementation plans are included in pre-primary education, construction, teacher recruitment and deployment, and using of decentralized funds. KPIs: 4 Percentage of children out of school (never enrolled and dropped out) (boys, girls and all; 6-1 years old and years old) 5 Gross enrollment rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) 6 Net enrollment rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) Result Area 2.2: Reducing Disparities Anticipated Outcome: Regional and other disparities reduced in terms of participation, completion and learning outcomes Reforms: Reducing overcrowded classrooms through needs based infrastructure development; providing sanitation and water to schools on a needs basis, providing school health and school feeding programs; providing stipends to the poorest children 27

51 Policy areas: Policy Area Current Policies Pre-Primary Guidelines on roles and responsibilities for delivering pre-primary education by government and nongovernment providers issued by MoPME NEP already endorsed NFE provided by NGOs and CBOs. Second Chance and Alternative Education Targeting Criteria for targeting, prioritizing, sequencing and packaging needsbased interventions for boys and girls developed and approved by MoPME. Policy Directions under PEDP3 Guidelines for GO-NGO collaboration reviewed and updated, including setting minimum standards for all pre-primary education provided NEP and NFE strategy synchronized Framework for equivalence between formal and nonformal primary education prepared and endorsed by MoPME and mechanisms for implementing elements of the equivalence framework are developed Implementation plans for needs-based interventions on criteria for sequencing, packaging and phasing are authorized. Comments To implement the PPE policy the existing PPE Expansion Plan will be revised in light of nationalization of RNGPS, which will operationalize the minimum standards as well as needs-based criteria Equivalency framework will ease movement of students between non-formal and formal systems, enable some NFE learners to receive free textbooks, and permit students completing the primary cycle through NFE to take the terminal examination. Needs-based interventions are essential for success of primary education and PEDP3. Implementation plans are included in pre-primary education, construction, teacher recruitment and deployment, and using of decentralized funds. KPIs: 7 Gender parity index of gross enrollment rate 8 Net enrolment rate Top and Bottom 2% of households by consumption quintile 9 Upazila composite performance index - Top and Bottom 1% of Upazilas Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness Result Area 3.1: Decentralization Anticipated Outcome: Upazila and school level planning decentralized Reforms: School level leadership development; field offices strengthened; increased decentralization of school management; mainstreaming school and Upazila grants initiative; strengthening capacity at central level institutions. Policy areas: Policy Area Decentralization Field level offices 28 Current Policies Field and school level obligatory functions defined and regulation formally Policy Directions under PEDP3 Devolution Plan is approved and Implemented. Comments Several functions have been decentralized to lower levels. Subsequent devolution will be in a structured manner. Subsidiary levels require clear authority to implement the

52 Policy Area Decentralization School management decentralization Current Policies devolving authority issued Policy Directions under PEDP3 Decision made to provide unified grants to schools Financing and school support are established and institutionalized through the decentralized planning and implementation arrangements, including revised UPEP, SLIP and SMC guidelines Comments decentralized obligatory, functions, as well as discretionary power to allocate budget Upazila level. Support to SLIPs should reflect both per capita and levels of disadvantage and possibly the quality of the SLIPs. This should include: school funds, eligibility criteria, spending guidelines, funds flow mechanism, review and approval process, and regular assessment approved by Government and notified at all levels. UPEP guidelines will be further clarified, to allow Upazila Education Officers to use the block grants available at Upazila level (e.g. for education in emergencies and inclusive education) in a flexible way according to their needs (captured in their UPEP) and UPEPs need to be activated to reach the coverage expected by end of PEDP3 KPIs: 1 Percentage of AOP budget allocation for unconditional block grants (UPEP & SLIP) for Upazilas and schools 11 Expenditure of unconditional block grants (UPEPS & SLIP) by Upazilas and schools Result Area 3.2: Effectiveness Anticipated Outcome: Increased effectiveness of budget allocation Reforms: Strengthening Grade 5 Primary Education Completion Examination (Grade 5 PECE), the annual primary school census, and the national student assessment systems; strengthening systems for Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Policy areas: Policy Area Teacher Recruitment and Deployment 29 Current Policies Policy Directions under PEDP3 Recruitment and promotion rules, and career path approved and implemented for teachers, head teachers, and DPE officers (field & HQ) A robust system of inservice training and staff development is in place and operational, based on competencies set for staff, Comments

53 Policy Area Current Policies Examination and assessment Standards and institutional mechanisms for liberal promotion for Grades 1 and 2 along with a school-based continuous pupil assessment established by Government A system is in place for regular assessment of learning outcomes and final examination disaggregated by sex. Enlistment criteria and regulations approved by GoB. Eligibility criteria and support packages for different types of schools defined. School enlistment KPIs: Policy Directions under PEDP3 including teachers. GoB establishes Center for Leadership to train head teachers and school management committees. Comments Formative assessment to be used to ensure participation of all learners in learning process Program continues to strengthen assessment systems Students from all types of primary schools are entitled to participate in the primary education completion exam. All schools following the NCTB curriculum are entitled to free textbooks. Cycle Completion rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) Cycle Drop Out Rate (boys, girls and all) Coefficient of efficiency & Number of input years per graduate Percentage of GPS/NNGPS that meet 3 of 4 school-level quality indicators (PSQL) Component 4: Planning and Management Result Area 4: Program Planning and Management Anticipated Outcome: Effective program planning and management Reforms: Strengthening results based management; formalizing and making greater use of public-private partnerships; assuring adequate sector finance Policy areas: Policy Area Current Policies PPPs RBM/M&E 3 Concept on decentralized RBM, M&E and EMIS along with action plan approved and notified at all levels for implementation. Policy Directions under PEDP3 Mechanism for using PPP in the primary education sub-sector developed and formally adopted. An integrated EMIS system that covers all primary schools is in place with data disaggregated by sex Comments This should cover concept, implementation and funding arrangements and eligibility criteria. This should build on the ongoing RBM initiatives, which include developing Upazila profiles.

54 Public Financial Management Annual Fiduciary Review undertaken. Planning and budgeting are linked through a robust MTBF. Table 2.3(i) provides a list of all Key Performance Indicators across the four components Table 2.3 (ii): Summary of Key Performance Indicators KPI Description Percentage of Grade 3 students who achieve Grade 3 competency (boys, girls and all): in Bangla and Mathematics Percentage of Grade 5 students who achieve Grade 5 competency (boys, girls and all): in Bangla and Mathematics Grade 5 Primary Education Completion Examination pass rate (boys, girls and all). Percentage of children (never enrolled and dropped out) out of school (boys, girls and all; 6-1 years old and years old) 5 Gross enrollment rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) 6 Net enrollment rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) 7 Gender parity index of gross enrollment rate 8 Net enrollment rate Top and Bottom 2% of households by consumption quintile 9 Upazila composite performance index - Top and Bottom 1% of Upazilas Percentage of AOP budget allocation for unconditional block grants (UPEP & SLIP) for Upazilas and schools 1 11 Expenditure of unconditional block grants (UPEPS & SLIP) by Upazilas and schools 12 Cycle Completion rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) 13 Cycle Drop Out Rate (boys, girls and all) 14 Coefficient of efficiency & Number of input years per graduate 15 Percentage of GPS/NNGPS that meet 3 of 4 school-level quality indicators (PSQL) 2.4 COMPONENT AND SUB-COMPONENT DESCRIPTIONS The following pages summarize the PEDP3 components and associated sub-components. More complete descriptions of components and sub-components can be found in Implementation Guide, Chapter A: Sub-component Descriptions and Results Web. Component 1: Teaching and Learning Improved learning outcomes and cycle completion are two objectives of PEDP3. Central to achieving these is revising learning content and revitalizing teaching practice. Curriculum revision will ensure relevant children s learning outcomes and competencies are built upon each year. The competencies will guide other inputs to education such as textbooks, supplementary reading materials, school-based assessment, and the Grade 5 PECE. The learning competencies will shape teaching practice, teacher education, and teaching performance standards. Component 1 also drives more robust classroom based assessment. This is linked to the strengthening of the student assessment system through the National Student Assessment (NSA) survey and the competency-based Grade 5 PECE. Assessment system reforms are part of Component 3 (effectiveness) but their implications for classroom-based assessment complement Component 1. Figure 2.4 (i) outlines the Component 1 result chain. 31

55 Figure 2.4 (i): Result Chain of Component 1 ACTIVITY OUTPUT EARLY OUTCOME Pilot activities to determine effective learning strategies in line with Each child learns Effective classroom learning strategies identified Teacher capacity to provide a competency-based learning experience for all children developed Competency-based curriculum, teaching and learning and assessment materials developed, piloted and produced Provision of teacher and head teacher training targeted at Each child learns and competencybased strategies Introduction of competencybased curriculum Teachers held accountable for each child s learning Sufficient quantities of appropriate teaching and learning materials available Head teachers and other supervisors able to provide support to classroom teachers Appropriately trained and qualified teachers and head teachers in schools Children develop a range of competencies especially in Bangla and mathematics Classroom and terminal assessment and exams based on competencies Early outcomes are expected to lead to both medium- and long-term outcomes. These are outlined in Figure 2.4 (ii), Figure 2.4 (ii): Medium and Long-term outcomes of Component 1 EARLY OUTCOME MEDIUM-TERM OUTCOME LONG-TERM OUTCOME Teacher capacity to provide a competency-based learning experience for all children developed All children in grades 1 to 3 in participating schools acquire planned levels of competencies especially in Bangla and mathematics All children acquire gradewise and subject-wise expected learning outcomes, or competencies Teachers held accountable for each child s learning Head teachers and other supervisors able to provide support to classroom teachers Children develop a range of competencies especially in Bangla and mathematics The budget allocated to achieve the activities for Component 1 is outlined in Table 2.4 (i) below: Table 2.4 (i): Budget for Component 1 Component and sub-component Component 1: Teaching and Learning 1.1 Each Child Learns 32 Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 13,743,589 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 11,598,975 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.5%

56 Component and sub-component 1.2 School and Classroom-based Assessment 1.3. Curriculum and textbooks strengthened 1.4. Production and distribution of textbooks 1.5. ICT in Education 1.6. Teacher Education & Development Component 1 Total Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 166,666 41,243,589 18,84,276 43,367,32 19,874, ,199,81 538,923 33,73,13 1,259, ,336, ,717, ,155,13 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.% 1.5%.4% 5.5% 6.5% 14.4% * Budget line moved from Development Budget to Revenue Budget Result Area 1: Learning Outcomes The sub-components included under Result Area 1 are as follows: Sub-Component Shikhbe Protiti Shishu [Each Child Learns]: In Bangladesh, primary schools too often consist of teachers with old-fashioned pedagogy, a lack of academic guidance and supervision, and a rigid curriculum. ECL, the flagship initiative of PEDP3, is designed to address these issues. ECL aims to transform pedagogical methods used by teachers and establish a better mechanism to make teachers responsible for each child s learning, thereby achieving significant improvements in overall classroom and school performance. Sub-Component School and Classroom Based Assessment: School and Classroom Based Assessment complements efforts to improve the quality of teaching in primary schools. Tools and materials prepared by Government, NGOs and others to help teachers better support students through ongoing assessment have been reviewed leading to the development of fit-for-purpose assessment methods and tools as well as a teachers guidebook. These will be piloted in a sample of schools with mainstreaming completed by 217. Sub-Component Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened: Revision of the primary curriculum and the competencies contained within it is a foundation for all learning activities in PEDP3. In collaboration with DPE, the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) are revising the curriculum. The amended curriculum will focus on promoting the switch from rote learning to competency-based learning. Sub-Component Textbook Production and Distribution: The GoB aims to continuously improve textbook production and distribution. As a result, in 213 approximately 1 million free textbooks were distributed to students from approximately 1, schools. In the future at least 9 percent of eligible schools will continue to receive textbooks in the first month of school. Sub-Component ICT in Education: Moving rapidly into the digital age is a primary goal of the GoB. A multi-media classroom is currently provided in one model school in each Upazila. Laptops are provided to GPS, who also have access to e-learning materials. An ICT strategy has been developed which, once approved, will further support the roll out of ICT in over 6, schools over the remainder of PEDP3. Sub-Component Teacher Education and Development: In line with the Teacher Education and Development Plan (TED), a range of training and development initiatives have been introduced throughout the life of PEDP3 including the Diploma in Primary Education, inservice training, and teacher support networks. These provide teachers with the skills to implement more engaging teaching/learning, which in in turn leads to higher learning outcomes. 33

57 Component 2: Participation and Disparities While school enrollment is well over 9%, there are still approximately 2.5 million children whose needs are not best served through formal schools. These include children who have never enrolled in school and children who drop out of school. The NEP affirms that children can participate in free and compulsory education through formal or non-formal channels. The NEP also includes pre-primary education for 5-6 year olds to be provided by the State free of cost. As enrollment figures rise in Grades 1-5, more attention can be paid to assuring the enrollment, completion, and full participation of those who are ultra-poor, disabled, developmentally delayed, or belong to ethnic minorities. An education divide persists in primary cycle completion rates and learning outcomes between geographical locations (urban, urban slum, rural, and remote areas) as well as between children from families with different levels of income. In addition to improving the quality of education for all, PEDP3 addresses the needs of disadvantaged groups through a range of interventions. PEDP3 will address in-school and in-classroom participation of vulnerable children. The needs of children who live in areas of Bangladesh prone to cyclones and flooding will also be addressed ensuring participation can continue during emergencies. Figure 2.4 (iii) outlines the Component 2 result chain. Figure 2.4 (iii): Result Chain of Component 2 ACTIVITY Needs-based infrastructure development Upazila Resource Center (URC), Upazila Education Office (UEO), PTI buildings and classroom construction Safe water and toilet facilities provided Development of curriculum and books for PPE OUTPUT URC, UEO, Primary Teacher Institute (PTI) buildings and schools constructed Well-maintained classrooms Functional tube wells providing safe drinking water Sufficient, separate, working toilets for boys and girls Facilities sustainably managed Recruitment and training of pre-primary teachers Provision of PPE Stipends Program reviewed to improve targeting NFE services aligned with formal schools School health and feeding Programs Well-targeted stipend Program functioning EARLY OUTCOME SCR improved Pre-primary-age children receive a head start in their education Children from marginalized families receive stipends, health and food benefits and remain in school School environment improved Needy children receive health and feeding inputs Early outcomes are expected to lead to both medium- and long-term outcomes. These are outlined in Figure 2.4 (iv): 34

58 Figure 2.4 (iv): Medium and Long-term outcomes of Component 2 EARLY OUTCOME MEDIUM-TERM OUTCOME SCR improved Enrollment increasing Children from marginalized families receive stipends, health and food benefits and remain in school Dropout and repetition decreasing Pre-primary-age children receive a head start in their education Grade 1 pupils benefit from a year s PPE LONG-TERM OUTCOME All children participate in preand primary education in all types of schools (formal, nonformal, madrasahs) Completion increasing Regional and other disparities in facilities, participation, completion and learning outcomes reduced Increased primary completion School environment improved Increased transition to secondary The budget allocated to achieve the activities for Component 2 is outlined in Table 2.4 (ii) below: Table 2.4 (ii): Budget for Component 2 Component and sub-component Component 2: Participation and Disparities Alternative and Second Chance (NFE) Pre-primary provision* Gender and Inclusive Education Education in emergencies Communication and social mobilization Targeted Stipends** School Health & school feeding** School Environment Need based infrastructure development Component 2 Total Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 89,737, ,378, ,589 3,25,128 6,153, ,678, ,214,7 155,17, ,555,185 2,25,674,82 24,137,974 25,545,949 3,26,25 2,156,667 18,73,974 1,981,346 24,747, ,367,88 1,637,874, % 11.%.1% 8.8%.8%.%.1% 9.1% 39.6% 71.67% * Budget line moved from Development Budget to Revenue Budget **Budget moved to Discrete Project Budget Result Area 2.1: Participation The sub-components included under Result Area 2.1 are as follows: Sub-Component Second Chance and Alternative Education: This sub-component addresses the needs of children who never enrolled in school and those who have dropped out. Limited progress was made in the first half of the program. In August 214 it was decided that DPE would adopt responsibility for implementing SCE. By the end of PEDP3, the aim is to have developed a ten year vision for reaching all out of school children in Bangladesh with quality education that meets their needs, and developing a responsive strategy based upon comparative evidence on models that work best to achieve this. This will be complemented by the provision of SCE to 3, children. 35

59 Sub-Component Pre Primary Education: Recognizing the benefits of good quality PPE, the GoB pledged to provide one year of free pre-primary education to 5 and 6 year olds at GPS. Since the start of PEDP3 new teachers have been recruited and trained with existing teachers to move towards ensuring one teacher per primary school is qualified to teach the PPE class. An Expansion Plan has been developed that sets out medium term strategic objectives and defines a framework for the provision of quality PPE service. Sub-Component Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education (IE): Inclusive education emphasizes the all in education for all. The sub-component addresses the needs of tribal children, ethnic minorities, children with learning disabilities, and disabled children in formal schools. It also drives creation of a gender sensitive and inclusive culture based on the principle that all learners have a right to education irrespective of their characteristics or differences. Sub-Component Education in Emergencies: More than 4,666 schools are affected by disasters per year.25 This sub-component was originally designed to respond to the needs of children in these schools. However, in 211 the Local Consultative Group for Disaster Emergency Response reviewed its disaster risk reduction, preparedness and emergency response coordination system in Bangladesh. It was identified that a framework to guide integration of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Education in Emergencies (EiE) into sector planning and implementation was required. Supporting this is now the focus of this sub-component. Sub-Component Communication and Social Mobilization: Communication and social mobilization efforts play an important role in improving the quality and inclusiveness of education and ensuring no child is left behind. A communication strategy and framework have been developed for PEDP3. The strategy will be implemented in the second half of PEDP3, guided by an annual communications plan. Result Area 2.2: Reducing Disparities The sub-components included under Result Area 2.2 are as follows: Sub-Component Targeted Stipends: Targeted stipends have a dual purpose: 1) to compensate families of working children for the opportunity costs of sending their children to primary school, and 2) to encourage the poorest families to ensure their children enroll and remain in school. At the PEDP3 MTR, the decision was made to continue stipends as a discrete project and to conduct a longitudinal study as part of PEDP3 to consolidate evidence and form a plan for the integration of stipends into the next phase of education sector-wide programming. Sub-Component School health and school feeding: Schools play a critical role in promoting the health and safety of children by embedding lifelong healthy behavior. School based health checks are undertaken once a year by local healthcare providers. Each school also receives a locally purchased first aid kit and basic first aid training. To support policy dialogue and planning for integration of school feeding in the next sector program, greater focus will be placed upon consolidating evidence and impact analyses from existing school feeding modalities. Sub-Component School Physical Environment: Creating a child-friendly environment requires improving the physical environment of schools. This includes the provision of safe drinking water, sufficient toilets WASH Blocks, and suitable classroom furniture. This sub study conducted by Save the Children 36

60 component supports the construction and maintenance of water and sanitation facilities at schools as well as the provision of a safe and protective learning environment. Sub-Component Needs Based Infrastructure Development: To reduce overcrowding and disparities in terms of school buildings, PEDP3 uses a transparent, needs based approach to infrastructure development. Up to the MTR, 26,416 classrooms had been tendered for construction. Additional classrooms will continue to be built to reduce overcrowding in GPS. Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness A key dimension of PEDP3 is to expand decentralized planning management and monitoring at district, Upazila and school levels. The School Level Improvement Plans (SLIPS) will address school and community-wide matters linked with learning outcomes and primary completion. Upazila Primary Education Plans (UPEPs) will help reduce disparities between areas within Upazilas leading, eventually to a reduction of disparities between Upazilas. A decentralization framework will be part a comprehensive devolution plan. An education system s effectiveness is judged in terms of learning outcomes. In addition to decentralization, this component drives the evidence-based assessment of the effectiveness of the education system by enabling the measurement of inputs, output and outcomes and their contribution in driving learning outcomes. A key dimension of PEDP3 is also expanding decentralized planning, management and monitoring to the district. Decentralization efforts are also driven through Component 3. Figure 2.4 (v) outlines the Component 3 result chain. Figure 2.4 (v): Result Chain of Component 3 ACTIVITY Head teachers, teachers, Upazila and district officials trained in managing School-Level Improvement Plans (SLIPs), Upazila Primary Education Plans (UPEPs) and District Primary Education Plans (DPEPs) DPE and UEO offices, professional staff recruited and trained OUTPUT Competent DPEP Officer and UEO professional staff in place Head teachers are competent managers and leaders Competency-based Grade 5examination progressively introduced EARLY OUTCOME Improved SLIPs, UPEPs and DPEPs produced, which contribute to better management Head teachers manage effectively Improved productivity in schools and offices Dropout decreasing APSC improved Repetition decreasing Head teachers trained in school management and leadership Grade 5 PECE orientated towards assessment of competencies More appropriate examination stimulates mastery of essential competencies Better statistical information available to assist decisionmaking APSC reviewed Early outcomes are expected to lead to both medium- and long-term outcomes. These are outlined in Figure 2.4 (vi). 37

61 Figure 2.4 (vi): Medium and Long-term outcomes of Component 3 EARLY OUTCOME Improved SLIPs, UPEPs and DPEPs produced, which contribute to better management Head teachers manage effectively MEDIUM-TERM OUTCOME LONG-TERM OUTCOME More effective and efficient management at school, Upazila and district levels Upazila- and school-level management decentralized Increased effectiveness of Program and budget allocation Improved productivity in schools and offices More appropriate examination stimulates mastery of essential competencies Better statistical information available to assist decision-making The budget allocated to achieve the activities for Component 3 is outlined in Table 2.4 (iii) below: Table 2.4 (iii): Budget for Component 3 Component and sub-component Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness 3.1. Field level offices strengthened Decentralized school management & governance* School level leadership development Org. review and strengthening Grade 5 PECE strengthened Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Annual Primary School Census National Student Assessment Component 3 Total Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) Total revised budget amount as % of total componen t budget 7,456, ,312, % 6.% 1,158,897 24,885,628 2,317,936 26,927,564 3,266,38 1,216, ,542,667.4% 1.1%.1% 1.2%.1%.1% 1.84% 44,959, ,472,91 8,269,23 37,69,314 48,769 38,961,538 3,846,153 3,141,25 312,2,65 *SLIP fund Tk 3 per school until June 13, 5 per school from Jun-14 Result Area 3.1: Decentralization The sub-components included under Result Area 3.1 are as follows: Sub-Component Field-Level Offices Strengthened: Roles and responsibilities for primary education officers have slowly expanded under PEDP3. However, to this point decentralization has not progressed as planned. Recruitment of field level staff and PTI instructors has slowed. A greater emphasis will be placed on this area in the second half of the program. 38

62 Sub-Component Decentralized School Management and Governance: Decentralization is based on the principle that decentralized autonomy and flexible financing can improve the quality of education delivered. Annual planning and implementation is being driven by field level staff using evidence to identify needs to deliver education results. To this end, planning instruments and organizational arrangements are being adopted at all levels including School Level Improvement Plans, Upazila Primary Education Plans. Sub-Component School Level Leadership and Development: Improving children s learning in the classrooms requires all education professionals to assume more active and wideranging roles. The roles of head teachers, AUEOs, URC instructors and assistant instructors will be clarified and leadership training will be provided to assist staff in fulfilling these roles. Sub-Component Organizational Review and Strengthening: The findings of an indepth review of the MoPME and DPE organizational structures conducted during PEDP II were used as the basis for plans to strengthen the roles of teachers, field level staff, DPE officials and other key stakeholders under PEDP3. In the second half of the program this review will be reassessed and initiatives implemented in line with the current needs of organizational strengthening. Result Area 3.2: Effectiveness The sub-components included under Result Area 3.2 are as follows: Sub-Component Grade 5 PECE Strengthened: The challenge under PEDP3 is to create linkages between the curriculum, teaching learning methods and assessment The current PECE examination is being improved through better question writing, question pre-testing, and analysis. By the completion of PEDP3 65 percent of examination questions will be competency based and by 218 the exam will be fully competency based. Sub-Component Teacher Recruitment and Deployment: Teacher Recruitment and Deployment supports PEDP3 s needs based approach to service delivery. Annual targets were set against this sub-component and by Year 2 all positions were filled. The targets were adjusted at the MTR to take account of the stronger policy emphasis on teacher-student contact hours, need for trained PPE teachers, and the number of teachers projected to be needed to fill additional classrooms constructed. The approval of a teacher career path will be a major focus over the remainder of the program. Sub-Component Annual Primary School Census (APSC): Regular, accurate, and reliable data for evidence-based policymaking and quality, targeted service delivery is essential to program success. Through PEDP3 the government continues to improve and expand the APSC to cover all primary education providers and produce a holistic picture of primary education services and trends in the country. Sub-Component National Assessment of Students: National learning assessments provide a means for tracking student learning outcomes over time at specific points in the primary cycle, testing the effectiveness of the education system rather than the students. Approximately 17,5 Grade 3 and 5 students from 7 schools have been tested in 211 and 213. Efforts in the remaining period will focus on conducting another round of assessment. Component 4: Planning and Management This component addresses the overarching planning and management of PEDP3. MoPME is responsible for program execution. The Ministry of Finance (MoF) manages GoB s MTBF, translating the sector policy targets into a consistent budget framework. The government s regular systems disburse and account for funds. The scope of interventions and resource 39

63 requirements in the Annual Operational Plan (AOP) for primary education can vary from year to year and across Districts and sub-districts to achieve the desired outcomes. The line divisions of DPE and other agencies (e.g. NCTB, NAPE) undertake day-to-day management of the Program as part of their routine tasks. The Ministry of Finance has undertaken to ensure that adequate financing is available for PEDP3. This component supports the execution of these processes. The component also covers institutional aspects of M&E, including strengthening of the Education Management Information System (EMIS) through the establishment of a new IMD Division in DPE. This division supports evidence-based planning in PEDP3 at central levels the AOP and at local level the SLIP and UPEP. The M&E Division will be strengthened to improve the APSC and Annual Sector Status Report (ASPR). Figure 2.4 (vii) outlines the Component 4 result chain. Figure 2.4 (vii): Result Chain of Component 4 ACTIVITY OUTPUT Governance and management structures established and staff recruited More trained staff in place Appropriate human resources development Program designed and training implemented Financial management capacity and systems developed Opportunities for public private partnerships identified and engaged Governance management strengthened EARLY OUTCOME and Strengthened monitoring functions NGO and other agencies able to contribute Organizational capacity Increased use of monitoring mechanisms and reporting for performance-based management Financial systems and management in line with government systems More pre-primary, primary and non-formal primary education Early outcomes are expected to lead to both medium- and long-term outcomes. These are outlined in Figure 2.4 (viii). Figure 2.4 (viii): Medium and Long-term outcomes of Component 4 EARLY OUTCOME MEDIUM-TERM OUTCOME LONG-TERM OUTCOME Organizational capacity Increased use of monitoring mechanisms and reporting for performance-based management Financial systems and management increasingly in line with government systems More pre-primary, primary and non-formal primary education 4 Evidenceand performance-based planning fully operational Effective planning management Program and Government financial and management systems deliver more effective and efficient resources and programming Increased effectiveness of budget allocation

64 The budget allocated to achieve the activities for Component 4 is outlined in Table 2.4 (iv): Table 2.4 (iv): Budget for Component 4 Component or sub-component Component 4: Planning and Management 4.1. PEDP3 Management and Governance 4.2. PEDP3 Financial Management 4.3. Sector Finance 4.4. Strengthening Monitoring Functions 4.5. Human Resources and Development 4.6. Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) Component 4 Total Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 46,93, ,512 7,435,897 9,416,41 64,388, ,475, ,38 1,755,295 1,79,372 3,211,538 42,74,949 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 1.2%.%.%.1%.5%.1% 1.9% Result Area 4: Program Planning and Management The sub-components included under Result Area 4 are as follows: Sub-Component PEDP3 Management and Governance: PEDP3 is governed by an interministerial steering committee and is managed through divisions and units that are part of the MoPME and DPE organizational structures. The Program Support Office, essential for efficient coordination, communication and program support from MoPME, will be operational from midterm. Sub-Component PEDP3 Financial Management: PEDP3 uses GoB systems for financial management and fiduciary oversight to meet the requirements set out in the Procurement and Financial Management Action Plan. Sub-Component Sector Finance: This sub-component works to: (i) ensure the GoB allocates sufficient resources for PEDP3; (ii) set up PEDP3 to serve as the overall budget framework for all sources of funding in the primary education sub-sector; and (iii) ensure funds are released on time, are safeguarded against budget cuts during the year and efforts are maximized to execute the budget to deliver the program. Sub-Component Strengthening Monitoring Functions: Program management requires service managers to define expected results, focus on result achievement, measure performance, and learn from practice. Evidence Based Planning (EBP) supports this Results Based Management (RBM) process. PEDP3 will continue to build on RBM achievements so far including an increased focus on the use of data for EBP and school based decision-making. Sub-Component Human Resource Development: Needs-based service provision applies to the professional development of primary education staff. Increased coordination of training provision was achieved during the first three years of PEDP3. In the second half of the program, the standards and competencies for the professional development of teachers will form the basis for a set of related training options. Sub-Component Public-Private Partnerships (PPP): A variety of Public Private Partnerships were envisaged to support the achievement of PEDP3 goals. In the second half of the program the national PPP Framework will be customized for MoPME and disseminated widely through workshops and communication materials. 41

65 CHAPTER 3: PROGRAM GOVERNANCE & MANAGEMENT PEDP3 represents a new way of working both for the Government of Bangladesh and the DPs in the primary education sector. Building on lessons from past primary education programs, PEDP3 represents a significant step towards a sub-sector wide approach. In PEDP3, partnerships have been embedded and extended to support the Government in taking responsibility for the oversight, management - including financial management - and implementation of the Program. The existing partnership arrangements continue to be reinforced and strengthened as PEDP3 evolves. As part of the MTR a study into PEDP3 Governance and Institutional functions assessed current arrangements to provide guidance for future direction. The study identified that a key element of the implementation arrangements is strengthening the capacity of the GoB to deliver results through strong partnerships both within GoB and between GoB and supportive DPs. The development of capacity is, arguably, the glue that holds many of the results/outcomes of PEDP3 together, and this necessitates successful operations not only across DPE Divisions, but also between DPE, MoPME and other ministries and agencies involved in achieving the various PEDP3 sub-component milestones. Both the GoB and DPs will continue to work together utilizing the framework below to strengthen capacity and drive increased ownership by the GoB. This chapter begins with a summary of PED3 s governance structures and communication systems including an overview of the organizational structure, the coordination and communication mechanisms and the Program Support Unit. It then summarizes the PEDP3 staffing requirements before providing an overview of financial management, disbursement and reporting arrangements and a high level insight into the risk mitigation systems. Finally, a brief overview of the risk management process is provided. 3.1 GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND COMMUNICATION PEDP3 Organizational Structure PEDP3 involves a range of government non-government actors. This section provides a high level overview of the actors, which have roles at three main levels across the program: Strategic oversight; Support; and Local School Management. An even greater level of detail is provided in Implementation Guide, Chapter D: Implementation arrangements. Strategic Oversight and Program Direction: MoPME is responsible for policy oversight and coordination. DPE is the main implementing agency. DPE line directors are responsible for implementation of key areas of PEDP3. Support Agencies: PEDP3 is implemented with the assistance of a range of government bodies. In some cases implementation partnerships have given new roles and responsibilities to other agencies (i.e. Department of Public Health and Engineering (DPHE)). Some agencies are in other ministries; others are part of MoPME but are not under the authority of DPE. These relationships are outlined in Figure 3.1 (i) below. Decentralized Management: PEDP3 s partnership includes officials at District, Upazila, Union and school levels. Autonomy and flexibility is given for expenditure of funds at Upazila level. Under PEDP3, UEOs develop UPEPs. Schools continue to develop SLIPs under the leadership of their School Management Committees. PEDP3 also aims to advance the wider government agreement to encourage and involve GO-NGO partnership in achieving national policy goals, for example in the introduction of a year of pre-primary education into all GPS and NNGPS nationwide. 42

66 Figure 3.1 (i) sets out the implementation partners of PEDP3 within the broader Primary education environment. Figure 3.1 (i): PEDP3 Implementation Partners 43

67 PEDP3 Coordination and Communication PEDP3 planning, implementation and monitoring requires extensive cross-government collaboration and consultation with ministries and agencies, NGOs, and other actors including DPs, who participate in various ways in the delivery of primary education. There are three key PEDP3 specific consultation mechanisms as well as a number of existing government mechanisms that are utilized to support PEPD3 coordination and communication. The PEDP3 Steering Committee is chaired by the Secretary, MoPME, and is responsible for the overall oversight, policy guidance and coordination of PEDP3. The Program Steering Committee will hold quarterly meetings where the progress of implementation will be reviewed and guidance provided for PEDP3 implementation. The PSC allows for formal inter-ministerial consultation. The Steering committee has an extremely broad membership including Government Representatives and NGOs.26 While not specifically represented in the PSC, it is recognized that it is important for input to be sought from the DPs at various stages. Accordingly representatives of DPs will be invited to attend when appropriate. The MTR concluded that the role of the PSC had been fulfilled in a rather limited way, largely confined to the approval process of the Annual Operational Plan, and that it could valuably undertake its wider mandate, as identified in this Program Document (see Implementation Guide, Chapter D: Implementation arrangements). PEDP3 Coordination Meetings will be set up as of the MTR. Chaired by the Additional Secretary (Development), MoPME these bi-monthly meetings will facilitate strategic discussion and decision-making. Four Working Groups meet bi-monthly or as required. These groups are forums to support implementation. They cut across the four PEDP3 Components to focus on Quality; Disparities; Administration and Monitoring; and Procurement and Financial Management. They are chaired by DPE Directors, and co-chaired by DPs. Annual Development Plan (ADP) Meetings are held monthly at MoPME, and are chaired by the Minister. This follows standard GoB practice, whereby ADP meetings are held across the whole of Government to assess program and project progress. A major purpose of the ADP meeting is to review program activities and expenditure, but it also enables participants to present ongoing successful activities and outcomes and to raise matters of concern that are hampering progress. This includes issues stemming from inter-ministry and inter-agency collaboration. It is a valuable mechanism to drive momentum and to ensure that any impediments to progress are raised and dealt with speedily at the highest level. MoPME Monthly Coordination Meetings: The Secretary, MoPME, chairs MoPME coordination meetings. These are attended by the DGs of all implementing associates in primary education. 26 THE PSC comprises senior level representatives of MoPME, MOE, Planning Commission (Education Sector and General Economic Division), Economic Relations Division (ERD), Finance Division, IMED, Local Government Division, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Ministry of Chittagong Hill Tracts Affairs, Ministry of Public Administration, Ministry of Social Welfare, Directorate of Primary Education, Bureau of Non formal Education (BNFE), National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB), National Academy for Primary Education (NAPE), Local Government and Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh Bureau of Education Information and Statistics (BANBEIS), civil society and any other relevant Ministries/Divisions. The committee may co-opt member(s), if necessary. 44

68 Implementing Agency Coordination Meetings: In the first half of the program DPE held weekly coordination meetings to address issues relating to PEDP3. As part of the MTR it was recommended that all other implementing associates (e.g. NCTB) should do likewise to ensure the continuous progress of the program. Development Partner Consortium meetings are held at least monthly as required, with representation from all the multi-lateral and bilateral organizations participating in PEDP3. An annually rotating Chair and Vice Chair the DP consortium. There are several mechanisms for internal communication and coordination by the different implementing partners of PEDP3. These are outlined in Figure 3.1 (ii). 45

69 Figure 3.1 (ii): PEDP3 Coordination and Communication* *Please note that a solid line refers to a formal Communication Mechanism. A dotted line refers to an informal communication mechanise 46

70 PEDP3 Program Support In the initial design of PEDP3 it was envisaged that there would be a Program Surveillance Unit (PSU), within a Program Support Office (PSO), headed by the Additional Secretary, MoPME. This unit would be responsible for overall coordination and liaison with the implementing associates. Neither of these bodies was initiated during the first half of the program. However, the MTR process confirmed the need for a Program Support Office, which would combine the functions originally specified for the PSU and the PSO. As a result, the PSO will be established in the second half of the program. The structure and guidelines for the PSO are outlined in Figure 3.1 (iii) and elaborated in Implementation Guide, Chapter D: Implementation Arrangements. Figure 3.1 (iii): PEDP3 Program Support Office (PSO) PSO Secretariat Reports to: Additional Secretary (Development), MoPME Location: At MoPME (or nearby) Staff to include: Deputy Chief, MoPME; Director Program, DPE; and Result Area Focal Points (Learning Outcomes: DS/SAS/DEV-1 Branch; Disparities and Participation: Deputy Chief 2; Decentralization and Effectiveness: JS-DS-DEV-1; and Planning, Management and PFM: JS/DSBudget and SAC-1) TA support to include: Junior coordination officers; Office Assistance Hubs on Cross Cutting Issues: ECL and Assessment, TA Coordination, Program Learning (Impact), School effectiveness, Fiduciary reform institutionalization Key Tasks: Secretariat services to PEDP3 Coordination Meetings and Program Steering Committee meetings; Briefings for ADP meetings, PEDP3 Coordination Meetings and Steering Committee meetings; support inter-ministerial communication and collaboration; facilitate collaboration through MoU arrangements between agencies; facilitate DP support for the sector (including NGOs, the private sector and philanthropic organizations); support MoPME to conduct effective public relations (including issuing of regular media releases related to PEDP3 and the primary education sub-sector); knowledge management through supporting the development of a central database management system; record keeping (online and hard copy). PSO Support Reports to: Director General, DPE Location: DPE Program Division TA support to include: Office Assistance Key Tasks: Support Program Division, DPE to liaise closely with the MoPME-based PSO Secretariat for good knowledge management and information flow; to monitor progress on PEDP3 activities requiring coordination across Divisions and implementing agencies; to coordinate reporting; to organize and minute JARMs, JCMs and other major meetings as required; to facilitate the preparation and approval of the PEDP3 AOPs; to identify, design and manage activities identified for outsourcing, PPPs and institutional twinning; to provide leadership and supervision for working groups and to facilitate engagement with the Cross Cutting Issue Hubs (PSO Secretariat); and to carry out other tasks as directed by the DG. 47

71 3.2 STAFFING REQUIREMENTS To fulfill the functions described above and undertake the activities described in the previous chapter additional human resource needs were identified at the outset of the Program. This was updated throughout the MTR. Table 3.2 (i) provides a summary of the pre- and post-mtr manpower requirements. Staffing requirements are filled through three mechanisms: deputation, duration of PEDP3 (development budget) and permanent (revenue budget). A more detailed breakdown can be found in Chapter D of the Implementation Guide. Table 3.2 (i): Summary of PEDP3 Staffing Requirements Pre-MTR staffing levels DG's Office ADG's Office Administration Division IMD Division Planning & Development Division Training Division Monitoring & Evaluation Division Finance & Procurement Division Policy & Operation Division Program Management & Coordination Unit Divisional Deputy Director Office District Primary Education Office Primary Training Institute (PTI) Upazila/Thana Education Office Upazila/Thana Resource centre Govt. Primary School Residential Hostel Leadership Training Centre, Cox`s Bazar Alternative Education and Second Chance Education Total Program Staffing Post-MTR staffing levels Government systems are also to be used for the coordination and management of Technical Assistance through the Indefinite Delivery Contract (IDC), which is designed to provide on-call specialized services against TA needs identified in the Annual Operational Plans (see Implementation Guide, Chapter G: Technical Assistance Arrangements). 3.3 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND DISBURSEMENT ARRANGEMENTS The principle of government leadership and ownership is fundamental to PEDP3, and implementation arrangements reflect this. The financing modality for PEDP3, which features disbursement to the Consolidated Fund managed by the Ministry of Finance (commonly referred to as the Treasury Model), is unprecedented in Bangladesh. PEDP3 is managed as any other Government funded program, whereby the detailed annual budget is ensures appropriate allocations for all critical activities in accordance with government Delegation of Financial Powers and budget. PEDP3 expenditure is managed through the regular Government budget execution system and all transactions are recorded with their full amount in the Integrated Budget and Accounting System (IBAS). By prior agreement, some "parallel" funds directly disbursed by DPs to PEDP3 outside Bangladesh s financial management system are to be allowed for technical assistance supporting program implementation. These parallel funds are still expended according to a Common TA Framework for the entire program. 48

72 Development Partners have made further efforts to harmonize procedures, and arrangements for disbursement and reporting as specified in a Joint Financing Arrangement, which is the first time such an instrument is being used in the education sector in Bangladesh. This formalizes the parties understanding of the arrangements to support and finance the PEDP3 as a SWAp, (including DP financial contributions. A substantial proportion of the DPs financing is contingent on the achievement of goals set against nine of the 29 sub-components. This results-based financing model and the use of Disbursement Linked Indicators is highly innovative. DPs do not fund any particular transaction directly, since all funds are disbursed to the Government on a reimbursement basis. DLIs are evenly priced. Each DLI is considered separately and disbursement is contingent upon meeting all the outputs for that indicator for a particular year (see DLI Matrix, Implementation Guide, Chapter C: Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting). Development Partner disbursements are based in part on evidence of PEDP3 expenditure as reported through IBAS financial statements. The IBAS statements show spending under PEDP3 budget heads as defined in IBAS under (i) legal codes for non-development and development expenditure, and functional, operational unit and economic codes under MoPME that are identified as eligible PEDP3 expenditures. For more information on disbursement arrangements please see the Implementation Guide, Chapter E: Financial Management. 3.4 CRITICAL RISKS AND MITIGATION MEASURES To help ensure the success of PEDP3 the Government undertook an assessment to identify and prepare for and critical risks. This was then strengthened through the inclusion of mitigation measures that were planned at Program outset. The risk identification exercise identified ten risks that were organized in terms of outcomes, outputs, and financial risks. Mitigating measures have been included in PEDP3 design to the extent possible. For a more detailed outline of the risk assessment and management process see the Implementation Guide, Chapter F: Risk Mitigation. 49

73 CHAPTER 4: FISCAL ANALYSIS The Government of Bangladesh has a firm, long-term commitment to the sustained improvement of primary education. This is evidenced by budgetary allocations to the education sector in the Medium-Term Macroeconomic Framework (MTMF) that increase year by year both nominally and in percentage terms. Successful development and maintenance of high-quality primary education is one of the Government s highest priorities. 4.1 RESOURCE ENVELOPE In estimating the resource envelop for PEDP3, three case scenarios were considered at the program preparation stage based on assumptions regarding GDP growth and sector budget share. For GDP growth in current prices, Scenario 1 assumed a 1 percent increase, Scenario 2 assumed 12 percent, and Scenario 3 assumed 14 percent (Table 4.1). For the share of budget allocated to education and its sub-sectors, assumptions are based on adjusted budget shares for fiscal year (21/11). Under these scenarios, the resource envelope ranges between USD 7.8 billion (Scenario1) to USD 8.8 billion including BNFE budget (Scenario 3). The realization up to FY12/13 shows that the GDP growth rate at current price was 14.1% exceeding the highest assumption. Table 4.1 (i): Resource Envelope by Scenario (USD billion) Assumptions Realization up to FY12/ % (between 1/1112/13) Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 1% 12% 14% 2.3% 1.1% to 1.6% 2.3% 1.1% to 1.6% 2.3% 1.1% to 1.6% 45% to 46% 45% to 46% 45% to 46% 45.9% (FY12/13) GDP Education budget ab MoPME budget ab GDP growth at current price Education share in GDP MoPME share in GDP MoPME share in Ed Budget Amount (5 year) 2.3% (FY12/13) 1.3% (FY12/13) Source: Updated GDP data from International Monetary Fund, June 214. Notes: a/ Exchange rate is assumed at USD1=BDT78 b/ based on MTBF prepared in FY13/ MOPME BUDGET ESTIMATES Education s Share in National Budget and GDP: In , the education sector continues to receive the largest proportion of the national budget. The combined allocation to the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Primary and Mass Education is BDT billion in , up from BDT billion in Primary and Mass Education Share in Education Budget and GDP: Primary education s share of the GDP was about 1 percent over the last decade. For the fiscal year 212/13, this share was estimated at 1.3 percent and was estimated to increase 1.15 percent in 213/14 as a result of projected slower GDP growth in 213. Of the total education sector budget, the primary and mass education sub-sector receives a constant share, on average approximately 45 percent over the last 1 years. In the 213/14 5

74 revised budget the share was 45.4 percent. During project preparation the allocation to MoPME was estimated to range between USD 7.84 billion (Scenario 1) to USD 8.8 billion (Scenario 3) over the 5-year period ( to ). Due to depreciation of the BDT27, the budget actually allocated to the education sector and primary education sub-sector looks smaller when displayed in US dollar (table 4.1 (i)). Figure 4.1 (i): Public Expenditure on Education by Ministry (USD billion) Billion BDT MOPME 4 MOE 2 Revised 214/15 213/14 212/13 211/12 21/11 29/1 28/9 27/8 26/7 25/6 Budget Sources: Ministry of Finance Public education expenditure as a percentage of GDP has hovered between 2.3 percent and 2.6 percent since 25. This contrasts with an international average of 3.5 percent. The NEP sets the target of 6 percent of GDP expenditure on Education. The GoB spends 7% of GDP per capita on education compared with an international average of 1%. However, it is not only the amount of finance available that was taken into consideration when planning PEDP3. Consideration was also given to the absorptive capacity of the sector and its ability to spend resources effectively. For the remaining PEDP3 period, at least the current level of funding for the primary education sector will be allocated and sector absorptive capacity will be expanded through decentralization. 4.3 PEDP3 FINANCING The MoPME budget excluding BNFE expenditure was originally estimated at BDT billion (USD 8.34 billion at USD1=BDT7) for 5 years (211/12 to 215/16). This included BDT billion (USD 4.19 billion) under the revenue budget and BDT 29.3 billion (USD 4.14 billion) under the development budget (inclusive of BDT billion (USD.98 billion) for discrete projects). 28 See Table 4.3 (i) for more information. As a result of the MTR the program period was prolonged to six yearsand the program cost revised upward to BDT 765 billion (a BDT billion, 31% increase). The revenue budget increased from BDT billion to BDT billion (BDT billion, 48% increase) while the total development budget increased from BDT 29.3 billion to BDT billion (BDT 41.7 billion, 14.4% increase. This includes BDT billion (USD.98 billion) for From USD1=BDT7 to USD1=BDT78. The remainder is for physical and price contingencies and financing charges. 51

75 discrete projects). Applying an updated exchange rate, which has depreciated from USD1=BDT7 to approximately USD1=BDT 78 in 214, the total revised program cost in USD is 9.81 billion. This is up by USD 2.33 billion from the original estimate of USD 7.48 billion. Table 4.3 (i): Comparison of Original and Revised Program Costing of PEDP3 (billion) Original Program Costing of PEDP USD USD % of (USD1= (USD1= BDT total BDT7) BDT78) Component Total Revenue Budget Total Development Budget Development Budget of PEDP3 Discrete Projects Financing Charges Total Program Cost Revised Program Costing BDT % of total USD (USD1= USD (USD1= BDT7) BDT78) n/a n/a n/a n/a PEDP3 by Costs Development and Revenue Classification: Under the revised costings, the proportion of the total program cost allocated to the Revenue Budget is expected to increase from 5% to 57%. The proportion allocated to the Development Budget will decrease from 5% to 43% (inclusive of Discrete Projects, which will make up 2% of the total PEDP3 budget under the Revised Program Costing). Table 4.3 (ii) below illustrates that DP financing was committed to both the Revenue and Development Budgets in the original program planning. In the original estimate, 4 percent of the external financing was designed to support eligible expenditures under the Development Budget and 6 percent was to support eligible expenditures under the Revenue Budget. It is projected that with the Revised Program Costing revenue from DPs will be committed to each budget, but the exact amounts are yet to be finalised. Table 4.3 (ii): PEDP3 Budget Estimate (USD billion) Original (211-16) MoPME MoPME (Dev.) MoPME (Rev) Discrete Projects Total MoPME BNFE Revised (211-17) Total GoB Contributions DPs Contributions Total GoB Contributions DPs Contributions Not available Not available 1.93 Not available Not available Resources Benefitting Schools: It is estimated that more than 44% of the PEDP3 cost will benefit schools directly including those that have been recently converted from RNGPS to GPS. Within PEDP3, serious attention will be given to allocating resources to priority areas. 4.4 FOREIGN ASSISTANCE Share of Foreign Assistance under PEDP3: Assuming Development Partner support for six years will be around USD 1.68 billion and GoB contribution will be around USD 8.12 billion 52

76 (both yet to be confirmed), it is estimated that the GoB will finance 82.5 percent of the budget and the donor share will be 17.5 percent. DPs have so far committed USD 1.2 billion. The GoB has requested an additional USD.67 billion, which is currently being considered by some DPs. Recent Foreign Assistance Trends in Education: Foreign assistance has played a critical role in the development of Bangladesh, although the share of external financing in total development expenditure has been decreasing over time. From independence to the beginning of PEDP3 the country had received a total of USD billion in project aid comprising grants and loans. Between 1971/72 and 28/9 multilateral agencies contributed almost USD 19 billion mostly in the form of loans. OECD countries, during the same period contributed about USD 1.5 billion. The share of project aid in education development expenditure was 37.8 percent on average over the last five years (Table 4.4 (iii)). Table 4.4 (iii): Education Sector-Disbursement of Project aid in ADP (billion) 24/5 25/6 26/7 27/8 28/9 Total Government DPs Total DP share in % DP in USD billion Source: ERD Disbursement of Foreign Assistance under PEDP3: The GoB and DPs have entered into a JFA, which specifies the contributions, disbursements, consultation and decision-making processes, reporting and other requirements for disbursement of foreign assistance under PEDP3. Details on disbursement conditions are specified in the JFA. In general, disbursements will be contingent on either one or both of the following: i. ii. Spending on PEDP3 Eligible Expenditures as presented in Interim Unaudited Financial Reports (IFR). IFRs will be prepared from the Government s IBAS system. Disbursements by DPs will be contingent on Eligible Expenditures for a given period exceeding the total disbursements by all DPs for the same period. Chapter 5 of the Implementation Guide contains additional information on the eligible expenditures. Achievement of Disbursement Linked Indicators (DLIs) agreed to between the Government of Bangladesh and DPs. The amount disbursed each fiscal year will be contingent upon number of DLIs achieved during the previous fiscal year. The DPs require additional approval of their respective parliaments or governing bodies to confirm total and annual levels of disbursement. However, Tables 4.4 (ii) and 4.4 (iii) provide an overview of the indicative schedule for disbursement and estimated total disbursements by each Development Partner supporting PEDP3. 53

77 Table 4.4 (ii): Indicative Schedule of DPs Disbursements (millions) Development Partners ADB DFAT DFATD DFID EU IDA (World Bank) JICA SIDA UNICEF GPE Currency USD AUD CAD GBP Euro USD USD USD USD USD DLI FX DLI FX DLI FX DLI FX DLI FX DLI Table 4.4 (iii): Indicative summary of DPs Disbursements (millions) Development Partners ADB DFAT DFATD DFID EU IDA (World Bank) JICA SIDA UNICEF GPE 54 Currency USD AUD CAD GBP Euro USD USD USD USD USD Total Estimated Disbursement in commitment/ disbursement Currency Total DLI Total FX Total FX Total for the Period from JulDec FY DLI FX

78 4.5 ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS Economic Analysis: The economic analysis of PEDP3 has been updated to account for additional financing. It focuses on major policy changes in the financial environment that have significantly increased recurrent costs in education and factors which increase unit costs since the original project was appraised. The results suggest that the project remains economically justified provided there is timely implementation of the quality reforms, which are key for generating higher economic benefits from the PEDP3. Without additional financing, there is a risk that resources would be shifted from the quality enhancing activities to cover recurrent costs instead. An Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) analysis has been conducted to assess the economic justifications of investment in quality interventions through additional financing. The estimated benefits of the quality investments come mainly through: (i) increased labor productivity as a result of more and better educated workers, and (ii) savings generated on public expenditure as a result of reduced inefficiencies. The analysis estimates the benefit attributable to additional financing and compares with the counterfactual case without consideration of AF. EIRR to additional financing of US$6 million29 is 14.2 percent (or NPV of US$19 million) over the next twenty years under a base scenario that assumes.15 percent improvement in grade promotion rate per year (i.e. improving from 83.5 percent at the baseline to 86.5 percent in 2 years) as a result of improved quality of teaching and learning. The improved quality of education would result in an increase in the cumulative number of primary school graduates by 2.8 million compared to the status quo scenario (i.e. without AF). Sensitivity analysis shows that a delay in implementation of the quality reform will result in lower EIRR. Two types of sensitivity analysis were conducted: (i) changing parameters directly affecting the benefit stream (lower scenario and higher scenario), and (ii) changing the start year of quality reform(s). The lower scenario shows that, if the improvement of the grade promotion rate is.1 percent annually (as opposed to.15 percent), the returns on the suggested investment are not economically viable. On the other hand, under the high scenario in which the grade promotion rate improves by.2 percent annually, the EIRR reaches 18.6 percent. In sum, delay in quality improvement reform will result in smaller economic benefits. Under the base scenario, one year s delay will reduce the EIRR from 14.2 percent to 12.2 percent. Financial Analysis: The GoB Medium Term Budget Framework (MTBF) forecasts a continuously stable growth of public expenditure on education backed by confidence in overall stable economic growth, but a resource gap for PEDP3 has arisen due to: (i) increased recurrent costs caused by higher teacher salary levels, and (ii) increased need for capital budget because of higher unit costs of infrastructure resulting from changes in standard school design and increased costs of construction materials because of inflation. The change in teacher salaries is linked with a major policy change since inception of PEDP3: nationalization of 22,632 Registered Non-Government Primary Schools (RNGPS) from FY212/13. The Government had formerly provided salary subsidies to RNGPS teachers but as they are now on the civil service pay roll, their salaries have increased significantly. This occurs 29 This assessment rounds up the total amount of contributions from all Development Partners. Breakdown of contribution is: World Bank US$4 million, Asian Development Bank US$12 million, and European Union US$45 million in anticipation of probable additional financing from GPE. 55

79 at the same time of the broader national pay scale revision for civil service, so the combined impact results in a 6 percent increase in salary bill for all Government Primary Schools (GPS; including former RNGPS). The total cost related to the need-based classroom construction is now 28 percent higher (US$174 million) than the original estimate of US$626 million at the time the PEDP3 was initially appraised. The anticipated resource gap caused by increased recurrent and capital costs demands additional funds for implementing the ongoing quality and disparity focused reforms. Without additional financing, the resources could potentially be redirected from the quality and disparity components. These have already been underspent in the first three years due to a delay in rollout. It is important to accommodate the increased recurrent and capital expenditures which have resulted from the wider political and economic environment, but at the same time, in order for PEDP3 to meet its results objectives, it is critical for the project to maintain its focus on quality and disparity for achieving the project outcomes through additional financing. 4.6 COST SUMMARY TABLES The following two tables provide a high level summary of PEDP3 component and subcomponent costs. Table 4.6 (i) outlines the Revised PEDP3 Budget from inception June 217 broken down by component and sub-component. This includes the original budget, the actual expenditure and the revised budget amongst other items. Table 4.6 (ii) provides an outline of the revised costing for each component and sub-component by year. More detailed costings are elaborated in Implementation Guide, Chapter H: Detailed Cost Estimates. 56

80 Table 4.6 (i): Revised PEDP3 Budget by Component (Inception to Jun 217) by year (in BDT ) Component A. Component 1- Learning and Teaching 1.1 Each Child Learns 1.2 School and Classroom-based Assessment 1.3 Curriculum Development 1.4 Textbook Distribution a 1.5 ICT in Education 1.6 Teacher Education & Development Subtotal Component 1- Learning and Teaching B. Component 2-Participation and Disparities Alternative and Second Chance (NFE) Pre-primary provision a Inclusive Education Education in emergencies Communication and social mobilization Targeted Stipends b School Health & school feeding b School Environment Need based infrastructure development Subtotal Component 2-Participation and Disparities C. Component 3-Decentralization and Effectiveness Field level offices strengthened Decentralized school management & governance c School level leadership development Org review and strengthening Grade 5 terminal exam strengthened Teacher recruitment, promotion and deployment Annual school census National Student Assessment Subtotal Component 3-Decentralization and Effectiveness D. Component 4--Planning and Management 4.1 PEDP3 management and Governance 57 Original budget Actual Expenditure as of June 214 Budget for the period July14 to Jun-17 Total revised Budget July 11 to Jun-17 1,72, 13, 3,217, 14,12,734 3,382,651 8,57,2 3,357,585 86,34 15,58 35,342 11, ,97 3,69,363 4,34, ,38 26,456 2,593,5 789, 9,229,296 7,912,611 21,369,243 94,72 42,36 2,628,842 8,253 9,776,266 11,521,974 25,674,91 6,999,546 22,337,53 5,2 25, 48, 33,514,93 2,764,747 12,98,45 61,57,35 158,2,635 25,512 1,188,16 41,36 23,3 543,31 7,38 4,754,887 26,834,247 33,48,337 1,857,25 18,354,568 29,48 15,588,92 917,715 84,57 14,23,447 43,238,442 94,273,897 3,56,812 13,686, , 2,891,47 37,5 3,39, 3, 245, 24,351,65 277, 2,277, ,74 16,241 9,98 1,454 18,568 17,46 2,865,166 5,218,642 8,354, ,69 1,834, ,71 2,98, ,24 77,465 18,627,162 3,658, ,313 1,467,771 1,882,762 19,542,584 25,84 15,612,22 1,461,16 154,545 18,778,334 7,72, ,754,234 5,495,642 1,632, ,394 1,941,79 18,799 2,1,35 254,772 94,925 21,492,328 2,65,84 Difference -167,28 29,36-588,158-13,32,481 6,393,615 2,951,774-4,683,494-5,116,784-2,794, ,884 15,362,22 981,16-33,514,93-2,61,22 6,679,929 8,565,385-3,248,41 1,988,83-3,54,52 147,394-95, , ,65-45,228-15,75-2,859,277-1,593,44

81 4.2 PEDP3 Financial Management 49,336 6,841 36, Sector Finance 4.4 Strengthen Monitoring Functions 58, 14, , Human Resources and Development 734,48 49,88 785, Public, Private Partnerships (PPPs) 25,5 5,22,34 668,52 2,662,466 Subtotal Component 4--Planning and Management 41,318, ,932,768 E. Total Component cost (A+B+C+D) 217,734,128 F. Contingencies Physical Contingencies 1,67,255 1,54,186 Price Contingencies 2,153,551 1,53,116 3,76,85 2,584,32 F. Total Contingencies G. Custom duty and VAT 2,887 7, F2. CD and VAT 41,321,758 14,217,7 H. Total Development of PEDP3 (E+F+G) 221,494,933 I. Discrete Project d 1. Discrete Project 68,536,247 64,267, 86,392,12 68,536,247 64,267, 86,392,12 I. Subtotal Discrete Project 15,588, ,69,172 J. Total Development budget of DPE (H+I) 29,31,18 K. Revenue Budget/Non Development Budget 1. MoPME ( ) d 76,787,788 37,681,699 58,25, DPE (2431) 14,13,888 13,615,391 17,589, PTI (2433) 2,242,479 1,5,49 1,55,7 4. UEO (2434) 5,281,711 3,349,798 4,253, NAPE (245) 165,863 9, , Primary School (2432) 194,56, ,684, ,589, ,472,32 25,329,768 K. Revenue Budget/Non Development of PEDP 3 293,88,61 L. Financing changes during implementation e 471,539 Total Program cost (K+J+L) 583,591,32 288,61,6 476,938,94 At current conversion rate (1USD=BDT78) 7,481,94 3,693,91 6,114,62 At old conversion rate (1USD=BDT7) 8,337,19 4,115,158 6,813,413 a. Budget moved to K2 b. Budget moved to I c. SLIP fund Tk 3 per school until June 13, 5 per school from Jun-14 d. Column 4, Consider RADP allocation of Y-11/12 to 13/14 e. No separate allocation in the revised program documents, the financial charges will cover from the MoPME non development budget 58 43, , ,331 25,5 3,33, ,251,639 1,54,186 1,53,116 2,584,32-6, ,87 1,851 25,5-1,691,318-39,482,489 72, ,538,828 15,659,12 15,659,12 332,197,93 95,932,253 31,25,127 2,555,416 7,63, , ,273, ,82,7 765,, 9,87,692 1,928,571 72,887-39,956,15 82,122,855 82,122,855 42,166,75 19,144,465 17,11, ,937 2,321,986 65,925 1,766, ,713, ,48,68 2,325,752 2,591, ,69-623,435-1,176,53

82 Table 4.6 (ii): Revised PEDP3 Budget by Component by Currency Type (Inception to Jun 217) Component A. Component 1- Learning and Teaching 1. Each Child Learns 2. School and Classroom-based Assessment 3. Curriculum Development 4. Textbook Distribution 5. ICT in Education 6. Teacher Education & Development Subtotal Component 1- Learning and Teaching B. Component 2-Participation and Disparities 1. Alternative and Second Chance (NFE) 2. Pre-primary provision 3. Inclusive Education 4. Education in emergencies 5. Communication and social mobilization 6. Targeted Stipends 7. School Health & school feeding 8. School Environment 9. Need based infrastructure development Subtotal Component 2-Participation and Disparities C. Component 3-Decentralization and Effectiveness 1. Field level offices strengthened 2. Decentralized school management & governance 3. School level leadership development 4. Org review and strengthening 5. Grade V terminal exam strengthened 6. Teacher recruitment, promotion and deployment 7. Annual school census 8. National Student Assessment Subtotal Component 3-Decentralization and Effectiveness 59 (Local ') (US$ ') Local Foreign Total 94,72 42,36 2,628,842 8,253 1,334,41 11,521,974 17,231,866 8,442,225 8,442,225 1,882,762 19,542,584 25,84 15,612,22 1,461,16 154,545 18,778,334 7,72, ,754,234 % Foreign Exchange % Total Costs Local Foreign Total 94,72 42,36 2,628,842 8,253 9,776,266 11,521,974 25,674,91 11, ,73 1,26 17,13 147,718 22,921 18,234 18,234 11, ,73 1,26 125, , , ,882,762 19,542,584 25,84 15,612,22 1,461,16 154,545 18,778,334 7,72, ,754,234 24,138 25,546 3,26 2,157 18,731 1,981 24, ,368 1,637,875-24,138 25,546 3,26 2,157 18,731 1,981 24, ,368 1,637,875-5,495,642 1,632, ,394 1,941,79 18,799 2,1,35 254,772 94,925-5,495,642 1,632, ,394 1,941,79 18,799 2,1,35 254,772 94,925 7, ,312 1,159 24,886 2,318 26,928 3,266 1,217-7, ,312 1,159 24,886 2,318 26,928 3,266 1, ,492,328-21,492, , ,543-3

83 D. Component 4--Planning and Management 1. PEDP III management and Governance 2. PEDP III Financial Management 3. Sector Finance 4. Strengthen Monitoring Functions 5. Human Resources and Development 6. Public, Private Partnerships (PPPs) 1,31,334 43, , ,331 25,5 763,75 48, - 2,65,84 43, , ,331 25,5 16, ,755 4,556 3,212 9,792 6,154-26, ,755 1,79 3, Subtotal Component 4--Planning and Management 2,87,236 1,243,75 3,33,986 26,759 15,946 42, ,565,664 9,685, ,251,639 2,161,98 124,179 2,285, ,54,186 1,53,116 2,584,32 13,515 19,617 33,132-13,515 19,617 33,132 9,685,975 72, ,538,828 15,659,12 15,659,12 332,197,93 9,11 2,23,242 1,931,527 1,931,527 4,134, , ,179 9,11 2,327,421 1,931,527 1,931,527 4,258,948 9,685,975 95,932,253 31,25,127 2,555,416 7,63, , ,273, ,82,7 765,, 1,229,91 4,66 32,762 97,483 2,972 3,785,561 5,548,744 9,683, ,179 1,229,91 4,66 32,762 97,483 2,972 3,785,561 5,548,744 9,87, E. Total Component Cost F. Contingencies Physical Contingencies Price Contingencies F. Total Contingencies G. Custom duty and VAT G. CDVAT H. Total Development of PEDP3 (E+F+G+F2) I. Discrete Project Subtotal Discrete Project (i) J. Total Development budget of DPE (H+I) K. Revenue Budget/Non Development Budget 1. MOPME 2. DPE 3. PTI 4. UEO 5. NAPE 6. Primary School K. Revenue Budget/Non Development of PEDP 3 Total Revised Program cost (K+J) 6 1,54,186 1,53,116 2,584,32 72, ,852,853 15,659,12 15,659,12 322,511,955 95,932,253 31,25,127 2,555,416 7,63, , ,273, ,82,7 755,314,25 9,685,

84 Table 4.6 (iii): Revised PEDP3 Budget by Expenditure Category by Currency Type (Inception to Jun 217) A. 7 Civil Works B. 68 Machinery & Equipment C. 68 Computers D. 68 Vehicle E. 68 Furniture F. 46 Manpower H. 48 TLM & Edu Kits I. 48 Survey/Study/Seminar & Workshop Study Survey Seminar & Workshop Subtotal 48 Survey/Study/Seminar & Workshop J. 48 SRG & TG K. 48 Consultants International Consultants National Consultants Subtotal Consultants L. 48 Training Local Training International Training Subtotal Training M. 48 Curriculum Rivision N. 48 Social Mobilization O. 59 Grants/Fund School Grants Operational Fund 61 Local 85,381,8 66, , ,632 2,169,91 74,551 94,94 749, ,31 698,883 1,584, ,15 (Local ') Foreign 8,442,225-1,7,853 1,7, ,75 763,75 16,959,243 16,959, ,4 1,17,158 48, 48, - 8,725,18 236,24 - Total 85,381,8 66,847 9,259, ,632 2,169,91 74,551 94,94 749, ,31 698,883 1,584, ,15 763,75 1,7,853 1,771,63 16,959,243 48, 17,439, ,4 1,17,158 8,725,18 236,24 Local 1,94, ,483 11,918 27,819 9,494 12,52 9,613 1,748 8,96 2,32 11,694 12,921 12, , ,426 1,774 15,2 111,861 3,28 (US$ ') Foreign Total - 1,94, , ,717 11,918 27,819 9,494 12,52 9,613 1,748 8,96 2,32 11,694 9,792 9,792 12,921 9,792 22, ,426 6,154 6,154 6, ,58 1,774 15,2 111,861 3,28 %Foreign Exchange % of total Costs

85 Fund Subtotal. 59 Grants/Fund P. 46 Teachers Salary Q 49 Repairs and Maintenance R. 48 Operational Cost Total BASELINE COSTS F. Contingencies Physical Contingencies Price Contingencies F. Total Contingencies G. Custom duty and VAT G. CDVAT H. Total Development of PEDP3 (E+F+G+F2) I. Discrete Project Subtotal Discrete Project (i) J. Total Development budget of DPE (H+I) K. Revenue Budget/Non Development Budget 1. MOPME 2. DPE 3. PTI 4. UEO 5. NAPE 6. Primary School K. Revenue Budget/Non Development of PEDP 3 Total Revised Program cost (K+J) 62 19,217,288 28,178,672 19,583,963 5,81,75 2,182,727-19,217,288 28,178,672 19,583,963 5,81,75 2,182, , , ,76 74,381 27, , , ,76 74,381 27, ,565,664 9,685, ,251, ,179-2,285,277 13,515 19,617 33,132-1,54,186 1,53,116 2,584,32 2,161,98 13,515 19,617 33,132 9,11 2,23,242 1,931,527 1,931,527 4,134,769 1,229,91 4,66 32,762 97,483 2,972 3,785,561 5,548,744 9,683, , ,179 9,11 2,327,421 1,931,527 1,931,527 4,258, ,179 1,229,91 4,66 32,762 97,483 2,972 3,785,561 5,548,744 9,87, ,54,186 1,53,116 2,584,32 72, ,852,853 15,659,12 15,659,12 322,511,955 95,932,253 31,25,127 2,555,416 7,63, , ,273, ,82,7 755,314,25 9,685,975 72, ,538,828 15,659,12 15,659,12 332,197,93 9,685,975 95,932,253 31,25,127 2,555,416 7,63, , ,273, ,82,7 765,, 9,685,

86 IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE 63

87 INTRODUCTION TO IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE This section of the Third Primary Education Program s (PEDP3) Program Document (PD) presents readers with an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of program implementation. It provide readers with a detailed outline of the program elements that guide day-to-day operations. This follows the strategic outline of the program provided in the Program Overview section. The first chapter of the Implementation Guide, Chapter A: Sub-component descriptions and pedp3 program structure, provides a detailed explanation of the 29 sub-components that combine to shape PEDP3. Broken down by Component and Result Area, this section provides readers with a description of the aim of each sub-component, the activities undertaken to date, and an outline of the activities to be executed over the remainder of the program. It also displays the budget allocated to support the realization of each sub-component. Chapter B: Program Matrix contains the PEDP3 Program Matrix. The Program Matrix outlines all activities to be completed for the remainder of the program life by sub-component, allowing readers to look solely at the program activities. Chapter C: Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting, by an outline of the tools that will be used to assess progress against both the sub-component activities and the program as a whole. This chapter contains the Disbursement Linked Indicator matrix, a matrix that includes the activities to be completed for each of the DLI linked sub-component. While these are the same as the activities highlighted in the Program matrix the DLI matrix also includes the protocol that guides the assessment of DLIs be the Development Partners. Also contained in Chapter D is the program s overarching M&E matrix, modified during the MTR process to ensure that all M&E indicators are now contained in one place. Chapter D: Implementation Arrangements expands on the high-level outline of program governance and management arrangements provided in Chapter 3 of the Program Overview. It contains an overview of the main actors across PEDP3 from MoPME to the school level, outlines total staffing numbers that support the program s implementation, and provides detailed organograms of the main implementation divisions and agencies. Chapter E: Financial Management, contains a more detailed outline of the financial management arrangements and processes utilised in PEDP3. It contains specific references to how the PEDP3 Financial Management systems integrate with GoB systems. This is complemented by Chapter F: Risk Management, that provides an overview of the strategies utilised to manage risk (including Financial risk) throughout PEDP3. Chapter G: Technical Assistance Arrangements provides an overview of the utilization of Technical Assistance (TA) throughout PEDP3. It outlines the approach that guides the engagement of TA as well as the engagement mechanisms. It also includes a TA matrix, a tool that outlines the projected TA to be utilised throughout the remainder of the program. Finally, Chapter H: Detailed Cost Estimates, contains a more detailed outline of the program budgeting, expanding on the information contained in Chapter 4 of the Program Overview. The Implementation Guide provides readers with a micro-level understanding of PEDP3. It is envisaged that the guide will be utilised by those involved in the day-in/day-out management of the program and will provide a comprehensive guide to the activities and mechanism that will lead to the success of PEDP3 over the second half of the program. 64

88 CHAPTER A: SUB-COMPONENT DESCRIPTIONS AND PEDP3 PROGRAM STRUCTURE The first chapter of the Implementation Guide provides a detailed description of each of the subcomponents that combine to form the overarching PEDP3 model. A brief introduction to each Component area is provided at the start of each section. This is followed by a detailed description of each sub-component that lies under that Component. This description includes the overarching aim for that sub-component across the life of the program including any significant shifts that may have occurred during the first years of implementation up to the PEDP3 Mid-Term Review, an outline of the progress in the first half of PEDP3, and an overview of the goals for the remainder of the program. The descriptions also articulate how sub-components inter-relate to deepen and reinforce development impacts in line with the PEDP3 objective to establish an efficient, inclusive and equitable primary education system delivering effective and relevant child-friendly learning to all Bangladesh s children from pre-primary through Grade 5 of primary. Table A (i) provides an outline of how each sub-component aligns with each of the four overarching Components and the relevant Result Areas. 65

89 Table A (i): PEDP3 Program Structure Component 1: Teaching and Learning Component 2: Participation and Disparities Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness Component 4: Planning and Management Result area 4 Program Planning and Management Result area 1 Learning Outcomes Result area 2.1 Participation Result area 2.2 Disparities Result area 3.1 Decentralization Result area 3.2 Effectiveness 1.1. Each Child Learns Second chance and Alternative Education (NFE) Targeted Stipends Field Level Offices Strengthened Grade 5 PECE Strengthened 4.1 PEDP3 Management and Governance Pre-Primary Education School Health and School Feeding Decentralized School Management and Governance Teacher Recruitment and Deployment 4.2 PEDP3 Financial Management School Level Leadership Development Annual Primary School Census 4.3 Sector Finance Organizational Review and Strengthening National Student Assessment 4.4 Strengthening Monitoring Functions 1.2 School and Classroom-based Assessment 1.3 Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened 1.4 Production and Distribution of Textbooks Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education 1.5 ICT in Education Communications and social mobilization 1.6 Teacher Education and Development Education in Emergencies Needs based School Environment Improvement Needs based Infrastructure Development 4.5 Human Resource Development 4.6 Public Private Partnerships

90 A.1. COMPONENT 1: TEACHING AND LEARNING Component 1 is driving a major shift in educational approaches in Bangladesh. The education system is shifting away from an emphasis on rote memorization to providing children with core competencies and improving broader learning outcomes. Improving learning outcomes and primary cycle completion are two of the major aims of Component 1, supported through a revision of the teaching/learning methodology and the primary curriculum. Accordingly, the Program framework of PEDP3 prioritizes improving teaching and learning through Component 1. The component seeks to strengthen the inter-relationship between curriculum, textbooks and materials, teacher training, teacher guides and student learning assessment. Central to these aims is revising learning content and revitalizing teaching practice. Contributing to improved teaching and learning is a curriculum revision to ensure that children s learning outcomes and competencies are relevant and all children build skills incrementally each year. The defined competencies will guide other inputs to education such as textbooks, supplementary reading materials, school-based assessment, and the Grade 5 PECE. For teachers and head teachers, the learning competencies will shape teaching practice and teacher competencies, teacher education, and teaching performance standards. It is enviaged that an improvement in quality of curriculum, textbooks, teacher training (induction, upgraded Diploma-in-Ed, and other forms of continuous professional development) and other teaching learning materials including e-learning materials will combine with effective classroom teaching and an adequate number of teacher-student contact hours, to lead to better achievement of learning outcomes by all children. Component 1 drives a strengthened classroom based assessment system. The component is also linked to the strengthening of the competency-based Grade 5 PECE and the National Student Assessment system. The latter two assessment reforms are part of Component 3 (effectiveness) but their implications for school and classroom-based assessment feed into Component 1. The strong, overall focus on competency-based assessment will have a significant positive effect on what and how teachers teach and children learn, as it will encourage and reward the development of a range of important skills and abilities. Result Area 1: Learning Outcomes Anticipated Outcome: All children acquire expected grade-wise and subject-wise learning outcomes, or competencies, in the classroom KPIs: 1. Percentage of Grade 3 Students Who Achieve Grade 3 Competency (boys, girls and all): in Bangla and Mathematics 2. Percentage of Grade 5 Students Who Achieve Grade 5 Competency (boys, girls and all): in Bangla and Mathematics 3. Grade 5 Primary Education Completion Examination pass rate (boys, girls and all). 67

91 Budget: Table A.1 (i): Budget of Result Area 1: Learning Outcomes Sub-component Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 1.1 Each Child Learns 1.2 School and Classroom-based Assessment 1.3. Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened 1.4. Production and distribution of textbooks* 1.5. ICT in Education 1.6. Teacher Education & Development Result Area 1 Total Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 13,743, ,666 41,243,589 18,84,276 43,367,32 19,874, ,199,81 11,598, ,923 33,73,13 1,259, ,336, ,717, ,155,14 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.5%.% 1.5%.4% 5.5% 6.5% 14.4% * Budget line moved from Development Budget to Revenue Budget Sub-component 1.1: Shikhbe Protiti Shishu (Each Child Learns) Each Child Learns (ECL) is the flagship initiative of PEDP3. It aims to address some of the challenges that are prevalent in the Bangladeshi education system including large class sizes, limited teacher training, guidance and supervision, and a rigid curriculum and syllabus. The ECL was introduced on a pilot basis in early years of PEDP3 and is being scaled out progressively over the duration of the program. The ECL pilot s initial focus is on Bangla and Mathematics in Grades 1, 2 and 3. The immediate objective of this sub-component is to transform pedagogical methods used by teachers and to establish a better mechanism that makes teachers responsible for each child s learning, thereby achieving significant improvements in overall classroom and school performance. It aims to improve the quality of teaching and learning in the classroom in the medium and long-term. ECL utilizes an Activity Based Learning (ABL) methodology where the teacher facilitates the learning process, with children participating actively in the process and learning in a self-directed way at their own pace using materials provided. This helps improve literacy and numeracy, and it holds teachers accountable for each child s learning. Teachers are trained in ECL through a combination of center-based training and prolonged classroom practice in different phases to build their capacity. Teacher training prepares them to assess and understand the different learning levels and competencies of children in order to develop lesson plans based on the students differentiated learning needs. ECL, therefore, challenges the conventional rote learning and syllabus driven systems that disproportionately benefit high achieving children. This sub-component is planned to yield evidence on the effectiveness of the ECL model. A formative evaluation and longitudinal study will inform the scale-up and expansion of the ECL approach in both the remainder of PEDP3 and the post-pedp3 period. By Year 6 of the program, ECL is to extend to also cover Grades 4 and 5. ECL represents a new approach to teaching and learning. As such, the principles of ECL will be applied to all courses such as subject-based training for teachers and education personnel. For example, the Head Teacher and the AUEO should be able to check, not only that a teacher has attended training as required and has taught certain lessons, but also the extent to which each child has learned that which has been taught. By Year 3 of PEDP3 ECL piloting has commenced in 7 schools up from 36 schools in September 212. Results have been encouraging, notably transforming the seating arrangement in classrooms and actively engaging children in the learning process. To complement the scale68

92 up of the original ECL project and further expand use of this technique across primary schools in Bangladesh, the Diploma in Primary Education (DPEd) in-service program for teachers has fully incorporated ECL methodology into its school readiness program. The ECL program under the DPEd training lasts 26 days and will target another 8 schools to be covered over 215 to 217. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (ii): Activities of sub-component ECL Shikhbe Protiti Shishu (Each Child Learns) Accountable: Director, Program Division, DPE Year 3 Continued implementation, support and M&E in initial schools or sub-clusters Lessons learned for more general application in other schools identified Piloting in additional schools or subclusters or clusters Continuing two-way linkages with central level institutions and articulation with new curriculum Revision of project competencies as new curriculum emerges Formative research study continued 69 Year 4 Ongoing/expanded piloting to an additional 29 schools (total number of schools: 99) Review and revision of ECL strategy based on the findings of the Formative Evaluation and the study visit Implementing institutional adjustments to the ECL based on the revised ECL strategy Mainstreaming of ECL concepts and principles including mentoring through professional training courses of NAPE Longitudinal study continued Institutionalization of ECL in sub-cluster training in DPEd areas Year 5 Ongoing/expanded piloting to an additional 51 schools (total number of schools: 1,5) Strengthening institutional mechanism for continuous teacher mentoring, supervision and support Graded supplementary reading materials (SRMs) provided to 5% schools Extension to Grade 4 and 5 in 164 non-dped pilot schools based on emerging lessons from the Longitudinal study Year 6 Completion of ECL pilot program Linkages with assessment systems, including Grade 5 Completion Exam and NSA established Strengthening institutional mechanism for continuous teacher mentoring, supervision and support (based on recommendations from the Longitudinal study) Extension to Grade 4 and 5 in 164 non-dped pilot schools strengthened Linkages with assessment systems, including Grade 5 PECE and NSA established (based on recommendations from the Longitudinal study) Longitudinal study continued and completed; its findings and recommendations to guide planning for the next program Institutionalization of ECL principles in planning for the next program Graded SRMs provided to 1% schools Extension to other subject areas (based on recommendations from the Longitudinal study)

93 Table A.1 (iii): Budget of sub-component 1.1 Sub-component 1.1 Each Child Learns Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 13,743,589 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 11,598,975.5% Sub-Component 1.2: School and Classroom Based Assessment School and Classroom Based Assessments are tools to improve the quality of teaching provided to children in primary schools. These formative assessments are a fundamental part of providing students and teachers with feedback on learning outcomes, a crucial element of the ECL model. This sub-component initially involved a review of existing teacher assessment methods and tools prepared by the Government and other organisations. The recommendations of this review are guiding the development of fit-for-purpose school and classroom based assessment methods, tools and a teachers guidebook. The aim for the remainder of PEDP3 is to finalize trial and implement these methods and tools, while ensuring strong linkages with other sub-components. It will be important to ensure correlation with the work on national learning assessment through the National Student Assessments and the Grade 5 PECE. Similarly, the school and classroom based assessment methods and tools will be incorporated into the newly revised curriculum materials and the DPEd course. NCTB will be responsible for developing the school and classroom based assessment methods and tools, which will be incorporated in the curriculum dissemination training package. By the completion of the program the assessment methods and tools will be piloted in selected schools. All teachers, head teachers and education officers throughout the country will be trained in the application and use of these classroom based assessment methods and tools. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (iv): Activities of sub-component School & Classroom-based Assessment Year 3 Introduction of school based assessment tools and methods in an additional 15% of Upazilas 7 Accountable: Director, Training Division, DPE; and Chairman, NCTB Year 4 Year 5 Introduction of school Introduction of school based based assessment tools assessment tools and methods and methods as part of as part of the curriculum the curriculum dissemination training for 35% dissemination training (65% in total) of education for 3% of education officers and teachers officers and teachers completed ((linked to completed (linked to introduction of competencyintroduction of based items in the Grade 5 competency-based PECE reform) items in the Grade 5 PECE reform) Year 6 Introduction of school based assessment tools and methods as part of the curriculum dissemination training for 35% (1% in total) of education officers and teachers (linked to introduction of competency-based items in the Grade 5 PECE reform).

94 Year 3 School based assessment coordination meetings for head teachers organized in at least 3% of Upazilas Year 4 Year 5 Study on implementation status of school and classroom based assessment in schools with recommendations for strengthening of implementation and monitoring Year 6 Follow up actions to study endorsed by MoPME Table A.1 (v): Budget of sub-component 1.2 Sub-component 1.2 School and Classroom-based Assessment Original budget (7BDT=1 USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 166, ,923 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.% Sub-component 1.3: Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened The curriculum at the primary level is based on grade- and subject-wise competencies. These provide learners with defined skills and knowledge at the completion of each year and the primary education cycle. At PEDP3 outset it was recognized that revising these competencies was a foundation for all learning activities in the program. Competencies ensure that the curriculum is relevant and incrementally builds students skills each year. The curriculum is designed so that students acquire grade-wise competencies and, through these, subject-based terminal competencies. The revised curriculum produces the learning outcomes that are the fundamental aim of the wider PEDP3 switch from rote learning to competency-based learning. These competencies guide all quality-related interventions in PEDP3: curriculum revision, textbooks, teacher guides, supplementary teaching and learning materials, school and classroom based assessment, the National Student Assessment and the Grade 5 PECE. NCTB revised the primary curriculum in 211. This was followed by the development of textbooks in 212. In order to improve the quality of the textbooks and to ensure that they are developmentally appropriate, it was agreed that under PEDP3 the new textbooks would be trialed in schools and then further refined based on the findings of the field-testing. Accordingly NCTB conducted a small-scale textbook tryout in late 212 and a large-scale tryout from 213 to 214 in order to determine the extent to which the revised primary textbooks and teacher editions (in all subject areas) are contributing to student learning outcomes. In the remainder of PEDP3 lessons learnt from the two tryouts will be applied. This involves refining Grade 1-5 textbooks, teachers guides and supplementary teaching and learning materials to ensure they are developmentally appropriate with the bands of student cognitive development. All teachers and education officials will receive training on the refined curriculum and its core objectives and methodology. In light of the National Education Policy s aim to eventually include Grades 6-8 in primary education, a further objective is to review the curriculum for Grades 6-8 to ensure close linkages with the curriculum for Grades 1-5. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. 71

95 Table A.1 (vi): Activities of sub-component Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened Accountable: Chairman, NCTB Year 3 Tryout and rationale evaluation of pilot of textbooks and TG Grades 3 and 4 Year 4 Supplementary teaching and learning materials including Graded Supplementary materials, developed and/or selected Year 5 Supplementary teaching and learning materials including Graded Supplementary materials for Grades 1 to 5 provided Introduction of Appropriate textbook and TG Grades 1 & 2 Revised textbooks for Grades 1, 2, and 3, based on new curriculum developed by NCTB and recommendations from Large Scale Try out, introduced Revised Teacher Editions for Grades 1, 2 and 3, based on new curriculum developed by NCTB and recommendations from Large Scale Try out, introduced Teacher Guides on environment science for Grades 1 and 2 introduced Revised textbooks for Grades 4 and 5 based on new curriculum developed by NCTB and recommendations from Large Scale Try out, introduced Revised Teacher Editions for Grades 4 and 5, based on new curriculum developed by NCTB and recommendations from Large Scale Try out, introduced Refinement and introduction of all remaining Teacher Guides for all grades Curriculum dissemination training program for 9% teachers and officials at central and field level completed Refinement of textbooks, teacher editions and TGs for remaining subjects and grades Development of appropriate and gender sensitive textbooks and TG for Grade 5 Training Manual for curriculum disseminated Curriculum dissemination training program for 5% teachers and officials at central and field level completed Tryout of textbooks, teacher editions and teacher guides (TGs) for remaining subject and grades, conducted in selected schools Data collection and analysis of the tryout of textbooks, teacher editions and TGs for remaining subjects completed Review and revise curriculum to integrate Grades 6 8 into the primary curriculum Initiate curriculum dissemination and other teacher training through distance mode utilizing electronic media 72 Continue curriculum dissemination and other teacher training through distance mode utilizing electronic media Year 6 Study on the effectiveness of the new curriculum based on identified principles and textbooks for Grades 1 to 3 conducted to inform future planning Curriculum dissemination training program for 1% teachers and officials at central and field level completed Introduction of textbooks, teacher editions and TGs for remaining subjects and grades to all schools Continue curriculum dissemination and other teacher training through distance mode utilizing electronic media

96 Table A.1 (vii): Budget of sub-component 1.3 Sub-component 1.3. Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 41,243,589 33,73,13 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 1.5% Sub-component 1.4: Production and Distribution of Textbooks The aim at the outset of the PEDP3 was to further improve the production and distribution of textbooks, resulting in its significant expansion since inception. All primary schools that follow the NCTB curriculum, irrespective of location, size, type and management structure, are eligible to receive free textbooks. In 213 approximately 1 million free textbooks were distributed to students from approximately 1, schools. Grade 1 and Grade 2 students receive three textbooks while Grade 3 to Grade 5 students receive six textbooks. From 212 all textbooks are printed in 4 colors. More than 9 percent of schools received all textbooks within the first month of the school year in 213. A third party validation (TPV) of the distribution mechanism was carried out in 212 and the recommendations of the study are gradually being implemented. Along with its paper based voucher system DPE has been using a software-based system to monitor production and distribution of textbooks since the first year of the PEDP3. In addition to textbooks, each school receives a set of 58 Teachers Guides and age appropriate graded materials to use as additional teaching and learning resources (see Sub-component 1.3). The distribution of supplementary reading materials and teachers guides will be monitored through the Annual Primary School Census (APSC) and other mechanisms. Schools may also acquire additional reading materials through other sources such as through funds from School Level Improvement Plans (SLIPs), Upazila Primary Education Plans (UPEPs), Continuous Professional Development (CPD), DPEd programs, and/or public-private partnerships. Distribution of free textbooks to eligible schools will continue in the second half of PEDP3 with a greater emphasis on rolling out the revised curriculum and ensuring the quality of printing and monitoring. At least 9 percent of all eligible schools will continue to receive textbooks within the first month of the opening of the school year. Efforts continue to be made to further improve this efficiency. The curriculum for Grade 1 has already been revised and by 215, Grade 2 and Grade 3 students will receive textbooks based upon the revised curriculum. TPV recommendations such as the use of software based monitoring, synchronized data processing information between NCTB and DPE, and stakeholder consultations will continue to be implemented. DPE and NCTB will also jointly implement the recommendations of the MoPME/DPE/NCTB workshop held on textbook print quality to ensure better monitoring of this aspect. A study on Production and distribution of textbooks (including print quality) will be conducted in Year 5. This will be followed in Year 6 by a workshop to plan for future action on the findings of this study. While DPE is responsible for distributing textbooks to schools in a timely manner, NCTB is responsible for printing and sending textbooks to the Upazila offices in a timely manner. DPE collects data to understand the demand for textbooks during the month of March. The total requirement for textbooks by level and subjects are shared with NCTB by the end of March. The Production and distribution of textbooks Cell under the Administration Division of DPE is accountable for managing production and distribution of textbooks and monitoring. 73

97 The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (viii): Activities of sub-component Production and distribution of textbooks Year 3 At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all revised Grade 1 textbooks based on new curriculum developed by NCTB within one month of school opening day At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all approved textbooks for Grade 2 to 5 within one month of school opening day Accountable: Chairman, NCTB (production); and Director, DPE Administration Division (distribution) Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 At least 9% of all At least 9% of all At least 9% of all eligible eligible schools receive eligible schools schools receive all all approved textbooks receive all approved approved textbooks for for Grades 1 to 5 within textbooks for Grades 1 Grades 1 to 5 within one one month of school to 5 within one month month of school opening opening day, of which of school opening day, day, which are all based on Grades 1 to 3 textbooks which are all based on new curriculum developed are based on new new curriculum by NCTB curriculum developed by developed by NCTB NCTB Recommendations from Study on production A workshop held to review MoPME/DPE/NCTB and distribution of findings from the Year 5 workshop (214) for textbooks completed Study on production and ensuring textbooks are (including print distribution of textbooks printed according to quality) makes recommendations specification are actioned for future planning Table A.1 (ix): Budget of sub-component 1.4 Sub-component 1.4. Production and distribution of textbooks* Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 18,84,276 1,259,654 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.4% * Budget line moved from Development Budget to Revenue Budget Sub-component 1.5: ICT in Education Moving Bangladesh into the digital age is a priority of the Bangladesh government. Under this component realistic and innovative action plans will be formulated to provide multi-media classrooms to one model school in each Upazila and to provide every primary school with access to ICT to support learning. ICT content will also be acquired and created to support digital learning. The feasibility of digital textbooks will be assessed. Where connectivity is possible, teachers will be able to use web-based resources to develop lessons. In some schools, students will be encouraged to learn on their own and use new media to communicate their ideas. Teachers will be trained to use ICT as part of ongoing professional development programs while teacher networks will allow good practice to spread rapidly at the local level. By the end of Year 3, multi-media classrooms will be operating in 1 schools, and laptops will be in use at 7434 schools. In Year 4, an ICT strategy will be approved and an implementation plan developed. The strategy will outline a path to ensure that ICT equipment with digital educational materials will be used in classrooms and that teacher education will take place across 2, schools. An additional 2, schools will be added in Year 5 and 15, schools in Year 6. Simultaneously it will be important to enhance the capacity of teachers to use ICT equipment and to integrate digital content into the teaching learning process. In each of years 4-6, 15, teachers will be trained on ICT (its use and developing digital content). 74

98 An important aspect of this sub-component is the collection of feedback and lessons from the field on the use of ICT for teaching learning processes. In Year 4, a study will be conducted to assess the use of ICT equipment, identify further needs for effective use to support the teaching learning process, including exploring other cost effective options. A monitoring mechanism will also be developed to assess the use of ICT equipment in the teaching learning process, and in addition a monitoring and maintenance mechanism will be developed to support the schools in maintenance of the equipment. Also, based on the ICT strategy, an integrated database on career development and continuous professional development will be created. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (x): Activities of sub-component ICT in Education Year 3 1 model school multi-media classrooms operating Laptops in use at 7,434 schools Accountable: Director, Information Management Division, DPE; and Director Training Division Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 ICT strategy approved and All 52 model schools All 52 model schools implementation plan developed have an operating have an operating multimedia to improve multimedia to improve teaching and learning, teaching and learning, following the ICT following the ICT strategy paper strategy paper ICT equipment with digital ICT equipment with ICT equipment with educational materials is used in digital educational digital educational classroom and teacher education in materials is used in materials is used in 2, schools following an ICT classroom and teacher classroom and teacher strategy paper education in 2, education in 15, schools following an schools following an ICT ICT strategy paper strategy paper 15, teachers trained on ICT (use 15, teachers trained 15, teachers trained on and developing digital content) on ICT (use and ICT (use and developing developing digital digital content) ICT study conducted to assess the content) Based on the ICT strategy use of ICT equipment to date, an integrated database on identify further needs for effective career development and use and cost effectiveness continuous professional development is created A monitoring & maintenance ICT study conducted to mechanism developed to support assess the use of ICT the schools in maintenance of equipment to date, equipment identify further needs for effective use and cost A monitoring mechanism effectiveness developed to assess the use of ICT equipment for teaching & learning Table A.1 (xi): Budget of sub-component 1.5 Sub-component 1.5. ICT in Education 75 Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 43,367,32 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 125,336,744 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 5.5%

99 Sub-component 1.6: Teacher Education and Development The National Plan and Strategy for Primary Education Teacher Education and Development (TED), hereafter referred to as the TED Plan, was developed and approved in June 211, after the original PEDP3 Program Document had been completed. The goal at the outset for the development of the TED was to improve primary education through a holistic, life-long process of CPD. Accordingly, the TED plan covers the range of teacher professional development from the time of initial appointment to later stages of the profession. In order to achieve this, the TED plan includes several new approaches. For example, the Plan features a shift towards the introduction of more practical rather than theory-based lectures, and a move away from supply-based planning of teacher training to a demand-led approach. Not only will teacher trainers execute more effective training under the Plan but also with the assistance of peers, head teachers and networks of trainers. In addition, teachers will be equipped with knowledge of and practice in activity-based learning (ABL) methodologies and experiential learning approaches. This is intended to enable teachers to employ a child-friendly, studentactivating teaching approach in the classroom. Thus, the holistic CPD plan is expected to create a synergy effect with other sub-components to contribute to the enhancement of quality education for all as per the overall goal of PEDP3. The following are core courses described in the TED Plan. Due to a timing misalignment (the original PEDP3 Program Document was finalized before the TED plan) these were not included in the initial Program Document text. Each has been coordinated, implemented and supervised by the Training Division based on the development of an annual Teacher Education Plan. However, during the Mid-Term Review process for PEDP3, it was found that a robust monitoring/mentoring mechanism for the courses is yet to be in place. Thus, a follow-up mechanism needs to be established to ensure the acquisition of skills and knowledge of the training participants and the proper application of what they have learned in their classrooms : Diploma in Primary Education Among the several courses included in the TED Plan, the DPEd is the flagship. This course transforms the way initial teacher training is delivered to newly recruited teachers. MoPME has approved the DPEd curriculum framework, with piloting starting in July 212 following the development of course details and necessary training for stakeholders. This Diploma will be provided to 12, teachers entering the system each year if all (6) the PTIs nationwide become fully functional. The DPEd has been designated as one of the DLIs under PEDP3. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (xii): Activities of sub-component Diploma in Primary Education Year 3 Dip in Ed offered in 29 PTIs with number of instructors according to the plan Accountable: Director, Training Division Year 4 Year 5 DPEd framework DPEd offered in 5 fully updated and endorsed functional PTIs in line with the by NAPE/MoPME updated DPEd framework DPEd offered in 36 fully functional PTIs with a minimum of 13 instructors 76 Recommendations from the Year 4 study reviewed and endorsed by MoPME Year 6 DPEd offered in 6 fully functional PTIs in line with the updated DPEd framework Recommendations of Year 5 study reviewed and endorsed by MoPME

100 Year 3 Year 4 Study conducted to explore alternative methods and modalities to implement and/or expand the DPEd Year 5 A study conducted to inform planning for moving the DPEd from an in-service to a preservice program for all government primary school teachers Year : Induction Training for Teachers Induction Training is a three-week course for new recruits who do not take the Diploma in Primary Education. This equips teachers with a functional understanding of primary curriculum, classroom organization, classroom management, effective lesson planning and assessment. The training will be conducted at Upazila Resource Center (URCs) with the acquired knowledge and skills strengthened by head teachers through on-the-job training. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (xiii): Activities of sub-component Induction Training for Teachers Year 3 All newly recruited teachers will participate in induction training Accountable: Director, Training Division Year 4 Year 5 9,6 newly recruited 9,6 newly recruited teachers will participate teachers will participate in in induction training induction training DPE develops tools for DPE conducts the followfollow-up and up and evaluation by evaluation applying the developed tools Year 6 9,6 newly recruited teachers will participate in induction training 1.6.3: Pre-Primary Training Program PPE training is a two-week course provided for new and existing teachers who are deployed to the areas of the greatest needs in the expansion of quality pre-primary education. Trainers from both the Government and private sector provide the training. The program features child cognitive, mental and physical development, teaching strategies and class management. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (xiv): Activities of sub-component Pre-Primary Training Program Year 3 22,65, teachers in PPE (newly recruited and existing) participate in PPE dissemination training 77 Accountable: Director, Training Division Year 4 Year 5 26,7 PPE teachers 18,5 PPE teachers (newly recruited and (newly recruited and existing) participate in existing) participate in PPE dissemination training PPE dissemination training (linked to expansion and (linked to expansion and school level quality school level quality enhancement plan as in enhancement plan as in PPE sub-component) PPE sub-component) Year 6 18,5 PPE teachers (newly recruited and existing) participate in PPE dissemination training (linked to expansion and school level quality enhancement plan as in PPE sub-component)

101 Year 3 Year 4 A study on integration of PPE with the DPEd conducted Year 5 Year : Need-based Sub-Cluster Training This new training modality adopts a bottom up approach to identify training needs of individual teachers along with needs to strengthen academic supervision, mentoring and other teacher support systems. Hence, the training is planned and designed locally through collaboration between the URC, Upazila Education Officers (UEO), Assistant UEOs and selected head teachers. Four fortnightly meetings are to be held each year to identify training needs. The subcluster training is organized for a whole day and is attended by 3-35 teachers from 5-6 nearby schools under one sub-cluster. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (xv): Activities of sub-component Need-based Sub-Cluster Training Year 3 Training in 2,28 SubClusters is held once in every other month Follow-up and monitoring and mentoring activities by DPE are conducted Accountable: Director, Training Division Year 4 Year 5 Training in 11,498 Sub- Training in 11,498 SubClusters is held four Clusters is held four times in a year times in a year Follow-up and Follow-up and monitoring and monitoring and mentoring activities are mentoring activities are conducted established Year 6 Training in 11,498 Sub-Clusters is held four times in a year Follow-up and monitoring and mentoring activities take root 1.6.5: Subject-based Training (Bangla, Mathematics, English, Bangladesh and Global Studies, Primary Science, Religion, Arts and Crafts, Music and Physical Education) This six-day training is designed to acquaint primary teachers with Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), which is a blend of subject and pedagogical knowledge. Teachers are also equipped for preparing and using lesson plans and exposed to teaching learning materials. The modality of training held at URCs is participatory and adopts various training approaches including group work, case study and microteaching in order to improve teacher professional knowledge, understanding and skills. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (xvi): Activities of sub-component Subject-based Training (Bangla, Mathematics, English, Bangladesh and Global Studies, Primary Science, Religion, Other Subjects) Year 3 14% of teachers participate in the training 78 Accountable: Director, Training Division Year 4 Year 5 28% of teachers 28% of teachers participate in the participate in the training training Year 6 3% of teachers participate in the training

102 Year 3 Follow-up activities performed DPE by Year 4 Follow up activities performed by AUEO, URC Instructor and PTI Instructors Year 5 Follow up activities performed by AUEO, URC Instructor and PTI Instructors Year 6 Follow up activities performed by AUEO, URC Instructor and PTI Instructors Training is carried out using the revised training materials Training curriculum and materials are revised based on the results of monitoring and follow-up and input from EIA (on English) Training materials for other subjects developed if needed 1.6.6: Teacher Support and Networking The importance of teacher support networking (TSN) to enhance teacher professional development is recognized through the TED plan. The TSN Activities on the ground (within schools) such as individual consultations with other teachers, lesson observations in other classrooms, and regular group teacher meetings are regarded as conducive to the improvement of teachers skills and knowledge. These school-based mechanisms are also helpful for teachers to maintain their motivation. Lesson study process is a tool being used in conducting the TSN activities. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.1 (xvii): Activities of sub-component Teacher Support and Networking Year 3 4, teachers participate in the training Accountable: Director, Training Division Year 4 Year 5 4, teachers participate 4, teachers participate in the training in the training A plan on integration of Integrated TSN with other TSN with other TED TED programs is piloted programs is prepared Year 6 4, teachers participate in the training Full integration of TSN in CPD 1.6.7: Training of NAPE, PTI and URC Instructors and Assistant Instructors (Teacher Educators) Trainers at all institutes should possess appropriate training standard skills, knowledge and competencies because they need to design, implement and assess quality training programs. Thus, the training aims at bringing about positive behavioral-motivational changes and capacity building to the trainers from different institutes by exposing them to high standards of training at the international and domestic levels. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. 79

103 Table A.1 (xviii): Activities of sub-component Training of NAPE, PTI and URC Instructors and Assistant Instructors (Teacher Educators) Year 3 [Overseas Training, TBD] Accountable: Director, Training Division Year 4 Year 5 Domestic training of NAPE, PTI Domestic training of and URC Instructors and Assistant NAPE, PTI and URC Instructors (Teacher Educators) Instructors and Assistant Instructors (Teacher Educators) A study to identify professional Participation in overseas development needs of professional study tour (95 teachers trainers and teacher educators and and officials) to develop overseas training plan conducted Participation in overseas study tour Participation in capacity (55 teachers and officials) building overseas Engagement of an agency to training (5 officials) coordinate and manage the professional development overseas training Year 6 Domestic training of NAPE, PTI and URC Instructors and Assistant Instructors (Teacher Educators) Participation in overseas study tour (1 teachers and officials) Participation in capacity building overseas training (5 officials) Table A.1 (xix): Budget of sub-component 1.6 Sub-component 1.6. Teacher Education & Development Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 19,874,358 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 147,717,615 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 6.5% A.2. COMPONENT 2: PARTICIPATION AND DISPARITIES Although school intake and enrollment rates are well over 9 percent, an estimated 2.5 million learners still participate in non-formal primary education.3 These include children who have never enrolled in school and children who drop out of school. Recognizing that there will always be children whose needs are best served outside the formal school system, the NEP affirms that children can participate in free and compulsory education through formal or non-formal channels. This stance legitimizes mainstreaming non-formal innovations into formal schools as well as developing an equivalency framework for the two channels. The NEP also includes preschool for 5 year olds in the education services to be provided by the State free of cost. Overall, Bangladesh has been successful in steadily improving access to education at all levels while narrowing gender and social disparities in enrollment. As enrollment figures rise in Grades 1-5, more attention can be paid to assuring the enrollment, completion, and full participation n of those who are ultra-poor, disabled, developmentally delayed, or belong to ethnic minorities. An education divide persists in terms of primary cycle completion rates and learning outcomes between geographical locations (urban, urban slum, rural, and remote areas) as well as between children from families with different levels of income. In addition, many children who remain enrolled in school have dropped out of learning, so PEDP3 also addresses in-school and inclassroom participation of vulnerable children. Finally, the needs of children who live in areas of 3 Precise information on the coverage of non-formal education is difficult to obtain. 8

104 Bangladesh prone to cyclones and flooding will be addressed to assure that school participation continues during emergencies. Result area 2.1 Participation Anticipated Outcome: All children participate in pre- and primary education in all types of schools (formal, non-formal, madrasah) KPIs: 4. Percentage of children (never enrolled and dropped out) out of school (boys, girls and all; 61 years old and years old) 5. Gross enrollment rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) 6. Net enrollment rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) Budget: Table A.2 (i): Budget of Result Area 2.1: Participation Sub-component 89,737, ,378,584 24,137,974 25,545,949 Total revised budget amount as % of total componen t budget 1.1% 11.% 643,589 3,25,128 6,153, ,118,918 3,26,25 2,156,667 18,73, ,777,769.1% 8.8%.8% 21.8% Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Alternative and Second Chance (NFE) Pre-primary provision* Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education Education in emergencies Communication and social mobilization Result Area 2.1 Total Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) * Budget line moved from Development Budget to Revenue Budget Sub-Component 2.1.1: Second Chance and Alternative Education This sub-component aims to ensure the provision of Second Chance Education (SCE) contributes to the goal of ensuring education for all children in the long term. Addressing the needs of children who have never enrolled in primary school, or who have dropped out of school, will give each child a second chance to learn, and, at the end of this non-formal education (NFE) course, appear at the Grade 5 PECE. In 213, 23 percent of primary school age students were not in school (ASPR 213), compared to 4.8 percent at program outset (ASPR 211). Flexibility and partnership are core principles: the formal education system cannot meet the learning needs of all children. Models of non-formal education devised in Bangladesh are recognized as best practice examples around the world. This sub-component aims to harness this learning, and to underline the commitment of the Government of Bangladesh to ensuring that no child is left behind. Due to a number of constraints there were delays in implementing SCE in the first half of the program. At a meeting in August 214 it was decided that DPE would adopt the responsibility for implementing SCE. The focus for the remaining three-year period will be on implementing a Second Chance Education pilot activity involving non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and learning lessons from this and other non-formal education approaches in the country and the region... By the end of PEDP3, the aim is to have developed (i) a comprehensive ten year vision 81

105 for reaching all out of school children in Bangladesh with quality education that meets their needs, and (ii) a responsive strategy based upon comparative evidence on models that work best to achieve this. Towards this, several steps will be undertaken including a baseline census on out of school children, the finalization of an equivalency framework (between formal and NFE) aligned with the revised national curriculum, the inclusion of NFE activities in UPEPs, and the provision of textbooks and related teaching learning materials to NFE programs especially for the urban working children who request them. The Government-NGO (GO-NGO) Guidelines, prepared with specific reference to collaboration for pre-primary education, will be revised and extended, to encourage and improve coordination of NGO and civil society non-formal education activities (see sub-component 2.1.2). The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.2 (ii): Activities of sub-component Second chance and alternative education Year 3 Mechanism for coordination including role clarity and accountability between DPE and BNFE established based on the Implementation Guideline and the MOU NGO recruitment completed for 5 Upazilas and 7 urban areas Third Monitoring recruited Party agency Accountable: Director General, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Comprehensive Pilot(s) for 1, out of Baseline census of school children to access Second out of school Chance Education services children conducted, implemented and database of all out of school children aligned with EMIS for PEDP3 Framework for implementation and monitoring of quality teaching and learning developed Equivalency framework finalized, approved by DPE and endorsed by MoPME Extensive assessment of the SCE model including analysis of (a) efficiency, (b) institutionalization, and (c) and the ten-year vision to systematically address out-ofschool children through nonformal education. This will explore also the integration of other models such as the Underprivileged Children s Educational Programs (UCEP) for working urban children and public-private partnerships Year 6 National Education policy and NFE strategy synchronized Year 5 pilot expanded to deliver Second Chance Education services to an additional 2, out of school children Ten-year vision and strategy to systematically address out of school children by NFE agreed by all stakeholders and endorsed by MoPME Table A.2 (iii): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Alternative and Second Chance (NFE) 82 Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 89,737,769 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 24,137,974 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 1.1%

106 Sub-Component 2.1.2: Pre Primary Education Recognizing the impact of good quality pre-primary education on learning outcomes and life chances, particularly for the most disadvantaged, PEDP3 introduced one year of free pre-primary education for 5 year olds at all Government Primary Schools. This is one of several commitments made in the NEP based upon a growing bank of global evidence showing that students who have attended at least one year of pre-primary education perform better and stay in school longer, even after accounting for different socio-economic backgrounds. Significant progress was made in the first three years of PEDP3, towards this aim. A curriculum and teaching and learning materials for pre-primary were developed consultatively with NGOs on the basis of an analysis of national and international PPE curricula. Government-NGO Guidelines were established to encourage this partnership. New and existing teachers have been recruited and trained to ensure that one teacher per GPS is qualified to teach the pre-primary class. An Expansion Plan for PPE has been developed, setting out medium term strategic objectives and a framework for the provision of quality PPE service. The future focus of PPE provision is to ensure a minimum standard of quality in all schools GPS and Newly Nationalized GPS -- providing PPE and to focus attention in particular in areas where education disparities are most stark. In other words, this is where PPE is most needed and where it can have the greatest impact. The PPE Expansion Plan will be revised to incorporate a strategy to reach all newly nationalized Government Primary Schools (22,632 in 214), and to stipulate a set of minimum quality standards that will be communicated to all schools.31 These will include requirements for (i) Dedicated space for PPE classes, (ii) A teacher-student ratio of 1:3, higher numbers of students than this should prompt local NGO collaboration if the GPS is unable to run sections; (iii) A trained teacher per primary school (including, now, the Newly Nationalized GPS); (iv) Quality PPE teaching and learning materials for every school; and (v) Use of the learning assessment tools provided by NCTB to observe progress of children in classrooms. The GO-NGO Collaboration Guidelines will be revised through a consultative process and expanded in line with these requirements to allow the positive lessons of collaboration and partnership to be applied to other Program areas. As part of the committed effort to improve the quality of pre-primary provision, monitoring of this sub-component will be complemented with in-depth assessments by DPE. Questions related to quality of PPE have been integrated into the APSC, and findings will form the basis for the identification of where further improvements are most needed. The newly developed PPE teaching and learning package will be field tested, and findings will form the basis for any necessary modifications by NCTB. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. 31 Directorate of Primary Education, Annual Sector Performance Report,

107 Table A.2 (iv): Activities of sub-component Pre-primary Education Accountable: Director, Policy and Operations Division, DPE Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 At least 6% of PPE Assessment of current status of Expansion Plan updated, teachers in GPS are implementation of minimum incorporating equity and trained in using new quality standards in PPE quality criteria pre-primary classrooms curriculum and materials PPE provision in at PPE provision (trained teachers 5% of all GPS and NNGPS least 75 percent of and PPE materials availability) in to develop plans to upgrade GPS at least 75% of the 37, GPSs provision to meet PPE minimum quality standards. Year 6 Table A.2 (v): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Pre-primary provision* Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 286,378,584 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 25,545,949 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 11.% * Budget line moved from Development Budget to Revenue Budget Sub-Component 2.1.3: Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education (IE) PEDP3 has been designed to support the NEP in providing quality primary education with equal opportunity for all children of the country. In order to meet this goal and obligation, it is essential that schools provide access to appropriate teaching and learning for all children. This means identifying and removing or minimizing the barriers that children may face to participate in education. PEDP3 has harmonized strategies and action plans for all excluded children within one Gender and Inclusive Education Action Plan to ensure inclusion of all children in Primary Education. The objective was to improve student learning outcomes and completion rates for both boys and girls through a gender friendly and inclusive learning environment. The Action Plan intends to support the PEDP3 program purpose and overall objective by making explicit the integration of G&IE concerns within the program components and Result areas. To achieve this, the Action Plan intended to address the particular needs in formal schools of tribal children, ethnic minorities and children with disabilities. Block funds were to be allocated through UPEPs to assist schools to mainstream gender sensitive inclusive education with mild to moderately disabled children. Other proposals included integrating issues of inclusion into all training activities (including training for NFE teachers on diagnostics and interventions for slow learners) and using SLIPs to improve the quality of teaching and learning and to ensure the participation of all children. Up to PEDP3 mid-term, limited progress was made in regard to the implementation of the action plan and its performance monitoring. Strategies to inculcate a culture of inclusive education addressing the needs of street children, urban slum dwellers, ethnic communities, disadvantaged communities, children with disabilities and all those who are out of school or at a high risk of dropping out were yet to be integrated into the Annual Operational Plans (AOP) and AOP Strategies. The existing reporting structure was also not helpful in collecting information in relation to the Gender and Inclusive Education Action Plan and obtaining reports from different line divisions. 84

108 In this context, it was agreed in the Joint Annual Review in 213 that the areas of priority for FY213/14 would be: (i) The expansion of education in urban slums; (ii) Implementation of multi-lingual education; (iii) Strengthening of gender and inclusive education principles in the DPEd curriculum. (iv) Integration of the gender and inclusive education principles into UPEP and SLIP training; and (v) TA to support the DPE Inclusive Education Cell (IE Cell) to coordinate and monitor the gender and IE related activities as per the Action Plan. An immediate priority is to organize TA for the IE Cell to strengthen coordination and monitoring capacity to support implementation of the Action Plan. Further study is needed during PEDP3 to demonstrate qualitative gender and social inclusion issues that may be less visible, but still present barriers to children s learning environments and performance. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.2 (vi): Activities of sub-component Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education Accountable: Director, Policy and Operations Division, DPE Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Report on Inclusive Diagnostic tools and inclusive SLIPs are Gender Education, including education sensitive and diagnostic tool for recommendations integrated into inclusive as teachers, finalized by DPEd course measured by DPE and action plan agreed set of developed for Years process indicators 4-6 Diagnostic tool and inclusive Teachers oriented education recommendations with the MLE integrated in SCE training packages. teaching and learning materials in certain geographic areas Multi-lingual education teaching and Gender and learning materials developed in five Inclusive ethnic languages by NCTB and Education criteria guidelines developed for use used in school Inclusive Education criteria used in inspection reports school inspection reports Develop a strategy to address the need of children of urban slum based on existing study Teacher training based on the revised IE training manual until launching DPEd for all PTIs Year 6 Teachers identify students with learning difficulties and interventions are put in place SLIPs are Gender sensitive and inclusive as measured by agreed set of process indicators Gender and Inclusive Education criteria used in school inspection reports Table A.2 (vii): Budget of sub-component Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Sub-component Mainstreaming Inclusive Education 85 Gender Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget and 643,589 3,26,25.1%

109 Sub-component 2.1.4: Education in Emergencies As a nation highly vulnerable to natural hazards, Bangladesh s already impressive disaster management system has been honed over years, and has now shifted to focus on risk reduction and early relief and recovery. The need for large or small-scale humanitarian support in future is not a question of if, but of when. At any given time of the year people across Bangladesh are at risk of cyclones, tropical storms and depressions, tidal surges, flooding, waterlogging, river erosion and landslide. Apart from these seasonal hazards that lead to constant small scale disasters every year, and large scale disasters every few years, there is the impending threat of earthquake as Bangladesh has several seismic hot spots. A 21 study conducted by Save the Children International indicated that more than 4,666 schools are affected by disasters per year. This sub-component was originally designed to respond to these schools needs. A block grant was to be provided through the UPEP to Upazilas to handle emergency situations. Upazilas in disaster prone areas were to be particularly encouraged to develop UPEPs, and to use the fund to train volunteers, teachers and education officers. Provisions have also been included in the PEDP3 budget to assist schools that are affected by an emergency. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.2 (viii): Activities of sub-component Education in Emergencies (EiE) Year 3 All schools facing emergency receive allocation Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 National EiE and Disaster Development of package of UPEP includes Risk Reduction (DRR) awareness raising materials, EiE Framework to be reviewed guidelines for UPEP and endorsed by MoPME DPE develop EiE Modules on education in EIE Training implementation plan based emergencies included in training ongoing through on endorsed framework programs for volunteers, teachers, appropriate Harmonized EiE training head teachers, Upazilas and channels district education officers modules for training Table A.2 (ix): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Education in emergencies Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 3,25,128 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 2,156,667 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 8.8% Sub-component 2.1.5: Communications and Social Mobilization The PEDP3 Communication and Social Mobilization sub-component is designed to complement and enable the achievement of PEDP3 goals. Past communication initiatives were instrumental to the creation of greater demand for primary education in Bangladesh, and the achievements in ensuring improved access to primary education. Communication and social mobilization efforts can play a similarly important role in the effort to improve the quality and inclusiveness of this education, and to ensure that no child is left behind. A Communications Strategy has been carefully developed during PEDP3, based on lessons learned from the implementation of the PEDP II and I communication programs. In order to 86

110 ensure accurate reporting and a well-informed public education debate, a three-fold strategy to engage school communities is proposed: (i) sensitization, (ii) awareness-raising, and (iii) empowerment. Planning and monitoring of the communication interventions as well as public perception of education services will be crucial. Studies will be conducted to monitor public perception of education service. Communication interventions will include the dissemination of key messages that promote the rights of all children to education; create demand by school communities for access to quality, inclusive education; encourage enrollment and retention in pre-primary and primary education; and mobilize demand for child friendly teaching, inclusiveness and no corporal punishment in classrooms. The draft Communication and Social Mobilization Strategy will be finalized in Year 4 of the Program, and annual communication plans developed and implemented on this basis, in alignment with the AOP. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.2 (x): Activities of sub-component Communications and social mobilization Accountable: Director, Policy and Operations Division, DPE Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Key messages and major Annual Annual Communication Annual Communication communication Communication Plan Plan developed to Plan developed to interventions/ events to developed to disseminate key disseminate key disseminate the messages disseminate key messages on the messages on the to specific audiences are messages on the following issues to following issues to identified, including: following issues to identified audiences identified audiences including: 1% on time identified audiences including: including: enrollment 1% on time 1% on time 1% on time enrollment enrollment Preventing drop out enrollment Preventing drop out Preventing drop out Contact hours Preventing drop out Contact hours Contact hours Learning achievement Contact hours Learning achievement Learning achievement GO-NGO Guidelines Learning GO-NGO Guidelines GO-NGO Guidelines Quality PPE achievement Quality PPE Quality PPE Inclusive Education and GO-NGO Guidelines Inclusive Education Inclusive Education gender and gender and gender Examples of SLIP/UPEP Quality PPE utilization to address Inclusive Education Examples of Examples of and gender above issues SLIP/UPEP utilization SLIP/UPEP utilization Examples of to address above to address above SLIP/UPEP issues issues utilization to address above issues Communication and social Study conducted as Annual communication Study conducted as mobilization strategy baseline to monitor plan formulated and follow up to monitor finalized through public perception of implemented, on basis public perception of consultation workshops by education service of findings from the education service DPE perception study Focal persons on communication identified within DPE and responsibilities clarified (to link with organizational review, 3.1.4) 87

111 Year 3 Coordination mechanism with Ministry of Information (MOI) established Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Table A.2 (xi): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Communication and social mobilization Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 6,153,846 18,73,974 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.8% Result area 2.2 Disparities Anticipated Outcome: Regional and other disparities reduced in terms of participation, completion and learning outcomes KPIs: 7. Gender parity index of gross enrollment rate 8. Net attendance rate Top and Bottom 2% of households by consumption quintile 9. Upazila composite performance index - Top and Bottom 1% of Upazilas Budget: Table A.2 (xii): Budget of Result Area 2.2: Disparities Result Area and sub-component Targeted Stipends** School Health & school feeding** School Environment Need based infrastructure development Result Area 2.2 Total Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 429,678, ,214,7 155,17, ,555,185 1,639,555, Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 1,981,346 24,747, ,367,88 1,141,97,26 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.%.1% 9.1% 39.6% 48.8% **Budget moved to Discrete Project Budget Sub-component 2.2.1: Targeted Stipends The targeted stipend program is a discrete project alongside PEDP3. This program has a dual purpose: to compensate families of working children for the opportunity costs of sending their children to primary school, and to encourage the poorest families to ensure their children enroll and remain in school. A longitudinal study was to run alongside this in order to verify the impact and cost benefit of the stipend program. Two studies were undertaken during the initial three years of PEDP3, each of which yielded lessons and recommendations for the continuation of stipends to primary school children in Bangladesh. At mid-term of PEDP3, the decision was taken to continue stipends as a discrete project and to develop a strategy to consolidate evidence and a concrete plan for the projected integration of stipends into the next phase of education programming. Regular updates will be 88

112 provided at the PEDP3 Joint Annual Review Missions (JARM) and through the Working Group mechanism to ensure the connection of lessons related to interventions designed to address access to primary education for all. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.2 (xiii): Activities of sub-component Targeted stipend Year 3 Stipend project continues Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Longitudinal study Lessons learned on stipend Based on lessons learned study, designed to date consolidated (ref. to concrete plan developed for lessons from school projected integration of stipend feeding projects) project in next primary Regular collaboration Regular collaboration education program between stipend project between stipend project and PEDP3 enhanced, and PEDP3 enhanced, including reporting at including reporting at JARM JARM Table A.2 (xiv): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Targeted Stipends** Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 429,678, Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.% **Budget moved to Discrete Project Budget Sub-component 2.2.2: School Health and School Feeding Schools play a critical role in promoting children s health and safety by helping them establish lifelong healthy behavior patterns. Children s learning is also directly and negatively affected by hunger and their general health. The objective at the outset of PEDP3 was that school-based health checks would be undertaken once a year by local healthcare providers using UPEP funds, and that each school would receive a locally purchased first aid kit along with basic first aid training. The initial objective of school feeding was to modify and expand the existing program. By mid-term, first aid kits had been disbursed to each school with teachers trained in 22 Upazilas. While continuing the first aid training for the rest of the Upazilas, efforts will be made to promote cross-ministerial linkages on malnutrition, particularly with respect to Early Childhood Development. This may result in initiatives with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Ministry of Women and Children s Affairs (MoWCA), and Ministry of Social Welfare (MoSW). A mechanism will also be established for conducting school-based health check-ups in collaboration with MoHFW with the aim of carrying out a more coordinated approach to children s healthcare. Recommendations will be issued to all schools on the maintenance and use of their first aid kits. The initial objective of this sub-component was to modify and expand the existing program. During the PEDP3 Mid-Term Review, the decision was taken to continue school feeding as a discrete project for the remaining period of PEDP3. However to support the policy dialogue and planning of the eventual integration of the school feeding in the next sector program, greater focus will be placed upon the consolidation of evidence, lessons learnt and impact analyses from different existing school feeding modalities. In that respect, regular collaboration between the 89

113 school feeding projects and MoPME will be established through the Program Support Office, and regular updates will be provided through the Working Group mechanism to ensure linkage of this intervention with other efforts to address access to education. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.2 (xv): Activities of sub-component School Health and School Feeding Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Training for teachers on Regular collaboration Regular collaboration Regular collaboration health check-ups between school feeding between school feeding between school feeding conducted in 22 projects and PEDP3 projects and PEDP3 projects and PEDP3 Upazilas enhanced, including enhanced, including enhanced, including reporting at JARM reporting at JARM reporting at JARM Initiatives on addressing Linkage with relevant Consolidation of lessons malnutrition by ministries to address learned and good concerned ministries malnutrition and Early practices from school (MoHFW, MoSW, Childhood Care and feeding projects MoWCA) and linkage Development (ECCD) with National Nutrition continued Service (NNS) explored Recommendations Twice a year health Twice a year health issued to all schools on check-ups with teachers check-ups with teachers use of first aid kits involvement provided at involvement provided at schools Training for teachers on schools health check-ups conducted in remaining Upazilas Table A.2 (xvi): Budget of sub-component Sub-component School Health & school feeding** Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 266,214,7 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 1,981,346 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.1% **Budget moved to Discrete Project Budget Sub-component 2.2.3: Needs-based School Environment Improvement Creating a child-friendly physical environment in school includes elements provided through the Government (school layout and design, safe drinking water, WASH BLOCK for girls and boys, suitable classroom furniture, boundary walls) and elements provided by local communities (local materials for fencing, playgrounds, gardens). This sub-component is linked to the innovative strategy for needs-based infrastructure development under PEDP3 (Sub-Component 2.2.4), which sets out the approach for construction and major maintenance of classrooms. Under this sub-component, the construction and maintenance of water and sanitation facilities at schools are covered, following the same needs-based and prioritization criteria. One component of school effectiveness is a safe and protective learning environment. In order to improve learning achievement in schools through decentralized planning the GoB introduced School Level Improvement Plans (see Sub-Component 3.1.2). The focus of this sub-component is strengthening both SLIP and UPEPs in order to achieve school effectiveness. While the 9

114 government has commenced allocating SLIP grants to schools, the school planning process must enable the identification of key school development priorities and ways by which to achieve Primary School Quality Level (PSQL) indicators. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.2 (xvii): Activities of sub-component Needs-based School Environment Improvement Year 3 Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Need based WASHBLOCKs, Need based WASHBLOCKs, Need based WASHBLOCKs, safe drinking water, boundary safe drinking water, boundary safe drinking water, boundary walls, classroom furnishings walls, classroom furnishings walls, classroom furnishings placed placed (continuation) placed (continuation) Local collaboration Collaboration mechanism for Collaboration mechanism for mechanism for school layout school layout and design school layout and design and design established operationalized continued Table A.2 (xviii): Budget of sub-component Result Area and subcomponent School Environment Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 155,17,756 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 24,747,872 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 9.1% Sub-component 2.2.4: Needs-based Infrastructure Development In order to establish a good learning environment, substantial nationwide action is being taken to eliminate or reduce overcrowding of the classroom. PEDP3 has adopted a needs based approach to infrastructure development that will continue throughout the rest of the period of the program. Under this, sub-component additional classrooms are constructed and each school receives funds to undertake repair and maintenance work. A robust and transparent decision making tool has been developed for infrastructure supply under PEDP3 using the Education Management Information System (EMIS) and a set of agreed criteria for assessment and prioritization. It has greatly reduced subjectivity in decision-making in defining where and what infrastructure should be built to maximize impact. Some improvement of the existing EMIS based decision system is still necessary; specifically to capture robust data, undertake data validation and support field verification. The format of the Annual Primary School Census (APSC) should be modified to capture the physical condition of classrooms more effectively. A brief guideline on agreed criteria for needs assessment and prioritization along with clear direction on how to assess the physical condition of infrastructure should be prepared for field offices to reduce the subjectivity of evaluation. By PEDP3 mid-term, software for online need assessment, prioritization, and monitoring progress of implementation of infrastructure was under preparation to ensure transparency, efficiency and an improvement in the accuracy of assessment and subsequent prioritization and selection. This will include a live list that will take into account changes resulting from emergencies and natural disasters. Infrastructure planning should be prepared so that a good and safe school environment can be maintained. A layout plan for all components of infrastructure to be constructed in a school campus (e.g. additional class rooms, toilets/wash Blocks, water points) should be jointly prepared by the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), DPHE and tbe UEO before 91

115 starting any construction work. The existing school designs should be reviewed to make sure that appropriate technologies are adopted and schools are located at safe sites. Enhanced ownership of School Management Committees (SMCs) should be encouraged to ensure sustainable supply and maintenance of primary school infrastructure. Needs based construction will be based on the following guidelines: While schools may run in double shift, it must be ensured that no school is overcrowded Minimum is 3 classrooms with one teachers room in a school Classroom/student ratio is 1:4 with flexibility of overcrowding up to 4% (classroom design to consider this) One school for habitations having catchments of 2 and no school within 2km About 44 percent of classrooms met these criteria at the time PEDP3 was launched (GPS (48 percen, NNGPS 37 percent). In 28, using a student-teacher ratio of 1:46, and taking into account double shift schools, about 88 percent of primary schools met these criteria (86 percent GPS, 91 percent RNGPS). However, these averages hide disparities between schools and many teachers face classes in excess of 65 students, particularly in lower grades. Reducing the student density per classroom and the student-teacher ratio demands more classrooms to ensure teaching practices that are age appropriate and effective with a range of student abilities.to this end, a needs assessment survey was undertaken in 212 that assessed the number of additional classrooms required to reach a student/teacher ratio of 1:56. Results are in Table 2.2 (xix) below. Table A.2 (xix): Indication of classrooms required from preliminary review School Types GPS Additional Teachers Rooms 3,449 Additional Classrooms 18,89 Total Rooms 22,339 2,976 1,526 13, ,319 3,162 7,268 31,735 39,3 RNGPS COM TOTAL * Source: Report of DFID consultant, Date: August 212 Analysis has also indicated that many schools exceed the standard student to classroom ratio of 1:4. Therefore, it became necessary to identify the overcrowded schools where resources were not conducive to quality education. Schools that had very low classroom to student ratios, making the existing facilities grossly under-utilized, were also identified. Categories were adopted in 211 for designating a school underutilized, normal, and overcrowded depending upon the average number of students in the class. These are outlined in Table A.2 (xx) Categorization of school by student numbers below. Table A.2 (xx): Categorization of school by student numbers Number of students in school <14 VUU Very Under Utilized >14 and <28 UU Under Utilized >28 and <56 Normal >56 and <8 OC Over Crowded >8 and <112 VOC- Very Over Crowded VHOC Very Highly Crowded > Categorization Over

116 Table A.2 (xxi) outlines the proportion of schools that fall into each of these categories. Table A.2 (xxi): Proportion of schools by category of crowding by school type Type of school GPS Data error VUU UU Normal RNGPS COMMUNITY OC VOC VHOC While some disparities will always exist, there is urgent need to minimise these in order to maximize the efficiency of the existing facilities. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.2 (xxii): Activities of sub-component Needs based Infrastructure Development Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, and LGED, DPHE Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 At least 35 % of planned At least 65% of planned 1% of planned needs based needs-based infrastructure needs-based infrastructure infrastructure development development completed development completed completed according to criteria and according to criteria and Third party validation of technical standards technical standards infrastructure development according to criteria and technical standards Third party validation of Recommendations from Third party validation of infrastructure development efficiency gains study and infrastructure development according to criteria and the Year 3 TPV endorsed according to criteria and technical technical standards by MoPME standards Year 6 Table A.2 (xxiii): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Need based infrastructure development Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 788,555,185 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 898,367,88 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 39.6% A.3. COMPONENT 3 DECENTRALIZATION AND EFFECTIVENESS A key dimension of PEDP3 is expanding decentralized planning, management and monitoring to the district, Upazila and school levels. The School Level Improvement Plans (SLIPS) address school and community-wide matters linked with learning outcomes and primary completion. Upazila Primary Education Plans (UPEPs) help in reducing disparities between areas within Upazilas, leading, eventually, to a reduction of disparities between Upazilas. Ultimately, an education system s effectiveness is judged in terms of learning outcomes. This result area drives the evidenced based assessment of the effectiveness of the education system by enabling the measurement of inputs, output and outcomes and their contribution in driving learning outcomes. 93

117 Result area 3.1 Decentralization Anticipated Outcome: Upazila and school level planning decentralized KPs: 1. Percentage of AOP budget allocation for unconditional block grants (UPEP & SLIP) for Upazilas and schools 11. Expenditure of unconditional block grants (UPEPS & SLIP) by Upazilas and schools Budget: Table A.3 (i): Budget of Result Area 3.1: Decentralization Result Area and sub-component Field level offices strengthened Decentralized school management & governance* School level leadership development Org review and strengthening Result Area 3.1 Total 44,959,122 7,456,949 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 3.1% 175,472,91 136,312,397 6.% 8,269,23 37,69, ,77,577 1,158,897 24,885, ,813,628.4% 1.1% 1.6% Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) *SLIP fund Tk 3 per school until June 13, 5 per school from Jun-14 Sub-Component 3.1.1: Field-Level Offices Strengthened Initiatives started under PEDP II to strengthen field level offices are to be continued under PEDP3. Responsibilities and functions at the field level were to be re-defined and in some cases expanded, particularly in relation to key reforms under PEDP3 such as the DPEd and the development of SLIPs and UPEPs. A comprehensive plan for strengthening PTIs, UEOs and URCs was to be developed and implemented with a particular emphasis on filling vacancies, building capacity in planning and monitoring, and devolving some functions to Upazila level. Roles and responsibilities for decentralized primary education officers have expanded under PEDP3. URC instructors respond to demand-based continuous professional development of teachers and AUEOs are expected to play a major role in local social mobilization and in collecting information on classroom practice through prescribed formats. The UEO functions include reviewing SLIPs and preparing UPEPs in addition to visiting and monitoring schools (see sub-component Decentralized School Management and Governance). AUEOs and URC instructors also conduct need & demand-based sub-cluster training, provide professional support to head teachers, take responsibility for academic supervision and play a major role in local service mobilization. AUEOs collect information on classroom practices through classroom observation. This informs decision making at the school and the policy level (DPE/MoPME). The UEO will also play a vital role in linking the school level improvement plans to the national annual operational plan but this need to be further strengthened and synchronized with the national planning processes. Under PEDP3, the UPEP guidelines will be improved to develop the UPEP as a capacity building and funding mechanism. On a needs basis, new UEOs may be constructed and badly damaged UEOs will be reconstructed. Up to PEDP3 mid-term, decentralization had not progressed as originally planned. Minimal recruitment for field level staff occurred and the recruitment of PTI instructors was stalled. PEDP3 implementation experience highlighted that in order to effectively decentralize planning 94

118 functions, PTIs, UEOs and URCs will require additional human resourcing. Based on the Organizational Development and Capacity Building Guidelines (ODCBG) stocktaking exercise (see sub-component 3.1.4), a concerted effort will be placed on ensuring field level offices have the needed human resources. The existing responsibilities and functions of the UEOs will be redefined and finalized based on the UPEP guidelines updated by the DPE Administration Division (see sub-component 3.1.2). The continuous professional development of PTI, UEO and URC staff will be documented (see sub-component 4.5) to ensure staff can be equipped with the key capacities to undertake their roles and responsibilities (e.g. planning and monitoring and field level coordination of training). The DPE Planning Division will also take a leadership role in linking SLIPS to UPEPs and the national annual operational plan. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.3 (ii): Activities of sub-component Field Level Offices Strengthened Year 3 GoB will prepare a plan to address staffing in PTIs and UEOs to adequate levels to manage workloads Staff in place and performing Accountable: Director Administration, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Based on the ODCBG Based on the ODCBG stocktaking exercise (see stocktaking exercise (see sub-component 3.1.4), staff sub-component 3.1.4) hired and placed at field remaining staff hired and level placed at field level Recommendations from Field level coordination of the PEDP3 Mid-Term training improved Review Quality and Governance studies to improve field level coordination of training identified and approved Job description of UEOs to Upazilas develop and include UPEP and SLIP implement needs-based coordination finalized by UPEPs on the basis of DPE Administration SLIPs. Division (see sub- Targeted capacity component 3.1.2) development support provided to UEOs based on the study of SLIP and UPEP process in selected Upazilas (To be supported by the Planning Division) Year 6 Planned staff hired and placed at all field levels Field level coordination of training improved UPEP-Upazilas develop and implement needsbased UPEPs on the basis of SLIPs Table A.3 (iii): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Field level offices strengthened Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 44,959,122 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 7,456,949 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 3.1% Sub-Component 3.1.2: Decentralized School Management and Governance One of the objectives underpinning PEDP3 is to enhance decentralized planning at District, Upazila and school levels. As described in Sub-Component (Field Level Offices Strengthened), functions and responsibilities were to be re-defined and, in some cases, expanded. 95

119 An evidence-based process of annual planning and implementation was to be institutionalized; through building field level capacity to use evidence and identify capacity needs to deliver education results, and linking this to a needs-based Annual Operational Plan (AOP). To this end, planning instruments and organizational arrangements were to be approved and adopted at all levels: School Level Improvement Plans, Upazila Primary Education Plans, and District Primary Education Plans. Ultimately, the goal of this sub-component was to empower Head Teachers, School Management Committees and Upazila Education Officers to improve the quality and inclusiveness of education. This sub-component is one of the nine against which development partner s disbursements are linked. A series of annual targets were set, the first three of which were met by PEDP3 mid-term. By April 214, over 6% of schools had prepared SLIPs according to SMC Guidelines and had received funds (3,Tk.) against these. 5 Upazilas had developed UPEPs. Plans are in place to collect more detailed evidence on the implementation of the current SLIP and UPEP modality, and this will guide progress towards this sub-component goal. At mid-term it was reinforced that UPEPs and SLIPs are based on the principle that decentralized autonomy and flexible financing can have a dramatic impact upon the quality of education delivered and, to that end, the local level planning process would be strengthened, including linkages between conditional and non-conditional funding at school and Upazila level, SLIP and UPEP during intervention implementation. These two plans will combine to create a framework that can drive school effectiveness in school development planning and implementation. School development planning contributes to creating an enabling school environment that leads to school effectiveness through inclusion of preschool, increased attendance, primary cycle completion and acquisition of basic competencies. School effectiveness good practices and models will be developed on the basis of the Primary School Level Indicators, and the Child Friendly School framework of international best practice for school effectiveness. At school level, an appraisal of school needs will be developed with active participation of School Management Committees, to ensure effective utilization of different funds/grants available (repair fund, regular maintenance fund, SLIP grant, pre-primary fund, inclusive education fund, and school environment fund). Several commitments were made on the shared understanding that School Management Committees, head teachers, teachers, parents and community members can achieve incredible improvements in quality education. SLIPS: Positive advocacy will be undertaken through various media on the roles of SMCs and communities in the provision of quality, inclusive education. The SLIP Guidelines will be revised and strengthened on the basis of lessons learned, and aligned with SMC Guidelines. These Guidelines will provide for ongoing support and quality assurance of SLIP implementation and expenditure. The size of the SLIP grant will be increased (and may include currently earmarked funds for maintenance merged into one block grant). Utilization of funds will be improved through dissemination of information about important issues and potential solutions to these, on teaching and learning materials, remedial measures for low achievers and teacher-student contact hours in the classroom, for example. Success stories on the use of SLIPs to improve the quality of education will be shared between schools. Parent Teacher Associations will be strengthened to enhance accountability at school level. UPEPs: UPEPs will be active by the end of PEDP3. The UPEP guidelines will be further clarified and earmarked grants will be made flexible in order to allow UEOs to use the block grants available at Upazila level (for example for education in emergencies and inclusive education) according to their needs. These needs are to be captured in the UPEP. For selected Upazilas that have already developed a UPEP, an exception may be made in Year 4 so that they can apply this flexibility on a pilot basis. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. 96

120 Table A.3 (iv): Activities of sub-component Decentralized School Management and Governance Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 At least 75% of schools Recommendations of At least 75% of schools (GPS having prepared SLIPs and expenditure tracking survey and NNGPS) have prepared received funds according to (PETS) and lessons learned SLIPs and have received funds SMC guidelines validated by study are endorsed by on the basis of guidelines expenditure tracking survey MoPME updated in Year 4 At least 25% of Upazila At least 4% of Upazilas At least 5% of Upazilas have having prepared UPEPs and have prepared UPEPs prepared UPEPs on the basis received funds based on UPEP according to UPEP 212 of updated guidelines guidelines validated by guidelines expenditure tracking survey SMC, SLIP and UPEP guidelines updated Year 6 Table A.3 (v): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Decentralized school management & governance* Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 175,472,91 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 136,312,397 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 6.% *SLIP fund Tk 3 per school until June 13, 5 per school from Jun-14 Sub-Component 3.1.3: School Level Leadership Development The focus on improvements in children s learning in the classrooms requires head teachers, AUEOs, URC instructors and assistant instructors to assume more active and wide-ranging roles. Head teachers are expected to exercise expertise as leaders, managers and administrators for educational reform at the school level, and mentors and academic supervisors for teacher professional development. In a similar vein, AUEOs, URC instructors and assistant instructors must play an important role in providing academic supervision, particularly in order to assist teachers to diagnose their knowledge and skill and to self-evaluate their performance. Moreover, UEOs and AUEOs must conduct follow-up supervision after head teacher training to support and improve school practices. For example, under Shikbe Protiti Shishu (ECL, sub-component 1.1), head teachers will demonstrate ways of ensuring that each child learns, as well as monitoring each teacher s efforts and each child s results. In addition, the decentralization of the current administration system is requiring leaders such as head teachers to assume more responsibility and authority for making decisions that affect school operations. Under PEDP3, the roles of head teachers, AUEOs, URC instructors and assistant instructors will be clarified, studies will be undertaken on their leadership strengthening, and leadership training will be provided for those supervisors. The emphasis is on capturing more precise and clear ideas of the reality in the classrooms, and to encourage and facilitate teachers to initiate positive changes at the school level. In Year 4, further improvement of training materials will be completed (linked to teacher support and networking and academic supervision training). In Years 4-6, 14, head teachers will participate annually in training, and UEOs and AUEOs will conduct follow-up supervision. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. 97

121 Table A.3 (vi): Activities of sub-component School Level Leadership Development Year 3 At least 4% of head teachers and AUEOs trained Accountable: Director, Training Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Further improvement of 14, head teachers training materials is participate in the training completed 14, head teachers Development of handbook / participate in training guidebook for head teachers is completed UEOs and AUEOs UEOs and AUEOs conduct conduct follow-up follow-up inspection inspection Year 6 14, head teachers participate in the training UEOs and AUEOs conduct follow-up inspection Table A.3 (vii): Budget of sub-component Sub-component School level leadership development Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 8,269,23 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 1,158,897 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.4% Sub-Component 3.1.4: Organizational Review and Strengthening An in-depth review of the MoPME and DPE organizational structures was conducted during PEDP II. Its findings were initially used as the basis for plans for organizational strengthening of the roles of teachers, field level officials, DPE and other key stakeholders including NAPE and NCTB under PEDP3. The objective of this sub-component is closely linked to 4.5 (Human Resource Development) and (Teacher Recruitment and Deployment). Activities build towards the same objective: improved capacity to achieve Program goals. An Additional Director General position and the Program Division were institutionalized in DPE from the outset of the PEDP3. A final proposal for the career paths of teachers, head teachers and DPE officials was developed with revisions incorporated based on concerned Ministries with the aim to finalize this in Year 3. By PEDP3 mid-term, plans for the construction of a new DPE building were also being processed. A capacity-strengthening plan for DPE was being developed and new posts created and recruited for NAPE. The Organizational Development and Capacity Building Guidelines (ODCBG) developed under PEDP II contained much of relevance for PEDP3. At mid-term it was agreed that an appraisal of the extent to which these Guidelines have been implemented will be undertaken and a set of follow-on actions agreed. This will produce the basis for further capacity strengthening at MoPME, DPE and NAPE. In an attempt to build on the program approach of PEDP3, an activity will be undertaken in the penultimate year of the Program to identify the staff that should be transferred from the GoB the Development Budget to the Revenue Budget. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. 98

122 Table A.3 (viii): Activities of sub-component Organizational Review and Strengthening Accountable: Director Administration Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Year 3 TOR for follow-on ODCB Guide follow- Identification of staff that: Organizational up exercise completed (i) May need to be transferred Development and post-pedp3, Capacity Building Guide (ii) May need to be created from (ODCBG) approved after integration with discrete completion of stock taking projects, and of current implementation (iii) May result from the advice status, with limited from the follow-on OCDB targeted focus areas Guide exercise" New Recruitment Rules MoPME, NAPE and MoPME, NAPE and DPE approved by GoB DPE capacity capacity strengthening strengthening continued in line with ODCB continued in line with Guide follow-up ODCB Guide follow- Dissemination of new approved up recruitment rules completed Year 6 Updated organogram for post-pedp3 MoPME, NAPE, and DPE capacity strengthening continued Table A.3 (ix): Budget of sub-component Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Sub-component Org review and strengthening Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 37,69,314 24,885,628 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 1.1% Result area 3.2 Effectiveness Anticipated Outcome: Increased effectiveness of budget allocation KPIs: 12. Cycle Completion rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) 13. Cycle Drop Out Rate (boys, girls and all) 14. Coefficient of efficiency & Number of input years per graduate 15. Percentage of GPS/NNGPS that meet 3 of 4 school-level quality indicators (PSQL) Budget: Table A.3 (x): Budget of Result Area 3.2:Effectiveness Result Area and sub-component Grade 5 PECE strengthened Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Annual primary school census National Student Assessment Result Area 3.2 Total 99 Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 48,769 38,961,538 3,846,153 3,141,25 46,429,487 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 2,317,936 26,927,564 3,266,38 1,216,987 33,728,795 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.1% 1.2%.1%.1% 1.5%

123 Sub-Component 3.2.1: Grade 5 PECE Since 29, children in Bangladesh take a short answer terminal examination at the end of primary school (Grade 5) to demonstrate the acquisition of knowledge. The challenge under PEDP3 is to create linkages between curriculum, teaching learning methods and assessment tools in order to develop a terminal examination that reflects the goals of the curriculum and counteracts simply teaching to the test. The current examination is progressively being reformed under PEDP3 through better question development, piloting, and analysis of student responses. Questions requiring analysis and problem solving (prominently mentioned in the NEP) are being added to assess these skills. In the planning of PEDP3 the major emphasis was on the improvement of quality and learning outcomes. A number of measures are being introduced to help teachers focus on the students acquisition of competencies. It is essential for the Grade 5 PECE to measure students learning in this way in order for teachers to be motivated to teach the competencies. The percentage of competency-based questions is increasing annually aiming for 65 percent of the questions to be competency-based by the end of PEDP3, and for the exam to be fully competency-based by 218. National capacity will be built for developing competency-based questions to ensure the sustainability of the initiative. On an annual basis, analysis of results of the Grade 5 PECE will be compiled by DPE and NAPE and the results disseminated. Linkages will be made with other quality interventions with the aim to encourage teachers to change their methods from teaching for recall of information to the development of learning competencies. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.3 (xi): Activities of sub-component Grade 5 PECE Strengthened Year 3 Action plan implemented with at least 25% of items competency-based introduced in the 213 Grade 5 PECE and an additional 25% of competency-based items piloted (piloting to be done in May 214) Analysis of results of 213 Grade 5 PECE completed by DPE and NAPE and results disseminated 1 Accountable: DG NAPE; and Director Administration, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Action plan implemented Action plan with at least 35 % of implemented with at competency-based items least 5% of introduced in the 214 competency-based Grade 5 PECE and items introduced in the piloting based on 1% of 215 Grade 5 PECE curriculum competencies and piloting of items based on 1% of curriculum competencies Analysis of results of 214 Analysis of results of Grade 5 PECE completed 215 Grade 5 PECE by DPE and NAPE and completed by DPE and results disseminated, using NAPE and results dissemination tools as disseminated, using specified in the action plan dissemination tools as Grade 5 PECE Framework specified in the action updated and approved by plan NAPE/MoPME and action plan prepared to implement it. Year 6 Action plan implemented with at least 65% of competency based items introduced in the 216 Grade 5 PECE and piloting based on 1% of curriculum competencies

124 Table A.3 (xii): Budget of sub-component Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Sub-component Grace 5 PECE strengthened 48,769 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 2,317,936 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.1% Sub-Component 3.2.2: Teacher Recruitment and Deployment The shift from universal to needs-based targeting of primary education service delivery under PEDP3 is one of the most innovative and important goals of the Program. One of the major elements of this is the needs-based recruitment and deployment of teachers. Annual targets were set against this sub-component and by Year 2 all teacher and head teacher positions were filled according to agreed recruitment procedures and on a needs basis. 9 percent of new teacher and head teacher posts identified as necessary at PEDP3 s outset were filled by mid-term. The assessment of need for teachers is based upon: (i) The establishment of new teacher positions in areas of need (e.g. PPE teachers or increasing teacher-student contact hours); and (ii) Yearly attrition of head and assistant teachers (see 2.2.4). To ensure teacher quality, newly recruited teachers are given the opportunity to participate in the DPEd course and a series of Continuous Professional Development activities (see Subcomponent 1.6 (Teacher Education and Development). Another key objective of PEPD3 is the approval of a teacher career path. This is to provide a strong incentive for teachers to perform to a high level, in order to encourage highly qualified teachers to remain in the system. The successes of needs-based recruitment and deployment will be consolidated and built on in the second half of the program. A focus of this sub-component over the remaining years will be the approval of the teacher career path and the recruitment and deployment of teachers in line with the teacher recruitment plan including a focus on increasing the teacher-pupil contact hours in the classroom. A comprehensive study will be undertaken on contact hours during Year 4 to recommend policies and interventions to increase the contact hours of teachers and students (this will include analysis of single and double shift methods, teacher deployment, student/teacher ratios, teacher incentives, use of SLIPs/UPEPs, infrastructure needs and the use of private tuition). This will be followed in Year 5 by the development of an action plan to pursue the relevant findings of this study. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.3 (xiii): Activities of sub-component Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Accountable: Director, Administration Division, DPE Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 All teachers and head All teachers and head All teachers and head teachers positions teachers positions teachers positions (vacancies and new (vacancies and new (vacancies and new positions) filled positions) filled positions) filled according to agreed according to agreed according to agreed recruitment procedures recruitment procedures recruitment procedures and norms and on needs and norms and on needs and norms and on needs basis basis basis Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 11 Year 6 All teacher and head teacher positions (vacancies and new positions) filled according to agreed recruitment procedures and norms and on needs basis Year 6

125 And (ii) at least 9% of new teacher and head teacher posts identified by the needs-based plan to be filled for the year filled. Recruitment rules with career paths for teachers and head teachers and, career paths, recruitment and promotion rules for DPE officers (field and Head Quarter) approved by Government of Bangladesh At least 9% of teachers and head teachers (vacancies and all new positions) filled according to needs based plan A comprehensive study on contact hours and policies and interventions conducted with recommendations for increasing contact hours between teachers and students At least 9% of teachers and head teachers (vacancies and all new positions) filled according to needs based plan Recommendations of comprehensive study (Year 4) on contact hours endorsed by MoPME Action plan to implement recommendations from the contact hour study endorsed by MoPME Table A.3 (xiv): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 38,961,538 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 26,927,564 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 1.2% Sub-Component 3.2.3: Annual Primary School Census The importance of regular, accurate, reliable data for evidence-based policymaking and quality, targeted service delivery cannot be understated. The Bangladesh education sector has long recognized this and the Annual Primary School Census (APSC), conducted since 25, provides a primary information source that shapes the efficiency and effectiveness of efforts to provide inclusive, quality primary education. PEDP3 aims to improve and expand the APSC to cover all primary education providers and produce a holistic picture of primary education services and trends in the country. Capacity development in monitoring and evaluation (see sub-component 4.4) is also a core aim. In the first two years of PEDP3 the APSC coverage has been extended from two to six types of schools with the aim of covering at least all types of schools that participate in the Grade 5 PECE. Data collection, processing and reporting time has been significantly reduced and the data quality has considerably improved through: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The modification of the collection instruments; Field level trainings; The production of a data cleaning manual; and Internal and external validation mechanisms to test and improve data accuracy. The 213 APSC process was concluded within 12 months, despite significant logistical constraints. In 214 an online APSC platform has been prepared and is being tested. This will reduce collection and data processing time and help improve the use of data for planning at all levels. The APSC data is used as the basis for the Annual Sector Performance Report (ASPR). The DPE Monitoring and Evaluation Division (M&E Division) is accountable for conducting the APSC 12

126 while the DPE Information Management Division (IMD) is accountable for processing the data. Both Divisions have recruited a number of staff and consultants to help enhance the M&E functions. However, a long-term vision is required to create statistician positions and recruit permanent staff to sustain this strengthened capacity. The EMIS team under the M&E Division has also been fully staffed and Information Technology (IT) works have been separated to create a clear division of labor. The EMIS team is able to focus on the collection, processing and reporting on data and the IT team deals with IT related issues such as fixing computers, maintaining networks and managing and preserving data. At the MTR all stakeholders reiterated a commitment to strengthening the APSC. From 214 the APSC will cover all schools (All schools at a minimum means schools that participate in the Grade 5 PECE). Data collected though the APSC will inform the assessment of demand for textbooks. The data collection, validation and managing processes will be integrated into the new online APSC system following testing. Each APSC will be processed within an academic year followed by APSC dissemination workshops nationally. An extensive third party validation will take place in 214, upon which basis further improvements will be made. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.3 (xv): Activities of sub-component Annual primary school census Accountable: Director, Monitoring and Evaluation Division, DPE Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 ASC administration and APSC (AY 215) APSC (AY 216) APSC (AY 217) report preparation and administration and report administration and report survey completed dissemination complete preparation and preparation and within academic within academic year dissemination complete dissemination complete year covering all covering at least 6 types within academic year within academic year primary schools of schools covering all primary schools covering all primary schools Third party validation of Agreed recommendations Third party validation validation census data from the third party completed examining the completed validation (Year 3) are accuracy of data implemented compared to prior Third Party Validation M&E capacity assessment study completed Table A.3 (xvi): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Annual primary school census Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 3,846,153 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 3,266,38 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.1% Sub-Component 3.2.4: National Student Assessment National learning assessments, when conducted effectively, provide a means for tracking learning outcomes over time for students at specific points in the primary cycle. The assessments are a way to test the effectiveness of the broader education system, rather than the individual students. The objective of learning assessments such as Bangladesh s National Student Assessment (NSA) is to yield data to guide policymakers to identify where interventions are 13

127 working and what needs more attention. Three technical aspects must be carried out correctly for this objective to be realized: Sampling must be precise and be representative of all schools and students in the country The learning assessment must be administered at the same time each cycle, under the same conditions and at the same level of difficulty to assure comparability of findings between cycles; and Test items are constructed to reflect anticipated learning outcomes at the time of testing. The NSA has been reformed under PEDP3. By the third year of the program two rounds of national assessments had been conducted, in 211 and 213. These tests, performed through a technically sound process, yielded comparable data on a sample basis for students in Grades 3 and This has ensured the validity and reliability of the tests. This allows comparison by different types of schools and students as well as across the two testing periods and is proving useful for planning of other interventions such as teacher training on specific aspects of the curriculum. This is the first time in Bangladesh reliable and valid data is available on primary students learning that can be compared over time. During the remaining program period efforts will concentrate on conducting another round of the NSA, ensuring validity and reliability, analysis and dissemination of results, use of results in program planning and building national capacity for conducting the national assessments at an international standard. Learning assessment links are to be established between the highest grade of primary and the lowest grade of secondary education. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.3 (xvii): Activities of sub-component National Student Assessment (NSA) Year students in 7 schools participated in Grade 5 NSA 32 Accountable: Director, Program Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Results of NSA 213 NSA 215 conducted Results of NSA 215 disseminated nationwide and disseminated nationwide and utilized for further quality utilized for further quality improvement of the system improvement of the system Preparation for NSA 215 Results of NSA 215 Preparation for NSA 217 completed analyzed completed Needs assessment on A capacity First phase of the capacity strengthening development plan of development plan to assessment/examination assessment/examination institutionalize NSA system conducted system developed implemented The 211 NSA drew a representative sample of Grade 3 and 5 students from 726 schools (548 GPS; 178 RNGPS) out of the total 8, schools in the country students were chosen from each school, for a total of 17,626 students for Grade 3 and 13,854 students for Grade 5. 14

128 Table A.3 (xviii): Budget of sub-component Sub-component Original budget (7BDT=1USD) National Student Assessment Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 3,141,25 1,216,987 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.1% A.4. COMPONENT 4 PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT This component addresses the overarching planning and management issues of PEDP3. The line divisions of DPE and other agencies (e.g. NAPE) undertake day-to-day management of the Program as part of their routine tasks. MoPME and DPE manage overarching coordination of the program. A key feature of PEDP3 is the use of Government s own systems for financial management for a large proportion of donor funding, an approach known as the Treasury model. The Ministry of Finance has undertaken to ensure that adequate financing is available for PEDP3. The component also covers institutional aspects of M&E, including strengthening of the Education Management Information System (EMIS) through the establishment of a new IMD Division in DPE. This division will support evidence-based planning in PEDP3 at central levels the AOP and at local level the SLIP and UPEP. The M&E Division will be strengthened to improve the APSC and ASPR. Result Area 4 Program Planning and Management Outcomes: Effective program planning and management Budget: Table A.4 (i): Budget of Result Area 4: Program Planning and Management Sub-component 4.1. PEDP3 Management and Governance 4.2. PEDP3 Financial Management 4.3. Sector Finance 4.4. Strengthen Monitoring Functions 4.5. Human Resources and Development 4.6. Public, Private Partnerships (PPPs) Result Area 4 Total Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 46,93, ,512 7,435,897 9,416,41 64,388,56 26,475, ,38 1,755,295 1,79,372 3,211,538 42,74,949 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 1.2%.%.%.1%.5%.1% 1.9% Sub-Component 4.1: PEDP3 Management and Governance The core objectives of this sub-component are expanded upon in Chapter 3 of the Program Overview: Program Governance and Management. This contains a strategic overview of the coordination, oversight and planning mechanisms of PEDP3, including the Steering Committee, Program Support Office, Technical Committee, Working Groups and DPE Program Division envisaged as instrumental at Program outset. This sub-component activates these. In short, PEDP3 is managed through divisions and units that are part of the MoPME and DPE organizational structures, as opposed to ancillary project management units. 15

129 The Program Support Office (PSO), essential for efficient coordination, communication and program support from MoPME, will be operational from late 214. This is important also for the maintenance of institutional memory and to support sustainable capacity strengthening and leadership within MoPME. The Program Steering and Technical Committees will meet regularly, as per their updated TORs specified in this updated Program Document. Mechanisms for interagency collaboration will be developed by the PSO, and improved incorporating lessons learned and processes for improved coordination and monitoring of performance institutionalized on this basis. At the PEDP3 Mid-Term Review, the arrangements for strategic management of PEDP3 as described in the original Development Project Proforma (DPP) and Program Document were considered in light of implementation experience. Several updates were agreed, and are incorporated into this updated Program Document (Program Overview and Implementation Guide). The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.4 (ii): Activities of sub-component PEDP3 Management and Governance Accountable: Director, Program Division, DPE Year 3 PEDP3 management and steering committee meet regularly as per their TORs PEDP3 AOP for current year implemented PEDP3 tasks across divisions and agencies for current year coordinated and used to improve performance Year 4 PEDP3 management and steering committee meet regularly as per their TORs PEDP3 AOP for current year implemented MTR governance report findings reviewed and next steps agreed PSO operational as per TOR in updated program documents PEDP3 tasks across divisions and agencies for current year coordinated by PSO and used to improve performance on the basis of agreed mechanisms Year 5 PEDP3 management and steering committee meet regularly as per their TORs PEDP3 AOP for current year implemented PEDP3 tasks across divisions and agencies for current year coordinated by PSO and used to improve performance on the basis of agreed mechanisms Year 6 PEDP3 management and steering committee meet regularly as per their TORs PEDP3 AOP for current year implemented PEDP3 tasks across divisions and agencies for current year coordinated by PSO and used to improve performance on the basis of agreed mechanisms Table A.4 (iii): Budget of sub-component 4.1 Sub-component 4.1. PEDP3 management and Governance 16 Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 46,93,685 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 26,475,436 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget 1.2%

130 Sub-Component 4.2: PEDP3 Financial Management Financial management under PEDP3 is markedly different to financial management under PEDP II. As described in Chapter 3: Program Governance and Management of the Program Overview, PEDP3 uses the Government s systems for financial management and monitoring and follows an agreed combination of Government and DP systems for procurement and reporting. Under this financing modality, DPs place their contributions into a Consolidated Fund under the Ministry of Finance. Financial processes follow the Government s regular procedures. In line with a core principle of the Program, the PEDP3 also provides ongoing support to strengthen the financial management system. For long-term sustainability of the PEDP3 approach, a Procurement and Financial Management Action Plan was devised. Implementation and annual appraisal of this Action Plan has led to several improvements: Annual program financial statements are prepared, with amounts budgeted in line with the Medium Term Budget Framework (MTBF). The quality of these statements has improved and became compliant in the second year of the program. The budget management reports provide quarterly updates on budget utilization and financial program implementation at central and field level. The Ministry of Finance distributes the sector budget (per the Annual Operational Plan) to MoPME, and this is then disbursed at the central level of MoPME/DPE and field level offices. Capacity at the field level is improving; both implementing associates (at central and field levels), and accounting offices (at field and central levels) are involved. The quality and transparency of budget management and reporting is also growing stronger. Improvements in the Integrated Budget and Accounting System (ibas), both in adjustments as well as capacity to use it at central and field level, have contributed to improved quality of reporting and monitoring. Quarterly monitoring is conducted through system-generated reports (Interim Financial Reports, IFR). Provision of on-line access to ibas for all field level offices will continue to be enhanced The distribution and ceilings of advances to Drawing and Disbursement Officers (DDO) of MoPME are reviewed and Ministry of Finance (MOF) adjustments requested on an annual basis. Fiduciary reviews are conducted on an annual basis. A comprehensive analysis of Financial Management was conducted as part of the PEDP3 MidTerm Review and indicated that the financial management system is satisfactory and improving. While the current monitoring and review arrangement will continue, based on emerging recommendations the following activities will be added to the process: Introduction of Customized Accounting System software, which will extend the monthly monitoring; Recording and monitoring advances will be reviewed in Annual Development Plan review meetings at MoPME, and Quarterly reviews of audit observations will be conducted. With these additional steps it is expected that the benefits of using the country system will increase. Both central and field level will have timely full financial information for monitoring and management purposes, resulting in improved robustness and reliability of the financial information. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. 17

131 Table A.4 (iv): Activities of sub-component PEDP3 Financial Management Year 3 Annual fiduciary review conducted Accountable: Director, Finance Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Annual fiduciary review Annual fiduciary review conducted conducted Preparation of annual program financial statements Amounts budgeted are in line with MTBF Annual program financial statements prepared Amounts budgeted are in line with MTBF Annual program financial statements prepared Amounts budgeted are in line with MTBF Sector budget distributed to spending DDOs Sector budget distributed to spending DDOs Sector budget distributed to spending DDOs Distribution and ceilings of advances to cost center/ddos reviewed and MOF adjustments requested Quarterly monitoring through systemgenerated reports (ibas) Distribution and ceilings of advances to cost center/ddos reviewed and MOF adjustments requested Quarterly monitoring through systemgenerated reports (ibas)/dpe Recording and monitoring advances in ADP review meeting at MoPME Quarterly review of the audit observation Distribution and ceilings of advances to cost center/ddos reviewed and MOF adjustments requested Quarterly monitoring through systemgenerated reports (ibas)/dpe Recording and monitoring advances in ADP review meeting at MoPME Quarterly review of the audit observation Customized Accounting system software introduced and implemented Year 6 Annual program financial statements prepared Amounts budgeted are in line with MTBF Sector budget distributed to spending DDOs Distribution and ceilings of advances to cost center/ddos reviewed and MOF adjustments requested Quarterly monitoring through systemgenerated reports (ibas)/dpe Recording and monitoring advances in ADP review meeting at MoPME Quarterly review of the audit observation Table A.4 (v): Budget of sub-component 4.2 Sub-component Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 4.2. PEDP3 Financial Management 632,512 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 553,38 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.% Sub-Component 4.3: Sector Finance This sub-component works towards three goals: (i) The Government of Bangladesh allocates sufficient resources for PEDP3; (ii) PEDP3 serves as the overall budget framework for all sources of funding (i.e. through the phasing out of discrete projects, whereby the PEDP3 Annual Operational Plan is used as the overall budget framework for the development budget); and (iii) The funds initially approved are released on time, are safeguarded against budget cuts during the year to maximize efforts to execute the budget to deliver the program. 18

132 As these three purposes were perceived as instrumental for successful implementation of PEDP3 this sub-component was identified at the outset as one of the nine Disbursement Linked Indicators (DLIs). The target for each year was that the primary education budget for the fiscal year would be aligned with PEDP3 program framework and consistent with the MTBF for the year and that the total actual expenditure would be within 15 percent deviation of the originally approved budget. At the start of the program, the first indicator for this DLI was measured by assessing if the approved primary education budget for any fiscal year exceeded the budget for the given reference year (prior to PEDP3 launch), and the second indicator was focused on ensuring that the PEDP3 share of the overall primary education budget incrementally increased each year. During the first period of implementation the purposes of the DLI were achieved as sufficient budget was allocated, sufficient funds remained available, the budget was executed, and discrete projects are gradually phasing out. Given the achievements in this area and the critical importance of sufficient resources for the primary education sector, minor adjustments are made to this sub-component for the remaining part of the program to ensure that the three main purposes (above) will be achieved in the most optimal manner. In Years 4 and 5 the following are now the aims of this sub-component: (i) To ensure that the primary education budget is aligned with the program framework and consistent with MTBF (ii) The primary education budget for FY 15/16 and FY 16/17 respectively should be equal to or more than the original primary education budget for FY13/14 (was formerly FY1/11) and (iii) The share of PEDP3 in the development budget of overall primary education is incrementally increasing each year, and the actual expenditures for FY 14/15 and FY 15/16 should be within 15% deviation of the originally approved budget. The Year 6 DLI aims to ensure that the FY17-18 Primary education budget is consistent with the FY17-22 MTBF. Given the importance of ensuring sufficient budget for the final year of the program, Year 6 also has a target aiming to ensure that the revised FY16/17 primary education budget allocation will be aligned with the program framework. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.4 (vi): Activities of sub-component Sector Finance Year 3 FY14-15 Primary education budget aligned with program framework and consistent with 1419 MTBF Actual primary expenditures for FY1314 within 15% deviation of the originally approved budget 19 Accountable: MoPME and MOF Year 4 Year 5 FY15-16 Primary FY Primary education budget aligned education budget aligned with program framework with program framework and consistent with FY15- and consistent with FY 2 MTBF MTBF Actual primary Actual primary expenditures for FY expenditures for FY 15within 15%deviation of 16 within 15% deviation the originally approved of the originally budget approved budget Year 6 FY Primary education budget consistent with FY MTBF Revised FY primary-education budget allocation aligned with program framework

133 Table A.4 (vii): Budget of sub-component 4.3 Sub-component Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 4.3. Sector Finance Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.% Sub-Component 4.4: Strengthening Monitoring Functions Modern program management calls for service managers to focus on defining expected results, focusing attention on result achievement, measuring performance regularly and objectively, learning from performance information, making adjustments and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of programs. Evidence Based Planning (EBP) supports this Results Based Management (RBM) process. EBP and RBM rely on a strong monitoring system. Monitoring inputs, processes and outputs is the responsibility of the implementing units in MoPME and MoE. The need to institutionalize RBM in DPE and at the field level is paramount to this process. Targets will be set in the AOP and progress reported routinely. The DPE Monitoring and Evaluation Division (M&E division) will be responsible for quality assurance regarding accuracy of progress reports. To support the implementation of EBP and RBM an Education Household Survey (EHS) will be conducted and the collection of school level data through the Annual Primary School Census (APSC) (Result Area 3.2.3) will continue to be expanded and strengthened. This is being facilitated through a transition from a paper-based collection system to an online data collection and management tool. The preparation of the Annual Sector Performance Report (ASPR) is the responsibility of the M&E Division in collaboration with the DPE Information Management Division and the M&E Division. Evidence on learning outcomes is the responsibility of the National Assessment Unit at DPE. The link between the ASPR, Primary School Quality Levels (PSQLs), and school effectiveness measures (such as SLIPs) will be strengthened to ensure that stakeholders outside the central government agencies understand and are engaged with the quality initiatives driven through PEDP3. To support this process the remainder of the PEDP3 will continue to build on the strengthening that has taken place so far. The transition to the online APSC platform will be completed in Year 4 with continued expansion to a wider range of school types. There will also be an increased focus on the use of data for EBP and school based decision-making. The school inspection system will be modernized and strengthened using updated tools and guidelines to be developed by the M&E Division. The mechanisms for distributing data and analysis outside of the central level will be assessed and further dissemination to the district, Upazila and school level pursued. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. 11

134 Table A.4 (viii): Activities of sub-component Strengthen Monitoring Functions Year 3 Central and noncentral staff trained in improved and coordinated (RBM) monitoring processes Schools inspected using updated PEDP3 related tools Review of AOP strategy paper development by RBM TA team Consolidated inspection report drafted and shared with DPE and MoPME Progress review and monitoring meeting at divisional levels conducted using RBM approaches RBM-focused AOP planning process supported at central level 111 Accountable: Director, Monitoring and Evaluation Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Modernizing of inspection Based on the Modernizing of inspection tools designed and modernizing of tool pilot report completed finalized including a small inspection tool pilot a with recommendations for pilot with the purpose of further scale up may be nation-wide roll-out strengthening data undertaken collection at the school level Methods for collecting and using data strengthened through RBM training for DPE, Districts, Upazilas and school staff. This will inform SLIPs, UPEPs and other school effectiveness planning. Training should highlight the importance of PSQLs and KPIs. To be completed in conjunction with ASPR dissemination Review and analyze reporting streams (inspection, progress, results), to assess how linkages between different streams and feedback to potential users can be strengthened Review of PEDP3 inspection guides and tools (to include actionoriented recommendations for school, Upazila, district, divisional, and central level) completed, with reference to inspections highlighted in Sub-component 2.1.3: Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education DPE M&E Division further institutionalizes RBM with further TA Education Household survey conducted Methods for collecting and using data strengthened through RBM training for DPE, Districts, Upazilas and school staff. This will inform SLIPs, UPEPs and other school effectiveness planning. Training should highlight the importance of PSQLs and KPIs. To be completed in conjunction with ASPR dissemination All school inspections conducted using updated tools in line with PEDP3 and a consolidated action oriented inspection report drafted and shared quarterly Methods for collecting and using data strengthened through RBM training for DPE, Districts, Upazilas and school staff. This will inform SLIPs, UPEPs and other school effectiveness planning. Training should highlight the importance of PSQLs and KPIs. To be completed in conjunction with ASPR dissemination Progress monitoring review at divisional and national level conducted using RBM approaches biannually. All school inspections conducted using updated tools in line with PEDP3 and a consolidated action oriented inspection report drafted and shared quarterly at District level RBM Resource pool functioning. RBM principles included in all relevant training practices Progress monitoring review at divisional and national level conducted using RBM approaches biannually

135 Table A.4 (ix): Budget of sub-component 4.4 Original budget (7BDT=1USD) Sub-component 4.4. Strengthen Monitoring Functions Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 7,435,897 1,755,295 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.1% Sub-Component 4.5: Human Resource Development The principle of needs-based service provision, a key reform of PEDP3, was intended to apply to the recruitment and professional development of primary education teachers and officials (see also sub-component Teacher Recruitment and Deployment). Instead of a pre-set supply driven training plan a process was envisaged for determining where, when and what training was needed for whom in order to improve individual and Program performance. A more substantial reform was planned to establish a career path for teachers and primary education officials (also linking this sub-component with Organizational Review and Strengthening). This was intended to allow for vertical and horizontal mobility. Improvements were made to the coordination and organization of training provision during the first three years of PEDP3 with particular improvements in teacher training. Training division developed a consolidated information pack that lists all trainings held for teachers annually. However, career paths for teachers and primary education officials have not yet been established (actions for which are included in sub-component 3.2.2). Henceforth, the standards and competencies for the professional development of teachers will form the basis for a set of related training options, in alignment with the Teacher Education and Development Plan (TED) and the DPEd course. The continuous professional development approach for the PTIs, UEO and URCs will be reviewed as needed and formalized. Similarly, training options will be aligned to the existing set of standards and competencies for field level staff. More broadly, technical assistance has been envisioned as a key mechanism to enhance key individual capacities to deliver on critical areas of the program. To continue to be effective TA needs will be appraised regularly and the plan updated; additionally TA efforts will be coordinated and monitored regularly. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. Table A.4 (x): Activities of sub-component Human resource development Year 3 Stock take of ODCBG recommendations and progress 112 Accountable: Director, Admin Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Action Plan on the A set of related training A set of standards and ODCBG developed options are made available competencies for and approved (link (or developed). These professional development of with proposed should align with existing field level staff is developed, follow-up activity) competencies and and aligned to a set of related standards defined in the training options taking stock curriculum, DPEd and of effectiveness so far as part TED plans of exercise

136 Year 3 Year 4 Needs-based list of training needs compiled from field levels and implemented in collaboration with TED plan Existing CPD approach for field level officers implemented Year 5 Needs-based list of training needs compiled from field levels and implemented in collaboration with TED plan Year 6 Needs-based list of training needs compiled from field levels and implemented Existing CPD approach for field level officers continued and documented Table A.4 (xi): Budget of sub-component 4.5 Sub-component 4.5. Human Resources and Development Original budget (7BDT=1USD) 9,416,41 Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 1,79,372 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.5% Sub-Component 4.6: Public Private Partnerships (PPP) A variety of Public Private Partnerships was envisaged to support the achievement of PEDP3 goals, including the engagement of the private sector and non-government organizations. It was recognized, for example, that companies from the technology industry could contribute expertise and equipment to trial digitally enhanced approaches to teaching, learning and the monitoring of performance. The importance of both the private sector and NGO partners was affirmed, with particular reference to the provision of pre-primary, non-formal and some aspects of formal primary education, as well as in the development of supplementary teaching, learning and reading materials. The national PPP Framework (owned by the Socio-Economic Infrastructure Division of the Planning Commission) will be customized for MoPME and disseminated widely through workshops and communication materials. Implementation of this will be subsequently addressed, seeking diverse and innovative public private partnerships to enhance the achievement of objectives initially for three Program components: pre-primary education, second chance education and the DPEd. The GO-NGO Guidelines, established with specific reference to collaboration for pre-primary education provision, have resulted in excellent collaboration in the development of PPE materials. Further lessons will be learned from the use of these Guidelines in the provision of quality PPE at school level. A process of stock taking will be undertaken in the period following the PEDP3 Mid-Term Review, together with NGOs, after which the Guidelines will be revised and expanded for engagement with NGOs to support selected further activities. A recommendation that emerged from the MTR is that there is wide potential also to work with public and private agencies that work on NFE and related issues such as skills development. The following table provides a detailed description of the tasks that should be completed within each year for the remainder of the program. 113

137 Table A.4 (xii): Activities of sub-component Public Private Partnerships Accountable: Director, Program Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Customize the PPP framework Implement PPP for MoPME. framework for MoPME Disseminate PPP framework widely through workshops and materials Consultation workshops on the GO-NGO Collaboration Guidelines for PPE Year 3 PPP arrangements evaluated and mechanism improved Year 6 Implement PPP framework for MoPME Table A.4 (xiii): Budget of sub-component 4.6 Sub-component 4.6. Public, Private Partnerships (PPPs) Original budget (7BDT=1USD) - Revised Budget (78BDT=1USD) 3,211,538 Total revised budget amount as % of total component budget.1% A.5. DISTRIBUTION OF SUB-COMPONENTS AMONG IMPLEMENTING UNITS Table A.5 (i) shows the distribution of sub-components amongst implementing units. The implementation arrangements for PEDP3 including organizational restructuring and mechanisms to assure cooperation between sub-components managed by different divisions, units or agencies, are presented in Chapter D. 114

138 Table A.5 (i): Distribution of Sub-Components among Implementing Units Components Component 1: Teaching and Learning Result areas 1.1 Learning Outcomes DPE Administration Division Component 2: Participation and Disparities 2.1 Participation 1.4 Production and Distribution of Textbooks (distribution) 2.2 Disparities Component 3: Decentralization and effectiveness 3.1 Decentralization 3.2 Effectiveness Field Level Offices Strengthened Organizational Review and Strengthening Grade 5 PECE Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Annual Primary School Census National Student Assessment DPE M&E Division DPE Training Division DPE Policy and Operations Division DPE Finance Division Teacher Education and Development ( ) 1.2 School and Classroom based Assessment School Leadership Development Component 4: Planning and Management 4. Program planning and Management 4.5 Human Resource Development 4.4 Strengthening Monitoring Functions Level Pre-Primary Education Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education Communications and social mobilization 4.2 PEDP3 management financial

139 Components Component 1: Teaching and Learning DPE Planning and Development Division Component 2: Participation and Disparities Education in Targeted Emergencies Stipends School Health and School Feeding Needs based School Environment Improvement Needs based Infrastructure Development Component 3: Decentralization and effectiveness Decentralized School Management and Governance Component 4: Planning and Management 1.1 Each Child Learns 4.1 PEDP3 Management and Governance DPE Program Division DPE Information Management Division 4.6 Public Private Partnerships (PPP) 1.5 ICT in Education Second Chance and Alternative Education (NFE) DPE PECE NAPE NCTB MoPME/MOF 116 Grade Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened 1.4 Production and Distribution of Textbooks (production) 4.3 Sector Finance

140 CHAPTER B: PROGRAM MATRIX This chapter summarizes the yearly results anticipated for the twenty-nine PEDP3 subcomponents described in the Program Overview Chapter 1 and Implementation Guide Chapter A. The matrix includes results for remaining Years 3 6 of the program. B.1 UPDATE OF PROGRAM MATRIX In the first half of PEDP3, all parties worked diligently to implement activities and achieve the results outlined in the original Program Matrix (PM). This resulted in the successful achievement of many of the anticipated results outlined and significant progress on the remainder. This was achieved despite volatile conditions in the country. The mid-term review gave stakeholders the chance to reflect on achievements, identify learnings generated throughout the first half of the program, and highlight any changes required to ensure the success of PEDP3. At the MTR it was also decided to extend PEDP3 into a sixth year to further build on the achievements and the successes to date. This provided government, donor partners and other stakeholders the opportunity to assess the existing Program Matrix and make amendments required to ensure ongoing program success. Changes to the original version were discussed and the relevant technical work undertaken within Working Groups (WGs) to develop a revised Program Matrix. The Program Steering Committee and ECNEC then endorsed this in January 215. The following Program Matrix is an updated version created as an output of this process. Years 3, 4, 5 and 6 reflect the endorsed changes and provide the yearly results anticipated for the remainder of the program. 117

141 Table B (i): Program Matrix including Components, Result Areas and Sub-components Component 1: Teaching and Learning Result Area 1: Learning Outcomes 1.1 Shikhbe Protiti Shishu (Each Child Learns) Year 3 Continued implementation, support and M&E in initial schools or sub-clusters Lessons learned for more general application in other schools identified Piloting in additional schools or sub-clusters or clusters Continuing two-way linkages with central level institutions and articulation with new curriculum Revision of project competencies as new curriculum emerges Formative continued research study Accountable: Director, Program Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Ongoing/expanded piloting to an additional 29 Ongoing/expanded piloting to an additional 51 schools (total number of schools: 99) schools (total number of schools: 1,5) Review and revision of ECL strategy based on the findings of the Formative Evaluation and the study visit Implementing institutional adjustments to the ECL based on the revised ECL strategy Mainstreaming of ECL concepts and principles including mentoring through professional training courses of NAPE Strengthening institutional mechanism for continuous teacher mentoring, supervision and support Graded supplementary reading materials (SRMs) provided to 5% schools Extension to Grade 4 and 5 in 164 non-dped pilot schools based on emerging lessons from the Longitudinal study Institutionalization of ECL principles in planning for the next program Longitudinal study continued Institutionalization of ECL training in DPEd areas Linkages with assessment systems, including Grade 5 PECE and NSA established Strengthening institutional mechanism for continuous teacher mentoring, supervision and support (based on recommendations from the Longitudinal study) Extension to Grade 4 and 5 in 164 non-dped pilot schools strengthened Linkages with assessment systems, including Grade 5 PECE and NSA established (based on recommendations from the Longitudinal study) in sub-cluster Longitudinal study continued and completed; its findings and recommendations to guide planning for the next program 1.2 School & Classroom-based Assessment Accountable: Director, Training Division, DPE 118 Year 6 Completion of ECL pilot program Graded SRMs provided to 1% schools Extension to other subject areas (based on recommendations from the Longitudinal study)

142 Year 3 Introduction of School based Assessment tools and methods in an additional 15% of Upazilas DG, NAPE Year 4 Year 5 Introduction of School based Assessment tools Introduction of School Based Assessment tools and methods as part of the curriculum and methods as part of the curriculum dissemination training for 3% of education dissemination training for 35% (65% in total) of officers and teachers completed (linked to education officers and teachers completed introduction of competency-based items in the ((linked to introduction of competency-based Grade 5 PECE reform) items in the Grade 5 PECE reform) School based Assessment coordination meetings for head teachers organized in at least 3% of Upazilas Study on implementation status of School and Classroom based Assessment in schools with recommendations for strengthening of implementation and monitoring Year 6 Introduction of School based Assessment tools and methods as part of the curriculum dissemination training for 35% (1% in total) of education officers and teachers (linked to introduction of competency-based items in the Grade 5 PECE reform) Follow up actions to study endorsed by MoPME 1.3 Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened Year 3 Tryout and rationale evaluation of pilot of textbooks and TG Grades 3 and 4 Introduction of Appropriate textbook and TG Grades 1 & 2 Development of appropriate and gender sensitive textbooks and TG for Grade 5 Training Manual curriculum disseminated 119 for Accountable: Chairman, NCTB Year 4 Year 5 Supplementary teaching and learning materials Supplementary teaching and learning materials including Graded Supplementary materials, including Graded Supplementary materials for developed and/or selected Grades 1 to 5 provided Revised textbooks for Grades 1, 2, and 3, based on new curriculum developed by NCTB and recommendations from Large Scale Try out, introduced Revised Teacher Editions for Grades 1, 2 and 3, based on new curriculum developed by NCTB and recommendations from Large Scale Try out, introduced Teacher Guides on environment science for Grades 1 and 2 introduced Curriculum dissemination training program for 5% teachers and officials at central and field level completed Revised textbooks for Grades 4 and 5 based on new curriculum developed by NCTB and recommendations from Large Scale Try out, introduced Revised Teacher Editions for Grades 4 and 5, based on new curriculum developed by NCTB and recommendations from Large Scale Try out, introduced Refinement and introduction of all remaining Teacher Guides for all grades Curriculum dissemination training program for 9% teachers and officials at central and field level completed Year 6 Study on the effectiveness of the new curriculum based on identified principles and textbooks for Grades 1 to 3 conducted to inform future planning Curriculum dissemination training program for 1% teachers and officials at central and field level completed Introduction of textbooks, teacher editions and TGs for remaining subjects and grades to all schools Continue curriculum dissemination and other teacher training through distance mode utilizing electronic media

143 Tryout of textbooks, teacher editions and teacher Refinement of textbooks, teacher editions and guides (TGs) for remaining subject and grades, TGs for remaining subjects and grades conducted in selected schools Data collection and analysis of the tryout of Continue curriculum dissemination and other textbooks, teacher editions and TGs for teacher training through distance mode utilizing remaining subjects completed electronic media Review and revise curriculum to integrate Grades 6 8 into the primary curriculum Initiate curriculum dissemination and other teacher training through distance mode utilizing electronic media 1.4 Production and Distribution of Textbooks Accountable: Chairman, NCTB (production) Year 3 At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all approved textbooks for Grade 2 to 5 within one month of school opening day At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all revised Grade 1 textbooks based on new curriculum developed by NCTB within one month of school opening day Director, DPE Administration Division (distribution) Year 4 Year 5 At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all approved textbooks for Grades 1 to 5 within one approved textbooks for Grades 1 to 5 within one month of school opening day, of which Grades 1 month of school opening day, which are all to 3 textbooks are based on new curriculum based on new curriculum developed by NCTB developed by NCTB Recommendations from MoPME/DPE/NCTB workshop (214) for ensuring textbooks are printed according to specification are actioned Study on production and distribution of textbooks completed (including print quality) Year 6 At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all approved textbooks for Grades 1 to 5 within one month of school opening day, which are all based on new curriculum developed by NCTB A workshop held to review findings from the Year 5 Study on production and distribution of textbooks makes recommendations for future planning 1.5 ICT in Education Accountable: Director, Information Management Division, DPE 1 12 Year 3 model school multi- Director Training Division Year 4 Year 5 ICT strategy approved and implementation plan All 52 model schools have an operating Year 6 All 52 model schools have an

144 media classrooms operating developed multimedia to improve teaching and learning, following the ICT strategy paper Laptops in use at 7,434 schools ICT equipment with digital educational materials is used in classroom and teacher education in 2, schools following an ICT strategy paper ICT equipment with digital educational materials is used in classroom and teacher education in 2, schools following an ICT strategy paper 15, teachers trained on ICT (use and developing digital content) ICT study conducted to assess the use of ICT equipment to date, identify further needs for effective use and cost effectiveness 15, teachers trained on ICT (use and developing digital content) Year 3 Dip in Ed offered in 29 PTIs with number of instructors according to the plan A monitoring & maintenance mechanism developed to support the schools in maintenance of equipment A monitoring mechanism developed to assess the use of ICT equipment for teaching & learning 1.6 Teacher Education and Development Accountable: Director, Training Division Diploma in Primary Education Year 4 Year 5 DPEd framework updated and endorsed by DPEd offered in 5 fully functional PTIs in line NAPE/MoPME with the updated DPEd framework DPEd offered in 36 fully functional PTIs with a minimum of 13 instructors Study conducted to explore alternative methods and modalities to implement and/or expand the DPEd All newly recruited teachers will participate in induction 121 Recommendations from the Year 4 study reviewed and endorsed by MoPME A study conducted to inform planning for moving the DPEd from an in-service to a preservice program for all government primary school teachers Induction Training for Teachers 9,6 newly recruited teachers will participate in 9,6 newly recruited teachers will participate in induction training induction training operating multimedia to improve teaching and learning, following the ICT strategy paper ICT equipment with digital educational materials is used in classroom and teacher education in 15, schools following an ICT strategy paper 15, teachers trained on ICT (use and developing digital content) Based on the ICT strategy an integrated database on career development and continuous professional development is created ICT study conducted to assess the use of ICT equipment to date, identify further needs for effective use and cost effectiveness Year 6 DPEd offered in 6 fully functional PTIs in line with the updated DPEd framework Recommendations of Year 5 study reviewed and endorsed by MoPME 9,6 newly recruited teachers will participate in induction training

145 training 22,65, teachers in PPE (both newly recruited and existing teachers) participate in PPE dissemination training DPE develops tools for follow-up and evaluation DPE conducts the follow-up and evaluation by applying the developed tools Pre-Primary Training Program 26,7 PPE teachers (both newly recruited and 18,5 PPE teachers (both newly recruited and existing teachers) participate in PPE existing teachers) participate in PPE dissemination training (linked to expansion and dissemination training (linked to expansion and school level quality enhancement plan as in PPE school level quality enhancement plan as in PPE sub-component) sub-component) A study on integration of PPE with the DPEd conducted Need-based Sub-Cluster Training Training in 11,498 Sub-Clusters is held four Training in 11,498 Sub-Clusters is held four times in a year times in a year 18,5 PPE teachers (both newly recruited and existing teachers) participate in PPE dissemination training (linked to expansion and school level quality enhancement plan as in PPE sub-component) Training in 2,28 SubTraining in 11,498 Sub-Clusters is Clusters is held once in every held four times in a year other month Follow-up and monitoring Follow-up and monitoring and mentoring Follow-up and monitoring and mentoring Follow-up and monitoring and and mentoring activities by activities are conducted activities are established mentoring activities take root DPE are conducted Subject-based Training (Bangla, Mathematics, English, Bangladesh Global Studies, Primary Science, Religion, Other Subjects) 14% of teachers participate in 28% of teachers participate in the training 28% of teachers participate in the training 3% of teachers participate in the the training training Follow-up activities Follow up activities performed by AUEO, URC Follow up activities performed by AUEO, URC Follow up activities performed by performed by DPE Instructor and PTI Instructors Instructor and PTI Instructors AUEO, URC Instructor and PTI Instructors Training curriculum and materials are revised Training is carried out using the based on the results of monitoring and follow-up revised training materials and input from EIA (on English) Training materials for other subjects developed if needed Teacher Support and Networking 4, teachers participate in 4, teachers participate in the training 4, teachers participate in the training 4, teachers participate in the the training training A plan on integration of TSN with other TED Integrated TSN with other TED programs is Full integration of TSN in CPD programs is prepared piloted Training of NAPE, PTI and URC Instructors and Assistant Instructors (Teacher Educators) [Overseas training, TBD] A study to identify professional development Participation in overseas study tour (95 Participation in overseas study tour needs of professional trainers and teacher teachers and officials) (1 teachers and officials) 122

146 educators and to develop overseas training plan conducted Participation in overseas study tour (55 Participation in capacity building overseas teachers and officials) training (5 officials) Engagement of an agency to coordinate and manage the professional development overseas training Component 2: Participation and Disparities Result Area: 2.1 Participation Second Chance and Alternative Education (NFE) Year 3 Mechanism for coordination including role clarity and accountability between DPE and BNFE established based on the Implementation Guideline and the MOU NGO recruitment completed for 5 Upazilas and 7 urban areas Third Party Monitoring agency recruited Year 3 At least 6% of PPE teachers 123 Accountable: Director General, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Comprehensive Baseline census of out of Pilot(s) for 1, out of school children to school children conducted, and database of all access Second Chance Education services out of school children aligned with EMIS for implemented PEDP3 Framework for implementation and monitoring of quality teaching and learning developed Extensive assessment of the SCE model including analysis of (a) efficiency, (b) institutionalization, and (c) and the ten-year vision to systematically address out-of-school Equivalency framework finalized, approved by children through non-formal education. This will explore also the integration of other models DPE and endorsed by MoPME Comprehensive Baseline census of out of such as the Underprivileged Children s school children conducted, and database of all Educational Programs (UCEP) for working out of school children aligned with EMIS for urban children and public-private partnerships Pilot(s) for 1, out of school children to PEDP3 access Second Chance Education services implemented Pre-primary Education Accountable: Director, Policy and Operations Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Assessment of current status of implementation Expansion Plan updated, incorporating equity Participation in capacity building overseas training (5 officials) Year 6 National Education policy and NFE strategy synchronized Year 5 pilot expanded to deliver Second Chance Education services to an additional 2, out of school children Ten-year vision and strategy to systematically address out of school children by NFE agreed by all stakeholders and endorsed by MoPME National Education policy and NFE strategy synchronized Year 6

147 in GPS are trained in using new pre-primary curriculum and materials PPE provision in at least 75 percent of GPS Year 3 Report on Inclusive Education, including diagnostic tool for teachers, finalized by DPE and action plan developed for Years 4-6 Year 3 All schools facing emergency receive allocation 124 of minimum classrooms quality standards in PPE and quality criteria PPE provision (trained teachers and PPE 5% of all GPS and NNGPS to develop plans to materials availability) in at least 75% of the upgrade provision to meet PPE minimum 37, GPSs quality standards Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education Accountable: Director, Policy and Operations Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Diagnostic tools and inclusive education SLIPs are Gender sensitive and inclusive as recommendations integrated into DPEd course measured by agreed set of process indicators Diagnostic tool and inclusive education Teachers oriented with the MLE teaching and recommendations integrated in SCE training learning materials in certain geographic areas packages Multi-lingual education teaching and learning Gender and Inclusive Education criteria used in materials developed in five ethnic languages by school inspection reports NCTB and guidelines developed for use Inclusive Education criteria used in school inspection reports Develop a strategy to address the need of children of urban slum based on existing study Teacher training based on the revised IE training manual until launching DPEd for all PTIs Education in Emergencies (EiE) Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 National EiE and Disaster Risk Reduction Development of package of awareness raising (DRR) Framework to be reviewed and endorsed materials, guidelines for UPEP by MoPME DPE develop EiE implementation plan based on Modules on education in emergencies included endorsed framework in training programs for volunteers, teachers, head teachers, Upazilas and district education Harmonized EiE training modules for training officers Year 6 Teachers identify students with learning difficulties and interventions are put in place SLIPs are Gender sensitive and inclusive as measured by agreed set of process indicators Gender and Inclusive Education criteria used in school inspection reports Year 6 UPEP includes EiE EIE Training ongoing appropriate channels through

148 2.1.5 Communications and social mobilization Year 3 Key messages and major communication interventions/ events to disseminate the messages to specific audiences are identified, including: 1% on time enrollment Preventing drop out Contact hours Learning achievement GO-NGO Guidelines Quality PPE Inclusive Education and gender Examples of SLIP/UPEP utilization to address above issues Communication and social mobilization strategy finalized through consultation workshops by DPE Focal persons on communication identified within DPE and responsibilities clarified (to link with organizational review, 3.1.4) Coordination mechanism with Ministry of Information (MOI) established Accountable: Director, Policy and Operations Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Key messages and major communication Key messages and major communication interventions/ events to disseminate the interventions/ events to disseminate the messages to specific audiences are identified, messages to specific audiences are identified, including: including: 1% on time enrollment 1% on time enrollment Preventing drop out Preventing drop out Contact hours Contact hours Learning achievement Learning achievement GO-NGO Guidelines GO-NGO Guidelines Quality PPE Quality PPE Inclusive Education and gender Inclusive Education and gender Examples of SLIP/UPEP utilization to address Examples of SLIP/UPEP utilization to address above issues above issues Study conducted as baseline to monitor public perception of education service Annual communication plan formulated and implemented, on basis of findings from the perception study Result Area 2.2 Participation Targeted Stipends 125 Year 6 Key messages and major communication interventions/ events to disseminate the messages to specific audiences are identified, including: 1% on time enrollment Preventing drop out Contact hours Learning achievement GO-NGO Guidelines Quality PPE Inclusive Education and gender Examples of SLIP/UPEP utilization to address above issues Study conducted as follow up to monitor public perception of education service

149 Year 3 Stipend project continues Year 3 Training for teachers on health check-ups conducted in 22 Upazilas Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Longitudinal study designed Lessons learned on stipend to date consolidated (ref. to lessons from school feeding projects) Regular collaboration between stipend project Regular collaboration between stipend project and PEDP3 enhanced, including reporting at and PEDP3 enhanced, including reporting at JARM JARM School Health and School Feeding Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Regular collaboration between school feeding Regular collaboration between school feeding projects and PEDP3 enhanced, including projects and PEDP3 enhanced, including reporting at JARM reporting at JARM Initiatives on addressing malnutrition by Linkage with relevant ministries to address concerned ministries (MoHFW, MoSW, malnutrition and Early Childhood Care and MoWCA) and linkage with National Nutrition Development (ECCD) continued Service (NNS) explored Recommendations issued to all schools on use Twice a year health check-ups with teachers of first aid kits involvement provided at schools Training for teachers on health check-ups conducted in remaining Upazilas Needs-based School Environment Improvement Year 3 Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Need based WASHBLOCKs, safe drinking Need based WASHBLOCKs, safe drinking water, boundary walls, classroom furnishings water, boundary walls, classroom furnishings placed placed (continuation) Local collaboration mechanism for school Collaboration mechanism for school layout and layout and design established design operationalized Needs based Infrastructure Development 126 Year 6 Based on lesson-learned study, concrete plan developed for projected integration of stipend project in next primary education program (Link with school feeding projects) Year 6 Regular collaboration between school feeding projects and PEDP3 enhanced, including reporting at JARM Consolidation of lessons learned and good practices from school feeding projects Twice a year health check-ups with teachers involvement provided at schools Year 6 Need based WASHBLOCKs, safe drinking water, boundary walls, classroom furnishings placed (continuation) Collaboration mechanism for school layout and design continued

150 Year 3 At least 35 % of planned needs-based infrastructure development completed according to criteria and technical standards Third party validation of infrastructure development according to criteria and technical standards Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, and LGED, DPHE Year 4 Year 5 At least 65% of planned needs-based 1% of planned needs based infrastructure infrastructure development completed according development completed to criteria and technical standards Recommendations from efficiency gains study and the Year 3 TPV endorsed by MoPME Year 6 Third party validation of infrastructure development according to criteria and technical standards Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness Result Area: 3.1 Decentralization Field Level Offices Strengthened Year 3 GoB will prepare a plan to address staffing in PTIs and UEOs to adequate levels to manage workloads Staff in place and performing Accountable: Director Administration, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Based on the ODCBG stocktaking exercise (see Based on the ODCBG stocktaking exercise (see sub-component 3.1.4), staff hired and placed at sub-component 3.1.4) remaining staff hired and field level placed at field level Recommendations from the PEDP3 Mid-Term Review Quality and Governance studies to improve field level coordination of training identified and approved Job description of UEOs to include UPEP and SLIP coordination finalized by DPE Administration division (see sub-component 3.1.2) Field level coordination of training improved Upazilas develop and implement needs-based UPEPs on the basis of SLIPs Targeted capacity development support provided to UEOs based on the study of SLIP and UPEP process in selected Upazilas (To be supported by the Planning Division) Decentralized School Management and Governance Year 3 At least 75% of schools 127 Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Recommendations of expenditure tracking At least 75% of schools (GPS and NNGPS) Year 6 Planned staff hired and placed at all field levels Field level coordination of training improved UPEP-Upazilas develop and implement needs-based UPEPs on the basis of SLIPs Year 6

151 having prepared SLIPs and received funds according to SMC guidelines validated by expenditure tracking survey At least 25% of Upazila having prepared UPEPs and received funds based on UPEP guidelines validated by expenditure tracking survey survey (PETS) and lessons learned study are endorsed by MoPME have prepared SLIPs and have received funds on the basis of guidelines updated in Year 4 At least 4% of Upazilas have prepared UPEPs according to UPEP 212 guidelines SMC, SLIP and UPEP guidelines updated At least 5% of Upazilas have prepared UPEPs on the basis of updated guidelines School Level Leadership Development Year 3 At least 4% of head teachers and AUEOs trained Year 3 TOR for follow-on Organizational Development and Capacity Building Guide (ODCBG) approved after completion of stock taking of current implementation status, with limited targeted focus areas New Recruitment Rules approved by GoB 128 Accountable: Director, Training Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Further improvement of training materials is 14, head teachers participate in the training completed 14, head teachers participate in training Development of handbook / guidebook for head teachers is completed UEOs and AUEOs conduct follow-up inspection UEOs and AUEOs conduct follow-up inspection Organizational Review and Strengthening Accountable: Director Administration Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 ODCB Guide follow-up exercise completed Identification of staff that: (i) May need to be transferred post-pedp3, (ii) May need to be created from integration with discrete projects, and (iii) May result from the advice from the followon OCDB Guide exercise" MoPME, NAPE and DPE capacity strengthening continued in line with ODCB Guide follow-up MoPME, NAPE DPE and capacity strengthening continued in line with ODCB Guide follow-up Dissemination of new approved recruitment rules completed Result Area: 3.2 Effectiveness Year 6 14, head teachers participate in the training UEOs and AUEOs conduct follow-up inspection Year 6 Updated organogram for post-pedp3 MoPME, NAPE, and DPE capacity strengthening continued

152 3.2.1 Grade 5 PECE Strengthened Accountable: DG NAPE and Director Administration, DPE Year 3 Action plan implemented with at least 25% of items competency-based introduced in the 213 Grade 5 terminal exam and an additional 25% of competency-based items piloted Analysis of results of 213 Grade 5 terminal examination completed by DPE and NAPE and results disseminated Year 3 All teachers and head teachers positions (vacancies and new positions)s filled according to agreed recruitment procedures and on needs basis And (ii) at least 9% of new teacher and head teacher posts identified by the needsbased plan to be filled for the year filled. Recruitment rules with career paths for teachers and head 129 Year 4 Action plan implemented with at least 35 % of competency-based items introduced in the 214 Grade /Primary Education Completion Examination and piloting based on 1% of curriculum competencies Year 5 Updated action plan implemented with at least 5% of competency-based items introduced in the 215 Grade 5 PECE and piloting of items based on 1% of curriculum competencies Year 6 Updated action plan implemented with at least 65% of competency based items introduced in the 216 Grade 5 PECE and piloting based on 1% of curriculum competencies Analysis of results of 214 Grade 5 PECE Analysis of results of 215 Grade 5 PECE completed by DPE and NAPE and results completed by DPE and NAPE and results disseminated, using dissemination tools as disseminated specified in the action plan Grade 5 PECE Framework updated and approved by NAPE/MoPME and action plan prepared to implement it Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Accountable: Director, Administration Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 All teachers and head teachers positions All teachers and head teachers positions (vacancies and new positions) filled according to (vacancies and new positions) filled according to agreed recruitment procedures and norms and on agreed recruitment procedures and norms and on needs basis needs basis At least 9% of teachers and head teachers (vacancies and all new positions) filled according to needs based plan At least 9% of teachers and head teachers (vacancies and all new positions) filled according to needs based plan A comprehensive study on contact hours and policies and interventions conducted with Recommendations of comprehensive study (Year 4) on contact hours endorsed by MoPME Year 6 All teacher and head teacher positions (vacancies and new positions) filled according to agreed recruitment procedures and norms and on needs basis

153 teachers and, career paths, recruitment and promotion rules for DPE officers (field and Head Quarter) approved by Government of Bangladesh recommendations for increasing contact hours between teachers and students Action plan to implement recommendations from the contact hour study endorsed by MoPME Annual Primary School Census Year 3 ASC administration and report preparation and dissemination complete within academic year covering at least 6 types of schools Third party validation of validation census data completed Year students in 7 schools participated in Grade 5 NSA Accountable: Director, Monitoring and Evaluation Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 APSC (AY 215) administration and report APSC (AY 216) administration and report preparation and dissemination complete within preparation and dissemination complete within academic year covering all primary schools academic year covering all primary schools Agreed recommendations from the third party validation (Year 3) are implemented Third party validation completed examining the accuracy of data compared to prior Third Party Validation M&E capacity assessment study completed National Student Assessment (NSA) Accountable: Director, Program Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Results of NSA 213 disseminated nationwide NSA 215 conducted and utilized for further quality improvement of the system Preparation for NSA 215 completed Results of NSA 215 analyzed Needs assessment on strengthening A capacity development plan assessment/examination system conducted assessment/examination system developed Component 4: Planning and Management Result Area 4: Program Planning and Management 4.1 PEDP3 Management and Governance Accountable: Director, Program Division, DPE 13 Year 6 APSC (AY 217) survey completed within academic year covering all primary schools of Year 6 Results of NSA 215 disseminated nationwide and utilized for further quality improvement of the system Preparation for NSA 217 completed First phase of the capacity development plan to institutionalize NSA implemented

154 Year 3 PEDP3 management and steering committee meet regularly as per their TORs PEDP3 AOP for current year implemented PEDP3 tasks across divisions and agencies for current year coordinated and used to improve performance Year 3 fiduciary Annual review conducted Preparation of annual program financial statements Amounts budgeted are in line with MTBF Sector budget distributed to spending DDOs Distribution and ceilings of advances to cost center/ddos reviewed and MOF adjustments requested Quarterly monitoring through system-generated reports (ibas) 131 Year 4 PEDP3 management and steering committee meet regularly as per their TORs Year 5 PEDP3 management and steering committee meet regularly as per their TORs PEDP3 AOP for current year implemented PEDP3 AOP for current year implemented MTR governance report findings reviewed and PEDP3 tasks across divisions and agencies for next steps agreed current year coordinated by PSO and used to PSO operational as per TOR in updated program improve performance on the basis of agreed mechanisms documents PEDP3 tasks across divisions and agencies for current year coordinated by PSO and used to improve performance on the basis of agreed mechanisms 4.2 PEDP3 Financial Management Accountable: Director, Finance Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Annual fiduciary review conducted Annual fiduciary review conducted Annual program financial statements prepared Annual program financial statements prepared Amounts budgeted are in line with MTBF Amounts budgeted are in line with MTBF Sector budget distributed to spending DDOs Sector budget distributed to spending DDOs Distribution and ceilings of advances to cost center/ddos reviewed and MOF adjustments requested Distribution and ceilings of advances to cost center/ddos reviewed and MOF adjustments requested Quarterly monitoring through system-generated reports (ibas)/dpe Recording and monitoring advances in ADP review meeting at MoPME Quarterly review of the audit observation Quarterly monitoring through system-generated reports (ibas)/dpe Recording and monitoring advances in ADP review meeting at MoPME Quarterly review of the audit observation Year 6 PEDP3 management and steering committee meet regularly as per their TORs PEDP3 AOP for current year implemented PEDP3 tasks across divisions and agencies for current year coordinated by PSO and used to improve performance on the basis of agreed mechanisms Year 6 Annual program financial statements prepared Amounts budgeted are in line with MTBF Sector budget distributed to spending DDOs Distribution and ceilings of advances to cost center/ddos reviewed and MOF adjustments requested Quarterly monitoring through systemgenerated reports (ibas)/dpe Recording and monitoring advances in ADP review meeting at MoPME Quarterly review of the audit observation

155 Customized Accounting system introduced and implemented 4.3 Sector Finance Year 3 FY14-15 Primary education budget aligned with program framework and consistent with MTBF Actual primary expenditures for FY13-14 within 15% deviation of the originally approved budget software Accountable: Year 4 FY15-16 Primary education budget aligned with program framework and consistent with FY152 MTBF MoPME and MOF Year 5 FY Primary education budget aligned with program framework and consistent with FY MTBF Year 6 FY Primary education budget consistent with FY MTBF Actual primary expenditures for FY within 15%deviation of the originally approved budget Actual primary expenditures for FY within 15% deviation of the originally approved budget Revised FY primary-education budget allocation aligned with program framework 4.4 Strengthen Monitoring Functions Year 3 Central and non-central staff trained in improved and coordinated (RBM) monitoring processes Schools inspected using updated PEDP3 related tools Review of AOP strategy paper development by RBM TA team Consolidated 132 inspection Accountable: Director, Monitoring and Evaluation Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Modernizing of inspection tools designed and Based on the modernizing of inspection tool finalized including a small pilot with the pilot a further scale up may be undertaken purpose of strengthening data collection at the school level Methods for collecting and using data Methods for collecting and using data strengthening the current system through RBM strengthened by DPE, Districts, Upazilas and training for DPE, Districts, Upazilas and school school staff training in RBM. This will inform staff. This will inform SLIPs, UPEPs and other SLIPs, UPEPs and other school effectiveness school effectiveness planning. Training should planning. Training should highlight the highlight the importance of PSQLs and KPIs. To importance of PSQLs and KPIs. To be be completed in conjunction with ASPR completed in conjunction with ASPR dissemination. dissemination. Review and analyze reporting streams (inspection, progress, results), to assess how linkages between different streams and feedback to potential users can be strengthened Review PEDP3 inspection guides (and tools to All school inspections conducted using updated tools in line with PEDP3 and a consolidated action oriented inspection report drafted and shared quarterly Progress monitoring review at divisional and Year 6 Modernizing of inspection tool pilot report completed with recommendations for nation-wide roll-out Methods for collecting and using data strengthened by DPE, Districts, Upazilas and Schools staff training in RBM. This will inform SLIPs, UPEPs and other school effectiveness planning. Training should highlight the importance of PSQLs and KPIs. To be completed in conjunction with ASPR dissemination. RBM Resource pool functioning. RBM principles included in all relevant training practices. All school inspections conducted

156 report drafted and shared with DPE and MoPME Progress review and monitoring meeting at divisional levels conducted using RBM approaches RBM-focused AOP planning process supported at central level include action-oriented recommendations for school, Upazila, district, divisional, and central level) completed, with reference to inspections highlighted in Sub-component 2.1.3: Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education The DPE M&E Division further institutionalizes of RBM with further TA national level conducted using RBM approaches biannually using updated tools in line with PEDP3 and a consolidated action oriented inspection report drafted and shared quarterly at District level Progress monitoring review at divisional and national level conducted using RBM approaches biannually Education Household survey conducted 4.5 Human Resource Development Year 3 Stock take of recommendations progress ODCBG and Accountable: Director, Admin Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Action Plan on the ODCBG developed and A set of related training options are made approved (link with proposed follow-up activity) available (or developed). These should align with existing competencies and standards defined in the curriculum, DPEd and TED plans Needs-based list of training needs compiled Needs-based list of training needs compiled from field levels and implemented in from field levels and implemented in collaboration with TED plan collaboration with TED plan Existing CPD approach for field level officers Existing CPD approach for field level officers implemented continued and documented 4.6 Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Year 3 Accountable: Director, Program Division, DPE Year 4 Year 5 Customize the PPP framework for MoPME Implement PPP framework for MoPME Disseminate PPP framework widely through workshops and materials 133 Year 6 A set of standards and competencies for professional development of field level staff is developed, and aligned to a set of related training options taking stock of effectiveness so far as part of exercise Needs-based list of training needs compiled from field levels and implemented Implement MoPME Year 6 PPP framework for

157 Consultation workshops on the Collaboration Guidelines for PPE 134 GO-NGO

158 CHAPTER C: MONITORING, EVALUATION AND REPORTING The increased global focus on the ability to monitor, evaluate and report on the progress and success of development programs has been well recognized by the Government and DPs. The monitoring, evaluation and reporting processes of PEDP3 have been designed to ensure that both the Government and DPs are able to utilize the same mechanisms to fulfill their obligations under the program. This ensures that there are no parallel systems of additional frameworks and that both Government and DPs rely on a single source when disseminating information. Thus, under PEDP3 the Government and DPs use the same reports for monitoring and evaluation. C.1 MONITORING While the Government and DPs recognized the importance of ongoing monitoring activities, the size, scope and complexity of PEDP3 meant that monitoring would be challenging. The monitoring structures created had to both provide insight into the progress of the program while ensuring the Government and DPs were able easily to engage with the framework and access the information required to make informed evidence-based judgments about strategic approaches. This required the creation of a monitoring structure that allowed all parties to access relevant information without multiple parallel systems. The monitoring matrix was used to inform decision-making at the PEDP3 Mid-Term Review (MTR). A time-series analysis of M&E elements was presented to attendees at the MTR Retreat of March 213 to demonstrate the areas in which progress has been made and identify areas where renewed effort was required. The availability of this data and the ability to undertake this level of analysis further reinforced the commitment of the Government and DPs to the ongoing use of the M&E matrix to ensure evidence based decision-making. As part of the MTR process the PEDP3 M&E matrix was refined to ensure its ongoing relevance and ease of use. The new matrix, like its predecessor, includes each of the following indicator types. However these have been rationalized and reduced to the numbers indicated in the narrative below following discussions between the Government and DPs. The new version of the M&E matrix can be found in Section C Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): The 15 KPIs are used to monitor progress at the outcome level of PEDP3. The KPIs are overarching indicators measuring the overall progress of the education system. Primary School Quality Level indicators (PSQLs): The 14 PSQLs are used as a proxy to understand whether minimum standards are being met across the education system, especially at the school level. These are published each year in the publically available Annual Sector Performance Report. Progress against the PSQLs informs the distribution of fixed tranche funding from DPs Sub-component Indicators: Each of the four components of the PEDP3 framework encapsulates multiple sub-components that outline the activities to be executed in that component. Progress against sub-components is tracked through 81 indicators. Disbursement Linked Indicators (DLIs): The nine DLIs are sub-components that, once achieved, trigger the disbursement of funds from DPs to GoB. DLI assessment is guided by the provision of evidence to demonstrate achievement. This evidence is defined in biannual Joint Consultative Meetings and is guide by the protocols and indicators outlined in the DLI matrix (see Implementation Guide Section C.4). Non-KPIs: The 11 non-kpis are elements that are included in the M&E matrix at the request of DPE line divisions. These indicators are used to track progress in areas that were not otherwise covered by the M&E matrix.

159 The GoB and DPs triangulate a number of sources to strengthen the monitoring and evaluation process. Data used to calculate the measurements contained in the M&E matrix are collected from a range of sources and a number of different mechanisms including: The Annual Primary School Census (APSC); National Student Assessment (NSA) Primary Education Completion Exam (PECE) Textbook distribution database; DPE administrative records and Annual Operations Plan Bangladesh s National Census; Household Income and Expenditure Survey; The Enumerated Household Survey; and Data obtained from national agencies including the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and the Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS). The ability to bring together these different sources of information to ensure increasingly robust monitoring and evaluation systems demonstrates the progress made throughout the PEDP3 to ensure the institutionalization of results based monitoring practices. C.2 EVALUATION Evaluation is used in PEDP3 to fulfill three main objectives: 1. Support continuous improvement through which Government and DPs make evidence based adjustments to implementation that support better educational outcomes. 2. Explore the impact that discrete elements of the program have on both implementation and educational outcomes. 3. Generate evidence of the holistic impact of PEDP3 that can inform future education system development both in Bangladesh and across the developing world. Continuous Improvement Evaluations: Evaluation used to support continuous improvement of the program is undertaken on a regular basis throughout the program. Generally this is on a yearly basis, executed through structures already in place to support the program such as the M&E unit of DPE or Working Groups. An example of this includes the time series analysis of data to inform decision-making at the MTR. For the most part this evidence was generated from existing mechanisms such as the APSC. This allows for decision-making that is generated from evidence at hand. This guides implementation level decision-making or highlights issues that require exploration such as those in the second type of evaluation. Discrete evaluations: Discrete evaluations take place when Government and DPs identify a specific focus area that requires more in-depth study. This may include program interventions, delivery mechanisms, processes or the overarching institutional framework. Some examples of this type of evaluation are the longitudinal study of the Each Child Learns intervention and the Quality Study undertaken as part of the. Holistic impact evaluations: These overarching impact evaluations should be aimed at creating evidence that demonstrates the impact of PEDP3 as a model for driving improvement in Education Systems. To this point there have been no evaluations looking at the overarching impact of the system. This should be a focus of the second half of the program (i.e. the post-mid-term Review period). The PEDP3 is a unique program, which can generate lessons to both support the development of future education programs in Bangladesh and increase the global evidence base for educational programming in developing countries. 136

160 C.3 REPORTING There are two main types of reporting undertaken to support the PEDP3 implementation process: Progress reporting and Financial Reporting. Progress reporting This section presents a brief description of the non-financial reports that support disbursement. Annual Primary School Census: The Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Division and the Information Management Division (IMD) jointly prepare the APSC report. The APSC report highlights the main findings of the data generated through the APSC. The report includes sections on pre-primary, learning and teaching, access and participation and internal efficiency. The report also includes data on infrastructure, textbooks, and other inputs and outputs. During PEDP3, the APSC will be expanded to include more types of schools. DPE has made excellent progress in developing this report. It is increasingly timely and the quality of the report has improved year on year. In the second half of the program the focus will be on increasing the timeliness and data quality of the report. Annual Sector Performance Report: The M&E Division is responsible for preparing the Annual Sector Performance Report (ASPR). The ASPR tracks performance at both the outcome level (15 KPIs) and output level (14 PSQLs). Focusing on strategic issues, the ASPR will analyze trends and interpret findings in terms of policy and strategy implications. ASPR data sources include the APSC, the NSA, the HIES, the EHS, the Grade 5 PECE Report, and reports from DPE divisions, other government agencies (BBS, BANBIES) and development partners. DPE have made excellent progress in developing this report. It is increasingly timely and the quality of the report has improved year on year. In the second half of the program the focus will be on increasing the timeliness of the report, continuing to enhance the quality of data, and improving the circulation and subsequent dissemination of information to the school and district level stakeholders. Financial reporting PEDP3 financing arrangements include a combination of fixed and variable funding tranches from DPs. For each tranche type a set of reports is required to assess if the requirements are met for the GoB to submit a withdrawal application. During the JARM and JCM progress is assessed based on the submitted reports. As all disbursement is based on the Interim Financial Report, this report is a requirement for all tranches. In addition, some of the reports that are used to assess overall progress under the fixed tranche requirements are also mentioned in the JFA and bilateral agreements, as part of the legal requirements. Table C.3 (i) provides a list of reports required for PEDP3 review and disbursement Processes Table C.3 (i) Reports required for PEDP3 Disbursement Report Interim Financial Reports Showing expenditures by the budget heads for PEDP3 Progress and Achievement of DLIs Annual Audit Report 137 Timing Quarterly Unit Responsible Finance Division, DPE Remarks JFA requirement, all disbursement Semiannual Annual Program Division, DPE Variable tranches CAG, MoF JFA requirement and Fixed

161 Tranche Approved Budget Using Government Economics Codes Procurement Plan Annual Finance Division, DPE Annual Finance Division, DPE Annual Sector Performance Report Annual M&E Division, DPE School Census Report Annual M&E Division Annual Fiduciary Review Report Annual Joint Report DP and Finance Division, DPE PFM Action Plan status update Annual Finance Division, DPE JFA requirement and Fixed Tranche Environmental Safeguards Status Update Social Safeguards Status Update Annual Planning Division, DPE Planning Division, DPE JFA requirement and Fixed Tranche JFA requirement and Fixed Tranche G&IE ƒaction Plan Status Update Annual Policy and Operations Division, DPE JFA requirement and Fixed Tranche Sub-Component Progress Report Annual Program Division, DPE Review purpose AOP and Budget Proposal for following year Annual Planning Division and Finance Division, DPE Review purpose, Sector Finance DLI, and Fixed tranche Policy Matrix Status Update Annual PSU, MoPME Review purpose 138 Annual Review processes and the sector finance DLI JFA requirement for procurement arrangement Review and Fixed Tranche Review and Annual School Census DLI JFA requirement and Fixed Tranche

162 C.4 DISBURSEMENT LINKED INDICATOR MATRIX Disbursement Linked Indicators are nine sub-components whose achievement triggers the disbursement of funding from DPs to the GoB (for the variable tranche element of DP financing). The DLI matrix guides assessment of achievement of these DLIs. The matrix contains the annual results to be achieved by program year as well as the protocol that outlines the evidence that is required to demonstrate achievement. The original DLI matrix was finalised in November 211. In November 212 the DLI matrix was revised to record agreed changes to the protocol of the DLI 4.2.1: Public Sector Finance. The matrix was then further updated as part of the PEDP3 MTR process. These discussions were concluded at a meeting of the PEDP3 technical committee held on 2 September 214. The updated DLI Matrix (including updates for 3 indicators for Year 3 and defined targets and amended protocols for Year 4-6) can be found below. Table C.4 (i): Disbursement Linked Indicator Matrix 1.4 Production and Distribution of Textbooks Accountable: Chairman, NCTB (production) Year At least 75% of all eligible schools receive all approved textbooks (Grade I to V) within one month of school opening day. Year 1 At least 8% of all eligible schools receive all approved textbooks (Grade I to V) within one month of school opening day Third party validation of monitoring mechanism completed 139 Director, DPE Administration Division (distribution) Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 At least 85% of all At least 9% of all At least 9% of all eligible eligible schools eligible schools schools receive all approved receive all approved receive all textbooks for Grades 1 to 5 textbooks (Grade I approved within one month of school to V) within one textbooks for opening day, of which Grade 2 to 5 within Grades 1 to 3 textbooks are month of school opening day one month of based on new curriculum school opening day developed by NCTB Monitoring mechanism improved with actions agreed upon by MoPME and MOE based on validation results At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all revised Grade I textbooks based on new curriculum developed by Recommendations from MoPME/DPE/NCTB workshop (214) for ensuring textbooks are printed according to specification are actioned Year 5 At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all approved textbooks for Grades 1 to 5 within one month of school opening day, which are all based on new curriculum developed by NCTB Study on production and distribution of textbooks completed (including print quality) Year 6 At least 9% of all eligible schools receive all approved textbooks for Grades 1 to 5 within one month of school opening day, which are all based on new curriculum developed by NCTB A workshop held to review findings from the Year 5 Study on production and distribution of textbooks makes recommendations for

163 NCTB within one month of school opening day future planning PROTOCOL Definition: Approved textbooks for Grades 1 to 5 are delivered under the supervision of MoPME and MOE to all eligible primary schools within one month of school opening day. Approved textbooks are those which are endorsed by the NCTB. Eligible Schools are all schools mentioned in the Book Distribution Guidelines of [213]. All textbooks is defined as 98 percent of the demanded textbooks by a particular school. Recommendations for ensuring textbooks are printed according to specification will be based on recommendations from the March 3, 214 MoPME/DPE/NCTB Textbook Workshop, which include: (i) revising the MoU between DPE and NCTB to include the establishment of a committee to assess the capacity of the printing press prior to awarding the contract, and the authority to monitor both the press during printing and the inspection agency; and (ii) printing presses will provide a sample textbook prior to printing. A study commissioned to focus on the distribution of textbooks to the students will be completed in Year 5. The study on textbook distribution in Year 5 should cover at least the following: Process of distribution from Upazila to schools and to students; and quality of printing. Textbooks for major subjects (Bangla, Mathematics, Science, English and Social Studies) will have been developed, tried out, reviewed and accordingly refined in phases from Year 2 through Year 5 based on the new curriculum developed by NCTB. Monitoring mechanism: DPE s reconciled reports based on: (i) reports based on receipts signed in the field; (ii) reports submitted by NCTB, and (iii) electronic database prepared by the Upazilas using prescribed format and software. After Year 2, the monitoring mechanism integrates actions from Third Party Validation as agreed by MoPME and MOE. Source: DPE s textbook distribution database, monitoring records and progress reports; book distribution guidelines; third party validation reports; MoPME-MOE agreement on improved monitoring mechanism; NCTB updated curriculum; Minutes from MoPME/DPE/NCTB Textbook Workshop of March 3, 214; textbook distribution study Diploma in Primary Education Year Comprehensive TED plan prepared and adopted by MoPME 14 Year 1 All preparatory steps for introduction of Dip-ed completed in accordance with the Plan Accountable: Director, Training Division Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Dip in Ed, piloted in Dip in Ed offered DPEd framework updated 7 PTIs with number in 29 PTIs with and endorsed by of instructors number of NAPE/MoPME according to the plan instructors according to the plan DPEd offered in 36 fully functional PTIs with a minimum of 13 instructors Year 5 DPEd offered in 5 fully functional PTIs in line with the updated DPEd framework Recommendations from the Year 4 study reviewed and endorsed Year 6 DPEd offered in 6 fully functional PTIs in line with the updated DPEd framework Recommendations of Year 5 study reviewed and endorsed by

164 Study conducted to explore alternative methods and modalities to implement and/or expand the DPEd by MoPME A study conducted to inform planning for moving the DPEd from an in-service to a pre-service program for all government primary school teachers MoPME PROTOCOL Definition: The National Plan and Strategy for Primary Education Teacher Education and Development (TED Plan; June 211) defines the professional standards/competencies of teachers, head teachers and Assistant Upazila Education Officers (AUEOs) and the strategy for improving initial in-service training (with the introduction of a new DPEd), Continuous Professional Development (CPD) in-service, teacher supervision, networking and mentoring. Preparatory steps for introduction of the DPEd include sufficient instructors in each PTI; curriculum, training materials & assessment tools development; training of instructors as specified in the TED plan; and monitoring/assessing the initial steps of the pilot leading to refinement and updating of the DPEd framework. Updated DPEd framework is the revised action plan for expanding the DPEd pilot beyond 29 PTIs. It is based on lessons learned from the pilot and the first phase of the implementation. It includes shifting the starting month of the DPEd from July to January to align with the academic year. Source: TED plan as approved by MoPME Secretary (i.e. original plan approved on June 26, 211); updated DPEd framework endorsed by MoPME; reports from training division and NAPE, curriculum and training materials and administrative data Pre-Primary Education Year Guidelines prepared and endorsed by MoPME on the role of NGOs in preprimary education. 141 Year 1 Integrated database of PPE provision by type of provider completed Accountable: Director, Policy and Operations Division, DPE Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 At least 15. PPE At least 6% of Assessment of current status teachers placed and PPE teachers in of implementation of trained in areas of GPS are trained in minimum quality standards greatest need using new prein PPE classrooms primary curriculum and materials Year 5 Expansion Plan updated, incorporating equity and quality criteria Year 6

165 Plan for PPE expansion approved by MoPME Curriculum, standards, and materials for PPE and teacher training approved by MoPME PPE provision in at least 75 percent of GPS PPE provision (trained teachers and PPE materials availability) in at least 75% of the 37, GPSs 5% of all GPS and NNGPS to develop plans to upgrade provision to meet PPE minimum quality standards PROTOCOL Definition: 1 year of PPE means organized programs for children age 5 through 6. The GO-NGO Guidelines (approved in 212) define the role of NGOs in the delivery of pre-primary education and specify the type of partnerships that can exist between government and NGOs. This includes the assistance that NGOs can provide to assist GPS and NNGPS in: setting up new PPE classes; training PPE teachers; preparing age appropriate materials; and providing PPE if required in the catchment area. The review and update to the GO-NGO Guidelines (in Year 4) is to be based on a consultative process. It will assess lessons learned in implementation of the guidelines with a view to improving implementation and enhanced application of these Guidelines. The integrated database of providers (Year 1) includes the location of services and, combined with the child survey data, provides a map of areas of greatest need for PPE. The PPE Expansion Plan (Year 1) is based on needs identified through the database, minimum standards for PPE and the role of NGOs/private sector. This Expansion Plan defines the pace of recruitment and training of PPE teachers, the type and duration of training, timing of classes, and pace of expanding PPE to universal coverage for all children aged 5 through 6. PPE Teachers are recruited through a transparent process: they can be regular primary teachers or contract teachers hired by schools within the local communities. The updated PPE expansion plan (Year 5) is to be developed incorporating: (1) prioritization of provision of new services in the areas of greatest need, based on agreed equity criteria; (2) prioritization of improved service provision in existing PPE classes on the basis of achieving minimum quality standards incrementally in all PPE classrooms (linked to recommendations of Year 4 Assessment); (3) implementing specific mechanisms of partnership at the school level as per the GO-NGO Collaboration and Implementation Guidelines and updated mapping of Pre-primary provision. Equity refers to the ability for the most disadvantaged children to access PPE services. Minimum quality standards refers to ensuring that services have: i) A dedicated space for PPE classes as per the Preschool Operational Framework (28); ii) A 1:3 teacher/student ratio; iii) A trained teacher per PPE class; and iv) Quality teaching & learning materials. These standards are a sub set of the 18 indicators in the original PPE Expansion Plan. Source: A letter of endorsement from MoPME accompanying GO-NGO Guidelines (letters accompanying the initial and the revised Guidelines, respectively); PPE provider database; PPE expansion plan (initial and revised version(s) ), and minimum quality standards for PPE approved by MoPME; letter of endorsement from MoPME accompanying approved PPE curriculum, standards, and materials; Annual Primary School Census, CAMPE reports; administrative data including records of teaching personnel Needs based Infrastructure Development Year 142 Year 1 Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, and LGED, DPHE Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6

166 Plan for prioritized needs based infrastructure finalized and approved by MoPME. At least 1% of planned needs-based infrastructure development completed according to criteria and technical standards At least 3% of planned needsbased infrastructure development completed according to criteria and technical standards Third party validation of infrastructure development according to criteria and technical standards At least 35 % of planned needsbased infrastructure development completed according to criteria and technical standards Third party validation of infrastructure development according to criteria and technical standards At least 65% of planned needs-based infrastructure development completed according to criteria and technical standards 1% of planned needs based infrastructure development completed Recommendations from efficiency gains study and the Year 3 TPV endorsed by MoPME Third party validation of infrastructure development according to criteria and technical standards PROTOCOL Definition: The plan prioritizes needs-based infrastructure for five years on the basis of agreed criteria for determining needs and for prioritizing across those needs. The plan was updated during the 214 JARM/MTR and includes: (i) additional classrooms (39,3), (ii) toilets/wash Blocks (18,5), (iii) water points (39,3), and (iv) major maintenance (5,). These targets will be used for assessing the DLI targets from Year 3. Building specifications and technical standards are those designed by the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) and approved by MoPME. Technical standards should also include guidelines for the standard layout plan of all components of infrastructure to be constructed in a school campus. The layout plan is jointly prepared by the LGED, Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), and Upazila Education Officers (UEO) before starting any construction work. Approved means: Letter of endorsement from MoPME accompanying Needs Based Infrastructure plans. Source: LGED construction supervision reports, construction contracts, Annual Primary School Census, third party validation reports commissioned by DPE Decentralized School Management and Governance Year 143 Year 1 Accountable: Director, Planning and Development Division, DPE Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6

167 Revised circular/ guidelines for SLIPs, including monitoring arrangements, approved by MoPME and distributed to all schools SMC guidelines (in accordance with and including reference to SLIP guidelines) and mechanism for funds flow approved by MoPME At least 6% of schools having prepared SLIPs and received funds according to the SMC guidelines 5% of schools having prepared SLIPs and received funds according to the SMC guidelines Revised guidelines for UPEPs, including identification of expenditures for block grants, approved by MoPME and distributed to all Upazila s At last 1% of Upazilas having prepared UPEPs and received funds according to the UPEP guidelines At least 75% of schools having prepared SLIPs and received funds according to SMC guidelines validated by expenditure tracking survey At least 25% of Upazila having prepared UPEPs and received funds based on UPEP guidelines validated by expenditure tracking survey Recommendations of expenditure tracking survey (PETS) and lessons learned study are endorsed by MoPME At least 75% of schools (GPS and NNGPS) have prepared SLIPs and have received funds on the basis of guidelines updated in Year 4 At least 4% of Upazilas have prepared UPEPs according to UPEP 212 guidelines At least 5% of Upazilas have prepared UPEPs on the basis of updated guidelines SMC, SLIP and guidelines updated UPEP PROTOCOL Definition: A SLIP is a School Level Improvement Plan setting out how a school s resources will be applied to improve its performance. The School Management Committee (SMC), teachers, parents and the school community prepare a SLIP. The revised guidelines (Year & Year 1) allow for SLIPs to differ from one school to the next, depending on the needs identified in their respective situations. An Upazila Primary Education Plan (UPEP) is a planning instrument setting out how each school s SLIP will be supported. It also addresses education from the broader Upazila perspective, making clear how Quality Education for All will be achieved. The revised guidelines (Year 1) identify expenditures eligible for block grants and allow for UPEPs to differ from one Upazila to the next, depending upon needs of schools in their respective Upazilas. The guidelines revised in Years and 1 will be updated in Year 4. The updated guidelines will be based on endorsed recommendations of the PETS, lessons learned study and ongoing discussions on the school effectiveness framework (including linkages between SLIPs, PSQLs and SMC Guidelines) and will specify: how improvement plans should be prepared; what UPEP/SLIPs will cover; the fund flow mechanisms (including flexibility to reallocate funds across various block grants to implement UPEPs); how the use of funds will be monitored. The updated guidelines will also provide direction for using data from APSC and the ASPR (contact hours, PSQLs, etc.) and other measures included in the school effectiveness framework. Good practices of SLIPs and UPEPs will be disseminated regularly. 144

168 Source: SLIPs, UPEPs, and SMC guidelines as approved by MoPME; MOF s approval of advances to schools; ibas reports, government orders, and expenditure confirmation from Upazilas showing SLIP grant disbursed by Upazilas; administrative records from DPE; analyses of samples of SLIPs and UPEPs; reports from expenditure tracking survey(s) and lessons learned study, school mapping including identification of most deprived areas/schools Grade 5 PECE Strengthened Year A 5-year Action plan for improvements in Grade V terminal exam developed by NAPE and endorsed by MoPME and including revising test items to gradually transform exam into competency basedtest Year 1 Revised 211 Grade V terminal exam based on action plan and pilot results, implemented, including guidelines developed for markers and training of markers New test items developed by NAPE on selected competencies and piloted with accompanying guidelines for pilot test administration and training of test administrators PROTOCOL Analysis of results of 211 Grade V terminal examination completed by DPE and NAPE and results disseminated Accountable: DG NAPE and Director Administration, DPE Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Action plan Action plan Grade 5 PECE Framework updated and approved by implemented with at implemented with least 1% of items at least 25% of NAPE/MoPME and action items competency- plan prepared to implement competency-based based introduced it and updated action plan introduced in the 212 Grade V in the 213 Grade implemented with at least terminal exam and V terminal exam 35% of competency-based items introduced in the 214 an additional 15% of and an additional 25% of Grade 5 PECE and piloting competency-based competency-based based on 1% of items piloted items piloted curriculum competencies Analysis of results of 212 Grade V terminal examination completed by DPE and NAPE and results disseminated Analysis of results of 213 Grade V terminal examination completed by DPE and NAPE and results disseminated Analysis of results of 214 Grade 5 PECE completed by DPE and NAPE and results disseminated Year 5 Updated action plan implemented with at least 5% of competency-based items introduced in the 215 Grade 5 PECE and piloting of items based on 1% of curriculum competencies Year 6 Updated action plan implemented with at least 65% of competency based items introduced in the 216 Grade 5 PECE and piloting based on 1% of curriculum competencies Analysis of results of 215 Grade 5 PECE completed by DPE and NAPE and results disseminated Definition: The 5-year Action Plan (Year ) for improvements in Grade 5 PECE and the Grade 5 PECE Framework specify the percentage of competency-based items to be 145

169 introduced each year and all activities required to administer the exam, such as piloting. From piloting, the item bank is being developed, from which exam items are chosen. Each item can be reused once approximately every three years. The purpose of piloting 1% competency-based items each year is to develop item writers expertise as well as to ensure that there are sufficient items for selection for the examinations. The updated framework and action plan (Year 4) will include reaching 8% competency based items in 217 and 1% competency based items by 218 Coordination between NAPE and DPE will be the responsibility of MoPME. Analysis of results includes: (i) an analysis of pass rates by gender, subjects and Upazilas conducted by DPE; (ii) an analysis by NAPE of marking and scoring of a sample of answer scripts in selected Upazilas. The results of the analysis are expected to be disseminated to teacher/educationalists, parents/guardians, and teachers for providing examples of improved teaching and learning through tools specified in the updated action plan. Source: 5-year Action Plan as approved by DG, NAPE and MoPME (original plan approved in Year ); the Grade 5 Completion Examination Framework (revised in Year 4) and Action Plan; sample of test items and questionnaire of Grade 5 PECE; test analysis reports by DPE and NAPE Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Year Assessment of needs for new teachers based on: (i) verification of current teaching force and (ii) needs based infrastructure plan completed and approved by MoPME. 146 Year 1 All teachers and head teachers positions (vacancies and new positions) filled according to agreed recruitment procedures and on needs basis. Accountable: Director, Administration Division, DPE Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 All teachers and All teachers and All teachers and head head teachers head teachers teachers positions positions (vacancies positions (vacancies and new and new positions) (vacancies and positions) filled according filled according to new positions) s to agreed recruitment agreed recruitment filled according to procedures and norms and procedures and on agreed recruitment on needs basis needs basis. procedures and on needs basis And (ii) at least 9% of new teacher and head teacher posts identified by the Year assessment to be filled for the year filled And (ii) at least 9% of new teacher and head teacher posts identified by the Year assessment to be filled for the year filled And (ii) at least 9% of new teacher and head teacher posts identified by the needs-based plan to be filled for the year filled. At least 9% of teachers and head teachers (vacancies and all new positions) filled according to needs based plan Year 5 All teachers and head teachers positions (vacancies and new positions) filled according to agreed recruitment procedures and norms and on needs basis At least 9% of teachers and head teachers (vacancies and all new positions) filled according to needs based plan Year 6 All teacher and head teacher positions (vacancies and new positions) filled according to agreed recruitment procedures and norms and on needs basis

170 Revised final proposal of career paths for teachers and head teachers and, career paths, recruitment and promotion rules for DPE officers (field and Head Quarter) submitted by MoPME to the committee of the Joint Secretary, Regulations, Ministry of Public Administration Recruitment rules with career paths for teachers and head teachers and, career paths, recruitment and promotion rules for DPE officers (field and Head Quarter) approved by Government of Bangladesh A comprehensive study on contact hours and policies and interventions conducted with recommendations for increasing contact hours between teachers and students Recommendations of comprehensive study (Year 4) on contact hours endorsed by MoPME Action plan to implement recommendations from the contact hour study endorsed by MoPME PROTOCOL Definition: Needs based analysis (conducted by DPE) of needs for new teachers requires a detailed review of EMIS and teacher database to identify schools below minimum standards followed by site verification by Upazila Education Officer (UEO) or Assistant Upazila Education Officer (AUEO). The assessment of needs for new teachers (Year ) has been updated during the JARM/MTR 214. These will be used to assess achievement of the DLI starting in Year 3. The Year 4 attrition target is to be established by DPE, endorsed by MoPME and recorded in the second JCM ROD of 214. The Year 5 attrition target is to be established by DPE, endorsed by MoPME, and recorded in the JARM ROD of 215. Approval of Recruitment rules, career paths and recruitment and promotion rules by Government of Bangladesh means that the Ministry of Public Administration has issued a Government Order. DPE will share status of approval process annually. Recruitment norms include: (i) applications screened by committee (or on-line), (ii) anonymous exam, (iii) weight given to exam (8), academic record (5), and viva voce (15) The study on contact hours and policies (Year 4) will include but not be limited to analysis of single and staggered shift schools, teacher deployment, student: teacher ratios, teacher incentives, use of SLIPs/UPEPs, infrastructure needs and the use of private tuition). Source: Needs-based analysis of new teacher and head teacher positions approved by MoPME; career paths as approved by Ministry of Public Administration; Teacher database and EMIS, Administrative data on teacher recruitment process. 147

171 3.2.3 Annual Primary School Census Year ASC questionnaire to meet PEDP3 requirements as approved by MoPME Year 1 Plan approved by DPE to expand coverage of monitoring system to all primary schools with periodic validations New ASC questionnaire fully implemented IT function separated from EMIS function; EMIS and M&E staffed with at least 2 statisticians each Accountable: Director, Monitoring and Evaluation Division, DPE Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 ASC administration ASC APSC (AY 215) and report administration and administration and report preparation and report preparation preparation and dissemination and dissemination dissemination complete complete within complete within within academic year academic year academic year covering all primary schools covering at least 6 covering at least 6 types of schools types of schools Internal data Third party Agreed recommendations validation validation of from the third party mechanisms in place validation census validation (Year 3) are and validation of data completed implemented data accuracy completed as reported in an annex of the ASC report describing the background check used during data entry and the data cleaning rules, and possible other validation mechanism Year 5 APSC (AY 216) administration and report preparation and dissemination complete within academic year covering all primary schools Third party validation completed examining the accuracy of data compared to prior Third Party Validation M&E capacity assessment study completed Year 6 APSC (AY 217) survey completed within academic year covering all primary schools PROTOCOL Definition: The census questionnaire collects information on enrollment, repetition, teachers qualifications, SLIPs, physical infrastructure and availability of teachinglearning materials. To adjust to PEDP3 needs, new information required on pre-primary education, distribution of textbooks and stipend beneficiaries was integrated into the APSC from 213. In 213 the Annual School Census (ASC) was also renamed the Annual Primary School Census (APSC). All primary schools at a minimum means schools that participate in the Grade 5/Primary Education Completion Exam (PECE). Efforts will be made to extend coverage to schools delivering primary education that do not participate in the PECE. 148

172 The terms of reference for the TPVs (Year 3 and 5) need to be linked to allow comparability between TPVs and comparison of their results across the years. The third party validation will focus on examining the accuracy of data. It will also include recommendations, if needed, of methods to improve data accuracy. The M&E capacity assessment (Year 5) should assess the capacity to support: efficient and timely data collection, validation, storage, analysis and reporting; and resultsbased management at the central and field level. Source: M&E and EMIS data; Annual Primary School Census Report; Third Party Validation report(s) 4.3 Sector Finance Year FY11-12 Primary education budget aligned with program framework and consistent with MTBF Year 1 FY12-13 Primary education budget aligned with program framework and consistent with MTBF Actual primary education expenditures for FY11-12 within 15% deviation of the originally approved budget Accountable: MoPME and MOF Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 FY13-14 Primary FY14-15 Primary FY15-16 Primary education education budget education budget budget aligned with aligned with aligned with program framework and program framework program consistent with FY15-2 and consistent with framework and MTBF MTBF consistent with 1419 MTBF Actual primary Actual primary Actual primary expenditures expenditures for expenditures for for FY within FY12-13 within FY13-14 within 15%deviation of the 15% deviation of the 15% deviation of originally approved budget originally approved the originally budget approved budget Year 5 FY Primary education budget aligned with program framework and consistent with FY 1621 MTBF Year 6 FY Primary education budget consistent with FY 1722 MTBF Actual primary expenditures for FY within 15% deviation of the originally approved budget Revised FY primary-education budget allocation aligned with program framework PROTOCOL: Definition: Primary education financing adequate to implement the government s PEDP3, equal to or more than the original primary education budget for FY13/14 and whereby the share of the PEDP3 development budget as part of the overall primary education development budget is incrementally increasing each year. For Year 6 the adequacy of the Primary Education FY 17/18 budget will be determined based on consistency with FY MTBF. Process: The Review in May checks if in the draft primary education budget all PEDP3 program components have adequate budget, if draft primary education budget is consistent with the MTBF, and if the primary education budget is equal to or more than the budget of FY (for the FY15/16 and FY16/17 draft primary education budgets). The share of PEDP3 development budget as part of the overall primary education development budget will also be reviewed to ensure an incremental increase. In May, the July-March expenditure statement is reviewed to assess that expenditure is on track. Final compliance with the DLI will be checked in September/October on the 149

173 basis of: (i) the originally approved budget allocation for the ongoing FY, (ii) the originally approved budget allocation for the previous FY, and (iii) June IFR for the full primary education expenditure during the previous FY. For Year 6 the consistency of the FY budget with FY MTBF will be reviewed in May and assessed in September/October. Also in Year 6, the adequacy of the revised FY budget allocation to finance the program in its last year will be reviewed in May and assessed in September/October. Source: For May: Budget Circular 1 & 2; draft MoPME budget proposed to MoF for next year, draft AOP for next year, IFR until March for ongoing year. For September/October: Medium Term Budget Framework (MTBF), approved budget of previous year, approved budget for ongoing, year, approved AOP and June IFR. 15

174 C.5 MONITORING AND EVALUATION MATRIX Table C.5 (i): Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix Component 1: Teaching and Learning Result Area 1: Learning Outcomes Type S/N KPI Reference KPI 1 Baseline (21) Target (217) Percentage of Grade 3 Students Who Achieve Grade 3 Competency Bangla (All) Bangla (Boys) Bangla (Girls) Mathematics (All) Mathematics (Boys) Mathematics (Girls) Percentage of Grade 5 Students Who Achieve Grade 5 Competency Bangla (All) Bangla (Boys) Bangla (Girls) Mathematics (All) Mathematics (Boys) Mathematics (Girls) Grade 5 Primary Education Completion Examination pass rate (PECE) Pass Rate (All) Pass Rate (Boys) 92.7% 95% Pass Rate (Girls) 92.% 95% Grade 5 Primary Education Completion Examination (PECE) Participation Rate (based on Descriptive Row) Shikhbe Protiti Shishu [Each Child Learns] 87.7% 95% KPI KPI 3 Non-KPI Sub Indicators Non-KPI 1 Source Responsible Division 67% 66% 68% 5% 51% 49% 75% 75% 75% 6% 6% 6% NSA NSA NSA NSA NSA NSA M&E M&E M&E M&E M&E M&E 25% 25% 26% 33% 33% 32% 35% 35% 35% 4% 4% 4% NSA NSA NSA NSA NSA NSA M&E M&E M&E M&E M&E M&E 92.3% 95% PECE report PECE report PECE report PECE report IMD IMD IMD IMD

175 components and indicators Number of schools participate in Each Child Learns (ECL) N/A 1, Percentage of Grade 3 ECL students achieving Grade 3 competency in Bangla Percentage of Grade 3 ECL students achieving Grade 3 competency in Math Number of education personnel trained in ECL, including mentoring N/A 75% N/A 6% N/A 385 Percentage of schools provided with graded supplementary reading materials School and Classroom Based Assessment Number of schools pilot school-based assessment training N/A 1% DLI PSQL 1 N/A Admin record NSA report NSA report Admin record Admin record Program Admin record Admin record Admin record Training M&E M&E Program Program Percentage of head teachers & teachers received school-based assessment training Percentage of education officials/aueo received school-based assessment training Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened Number of subjects by grades where curriculum revision has been approved N/A 1% Training N/A 1% subjects subjects Admin record Admin record NCTB Number of subjects by grades where new textbooks have been developed based on revised curriculum (including the refinement of G1-3 textbooks for main five subjects in 215 and G4-5 textbooks for main five subjects in 216). Number of subjects by grades where new teacher editions/guides have been introduced based on revised curriculum (33 teachers editions and 25 teachers guides) Percentage of teachers and officials participate in curriculum dissemination training Textbook Production and Distribution Percentage of schools receive all new textbooks by January subjects 12 subjects subjects 12 subjects Admin record NCTB % 1% Admin record NCTB 33% 1% Admin Percentage of schools which received full set of (revised) teacher guides for all teachers ICT in Education N/A 1% Textbook MIS Textbook MIS Training NCTB Admin

176 1.5.1 Number of GPS/NNPS which have received IT equipment None All GPS Number of GPS/NNPS with a least one functional computer N/A 9% Number of teachers receiving training on ICT 12 64, Annual AOP allocation and actual expenditures for implementation of ICT strategy Teacher Education and Development Percentage of (assistant and head) teachers with professional qualification (C-in-Ed, DPEd, B.Ed. and M.Ed.) Percentage of (assistant and head) teachers who receive subject based training Percentage of (assistant and head) teachers who receive sub-cluster training Number & Percentage of new teachers each year receiving DPEd N/A Percentage of new teachers received induction training Number of teachers participate in the training on Teacher Support and Networking Percentage of PTIs deployed 16 instructors N/A 9% Percentage of PTIs deployed 12 instructors or more N/A 1% DLI PSQL PSQL PSQL 4 Admin?? Admin record Admin record Admin record AOP 83% 95% APSC M&E 18% 95% APSC M&E 95% 95% 12 M&E Training % 1% APSC Admin record Admin record Admin record Admin record Admin record 12, Admin Training Program Training Training Admin Admin Component 2: Participation and Disparities Result Area: 2.1 Participation Type S/N KPI KPI Reference Indicators Percentage of children (never enrolled and dropped out) out of school 6-1 years old (All) 6-1 years old (Boys) 6-1 years old (Girls) years old (All) years old (Boys) Baseline (21) 15% 17% 13% 22% 28% Target (217) 5% 5% 5% 1% 1% Source HIES/EHS HIES/EHS HIES/EHS HIES/EHS HIES/EHS Responsible Division M&E M&E M&E M&E M&E

177 KPI KPI Non-KPI Subcomponents and indicators Non-KPI 3 Non-KPI 4 Non-KPI Non-KPI years old (Girls) Gross enrollment rate, primary education All Boys Girls Net enrollment rate, primary education All Boys Girls Repetition rate, Primary Education All Boys Girls Percentage of Grade 1 new intakes who completed PPE All Boys Girls Student attendance rate All Boys Girls Number of children from NFE institutions taking Grade 5 PECE (All) 17% 1% HIES/EHS M&E 17.7% 13.2% 112.4% 15% 13% 17% APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E 94.8% 92.2% 97.6% 98% 97% 99% APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E 12.6% 12.8% 12.4% 5% 5% 5% APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E 48% 8% 8% 8% APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E 83.4% 92% 9% 95% APSC APSC APSC PECE Report M&E M&E M&E IMD 283, Admin record DPE 98% All eligible children 75% APSC APSC M&E M&E Admin record P&O 29,929 Second chance and alternative education Number of children access second chance education services DLI PSQL 5 Pre-primary education Percentage of schools (GPS/NNPS) with pre-primary Number of children enrolled in formal GPS /NNPS PPE programs Percentage of GPS providing PPE are assessed against minimum quality standards Mainstreaming gender and inclusive education 43% 1,222,597 N/A

178 PSQL Number of enrolled children with special needs 83,23 Not available* Number of children enrolled from tribal or ethnic minority communities and urban slum Communications and social mobilization Percentage of physical implementation of the annual communication plan APSC M&E APSC M&E Admin record P&O Result Area 2.2 Participation Type KPI S/N Reference KPI 7 KPI KPI Non-KPI Subcomponents and indicators 155 Non-KPI 6 Non-KPI 7 Indicators Gender Parity Index of Gross Enrollment Rate Net enrolment rate Top and Bottom 2% of households by consumption quintile Top 2% of households Bottom 2% of households Range between Top and Bottom 2% of Households Upazila composite performance index Top and Bottom 1% of Upazilas Top 1% of Upazilas Bottom 1% of Upazilas Range between Top and Bottom 1% of Upazilas Upazila composite performance indicator - Bottom 2% (Used to derive annual improvement of bottom 2%) Survival Rate: Urban and Rural Primary Schools Urban Primary Schools Rural Primary Schools Range between Urban and Rural Primary Schools Number of schools running single shift Targeted stipend Number of Card holder Number of beneficiaries Number of beneficiaries in the reporting quarter/previous quarter Baseline (21) 19% Target (217) 13% APSC Responsible Division M&E 88% 77% 11% 9% 82% 8% HIES/EHS HIES/EHS HIES/EHS M&E M&E M&E APSC APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E M&E 67.3% 67.3% 85% 85% 8,19 28% APSC APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E M&E 4.7 million 4.8 million million 8 million Admin record Admin record Admin Stipend Project Stipend Project Stipend 7.5 Source

179 record Project 5, schools All schools under 72 Upazilas 1 teacher from each school All school Admin record P&D Admin record P&D Admin record P&D 95% 95% 95% APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E APSC APSC M&E M&E APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E Number of teachers receive training on school health program 44,58 in Number of schools where health check-ups are conducted 44,58 schools in S/N KPI PSQL 7 PSQL 8 PSQL 9 DLI PSQL 1 PSQL 11 Reference KPI KPI million School Health & School Feeding Number of schools participate in school feeding program Type million Needs based school environment Percentage of schools with at least one functioning toilet Percentage of schools with separate functioning toilets for girls Percentage of school have safe water sources: functioning tube well and/or other sources Percentage of schools with wash blocks Percentage of schools which have a tube well with arsenic-free water Needs based infrastructure development Percentage of schools that meet the SCR standard of 4:1 Percentage of standard size classrooms and larger constructed Percentage of classroom using for classroom teaching Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness Result Area: 3.1 Decentralization Indicators Percentage of AOP budget allocation for unconditional block grants (UPEP & SLIP) for Upazilas and schools Total (Upazilas & Schools) Upazilas Schools Expenditure of unconditional block grants (UPEPSs & SLIPs) by Upazilas 96% 31% 71% 9% 21% 43% Baseline (21) (Baseline Year 212) 5.1%.1% 5.2% 25% 55% Target (217) 1% Source AOP AOP AOP Responsible Division Program Program Program

180 Non-KPI Subcomponent and indicators Non-KPI S/N KPI DLI PSQL 12 PSQL 13 Reference KPI KPI % 5% 96% 95% Field level offices strengthened Percentage of vacant posts filled at all field levels Type and schools Total (Upazilas & Schools) Upazilas (UPEPs) Schools (SLIPs) Percentage of sanctioned posts filled in district and Upazilas KPI 14 KPI 15 Decentralized school management and governance Percentage of schools having received SLIP grants Percentage of Upazilas which have prepared UPEP School level leadership development Percentage of head teachers who received training on leadership Organizational Review & Strengthening Percentage of vacancies filled by institutions and positions including an updated organogram Number of posts identified for post-pedp3, including potential vacancies, transfers and creased from integration of discreet projects Result Area: 3.2 Effectiveness Indicators Cycle Completion rate, primary education All Boys Girls Cycle Drop Out Rate All Boys Girls Coefficient of efficiency Number of input years per graduate (all) Percentage of schools that meet composite school-level quality indicators AOP AOP AOP Admin record Program Program Program Admin Admin record Admin 64% 98% APSC Admin record M&E P&D 71% 85% APSC M&E Amin Record Amin Record Admin Baseline (21) Target (217) Source Admin Responsible Division 6.2% 59.8% 6.8% 8% 78% 82% APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E 39.8% 4.3% 39.3% 62.2% 8. 17% 15% 22% 18% 85% 6. 35% APSC APSC APSC APSC APSC APSC M&E M&E M&E M&E M&E M&E

181 Non-KPI Subcomponent and indicators DLI DLI PSQL 14 APSC Transition rate from Grade 5 to Grade 6 Grade 5 Primary Education Completion Examination (PECE) Percentage of test items that are competency based PECE report ASC & IMD BANBEIS 8% Admin record NAPE 44% 75% APSC M&E 95% Admin Report Admin Report Admin Report Admin Admin record APSC TPV Study IMD Admin record Admin record Admin record Admin record Admin record M&E Percentage of head teacher vacancies filled Number of pre-primary teachers recruited N/A 37,672 Annual Primary School Census (APSC) Timely completion of APSC report (within academic year) April December Number of schools covered by APSC APSC data accuracy according to third party validation 78,685 96% 115, 99.5% National Student Assessment (NSA) Timely completion of NSA analysis and report December Number of professional staff in National Assessment Cell (NAC) 211 NSA Number of academic supervisors (AUEO) working under NAC in the field Number of PTI and URC instructors working under NAC in the field Number of subject teachers working under NAC in the field DLI M&E % Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Percentage of schools that meet the student teacher ratio (STR) standard of 46:1 Percentage of teacher vacancies filled Non-KPI 9 Non-KPI 1 (three out of four PSQLs) Gross Completion Rate (Primary Education) 95% 24+2 Admin Admin IMD M&E M&E M&E M&E M&E

182 Number of actions identified and implemented based on NSA findings 56 Admin record M&E Component 4: Planning and Management Result Area 4: Program Planning and Management Type Non-KPI S/N Reference Non-KPI 11 Non-KPI Subcomponent and indicator 159 Indicators Public education expenditure as percentage of GDP Public expenditure on primary education as % of total public expenditure on education PEDP3 management and governance Total number of PEDP3 management and steering committee meetings Percentage of Annual Operational Plan implemented (by components and sub-components) PEDP3 Financial Management Annual implementation of PFM action plan Number and percentage of unsettled audit observations resolved DLI Baseline (21) 2.3% Target (217) 45% Sector finance Non-Development and Development share of MoPME Budget Percentage execution of both Non-Development and Development budget of MoPME Percentage of Development budget allocated to discrete projects Strengthen monitoring functions Number of staff (central & local) receive orientation in RBM approach 3, Number of schools and offices inspected.4 1,, Number of inspections undertaken with support of e-monitoring tools N/A Number of progress review meetings organized and activities reviewed N/A 48 MTBF Responsible Division MOF MTBF MOF Admin record Admin record Program Admin record Audit Report Finance MTBF MTBF MOF MOF AOP Program Admin record Admin record Admin record Admin record M&E Source Program CGA M&E M&E M&E

183 Human Resource Development Number of officers received professional development training Number of staff received professional development training Public Private Partnership Number of partnership agreements/mous following PPP Framework Admin record Admin record * Ministry of Social Welfare is conducting a survey to understand the number of children with special needs in Bangladesh. Once completed, this will inform the creation of a target. 16 Training Training

184 CHAPTER D: IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS This chapter complements Chapter 3 of the Program Overview, which outlined the structures and processes for PEDP3 governance. This chapter now sets out the functions and main responsibilities of the several organizations involved in implementing PEDP3 in greater detail. Terms of reference for the consultation and coordination mechanisms explained in the Program Overview are also laid out and staffing requirements for PEDP3 are expanded into full detail. Finally, diagrams were included in the Program Overview that provide a snapshot of the governance of PEDP3, the communication and coordination mechanisms in place, and the role of the Program Support Office. D.1 FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES School and Community Teachers Teachers are accountable to ensure the learning progress and achievement of all children through effective teaching learning process. Teachers will: Participate in continuous professional development activities concerned with school curriculum, subject contents, assessment and other job related issues Prepare and use lesson plans Prepare, use and preserve lesson based teaching aids Use teacher s guide and other teaching learning materials Ensure child friendly and activity based classroom teaching learning practices Display children s work Carry out all other related activities assigned by the Government Head Teachers Head Teachers have a particular responsibility to support and monitor their teachers in ensuring that ensure the learning progress and achievement of all children. Head teachers will: Carry out classroom teaching duties as required Ensure the timely attendance of teachers Ensure that teachers conduct effective teaching learning & conduct assessment for learning progress and achievement of all children Ensure the participation of all teachers in the continuous professional development activities Provide educational opportunities for all of the children in the school catchment Provide facilities for teaching and learning Ensure proper and attractive school environment Ensure the effective involvement of parents, guardians and local community Manage, implement and support the SLIP program Support in the formation and effective functioning of the SMC & PTA 161

185 Carry out regular academic supervision & give feedback to teachers using Record of Professional Development (RPD) Conduct all types of examinations as per Government order Carry out other duties assigned from time to time by Government School Management Committees (SMC) Prepare, implement and annually update the School Level Improvement Plan (SLIP) Assist and support in school development in terms of management, administration, community mobilization, congenial school environment, assist head teacher, school level planning, M & E of teachers as reflected in quarterly performance formats, increase enrollment and decrease of drop-out rate, increase attendance of the children, and ensure timely attendance of teachers in schools, organize and participate in cocurricular activities of the school etc. PTA Engage in the issues of performance of schools and, in particular, of students not performing well Develop good relation among teachers and guardians Develop school as center for all activities pertaining to improvement of educational, social, financial, and cultural aspects of people of different professions Assist SMCs to increase attendance rate and decrease drop-out rate Implement and monitor the SLIP Upazila, District and Division Upazila Education Office Support schools to ensure achievement of learning outcomes Manage primary education operations at the Upazila level Provide support, services and supervisory/monitoring for quality primary education at the Upazila level Develop Upazila primary education plan (UPEP), update annually, and implement it Support head teachers, SMCs and communities in the development of SLIP and the use of consolidated SLIP grants Provide academic help and supervision (mentoring) to schools and teachers Support sub-cluster training, in coordination with the URCs Support implementation of need based in-service training of teachers Get involved in implementation of pilot programs Conduct annual data collection and reporting for the EMIS and M&E requirements Upazila Resource Center Support teachers with training and content to ensure attainment of learning outcomes Organize and implement in-service training and monitor the impact of training Provide academic supervision of training and related activities within the Upazila

186 Facilitate network and coordination work with relevant institutions and offices relative to teacher training activities Provide academic support to primary schools and improve classroom teaching and learning through teacher training. Prepare annul training plan Deliver training programs for basic education Monitor NFE programs for alternative and second chance education District Primary Education Office Manage primary education operations at the district level Carryout all administrative functions of the districts (appointment & transfer of teachers, departmental proceedings, textbook related activities, inspection of Upazila offices, tracking of EMIS activities, drawing and disbursing officer (DDO), Provide progress report of primary education in district coordination meeting Engage in supervision and integration of HR concerns at district Level Prepare district primary education plan (DPEP), update annually, and implement it Draft educational plan in consultation with UEO, Support UEOs to prepare UPEP and implement it Report to Division DD and DPE Support and assist to carry out in-service training in URCs Division DD (Deputy Director) Manage primary education operations at the division level Coordinate the activities of the district level offices and PTIs Carryout all administrative functions of the division including transfer of teachers, textbook related activities, inspection of district offices and PTIs, tracking of EMIS activities, chalk out educational plan in consultation with DPEO Support DPEOs to prepare and implement the DPEP Support PTIs to prepare and implement the PTI improvement plans PTI (Primary Teacher-Training Institute) Conduct initial training for newly recruited teachers and C-in-Ed training for the untrained teachers, Assist and monitor effective implementation of in-service training to be undertaken at URCs Prepare PTI improvement plan, update annually, and implement it Deliver Diploma in Primary Education training programs Implementation Administration Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) DPE carries the prime responsibility for PEDP3 implementation. Its role is to: Formulate policies, guidelines, plans and programs for the primary education subsector. Implement primary education programs through field level agencies and linked institutions. Supervise and monitor primary educational activities. Ensure that PEDP3 initiatives dovetail with and are sustainably incorporated DPE s ongoing responsibilities DG, DPE Serve as PEDP3 Program Director Manage implementation of PEDP3 activities and facilitate fund release and fund 91 allocation 163

187 Coordinate program implementation across the field as well as related institutions including NCTB, NAPE, CPEIMU, BANBEIS, and the DPs Provide policy decision and operational initiatives for quality primary education Supervise and integrate systems and linkage with institutions a related to primary education Coordinate all line divisions Manage DPE system effectively and efficiently for quality Primary Education Serve as chief executive of operations DPE and DPE program implementation Be responsible for planning, management and implementation of all development activities Take all administrative responsibilities of DPE and exercise financial power delegated by the appropriate authorities Provide support for professional development of the officers and staff Delegate authority to appropriate level for smooth implementation of PEDP3 Additional DG New Position Supervise Administration Division; acting as a approval authority of all administrative matters which approved by DG-DPE except policy issues Supervise Information Management Division (IMD), acting as a approval authority of all administrative matters which approved by DG-DPE except policy issues Working as a Director, IMD until the new director, IMD post created and deployed stated in the PEDP3 Program document Based on work plan of Administration Division, accomplish the all kinds of routine regular tasks related to recruitment and appointment of teachers & staff Textbook distribution and monitoring including all types of coordination with NCTB In absence of Director General take the responsibility of Director General Additional Director General informs Director General time to time on IMD and Administration divisions activities Additional Director General pay the bill up to 2 lac Taka and approve purchase and expenditure of same amount Additional Director General assists Director General to implement the PEDP3 Admin Division Carry out general administration of DPE HQ and field offices Manage HRM systems (recruitment, deployment, career path and promotions), Carry out general services, and legal, including the tasks of collaborating with TD, job descriptions to new entrants in the system; Be responsible for teacher management including teacher recruitment, Maintain custody of records, archives, logistics, establishment, library, production and distribution of textbooks and documentation center, Carryout performance appraisal, reward and recognition system, ACR, discipline, teacher registration. Carryout functions related to asset management (deeds, design, legal records) Provide and transport (supply, maintenance, repair etc.) and logistic support to HQ and field offices Prepare of HRD plan Monitoring & Evaluation Division Conduct National Student Assessment Revise Annual Primary School Census (APSC) questionnaire, administer the APSC, and prepare the Annual primary school census Report Produce ASPR on KPIs and other indicators with technical support from Information Management Division 164

188 Institutionalization of Results Based Management (RBM) Manage inspection system of field offices and schools using RBM Facilitate progress monitoring and review meeting with Divisions on half yearly basis Conduct evaluation of systems performance and processes, and Manage sector monitoring system including SLIP/UPEP using RBM frameworks and processes Develop researching studies, systems for monitoring programs and projects and activities, Conduct evaluation of systems performance and processes Carryout functions related to data analysis, and documentation and publication Information Management Division New Division (Under process) Develop and maintain database, GIS, and software Design, develop, and maintain database for expanded APSC Clean, store, maintain, and process data from APSC and other sources Create data warehouse using data external sources Provide technical support to M&E division in preparation of ASPR Retrieve data, analyze data and prepare tables or special reports in response to requests from DPE divisions Develop and maintain hardware and Network (communication) Provide IT technical support to DPE and model schools Process and analyze data/information for maintaining and operating the IT system Finance and Procurement Manage financial systems using Bangladesh financial management system and accountabilities, Plan and formulate budgets, Procure goods and services as per THE GOVERNMENT rules with exceptions agreed with DPs Disburse (tendering) funds, Keep accounts, maintaining custody of financial records, reports and audit. Allocate funds and collect expenditure statement Prepare withdrawal and grant applications for external funding of PEDP3 Training Division Manage and assess training systems and programs, events and engagements (C. in Ed curriculum implementation at PTIs, URCs) Monitor curriculum revision and implementation in close coordination with NCTB and Program Division Conduct training impact analysis of teachers, officers and staff at all levels, Design and develop training programs and HRD Plans for professional development & upgrade, curriculum, instruction and other development research; Facilitate training sessions, programs and processes and d] designing and conducting demand based training Link DPE with training institutions and agencies at national and international levels, e.g., NCTB, NAPE, PTI, URCs, Universities and others. Policy and Operations Division Manage school administration, operations, school registration, school operations including pre-primary and eventually up to Grade 8; Design and develop systems and mechanism for universal access and equity (inclusive education), Prepare G&IE Action Plan monitoring reports as required 165

189 Manage working teachers while in service Manage communications and social mobilization Planning and Development Division Manage the planning and formulate implementation policies and guidelines; Develop plans, projects and programs, including overseeing SLIPS/UPEPs/DPEPs connectivity to ADP/AOP, Prepare need-based AOP through a bottom-up planning exercise (SLIP, UPEP and DPEP) in a phased manner; Develop network with agencies and non-government organizations in partnership (PPP) at school levels to support SLIP/UPEP/DPEP and IE. Conduct, process and analyze data and information, and policy research as well as prepare reports, Link with national and international institutions and agencies as relevant to planning. Supervise all construction work under DPE Coordinate progress of construction of school buildings and other construction related work with LGRD Identify very old and dilapidated primary schools and suggest course of action Program Division Assist the Program Director in policy formulation and program management for primary education system Monitor progress on PEDP3 activities requiring coordination across line Divisions and with units outside DPE Facilitate preparation and approval of PEDP3 AOP Follow up on implementation of MOUs between DPE and NCTB, NAPE, CPEIMU and others for effective implementation and integration of PEDP3 activities Assist the Program Director in the design and management of activities identified for outsourcing, public-private partnership (PPP) and institutional twinning Report directly to the Program Director for management aspects and consult with relevant heads of units within DPE and other IPAs for management and implementation aspects Facilitate coordination or program activities Engage in liaison and information flows among government agencies, DPs and IPAs and respond them as required Develop and refine implementation strategy through action research and piloting in collaboration with the concerned line divisions Provide leadership and supervision for working groups and technical groups Coordination, planning and management of TA Carryout other task as directed by DG Act as focal point for the DPs Oversight of piloting and action research Supporting Agencies NAPE (National Academy for Primary Education) Review and revise C-in-Ed curriculum based on the revised Primary education Curriculum Conduct research and provide training on management and administration of the AUEOs, UEOs, DPEOs and DPE officials. Monitor the training program of PTI and evaluate and make revision of the curriculum of PTI. Review and revise PTI curriculum based on the revised Primary Education Curriculum Provide professional training to teacher educators and field staff of DPE

190 Strengthen the Grade 5 PECE including: - Item writing - Item pilot testing including pilot sample selection - Development of improved test administration and monitoring - Improve test result analysis classical analysis for pilot testing (validity, reliability, and discrimination) and IRT for final test scores as well as the need to ensure that - The open-ended type items are marked in a fair and objective manner. - Report writing - Dissemination of reports on new types of test items and final results NCTB (National Curriculum for Text Books, Primary Education Wing) Review the existing curriculum (Bangladesh and International) Review and Renewal of Curriculum which includes: - Conduct field study of Need assessment, Situation Analysis - Renew curriculum - Revise Textbooks - Revise Teachers Guide - Develop Teaching Aids - Conduct Curriculum Dissemination Training - Develop Formative and Summative Assessment Strategy and Tools - Conduct Training on Assessment Assist in National Assessment section to develop test items and data analysis Conduct continuous evaluation of curriculum implementation Assist national assessment section to develop test items and curriculum research Conduct continuous evaluation of curriculum implementation BANBEIS Work as the central data point of the education sector Collaborate with MoPME as required BBS LGED Collaborate with MoPME as required Carryout all construction and repair and maintenance activities at school level Compulsory Primary Education Implementation and Monitoring Unit (CPEIMU) Disburse grants to RNGPS and community schools Conduct child education and literacy survey every alternative year D.2 STRATEGIC DIRECTION Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) MoPME s role is to provide overall leadership and guidance in program implementation. PEDP3 Steering Committee (PSC) Chaired by the Secretary of MoPME, the PSC is the high-level meeting point for all involved Ministries and will include representatives from Civil Society: Be responsible for PEDP3 policy direction and formulation; 167

191 Formulate high level institutional policy framework and policy guidelines for implementation; Accelerate of and follow-up on the decision making processes at relevant Ministries; Review program progress on a regular basis; Approve the Annual Operational Plan (AOP); Address critical inter-ministerial policy and implementation issues; and Ensure quality checks on preparation of reports and studies. Program Support Office Secretariat (at MoPME) Provide secretariat services to the PSC and PEDP3 Coordination Meetings Present a summary progress report of PEDP3 implementation to the PSC, PEDP3 Coordination Meetings and ADP meetings Document all decisions at PSC and PEDP3 Coordination meetings Facilitate MoPME s inter-ministerial collaboration and consultation Facilitate MoPME s strategic leadership towards the four PEDP3 Result areas (Learning Outcomes, Participation and Disparities, Effectiveness and Decentralization, and Planning and Management) Support MoPME to conduct effective public relations, including issuing of regular media releases related to PEDP3 and the primary education sector Develop policy briefings upon requirement Review and further develop functions of database and knowledge management Support MoPME to develop and manage MOUs with key PEPD3 implementing partners Facilitate DP support for the sector, including NGOs, the private sector and philanthropic organizations Provide hubs of technical support on key cross-program issues such as impact evaluation, TA coordination, learning assessment, fiduciary reform institutionalization and school effectiveness PSO Support (at Program Division, DPE) Support Program Division to communicate and coordinate with the PSO Secretariat Support DPE prepare the bottom up AOP development process, budget allocation and revision process Support DPE to organize the Joint Annual Review Mission and twice yearly DLI assessment process Consultation PEDP3 Coordination Meetings Chaired by Additional Secretary (Development), MoPME Co-chair: DP Consortium Chair Membership: MoPME, DG DPE, DG NAPE, DG NCTB, DG LGED, DG DPHE, Dhaka University, DP Consortium Vice Chair, Chairs and Co-Chairs of Working Groups Facilitate strategic discussion and decision-making amongst government agencies and DPs to ensure progress and quick resolution of challenges Attended by Ad Four Working Groups Chaired by DPE Directors, and co-chaired by Development Partner representatives. Meet bi-monthly or as required Forums to support implementation and provide technical advice to program leaders WGs cut across the four PEDP3 Result Areas to focus on (i) Quality; (ii) Disparities; (iii) Administration and Monitoring; and (iv) Procurement and Financial Management. 168

192 Annual Development Plan (ADP) Meetings Chaired by the Minister Meets monthly at MoPME Follows standard GoB practice, whereby ADP meetings are held across the whole of Government to assess program and project progress. Provides a forum to review expenditure, enables participants to present ongoing successful activities and outcomes, and to raise matters of concern that are hampering progress. Helps to drive momentum and to ensure that any impediments to progress are raised and dealt with speedily at the highest level. MoPME Monthly Coordination Meetings: Chaired by the Secretary, MoPME. Attended by DGs of all implementing agencies in primary education Implementing Agency Coordination Meetings: DPE currently hold weekly coordination meetings to address issues relating to PEDP3. The MTR endorsed the suggestion that all other implementing associates (e.g. NCTB, etc.) should do likewise to ensure the continuous progress of the program. Development Partner Consortium meetings Chaired and Vice Chaired by an annually rotating member agency of the DP consortium. Held at least monthly as required, with representation from all the multi-lateral and bilateral organizations participating in PEDP3. Working Groups The four PEDP3 working groups are: Quality Working Group; Disparity Working Group; Administration and Monitoring Working Group; and Procurement and Financial Management Working Group. The working groups have become important forums in PEDP3 for communication and information exchange, and for the coordination of technical support to sub-components falling under these four issues. The working groups are crosscutting over the four Result areas of PEDP3. The following principles are an overview of the functions and roles of the Working Groups, allowing some flexibility in the detail of practice: Working Groups are accountable to DPE. As the Government led representation in the Working Group, the WG Chair is the sole decision-making authority in the Working Group. Recommendations of a Working Group are fed into the GoB decision-making process The Chair of the Working Group is a DPE Director; the Co-Chair is a DP representative. Participation on a Working Group is as relevant to the sub-components and issues covered by each of the four. NGO representatives are members of Working Groups, and participate at the JARM and at other WG meetings as required Working Groups meet at least bi-monthly, and more often as required; Working Groups are an effective policy coordination mechanism among government and development partners, and serve a purpose in promoting harmonization and alignment with country priorities; Working Groups are a forum for forward looking planning, the discussion of policy coordination issues and the monitoring of Program implementation between and at JARMs; 169

193 Working Groups are an opportunity for improving linkage and networks between different interventions and sub-components, towards a particular education results. Working Groups should encourage the sharing, analysis and dissemination of relevant information and research findings amongst all stakeholders Working Groups can play an important role in the coordination of technical support to a particular sub-component, and linking this to other relevant Program areas. The PSO Secretariat hub on TA Coordination should link with Working Groups on efficient TA management. Working Groups are bodies to support and coordinate, not to substitute or duplicate the functions of line ministries and/or DP agencies. D.3 STAFFING REQUIREMENTS To fill the functions described in the section above, DPE added three types of staff: 1/Deputed Staff who will be assigned to DPE for the duration of PEDP3. Deputed staff will have no cost implications as they are already retained through the revenue budget. 2/ Some staff will be required only through the 5 year PEDP3 period, as their tasks involve time-bound results such as setting up new systems, re-engineering existing systems to manage expanded workload, or improving the quality of systems essential to accomplishment of PEDP3 results. 3/ identified staff will be required in a permanent capacity as their tasks are associated with the permanent expansion of DPE responsibilities Table 4.3(i) provides a breakdown of staffing requirements to support implementation of PEDP3. Table D.3 (i): Detailed PEDP3 Staffing Requirements Role DPE Division: DG's Office Director General Education Officer Stenographer Computer operator UDA MLSS Total: DPE Division: ADG's Office Stenographer Computer operator MLSS Total: DPE Division: Administration Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Education officer Research Officer Administrative officer Assistant Education officer Assistant Research officer Documentation officer 17 Pre-MTR Post-MTR

194 Head Assistant PA/Computer operator UDA Stenographer Steno typist Office Assistant Store keeper Driver Record Keeper Duplicate machine Operator Dispatch Rider MLSS Night Guard Liftman Electrician Plumber Sweeper Total DPE Division: IMD Director/System Manager senior System Analyst System Analyst Programmer Statistical officer Maintenance Engineer Assistant Programmer Assistant Maintenance Engineer Statistical Officer Senior Computer operator Computer operator PA cum Computer operator Data Entry Operator MLSS Total DPE Division: Planning & Development Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Education officer Research officer Assistant Education officer Head Assistant Computer operator Upper Division Assistant Stenographer Steno typist Office Assistant Record Keeper MLSS Total

195 DPE Division: Training Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Education officer Research officer Assistant Education officer Computer operator Stenographer Office Assistant MLSS Total DPE Division: Monitoring & Evaluation Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Statistician Education officer Research officer (subject specialist) Statistical officer Assistant Education officer Assistant Research officer Stenographer (pa cum com.op.) Data Entry operator Office Assistant MLSS Total DPE Division: Finance & Procurement Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Procurement & Supply officer Finance officer Accounts officer Store officer Accounts officer Assistant Finance officer Assistant Accounts officer Assistant Education officer Assistant Research officer Head Assistant Computer operator PA cum Computer operator UDA Accountant Cashier Steno typist Office Assistant Accounts Assistant Store keeper

196 Driver Cash worker MLSS Night Guard Total DPE Division: Policy & Operation Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Education officer Research officer Assistant Education officer Head Assistant Computer operator PA cum Computer operator UDA Stenographer Steno typist Office Assistant Record Keeper MLSS Total Program Management & Coordination Unit Program Director Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Education Officer PA cum Computer operator Computer operator Driver MLSS Total Divisional Deputy Director Office Deputy Director Assistant Director Education Officer Maintenance Eng. Substitute Assistant Engineer Stenographer Steno typist UDA Accountant Computer operator Cashier Office Assistant Driver 173

197 MLSS Night Guard Sweeper Total District Primary Education Office DPEO ADPEO AMO UDA Computer operator Cashier Office Assistant Store keeper Driver MLSS Night Guard Total Primary Training Institute (PTI) Superintendent Assistant Superintendent Instructor Resource Person Experienced Teacher Assistant. librarian cum cat. Computer operator UDA cum Accountant Office Assistant Driver MLSS Night Guard Mali Sweeper Total Upazila/Thana Education Office UEO/TEO AUEO/ATEO UDA cum Accountant Accountant Office Assistant Accounts Assistant Data Entry Operator MLSS Night guard Total Upazila/Thana Resource centre Name of Post Instructor Assistant Instructor Data Entry Operator Total

198 Night Guard Total Govt. Primary School Name of Post Head Teacher Assistant head Teacher Assistant Teacher MLSS Total Residential Hostel Name of Post Head Teacher (ex-officio existing Head Teacher) Hostel super (ex-officio existing 1 Assistant Teacher) Head Cook Care Giver Assistant Cook Nighht gird Sweeper Total Leadership Training centre, Cox`s Bazar Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Instructor Accounts Officer Education Officer P.A cum Computer Operator Office Assistant cum Computer Typist UDA cum Accountants Accountants Assistant Driver Night Guard Sweeper/Cleaner/ Gardener Total Alternative Education and Second Chance Education Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Education Officer P.A cum Computer Operator Office Assistant cum Computer Typist Office Assistant Total Total Program Staffing Total Organograms for all units and agencies are outlined in the diagrams below: 175

199 Figure D.3 (i): Ministry of Primary and Mass Education Organogram 176

200 Figure D.3 (ii): PEDP3 Implementation at MoPME 177

201 Figure D.3 (iii): PEDP3 Implementing Agencies 178

202 Figure D.3 (iv): Organogram of DPE Director General (Program Director) NCTB NAPE ADG (Program Implementation) & BNFE Director Program 179 Director Administrati on Director Planning and Development Director Training Director Director Monitoring & Evaluation Policy & Operations Director Finance Director Information Management

203 Figure D.3 (v): DPE Administration Division Organogram Director Administration Deputy Director (Admin) 18 Deputy Director (Admin) Deputy Director (Law & Discipline Enquiry) Deputy Director (Curicullum & Text Books) Deputy Director (Textbook distribution)

204 Figure D.3 (vi): DPE Policy and Operation Division Organogram Director Policy & Operations Deputy Director (Inclusion) 181 Deputy Director (Inclusion) Deputy Director (Schools)

205 Figure D.3 (vii): DPE Training Division Organogram Director Training Deputy Director (Training) 182 Deputy Director (Training)

206 Figure D.3 (viii): DPE Finance and Procurement Division Organogram Director Finance Deputy Director (Finance and Procurement) 183 Deputy Director (Finance) Deputy Director (Budget)

207 Figure D.3 (ix): DPE Planning and Development Division Organogram Director Planning and Development Deputy Director (Planning and Development) 184 Deputy Director (Planning and Development)

208 Figure D.3 (x): DPE Monitoring and Evaluation Division Organogram Director Monitoring & Evaluation Deputy Director (Monitoring & Evaluation) 185 Deputy Director (Monitoring & Evaluation)

209 Figure D.3 (xi): DPE Information Management Division Organogram Director (Proposed) Information Management Division Senior System Analyst Senior System Analyst 186

210 Figure D.3 (xii): DPE Program Management Division Organogram Director Program Deputy Director (Program) 187

211 Figure D.3 (xiii): DPEO Organogram District Primary Education Officer (64) 55 Thana/Upazila Education Officers 188

212 Figure D.3 (xiv): NAPE Organogram 189

213 Figure D.3 (xv): DPE Division Office Organogram 19

214 CHAPTER E: FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT For PEDP3, the Government and Development Partners (DPs) are using a unified system and procedures for financial management, procurement and disbursement. Both GoB and DPs funds are using for Program activities through Government s own financial management systems, with some special provisions to maintain a reasonable level of fiduciary and other risks. PEDP3 financial reporting requirements will consist primarily of the regular reports that are produced by MoPME/DPE and MOF for internal monitoring purposes. The specifics of the financial management and procurement arrangements will be detailed in a Joint Financing Arrangement (JFA) signed by both the Government and DPs. All DPs signing the JFA will disburse their funds through the Government s system for fund management. The decision to adopt this model follows several fiduciary assessments including a full scope assessment of the Government systems and capacity in financial management and monitoring. Based on the result of that assessment, first Procurement and Financial Management (PFM) Action Plan was developed. On a regular basis, DPs and GoB jointly review the action plan, assess the progress and update the PFM Action Plan of PEDP3. The updated PFM Action Plan is included in this annex (Attachment 1). This Chapter summarizes arrangements for procurement, disbursement, and financial management. E.1 PROCUREMENT The Government will be accountable for all procurement of goods, works, and services and will be responsible for the contracts to be signed. As the Government and DPs are co-financing expenditures under the PEDP3, an agreed set of procurement guidelines have been referred to in the JFA. Procurements requiring NCBs will be performed in accordance with the Public Procurement Act (26) and Public Procurement Rules (28) with some modifications or clarifications. It is envisioned that goods and works costing less than USD 6, and USD 2,, respectively will be procured using the National Competitive Bidding (NCB) method. The JFA will specify detailed arrangements regarding sanctions lists and eligibility, as well as definitive thresholds for NCB goods and works. Procurement of goods and works using International Competitive Bidding (ICB) methods will follow IDA Guidelines. Procurement of all consultancy services will follow ADB Guidelines. The Government and its development partners will share responsibilities for fiduciary oversight regarding procurement arrangements. E.2 DISBURSEMENT ARRANGEMENTS PEDP3 disbursement arrangements are quite different from PEDP II. PEDP II was funded through the Government s development budget (non-revenue budget) with several DPs providing support through various arrangements, including a common pool account managed by DPE. This arrangement poses some challenges in terms of reconciling actual resources use by multiple cost centers with funding from multiple sources. These difficulties are due to the fact that the same items are funded by different sources and funding from each source follows different procedures and is accounted for separately. In order to reduce the transactions costs and simplify financial management, the Government and DPs agreed to follow Government systems to the extent possible. Disbursement to the Government s Consolidated Fund: The basic feature of PEDP3 disbursement is that the DPs contributions are disbursed through windows into the 191

215 Government s Consolidated Fund in the Bangladesh Bank managed by the MOF. Funds are then blended with other revenue and finance for the Government s budget. PEDP3 expenditure flows through the regular Government budget execution system to MoPME and other cost centres. All transactions are recorded with their full amount in the Government s ibas system. The ibas system will contain all information related to spending on PEDP3. The DPE, in close coordination with MoPME, prepare applications and send them to the DPs. DPs disburse either once or twice a year. Timing, amounts and conditions of disbursement will be decided by the individual DPs. Some of the amounts will be firm and based on multi-year commitments, while for some DPs they will be indicative (i.e. the indicative commitment will need to be confirmed each year). All DPs indicate that they will disburse either once or twice per year according to bi-lateral agreements to be summarized in the JFA. Disbursement Arrangements: There are two types of tranches under PEDP3 a variable (DLI based) and a fixed tranche. Variable Tranche: The variable tranche is the mechanism for Performance-Based Financing (PBF). Performance will be defined by achievement of Disbursement Linked Indicators (DLIs). Some DPs will determine the amount to be disbursed partly or in full on achievement of DLIs. Each DLI will be equally priced. However, since the amount each DP has indicated for each year will vary, the price of the DLIs will vary from year to year although the number of DLIs is kept constant. Variable tranche releases are triggered by evidence showing fulfillment of DLIs agreed to be met for a specified fiscal year and submission of a satisfactory expenditure report. Fixed Tranche: Each fiscal year some DPs will disburse a fixed amount of funds upon receiving information on: overall program progress, the status of covenants such as environmental and social safeguards, and other reports identified in the JFA. DPs will disburse based on evidence of PEDP3 expenditure presented in Interim Financial Reports (IFR). The agreement is that a subset of expenditures is considered eligible expenditures and will be the basis for disbursement. For most DPs, a global condition for their sum total of disbursements in one fiscal year is that the ibas expenditure reports/ifrs show Government expenditures for agreed Program Budget Heads (PBHs) under PEDP3 exceeding total disbursements by all DPs for such period. E.3 DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS' CONTRIBUTIONS Table E (i) below includes rows indicating the amounts of fixed and variable tranches for each PEDP3 year 192

216 Table E.3 (i): Indicative Schedule of DPs Disbursements (millions) Development Partners ADB DFAT DFATD DFID EU IDA (World Bank) JICA SIDA UNICEF GPE Currency USD AUD CAD GBP Euro USD USD USD USD USD DLI FX DLI FX DLI FX DLI FX DLI Table E.3 (ii): Indicative summary of DPs Disbursements (millions) Development Partners ADB DFAT DFATD DFID EU IDA (World Bank) JICA SIDA UNICEF GPE 193 Currency USD AUD CAD GBP Euro Total Estimated Disbursement in commitment/ disbursement Currency Total DLI Total FX Total USD 7 7. USD USD USD USD FX DLI FX Total for the Period from JulDec FY DLI FX

217 E.4 FUNDS FLOW DP fund flow: The DP disbursement will flow from each DP to the consolidated fund of the Government based on the withdrawal applications/request for reimbursements (for loans/credits and grants, respectively), submitted to each DP by MoPME. Program expenditures will be made through various accounting offices under the Controller General of Accounts (CGA) system on the basis of the approved annual budget for the program. Both development and non-development activities will be funded under PEDP3. Since the financing from the DPs is blended in the Government s financial management system with other receipts, there is only notional tracking and notional earmarking for specific PEDP3 expenditures through the set of eligible items under the agreed PBHs. E.5 PEDP3 BUDGET HEADS (PBH) The cost items identified in PEDP3 Program Document have been reclassified into the Government ibas chart of accounts. DPs will use PBHs as a common set of eligible expenditures under PEDP3. PBHs exclude certain MoPME payments, which do not contribute to the outcome of PEDP3, namely pensions, and advances to employees. Discrete Projects are also not included in the PBHs. Subset codes in the Government chart of accounts based on PEDP3 sub-components have been identified to provide DPs with specific detailed financial information. These include: (i) several types of grants-in-aid, (ii) ICB for textbook papers, ICB for other goods, and (iii) consultancy services. Expenditures under sub-codes for ICB goods will be ineligible for ADB, while expenditures under sub-codes for consultancy services will be ineligible for the World Bank. Table E.5 (i): PEDP3 Budget Heads Eligible expenditures include: salaries of teachers and primary education personnel; allowances; works, goods and services; school grants, stipends and Upazila grants; training; surveys and studies; and seminars and workshops. 194

218 E.6 FINANCIAL REPORTING Financial reporting will consist of one common format based on ibas reports for PBHs agreed by the Government and DPs. The financial reporting format will be part of the JFA. Interim Financial Report (IFR) supported by ibas-generated Budget Management Reports is the basis for DPs disbursement. The annual IFR will be audited in accordance with the Statement of Audit Needs (SOAN) agreed with the Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General (OCAG). Figure E.6 (i): PEDP II Disbursement Model E.7 PROCUREMENT AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT ACTION PLAN Need/Rationale/Area of concern Issue to address Update and recommended actions Date of completion 1. Accounting and Reporting system of PEDP3 Ensure proper accounting and reporting system of PEDP3 FAPAD raised questions about the accounting and reporting system of PEDP3 in the Audit Report September Audit Arrangement of PEDP3 and finalization of the 195 a) Ensure timely audit report available as Recommendation: At an ERD chaired meeting in December 213, the continued use of the PEDP3 FM system was confirmed. The MTR financial management analysis review and discussions to date have further re-affirmed the importance of using and strengthening the PEDP3 FM system. During the next QFR, a diagnostic review of the accounting and reporting system of PEDP3 is planned to inform this discussion further, particularly with a view to: (1) support the ongoing discussion between MoF, MoPME and OACG on the record keeping and accounting requirements at DPE as the office of the Program Director (PD) and (2) buttressing support to the ibas in absence of the SPEMP-A project technical teams. PEDP3 requires a single audit report in compliance with a Statement of Audit Needs (SOAN) covering both Non-Development and Development ASAP for FY audit

219 Statement of Audit Needs (SOAN) safeguard of DPs disbursement b) Agree with the OCAG on the revised SOAN through formal acknowledgement Expenditures. At present, the practice in Bangladesh is that the Foreign Aided Project Audit Directorate (FAPAD) conducts audits of Foreign Aided Projects, which support Development expenditures and NonDevelopment expenditures are audited by the Local Audit Directorate (LAD). Under a temporary arrangement, FAPAD conducted the PEDP3 audits for and A permanent arrangement for auditing of PEDP3 from FY onwards is required. and no later than September 214 for FY 214 onwards. DPs have reviewed the current SOAN and suggested amendments. As the fundamental requirements of the SOAN remain the same, amendments were proposed to further clarify the requirements in certain areas (e.g., Standard for Auditing, standard for accounting and specific needs) and remove challenges that are beyond the audit scope like textbook distribution, stipends, inventory and asset validation and internal control. The proposed SOAN have been shared with the OCAG office and informal discussion has been conducted. Recommendations: A documented policy dialogue with MoF, ERD and OCAG for a permanent solution of PEDP3 audit from FY onwards, resulting in a written agreement is required. This discussion is on-going. 3. Monitoring of audit issues is extremely important for financial accountability 4. Technical Assistance in absence of SPEMP 196 Ensure settlement of audit issues in a more rigorous manner. Ensure TA support to the OCAG and the CGA on needs basis The revised SOAN for FY audit should be finalized and agreed in writing asap with the OCAG and accordingly should be disseminated to the auditors through workshop and presentations. Discussions on the longer term arrangement for conducting PEDP3 audits from FY 214 onwards need to be well advanced (if not concluded) before concluding appraisal of additional financing. These discussions are being held in light of the expanded use of the PEDP3 FM model in the country. The lengthy process of settlement of audit observations resulted in a significant number of observations remaining unsettled for long periods of time. As of June 214, 1 observations from PEDPII and 11 observations from PEDP remain unsettled. During PFWG session of JARM 214 it was agreed that under the leadership of MoPME (Budget & Audit Wing), audit issues would be reviewed on a quarterly basis. As part of the process an Audit Review meeting has been planned in July 214 to expedite resolving unsettled audit observations of PEDPII and PEDP Ongoing process Recommendation: PFWG should follow up the quarterly review of audit issues under the leadership of MoPME (Budget & Audit Wing). During audit, FAPAD received support from SPEMP B, including training on International Standards and assistance to comply with the provisions of the SOAN. Similarly, SPEMP A was involved with providing ongoing support to the ibas Ongoing Process

220 system of the MoF. PEDP3 relies on the IFR generated from the ibas system for disbursement purposes. With the closure of SPEMP A in August 214 it will be important to ascertain how MoF plans to maintain the credibility of the ibas reports. Dialogue is ongoing with the MOF, MoPME CAO, CGA and the SPEMP team to determine how to sustain the support to generate timely and high quality reports. 5. Procurement Strengthening 6. Maintenance of books of records as per GFR and TR 7. DDO/accounts office reconciliation 197 Ensure ongoing strengthening of procurement in PEDP3 for goods, works and services. Ensure appropriate record keeping as per the format prescribed in GFR and TR Ensure proper reconciliation of Recommendation: TA support to both the OCAG and CGA should continue in order to achieve a high quality IFR and audit report. A dialogue between DPs and CAG and CGA is currently ongoing to identify nature, scale and modality of the TA. To mitigate the findings of some serious irregularities in the process of procurement of works identified during AFR, QFR and Audit; 17 firms have been debarred by LGED from contracting for the next 4-5 years. LGED arranges quaterly meetings with Districts and Upazila officials of LGED as well as for DPE to sensitize them about Procurement Guidelines and Rules, and disseminates the findings of AFR, PPR and Audit reports. LGED has processed 2% of APP contracts through egp and has initiated more for FY In addition LGED arranges trainings and workshops on capacity building and strengthening the procurement process. DPE also arranges some trainings/workshops for capacity building. The current extent of DPE s progress in procurement of goods also shows some challenges, many of which can be mitigated through enhanced awareness of procurement guidelines and their application. Recommendation: Ongoing activities to strengthen procurement process should continue emphasizing implementation of e-gp for both LGED and DPHE and for all contracts over the program period. Inclusion of bid rotation matrix as integral part of the evaluation reports is compulsory. In addition an independent review is recommended to analyze the procurement process at DPE to identify the weaknesses and make recommendation for strengthening the process. QFR conducted in May 214 observed that most offices ensure adequate book keeping but do not follow the format prescribed in the GoB Financial Rules (GFR) and Treasury Rules (TR). Recommendation: Review the feedback of ongoing AFR for FY212-13; incorporate detailed review of compliance on books of records in the ToR for the next AFR (for FY ) to ensure appropriate record keeping by each entity. In addition, training program on financial management should address this as an ongoing process. a) It is important to ensure preparation of more reliable financial statements and regular Ongoing Process Ongoing process a) Ongoing process

221 ensures accuracy of expenditure as well as correct classification of accounts books of records as per GFR and usage of monitoring framework for monthly reconciliation between DDOs and accounts offices. reconciliation. FAPAD raised an issue that proper reconciliation is not being done by a significant number of DDOs on a regular basis. For monitoring the status of reconciliation, a reporting template has been developed by the CGA. The user interface to enter the information required by all accounting offices of the CGA has also been developed and uploaded. Sample testing by the QFR team shows that the requirement (of the monitoring report) regarding reconciliation has still not been implemented fully. Most of the AOs and DDOs are not entering status of reconciliation into the system template. b) September 214 b) The IFR report on DDOs Reconciliation shows total DDOs to be 1,932 whereas in reality total number of DDOs under MoPME is only 1,112. Recommendations: a) CGA should advise all DAOs/UAOs that requirement for reconciliation means complying with GoB financial regulations for all sub-sector expenditures, not only PEDP3 development expenditures. Even if the expenditure in the account of AO (ibas) is zero for a particular month, it should still be confirmed by the DDO. They should also instruct the AOs to ensure that reconciliation is done after the close of each month and to record the status into ibas. 8. Reconciliation of advances 9. Efficient and effective budget execution in line with Program priorities /activities 198 Ensure proper accounting and reporting as well as compliance of GFR and TR Incorporation of the Development Budget / Annual Operational Plan (AOP) in the ibas system by components will b) MoPME/ DPE as well as DPs should request CGA to instruct all AOs to identify and delete inactive DDOs. Several reviews, including AFR and QFR as well as the audit, identified inconsistency of status of advances in comparing the original advance statement and physical verification. Evidence from the QFR showed that DDOs are adjusting advance in the manual books of records but not booking the adjustment properly into the system. Moreover, UAOs have no real time access to the system. The report produced by the module/system provides incomplete information. To strengthen financial management, a computerized accounting system is being developed at DPE, to cover its field offices. Recommendation: DPE should monitor the status and adjustment of advances at DPE-HQ, and its field offices on a regular basis. In addition, the next QFR shall review the issue and recommend practical arrangements/ solutions. Moreover, training on financial management will focus on advance adjustment as per GFR and on proper usage of the advance-tracking module. MoF uploads the total amount of Development budget of PEDP3 in the system. It is not segregated by PEDP3 components, which could otherwise improve the value of the ibas budget management reports as tools for financial monitoring. However, future ibas++ feature might have a provision to include budget allocation at various levels. Ongoing process September 214

222 ensure better monitoring and reporting. 1. Adoption of international accounting standards. 11. Alignment of ongoing reforms of PEDP3 with new funding modality and avoid any duplication of datasets International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) (Cash Basis) as the reporting framework for the annual program financial statements Customization of PEDPII accounting system to meet the subsidiary accounting of advances with cost centers/ddos and related financial monitoring Recommendation: MoPME and DPs should request CGA to upload the Annual Operational Plan (AOP) in the system by functional, operational and economic code for FY Then, at the end of the fiscal year, the usefulness of continuing the budget segregation by component could be evaluated. Under implementation as a component under SPEMP. June 215 Recommendation: PFWG shall discuss with MoF how to implement IPSAS (cash basis) for PEDP3. During PEDPII, a computerized accounting system was developed for DPE and its cost centers. Later, hardware was installed at DPE and field offices, and training conducted but the system could not be made operational. In the Program Completion Review Mission of PEDPII, it was agreed that the system would be customized for PEDP3. During PFWG session of 1st JARM of PEDP3 in 212, it was agreed that DPE would review options for effective use of existing resources within the GoB system considering the cost of customization of the PEDPII accounting system. June 215 From the experience of 3 years implementation of PEDP3, DPE is recognizing the need to maintain a subsidiary accounting system for monitoring financials and status of advances with cost centers/ddos. A new web based computerized accounting system is being developed by DPE, with the plan to implement it at DPE and its field offices. 12. Access to ibas financial data will lead to greater confidence and system-ownership with DPE 13. Preparation and Submission of Interim 199 Enable ibas accounting data access (restricted and read-only) by DPE for monitoring of budget execution among all DDOs and their compliance with FR. Ensure timely submission of Recommendation: The system should be adjusted to include all bills processed under the MoPME budget, not only limited to PEDP3 development expenditures. A regular training program should be conducted to ensure efficient usage of the system. DPE has been granted access to PEDP3 monitoring reports like reports on payment processing and templates for AO/DDO reconciliation and advances, but still has no access to regular budget management reports. Recommendation: DPE should be granted read only access to all relevant ibas reports for effective monitoring of budget execution and DDO compliance with GoB financial regulations. MoPME and DPs should request CGA to provide access to DPE to Budget Management Report of MoPME. As per Section 6 clause 47 of the Joint Financing Arrangement (JFA), a quarterly IFR showing September 214 Ongoing Process

223 Financial (IFR) Report 14. Delay in payments is the biggest concern while adapting to the treasury system. 15. PFM Building Capacity IFR. Monitoring of payments processing service standards at accounts offices. Strengthening Financial Management of PEDP3 expenditures under each of the PBHs and comparing the actual and budgeted figures and other statements, as listed in Annex vi of the JFA, is required to be submitted within 3 days after the end of each quarter. The 1st, 2nd and 3rd quarter IFRs for FY were substantially delayed. Recommendation: Timely submission of the IFRs is required for each quarter. If any issue needs attention, then inclusion of notes to the statements can be added for explanation. A template for monitoring payment processing has been incorporated into the system. The report contained a summary for DAOs as per requirement. However, UAOs are not included in this reporting format as they don t have any real-time access /direct transaction wise access to ibas. In addition, some DAOs are still not able to generate the report on payment processing. Recommendation: All DAOs shall be able to access reports on payment processing time. This is for compliance with the service standard, improvement of their performance, and assurance of the quality of their services. DPE conducts training programs with support from DPs on financial management and procurement every year. LGED arranges dissemination workshops and training program on procurement rules for the officials of LGED and DPE However, AFR, PPR, QFR and audits identified some challenges in the area of monitoring, accounting and reporting of financial management and procurement at DPE and its implementing associates. CAO-MoPME has also expressed concerns over capacity constraints in effectively performing their functions. Ongoing process Ongoing process Recommendations: PFWG should monitor proper implementation of TA Mapping jointly developed by GoB and DPs during MTR process. 16. Review PFM Action Plan on a quarterly basis 2 Assess the progress and actions required for strengthening Financial Management and Procurement of PEDP3 Training on Financial Management should include record keeping, accounting and reporting of the program in compliance with GFR and TR. PFM Action Plan has been developed to assess the progress of PFM of PEDP3 and to identify critical areas/actions for follow up and further improvement. PFWG updates the PFM Action Plan during JARM, QFR and JCM. Recommendation: PFWG should review the status of the PFM Action Plan on a quarterly basis. This will help to assess the progress of PFM areas, to identify timing and critical areas for conducting QFRs and to improve timeline of Annual Fiduciary Review (AFR). Ongoing Process

224 CHAPTER F: RISK MANAGEMENT The Government prepared the following matrix of critical risks and mitigation measures at Program outset. Ten risks are organized in terms of outcomes, outputs, and financial risks. Mitigating measures have been included in PEDP3 design to the extent possible. In addition to the risks outlined in the table below, Governance and Accountability risks have been integrated into the Public Financial Management action plan. Table F (i): Summary of Risks and Mitigating Measures Risks Mitigation Measures Outcomes 1 Support for policy issues critical for PEDP3 implementation 2 Coordination of PEDP3 components between DPE divisions and between organizations under MoPME and MOE PEDP3 implementation arrangements include mechanisms for coordinating functions within MoPME, within DPE, between MoPME and autonomous bodies, between MoPME and NGOs, and between MoPME and other ministries. PEDP3 combines institutional strengthening, decentralization, and human resource development to Institutional and personnel capacity to increase Government institution s capacity. mange, implement and monitor Partnership arrangements with other Government PEDP3 s agenda and planned activities agencies, NGOs and private sector will increase institutional capacity Outputs Technical assistance will be requested for DLI areas Slippage in meeting DLIs needing support PEDP3 will strengthen monitoring and evaluation Timely generation of reliable functions including an annual primary school census information for monitoring of results that gradually increases coverage of schools and institutions PEDP3 will use appropriate budget approval instrument Flexibility in program implementation such as annual strategic and work plans supported by to incorporate lessons learned annually AOP Fiduciary/Financial The JFA includes a fiscal framework which ensures that Financial viability and sustainability required financial resources are appropriately committed and made available by Government and DPs. An annual fiduciary risk assessment with follow-up Slow progress on PFM action plan. actions is included in PEDP3. 9 Ensuring needs-based schools and institutions 1 Slow disbursement and implementation due novelty of using Bangladesh s financial management system to implement development programs 21 Many PEDP3 policy reforms reflect the priorities included in NEP funding of Annual planning process ensures allocation of funds based on needs of schools Orientation of MOF, MoPME and DPE financial management systems to PEDP3 implementation procedures including a detailed operations manual.

225 CHAPTER G: TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ARRANGEMENTS G.1 TA COORDINATION AND MANAGEMENT When deployed and used effectively, Technical Assistance (TA) can help to leverage results, to build systemic capacity and to support existing capacity to implement key activities efficiently. Thus, the management, coordination and monitoring of TA is instrumental for PEDP3 to achieve its education sector development goals. The link between TA process and sector development outcomes is illustrated in Figure F (i). TA makes up a significant portion of the implementation support and financing for PEDP3. Up to the Mid-Term Review, the total projected investment in TA was approximately USD 74 million; 17 percent of this had been spent by May 214. In the post-mtr period, total funding for TA for the duration of PEDP3 is an estimated $2 million US. TA is defined under PEDP3 as the mobilization, provision and utilization of services, skills, knowledge and technology in the form of personnel, research, training and associated activities. In this connection, TA includes short- and long-term advisers and consultants as well as institutional cooperation ( twinning arrangements ) and study tours (TA Report, 214). TA is managed under PEDP3 on the basis of a Common TA Framework, agreed on at the outset by GoB and DPs on the basis of lessons from PEDP II. 33 In principle, a TA Mapping for the Common Framework captures all sources of TA and specifically how each links to PEDP3 sector development priorities. TA is sequenced to support the pattern of PEDP3 implementation and is based on initial and ongoing needs assessments including assessment by the Government and external needs analysis. A proposed version of this TA Mapping was included in the original Program Document (211) and has since been updated on a rolling basis. The majority of TA is targeted on the PEDP3 Sub-components and Result areas. On the basis of the notional commitments in the TA Mapping, a Common TA Plan for each year of the Program will be developed as an agreed instrument between GoB and DPs. The Annual TA Plan will cover all TA from all sources of funding for the respective year, and it will include a specific schedule of deliverables. The TA deliverables and funding are to be included in each Annual Operational Plan (AOP) for PEDP3. The Annual TA Plan will be reviewed and confirmed by GoB and Development Partners at each Joint Annual Review Mission (JARM). 33 Under PEDP II there were various mechanisms used for the procurement of TA. In the early years of the program the bulk of TA was procured by the Government following ADB guidelines. Most of this TA was in the form of packages of consultancies, most of which were long term with fairly general Terms of Reference (TORs). This was supplemented by TA provided by the parallel funders UNICEF/DFAT and JICA. With some exceptions, TA initially provided under PEDP II was not adequate to meet the needs of the program. Problems included TORs that were not time bound and sufficiently task-focused, poor coordination, a lack of planning and limited ownership by the Government. Following the Mid-Term Review (MTR) of PEDP II there was a shift in the way TA was provided. National TA was procured through normal Government systems and parallel funders procured specific TA at the request of the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) and the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME). Each DP followed its own procedures for procurement and financing the TA. 22

226 Figure G (i): PEDP3 TA Process and Sector Development Outcomes A. Process B. Output C. Intermediate D. Final Outcome Outcome Common Plan 1. Common TA Plan embedded in PEDP3 programbased approach 2. Predictable pooled/paralle l funding for TA 3. Joint reviews 4. Better coordinated technical support 5. Reduced duplication of effort Alignment with GoB system 6. DP resources & priorities aligned to national program (PEDP3) 7. Avoid TA substituting for staff functions 8. Use & strengthen GoB institutions & systems 9. TA based on (GoB) needs assessments Management for Results - mutual accountability 1. DP & GoB programming & resources linked to country performance resultsoriented assessment Improved coordination of GoB & DP actors & technical support following rolling TA Plan 2. Enhanced country leadership 3. Effective use of TA 4. Alignment of TA with PEDP3 priority areas 1. Coordinated approach deploying various forms of TA (including studies & research) 5. Country systems & institutions strengthened for TA support to PEDP3 priority areas 6. More costeffective response 2. More resources for improved sector performance while MoPME/DPE capacity is strengthened to lead demand-driven TA approach based on identified & emerging needs 7. Incentives & systems to demonstrate results; stakeholder reporting & transparency mechanisms 8. Fuller use of allocated domestic resources for TA Increased equity, coverage & Quality of prioritized interventions with better education development outcomes: In particular, positive changes in classrooms & schools and stronger institutional support structures at different levels

227 frameworks 11. Excessive conditionality for TA avoided 12. Aligned monitoring & reporting systems 13. Joint GoBDP performance assessments & quality assurance Source: (TA Report, 214, p.12) There are two main categories of PEDP3 TA distinguished by funding source and procurement modality: Pooled TA Pooled TA is financed from the sector budget allocated (for PEDP3) to the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) within the overall government budget. This means the financing for this TA is the combination of GoB allocations and DP contributions transferred to the GoB Consolidated Fund per allocations foreseen in the Joint Financing Arrangement (JFA) between the GoB and DPs. This form of TA is procured by the GoB. To expedite the procurement process, a mechanism for Indefinite Delivery Contracting (IDC; see box below) has been facilitated by the procurement procedure of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). At least three IDC panels, drawing on international, regional, and national sources and mechanisms, are pre-qualified and retained on call. The three panels are: (i) Education Quality Service Delivery, (ii) Education Management and System Development, and (iii) Information and Knowledge Management System Development. The TA activities for each panel are in line with the Sub-components of PEDP3. Parallel TA This supports PEDP3, but the funding is outside the pooled funds explicitly referred to in the JFA. This TA uses parallel grants from DP agencies, which are in addition to their fixed-tranche and DLI-based disbursements. Procurement for this TA is managed by the respective DP agencies, not GoB. A large portion of the parallel TA supports GoB implementation of PEDP3 and another portion supports responsibilities of the DP Consortium (e.g. organizing reviews and meetings, coordinating and consolidating inputs to sector progress reports). Some of the parallel TA is financed by two or more DPs under delegated cooperation arrangements that confer management on one partner acting on behalf of the other silent partner(s). DPs finance other TA on an individual basis.in some cases, the parallel TA is a multi-year package to support multiple activities under a broad theme (e.g. equitable quality basic education program of UNICEF/EU/DFAT). In others, the TA is concentrated on specific pilot programs (e.g. the DPEd) and/or related to single DLI milestones or other technical functions (e.g. financial management through government systems). The key principles agreed by GoB and DPs to guide the process of TA planning are: 24 The Government should base TA on initial and on going needs assessments including external needs analysis.

228 TA should be provided according to a flexible rolling plan prepared by the Government in consultation with DPs based on identified and emerging needs. Coordination and management of TA should be by MoPME/DPE with safeguards to mitigate against pressure being exerted by individual DPs and against the unnecessary use of DPs systems in place of the Government s. The emphasis of TA should be on time-bound inputs with specific outcomes for effective program implementation, improved sector performance and/or system capacity development, while allowing for some long term support to build DPE /MoPME capacity in specific areas. TA should not be used to substitute for staff functions. International TA should be partnered with specific Government counterparts and/or local TA to build national capacity. Mechanisms for TA provision may be broadened to include partnerships, institutional twinning and other arrangements that tap into institutional resource bases and build national capacity. A mechanism for the continuous assessment of TA needs will be built within the program to keep plans and arrangements flexible in order to respond to needs as they emerge. TA is coordinated through the process of regular inter-dp, GoB-DP and intra-gob consultation. The TA Mapping and AOP are the main tools for this coordination. An assessment of TA management and coordination reviewed at the time of the PEDP3 MTR found limitations. As a result, the GoB and DPs agreed that a small TA committee will be established in DPE to function for the duration of the program. This committee will review the TA that the Working Groups proposed for Years 4-6 of the program (see below) and indicate which funding source is the most suitable to use for each TA action: (i) DPE procured TA using the pool fund via the IDC or individual consultant recruitment, or (ii) Development Partner procured TA using the parallel funds available through some of the partners. This committee s proposals will also take account of sequencing the use of TA from multiple sources, for example, in scaling out pilot initiatives (e.g. ECL) for greater coverage while strengthening institutions for longer-term sustainability. This small committee will also make suggestions on how to coordinate TA management and monitor the TA inputs per area, and the quality of the results. This TA committee will also take the lead, liaising with DPE Divisions and other relevant stakeholders, to draft the Annual TA Plans and to update the TA mapping on a rolling basis. TA is monitored through tracking the status of implementation, in terms of funds expended and what the TA has been used for in relation to the agreed delivery schedules. A review of the TA Mapping and TA Plan will be undertaken at each JARM henceforth. In addition to this overall monitoring of progress under the Common TA Plan, there are specific requirements for monitoring (and auditing) according to the funding modality, i.e. IDC, and DP-managed TA that is subject to the procedural requirements of their respective organizations. For Governmentmanaged pooled funds, the Interim Unaudited Financial Reports are expected to break out expenditures for TA. Indefinite Delivery Contracts Indefinite Delivery Contracts (IDCs) are contracts in which consulting firms are pre-selected and retained for an indefinite period, normally three to four years, to provide advice on a call-down basis for a particular activity, the extent and timing of which cannot be defined in advance. IDCs are most appropriate when: (i) the services are required urgently and a lengthy tendering process is inappropriate, and (ii) each individual assignment is small, making an expensive selection process inefficient, although when added together, the overall amount of advice over the indefinite period is substantial. 25

229 Firms/consortia are pre-qualified using the Consultants Qualification Selection (CQS) method. Normally, up to 8 firms or consortia would be pre-qualified though this could vary depending on the IDC's requirement, the sector and the level of interest. IDCs are offered to pre-qualified firms/consortia. At this stage, there is no guarantee of any income to those pre-qualified, and no retainer fees are paid. When there is a requirement for an Indefinite Delivery Contract Assignment (IDCA), three of the pre-qualified firms/consortia would be invited on a rotational basis to submit Bio data Technical Proposals (BTPs) within an abbreviated period of time where selection could be made according to Quality Based (QBS), Quality and Cost Based (QCBS) or Fixed Budget Selection (FBS) procedures. G.2 REVISED PROPOSED PEDP3 TA MAPPING By the Mid-Term of PEDP3 TA had been modestly deployed in terms of the proportion of projected investments actually spent and in coverage of the areas identified by TA Mapping. Areas in which the TA appears to have contributed to significant progress by program Mid-term include: a modernized and more systematic mechanism for tracking the on-time delivery of primary school textbooks to schools, progressive transformation of the Grade 5/Primary Education Completion Examination into a competency-based test, accomplishment of a sound and reliable National Student Assessment (NSA) for which two rounds (in 211 and 213) were carried out, piloting the DPEd reform of teacher training, development and pilot of the flagship Shikhbe Protiti Shishu ( Each Child Learn, ECL) aimed at making teachers accountable for pupils significantly improved performance in the classroom, and strengthened financial and procurement management in the primary education sub-sector. Based on the updated Program Matrix that was agreed during the MTR and taking into account the extension of the program to a sixth year, the Working Groups identified specific areas for TA support, and corresponding estimated costs, for Years 4-6 of the program. Note that this overview is not a comprehensive updating of the TA Mapping as it addresses TA needs for Result areas 1-4 of PEDP3 and does not show TA for support to the DP Consortium; nor does the matrix below factor in any remaining TA activities from Years 1-3 which also need to be completed, or the possibility to redirect unused resources committed for TA up to Year 3 to TA activities in Years 4-6 instead. Looking forward, the TA plan will be updated by the newly created PSO, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the TA arrangements currently in place and how they relate to the proposed TA for years 4 to 6. A stocktaking process that will be driven by the four WGs will support this. 26

230 Sub-Component 1.1 Shikhbe Protiti Shishu (SPS) (Each Child Learns) 1.2 School and classroom based assessment 1.3 Curriculum and textbooks strengthened 1.4 Production and Distribution of Textbooks and TLM 1.5 ICT in Education 27 Program Year Budget Component 1: Teaching and Learning Result Area 1: Learning Outcomes Expansion/institutionalization of ECL (including incorporation of ECL principles/concepts and Consultancy 4,5 & 6 lessons learned from pilot/studies into training programs of NAPE in Year 4) Revised Specific Issue for TA Support Type Source Man-Months Estimated Cost in USD (') UNICEF, AusAID/DFAT, EU Study 4,5 & 6 UNICEF, AusAID/DFAT, EU 18 (agency) 75 Consultancy 4,5 & 6 UNICEF, AusAID/DFAT, EU 33 (agency) 9 Consultancy 4&5 UNICEF, AusAID/DFAT, EU Consultancy Consultancy Consultancy 4 6 _ Consultancy 4&5 12 _ Consultancy 4,5 & 6 UNICEF, AusAID/DFAT, EU TA by DFID and JICA Universities, academic institutes, consulting firms and NGOs, etc. Universities, academic institutes, consulting firms and NGOs, etc. NCTB consultant 36 _ Consultancy 5 Pooled fund 3 5 Consultancy 6 TBC 1 25 Consultancy Textbook distribution study/survey (including printing quality) Consultancy ICT study to assess the use of ICT equipment for Study 4 TBC IDC - Education Management and System Development IDC 6 (agency) 2 Longitudinal Study Strengthening monitoring and mentoring mechanism in close collaboration with M&E, NAPE, EIA, and Training Division. Introduction of school and classroom based assessment methods and tools (including piloting in Year 4) Strengthening and monitoring of SBA and CBA (by M&E) Textbook refinement and teacher editions Development and tryout of textbooks, teachers guides and teacher editions for remaining subjects and grades Refinement of textbooks, teacher guides, and teacher editions for remaining subjects and grades based on tryout Curriculum and material development Develop digital content for electronic media (open learning) Study on the effectiveness of the new curriculum and textbooks for Grades 1-3 Procurement at NCTB

231 1.6 Teacher Education and Professional Development Diploma in Primary Education teaching and learning process, and identify further needs for effective use, including the development of a monitoring mechanism ICT study to assess the use of ICT equipment for teaching and learning process, and identify further needs for effective use. MTR Quality Study Phase 2 Study 6 IDC 3 (agency) 1 Study 4 4 (agency) 1 For TED Consultancy 4,5, & Monitoring of all types of training Consultancy Updating DPEd framework Consultancy Strengthening management of DPEd including revision and refinement of course materials and expansion to more PTIs Consultancy 4&5 18 (agency) 268 Monitoring and feedback on implementation of DPEd Consultancy 4&5 Pooled Funds Training Division consultant TBC UNICEF, AusAID/DFAT, EU/International EIA UNICEF, AusAID/DFAT, EU/International EIA UNICEF, AusAID/DFAT, EU/International EIA 12 Study 4 IDC 3 (agency) Consultancy 4,5 & 6 Pooled Fund 3 Study 5 IDC 3 (agency) Consultancy 4 Pooled Funds 3 5 Consultancy 4 Pooled Funds 6 1 Consultancy 4 TA by JICA 6 3 Consultancy 4,5 & 6 Pooled funds Monitoring and collection of data Consultancy 4 Pooled Fund 1 5 Study on integration of TSN with other TED programs Study 4 Universities, academic institutes, consulting 1 5 Conducting a study to explore alternative methods and different modalities to implement or expand the DPEd for the new recruits Diploma awarding body Conducting a study on feasibility of introduction of pre-service of DPEd Induction Training for Teachers Pre-primary Training Program Sub-cluster needs/demand-based training Subject-based Training Teacher Support and Networking NONE Monitor and evaluate effectiveness of pre-primary implementation Conduct a study on integration of PPE with the DPEd Mentoring and monitoring the training in 1 districts Mentoring and monitoring the training

232 1.6.7 Training of NAPE, PTI and URC Instructors and Assistant Instructors Sub-Component Second chance and alternative education Pre Primary Education Mainstreaming inclusive education Education in Emergencies Communications and Social Development Sub-Component Targeted Stipend School Health and School Feeding 29 Integration of TSN with other TED programs Consultancy 5 Identification of professional development needs and develop overseas training plan Consultancy 4 Agency to coordinate and manage implementation of training plan Consultancy 4 Revised Specific Issue for TA Support Type Financial management and procurement management Monitoring and learning of quality and impact of approaches piloted Census of out of school children Update PPE Expansion Plan to revisit equity criteria and expansion Long term capacity support to IE Cell DPE Revision of G&IE Action Plan Develop Implementation Guidelines, including the standardistaion of EiE tools and training manuals, and the development of a trainer pool to help schools to develop contingency plans Finalise Communications Strategy and Action Plan Revised Specific Issue for TA Support Consolidate lessons and develop forward looking strategy for integration into future primary education program Consolidate lessons and develop forward looking strategy for integration into future primary education program Program Year Budget firms and NGOs, etc. Universities, academic institutes, consulting firms and NGOs, etc. Universities, academic institutes, consulting firms and NGOs, etc. Universities, academic institutes, consulting firms and NGOs, etc _ 2 _ Source Man-Months Consultancy 4,5 & 6 IDC Panel 1 Consultancy 4,5 & 6 UNICEF Parallel Consultancy 4 IDC Panel 1 34 (strategic partnership) 54 Consultancy 4 UNICEF Parallel Consultancy Consultancy 4 4 UNICEF Parallel Parallel ADB Consultancy 4 UNICEF Parallel 6 3 Consultancy 4 UNICEF Parallel 3 75 Type Program Year Budget Source 68 Estimated Cost in USD (') 33 Man-Months Estimated Cost in USD (') Consultancy 5 IDC Panel 1 6 (firm) 36 Consultancy 6 IDC Panel 1 6 (firm) 36

233 2.2.3 School Physical Environment Needs-Based Infrastructure Development Sub-Component NONE Third Party Validation Revised Specific Issue for TA Support Field Level Offices Strengthened NONE Decentralization and Effectiveness Public Expenditure Tracking Survey Monitoring mechanism on the basis of PETS recommendations Support to ongoing implementation of SLIPs and UPEPs, on the basis of lessons learned School Level Leadership Development Organizational review and strengthening Sub-Component Grade 5 Completion Exam Strengthened Teacher recruitment, promotion and deployment 21 Consultancy Type 3&5 Program Year Budget Source Man-Months 216 Estimated Cost in USD (') 4 Parallel WB 4 _ Consultancy 5 Parallel WB 6 _ Consultancy 4,5 & 6 Parallel UNICEF 18 _ 2 _ 2 _ 4 _ Consultancy 4 Development of handbook/guide book for Head Teachers (by local education experts) Consultancy 5 To complete the stock taking of the ODCBG and prepare a plan to implement any outstanding actions Consultancy 4 Test item development, analysis of pilot test results and for capacity building for NAPE and others involved in Grade 5 exam School effectiveness study including contact hours, analysis of single and double shift methods, teacher deployment, student: teacher ratios, teacher incentives, use of SLIPs/UPEPs, infrastructure needs, community involvement and the use of private tuition. 36 (firm) Consultancy Further improvement of head teacher leadership training manual Revised Specific Issue for TA Support IDC Panel 2 Type Program Year Budget Universities, academic institutes, consulting firms and NGOs, etc. ( TA by JICA) Universities, academic institutes, consulting firms and NGOs, etc. ( TA by JICA) Individual consultant Source Man-Months Estimated Cost in USD (') Consultancy 4,5 & 6 TA by WB 11 _ Consultancy 4 IDC - Education Quality service delivery 3 18

234 3.2.3 Annual primary school census National Student Assessment Sub-Component 4.1 PEDP3 management and governance 4.2 PEDP3 Financial Management 4.3 Sector Finance 4.4 Strengthen 211 Third Party Validation Consultancy 5 IDC 16 To conduct needs assessment for institutionalisation of NSA; international TA to support overall NSA implementation quality assurance and capacity building; national TA to support strengthening test administration, marking and data analysis Consultancy 4 TA by WB International TA to support overall NSA implementation quality assurance and capacity building; national TA to support strengthening test administration, marking and data analysis Consultancy 5&6 TA by WB Revised Specific Issue for TA Support Type (1 International Firm; 1 Local Firm; 2 Education Specialists/ Quality Assurance Consultants) 96 (1 International Firm; 1 Local Firm; 2 Education Specialists/ Quality Assurance Consultants) Program Management Consultant (National) Consultancy Program Year Budget 4, 5, & 6 Consultants for PSO- MoPME Consultancy 4, 5, & 6 AOP Consultancy 4,5 & 6 AOP Consultancy 4,5 & 6 AOP Consultancy 4 DPs 12 - Consultancy 4,5 & 6 AOP Consultancy 4, 5, & 6 DPs 36 - Consultancy Consultancy 4,5 & 6 4,5 & 6 DPs DPs 9 18 (firm) - Consultancy 4,5 & 6 AOP & DPs Consultancy 4 DPs 12 - Consultancy 4 DPs 12 - Consultancy 3,4,5 & 6 IDC 18 National TA to support Financial Management in DPE National TA to support IT and Accounts system (DPE A/C System implementation) - AOP funded National TA to support IT and Accounts system (DPE A/C System implementation)- DPs funded National TA to support Procurement National TA to support Financial Management in DPE- DPs funded International TA support to PFWG-PFM Firm to conduct Annual Fiduciary Review Field office FM & Procurement training to all DDOs TA Support to CGA office (If required by MoF) TA support for PEDP3 Audit (If required by C&AG's office) NONE RBM TA Source Man-Months AOP 36 Estimated Cost in USD (')

235 monitoring functions 4.5 Human Resource Development 4.6 PPPs TOTAL 212 Assessment of Modernizing of Inspection System Pilot Consultancy 6 TBC 1.6 Consultancy Consultancy 4 5 AOP AOP _ NONE TA support for customization of PPP framework TA support for implementation of PPP framework

236 CHAPTER H: DETAILED COST ESTIMATES Table H (i): Component A. Component 1- Learning and Teaching 1. Each Child Learns 2. School and Classroom-based Assessment 3. Curriculum Development 4. Textbook Distribution 5. ICT in Education 6. Teacher Education & Development Subtotal Component 1- Learning and Teaching B. Component 2-Participation and Disparities 1. Alternative and Second Chance (NFE) 2. Pre-primary provision 3. Inclusive Education 4. Education in emergencies 5. Communication and social mobilization 6. Targeted Stipends 7. School Health & school feeding 8. School Environment 9. Need based infrastructure development Subtotal Component 2-Participation and Disparities C. Component 3-Decentralization and Effectiveness 1. Field level offices strengthened 2. Decentralized school management & governance 3. School level leadership development 4. Org review and strengthening 5. Grade V terminal exam strengthened 6. Teacher recruitment, promotion and deployment 7. Annual school census 213 Detailed Cost Estimates by Component by Year (USD,) Cumulative Expenditure up to June 14 1, ,12 46,274 55, , , ,96 344,29 429,235 3,551 29,21 2,22 1, /15 15/16 16/17 17/18 (JulDec) Total 1, ,955 3,41 3,384 33,797 74,791 4, ,833 6,522 38,576 33,932 12,588 4, , ,364 33,715 96,586-11, ,73 1,26 125, , ,155 3,128 48,697 1,547 7,18 4, , ,362 3,971 9,535 82, ,139 3, , , ,48 11,96 14, ,539 3, , ,63 489, ,113 19,242 3,595 5,7 1,281 2,672 1,35 26,746 46,811 3,335 1, , ,47 41,59 1,27 7, , ,138 25,546 3,26 2,157 18,731 1,981 24, ,368 1,637,875 7, ,312 1,159 24,886 2,318 26,928 3,266

237 8. National Student Assessment Subtotal Component 3-Decentralization and Effectiveness D. Component 4--Planning and Management 1. PEDP III management and Governance 2. PEDP III Financial Management 3. Sector Finance 4. Strengthen Monitoring Functions 5. Human Resources and Development 6. Public, Private Partnerships (PPPs) Subtotal Component 4--Planning and Management E. Total Component Cost F. Contingencies Physical Contingencies Price Contingencies F. Total Contingencies G. Custom duty and VAT G. CDVAT H. Total Development of PEDP3 (E+F+G+F2) I. Discrete Project 1. Discrete Project Subtotal Discrete Project (i) J. Total Development budget of DPE (H+I) K. Revenue Budget/Non Development Budget 1. MOPME 2. DPE 3. PTI 4. UEO 5. NAPE 6. Primary School K. Revenue Budget/Non Development of PEDP 3 Total Revised Program cost (K+J) ,733 7, , , , , ,936 1,353,72 483,99 174,556 13,467 42,946 1,161 1,624,16 2,339,388 3,693, , , , , ,47 3, , ,332 5, ,718 1,63 11,481 63,417 5, ,99 1,63 1,416 69, ,553 1, ,543 26, ,755 1,79 3,212 42,75 2,285,277-6,718 7,617 14,335 6,797 12, 18,797 2, ,896 3,25 647,957 3,25 712,248 1,553 13,515 19,617 33,132 9,11 2,327, , , , , ,257 1,7, , ,959 1,69,27 1,553 1,931,527 1,931,527 4,258,948 29,633 66,558 4,771 15, ,79 1,12,62 1,839, ,82 73,717 7,28 19, ,736 1,14,418 2,111, ,349 85,235 7,244 19, ,876 1,92,318 2,161,525 1,553 1,229,91 4,66 32,762 97,483 2,972 3,785,561 5,548,744 9,87,692

238 Table H (ii): Detailed Cost Estimates by Expenditure Category by Year (USD,) Head of Expenditure I. Investment Costs A. 7 Civil Works Cumulative Expenditure up to june 14 17/18 (JulDec) 14/15 15/16 16/17 388, , ,612 27,541 1,94, ,37 36,79 47, ,716 11,918 B. 68 Machinery & Equipment 98 C. 68 Computers 5,127 D. 68 Vehicle 185 6,973 4,76 - E. 68 Furniture 6 12,312 8,645 6,82 F. 46 Manpower 965 1,37 2,328 3,34 H. 48 TLM & Edu Kits ,334 5,372 Total 27,819 1,553 12,52 - I. 48 Survey/Study/Seminar & Workshop Study 4,372 2,621 2,621 9, , ,99 2,558 2,531 8, ,234 5,65 5, ,269 6,971 1,154 11,694 1,827 3,994 3,971 9, ,15 4,178 5,24 12, ,977 8,172 9,175 51,788 52,84 63,166 49, ,426 1,41 2,436 2,38 6,154 54,25 65,62 51, ,774 2,54 2,734 2,763 15,2 Survey Seminar & Workshop Subtotal 48 Survey/Study/Seminar & Workshop J. 48 SRG & TG - International Consultants National Consultants Subtotal 48 Consultants - 22,713 - L. 48 Training Local Training International Training 215 2,32 - K. 48 Consultants 51,788 Subtotal 48 Training M. 48 Curriculum Rivision 8 N. 48 Social Mobilization 6,965 O. 59 Grants/Fund 9, ,58 -

239 School Grants 21,62 45,121 45, ,861 1, ,28 29,85 1,923 16,394 18,28 246,375 29,85 24,56 152, ,342 42,457 84, , ,76 2,245 2,785 14,44 74,382 5,8 5,196 5,328 27, ,332 63,42 69,261 6,718 6,797 7,632 11,985-19,617 14,35 18,782-33,132 Operational Fund Fund Subtotal 9 Grants/Fund P. 46 Teachers Salary Q 12,29 49 Repairs and Maintenance R. 48 Operational Cost Total BASELINE COSTS 18,948 11,66 529,729 F. Contingencies Physical Contingencies Price Contingencies F. Total Contingencies - - 1, ,265 2,285,277 13,515 - G. Custom duty and VAT 37 2,564 3,25 3,25 H. Total Development of PEDP3 (E+F+G) 529, , , ,249 1,553 2,327,421 I. Discrete Project 823, , , ,959-1,931,527 Subtotal Discrete Project (i) 823, , , ,959-1,931,527 1,353,72 827,271 1,7,215 1,69,27 1,553 4,258, ,99 29, ,82 277,349 1,229,91 2. DPE 174,556 66,558 73,717 85,235 4,66 3. PTI 13,467 4,771 7,28 7,244 32, UEO 42,946 15,473 19,254 19,81 97, NAPE 1, ,972 1,624,16 715,79 743,736 71,876 3,785,561 K. Revenue Budget/Non Development of PEDP 3 2,339,388 1,12,62 1,14,418 1,92,318-5,548,744 Total Revised Program cost (K+J) 3,693,91 1,839,892 2,111,633 2,161,525 1,553 9,87,693 G. CDVAT J. Total Development budget of DPE (H+I) K. Revenue Budget/Non Development Budget 1. MOPME 6. Primary School 216 9,11 -

240 ANNEX 1: POLICY MATRIX Policy Area Curriculum Teacher Education and Development ICT in Education Pre-Primary Second Chance and Alternative Education (NFE) 217 Policy Actions to be taken during remaining PEDP3 period Component 1: Learning and Teaching Competency levels (expected common MoPME approves policy for multilearning outcomes) for each of the lingual education for instruction in grades/subjects established. mother tongue in the early years with Integrated national curriculum transition to the national language framework for all primary schools is ensuring full competency in both approved by GoB with agreed common languages by the end of grade 5. core subjects (common learning outcomes) plus optional elective subjects established Requirement for multi-lingual education is endorsed by the National Education Policy Minimum qualifications for pre- and primary teachers are specified in the NEP. The DPEd is being implemented to replace the Certificate in Education as the initial training for primary school teachers. Comprehensive ICT strategy for Strategy to be implemented primary education developed Current policies guiding PEDP3 Component 2: Participation and Disparities Guidelines on roles and responsibilities Guidelines for GO-NGO collaboration for delivering pre-primary education by reviewed and updated, including setting government and non-government minimum standards for all pre-primary providers issued by MoPME education provided NEP already endorsed NFE provided NEP and NFE strategy synchronized by NGOs and CBOs. Framework for equivalence between formal and non-formal primary education prepared and endorsed by Comments Close collaboration is required between NCTB, MoPME/DPE and NAPE regarding curriculum development and dissemination Several actions on Multi-Lingual Education are being prepared and implemented: approved pre-primary education curriculum has multi lingual provisions, and textbooks in 5 languages are being prepared. Medium-term policy direction is to study the move of DPEd from an in-service to a pre-service program for all government primary school teachers. Several national policies address using ICT in education. The strategy aligns these initiatives and translates to primary education To implement the PPE policy the existing PPE Expansion Plan will be revised in light of nationalization of RNGPS, which will operationalize the minimum standards as well as needs-based criteria Equivalency framework will ease movement of students between non-formal and formal systems, enable some NFE learners to receive free textbooks, and permit students completing the primary cycle through NFE to

241 Policy Area Current policies guiding PEDP3 Targeting Nationalization schools Teacher Recruitment Deployment Criteria for targeting, prioritizing, sequencing and packaging needs-based interventions for boys and girls developed and approved by MoPME. of and Decentralization Field level offices Decentralization School management decentralization 218 Policy Actions to be taken during remaining PEDP3 period MoPME and mechanisms for implementing elements of the equivalence framework are developed Implementation plans for needs-based interventions on criteria for sequencing, packaging and phasing are authorized. Comments take the terminal examination. Needs-based interventions are essential for success of primary education and PEDP3. Implementation plans are included in pre-primary education, construction, teacher recruitment and deployment, and using of decentralized funds. All Registered Non-Government With nationalizing RNGPS there are less differences Primary Schools are nationalized between schools in terms of provisions, hence more possibilities to improve equity. Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness Recruitment and promotion rules, and career path approved and implemented for teachers, head teachers, and DPE officers (field & HQ) A robust system of in-service training and staff development is in place and operational, based on competencies set for staff, including teachers. GoB establishes Center for Leadership to train head teachers and school management committees. Field and school level obligatory Devolution Plan is approved and Several functions have been decentralized to lower levels. functions defined and regulation Implemented. Subsequent devolution will be in a structured manner. formally devolving authority issued Subsidiary levels require clear authority to implement the decentralized obligatory, functions, as well as discretionary power to allocate budget Upazila level. Decision made to provide unified Financing and school support are Support to SLIPs should reflect both per capita and levels grants to schools established and institutionalized through of disadvantage and possibly the quality of the SLIPs. the decentralized planning and This should include: school funds, eligibility criteria, implementation arrangements, including spending guidelines, funds flow mechanism, review and revised UPEP, SLIP and SMC approval process, and regular assessment approved by guidelines Government and notified at all levels. UPEP guidelines will be further clarified, to allow Upazila

242 Policy Area Examination assessment Current policies guiding PEDP3 and School enlistment PPPs RBM/M&E Public Financial Management 219 Policy Actions to be taken during remaining PEDP3 period Standards and institutional mechanisms for liberal promotion for Grades 1 and 2 along with a school-based continuous pupil assessment established by Government A system is in place for regular assessment of learning outcomes and final examination disaggregated by sex. Enlistment criteria and regulations approved by GoB. Eligibility criteria and support packages for different types of schools defined. Component 4: Planning and Management Mechanism for using PPP in the primary education sub-sector developed and formally adopted. Concept on decentralized RBM, M&E An integrated EMIS system in in place and EMIS along with action plan that covers all primary schools with data approved and notified at all levels for disaggregated by sex. implementation. Annual Fiduciary Review undertaken. Planning and budgeting are linked through a robust MTBF. Comments Education Officers to use the block grants available at Upazila level (e.g. for education in emergencies and inclusive education) in a flexible way according to their needs (captured in their UPEP) and UPEPs need to be activated to reach the coverage expected by end of PEDP3 Formative assessment to be used to ensure participation of all learners in learning process Program continues to strengthen assessment systems Students from all types of primary schools are entitled to participate in the primary education completion exam. All schools following the NCTB curriculum are entitled to free textbooks. This should cover concept, implementation and funding arrangements and eligibility criteria. This should build on the ongoing RBM initiatives that include developing Upazila profiles.

243 ANNEX 2: UPDATED GENDER AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION ACTION PLAN PEDP3 MAINSTREAMING GENDER AND IE ACTION PLAN Background Women s opportunities have significantly improved in Bangladesh in recent decades. Among these opportunities is a sharp increase in education attainment for girls.34 For primary education, access has improved to the extent that female enrollments now outnumber those of males. Even while girls still have significant problems regularly attending school in rural, remote areas, DPE s Annual Sector Progress Reports (ASPR) between show, on average, both lower drop-out rates (17.9% female to 24.9% male in 213) and lower years input to graduation for girls compared to boys (6.1 years input to graduation for girls and 6.5 years for boys in 213). Over this same period, the Gross Enrollment Ratio revealed distinctly lower school enrollment amongst boys compared with girls in the economically more prosperous belts of the country, suggesting that in those areas, boys may be opting for work rather than schooling. Parity that favors girls in these key indicators is at odds with a definition of equality that aims for equality of opportunities and outcomes for boys and girls. Yet in regard to quality of learning in the classroom, it is noteworthy that some studies are showing that girls receive less attention from teachers than boys, with consequences for both performance and confidence. Moreover, private tutors are widely used to compensate for weaknesses in schools and teaching, and surveys have found that the level of household expenditures on tutoring are lower for girls than for boys, and that boys generally have tutoring over a longer proportion of time than girls. Thus, despite impressive achievements, girls need special focus and attention in PEDP3 to ensure gender equality in primary education sector. Moreover, as enrollment figures rise in Grades 1-5, more attention can be paid to assuring the enrollment, completion, and full participation of those who are ultra-poor, disabled, developmentally delayed, or belong to ethnic minorities. An education divide persists in primary cycle completion rates and learning outcomes between geographical locations (urban, urban slum, rural, and remote areas) as well as between children from families with different levels of income. PEDP3 addresses in-school and in-classroom participation of vulnerable children. The needs of children who live in areas of Bangladesh prone to cyclones and flooding will be addressed ensuring participation can continue during emergencies. Ethnic minority groups also receive specific attention under PEDP3. Approximately 2.5 million indigenous ethnic minorities live in Bangladesh, most of which live in tribal areas are very poor. Access to appropriate education for minority children generally lags behind that of non-minority children. The National Education Policy, 21 (NEP) calls for educating indigenous people in their mother tongues, and the government is continuing efforts in this space begun under PEDP II. PEDP3 has harmonized strategies and action plans for all35 excluded children within one Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive Education (G&IE) Action Plan. The Action Plan is part 34 By 211, the poorest quintile of women had a higher level of education than all women had in Bangladesh in Under PEDPII s inclusive education (IE) framework, four strategies and action plans were developed for gender equality and three specific groups: special needs children, vulnerable groups, tribal children

244 of sub-component 2.1.3: Mainstreaming Gender and Inclusive education. This subcomponent aims to mainstream G&IE in all relevant PEDP3 components. Goal The goal of the Mainstreaming G&IE Action Plan under PEDP3 is to improve student learning outcomes and completion rates for both boys and girls through a child and gender-friendly inclusive learning environment. The PEDP3 Ma ins tre ami ng Gender and IE Action Plan: Table A2 (i) summarizes the inclusive education and gender actions for PEDP3. The table includes targets, actions, recommendations, guidance and objectively verifiable indicators for measuring the achievements of the action plan. Table A2 (i): PEDP3 Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Matrix36 Subcomponent 1.1. Each Child Learns Responsible Division: Program Division Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Target IE and Gender Action Plan Activities Component 1: Teaching and Learning Equal attention to girls Promote active learning methods and boys at school in schools for both by girls and boys Excellence in learning achieved by all students Ensure teachers are using (irrespective of gender screening tool and providing and special status like appropriate seating ethnicity, disability and requirements for disabled disadvantaged groups) children Ensure ADPEO (IE), URC instructors, AUEO, supervisors and head teachers advise and support teachers to accept all children without discrimination, ensure all are included in learning process 1.2 School and Classroom-based Assessment Responsible Division: Training division in collaboration with Policy and Operation 36 School assessments targeting both boys and girls equally Collect sex disaggregated data on three major KPIs Identify and adapt relevant tools and materials for school and classroom based assessments to be gender responsive Monitor all children (boys and girls) participate in school based assessments and target improvements Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Objectively Verifiable Indicators 1. Sex disaggregated PEDP3 data on three program KPIs Percentage of Grade 3 Students Who Achieve Grade 3 Competency in Bangla and Mathematics; Percentage of Grade 5 Students Who Achieve Grade 5 Competency in Bangla and Mathematics; 3. Grade 5 Primary Education Completion Examination pass rate). (Sub-component 1.1 & 1.2) 2. A sample monitoring of text books and material distribution data (sub-component 1.4) The matrix defines targets and specific activities that will contribute to defined Program Component activities. 221

245 Subcomponent Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Target IE and Gender Action Plan Activities Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Objectively Verifiable Indicators Division Ensure all children (boys and girls) participate in the exam and perform equally. Review curriculum with IE &gender perspectives and accordingly, integrate IE &gender equality focused elements. 1.3 Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened IE &Gender equality focused curriculum is mainstreamed Responsible Division: NCTB in collaboration with Policy and Operation Division IE &Gender equality focused teaching pedagogy is mainstreamed 1.4 Production and Distribution of Textbooks All children irrespective of types of schools, gender, ethnicity, disable and other disadvantaged groups receive text books and materials in a timely manner Provide all schools the complete package of active learning materials within first month of the academic year and ensure all students (boys and girls) receive them. Equal access and use of ICT in the school by boys and girls Encourage both boy and girl students to learn ICT in the school Responsible Division: NCTB for production; Policy and Operation Division for distribution 1.5 ICT Education in Responsible Division: Information Management Division 1.6 Teacher Education and Development Responsible Division: Training Division in collaboration Policy and Operation Division Second chance and Alternative Education Responsible Division: (NFE) BNFE 222 Ensure boys and girls have same access to ICT in classrooms Gender equality and IE mainstreamed in all teachers education and development activities Review Teachers guides and curriculum to ensure that these are IE &gender responsive Integrate the gender training curriculum in DPEd, PTI training and all other training. Ensure teacher induction training orients all teachers in inclusive education and gender based needs of all children. Component 2: Participation and Disparities All children (who do Survey out-of-school children not go to school and/or (boys & girls), identifying both dropped out) receive boys and girls (both drop outs and NFE irrespective of those who have never attended), their gender, ethnicity, and encourage them to go to disabilities and other school. disadvantaged groups status Coordinate with Bureau of Non Formal Education (BNFE) to facilitate the use of guidelines and mechanisms for NFE to provide second chance education ensuring 3. Percentage of children (never enrolled and dropped out) out of school (boys, girls and all; 6-1 years old and years old) 4. Gross enrollment rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) 5. Net enrollment rate, primary education (boys, girls and all)

246 Subcomponent Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Target IE and Gender Action Plan Activities full participation of all girls and boys Pre-Primary Education Responsible Division: Policy and Operation Division Mainstreaming Inclusive Education Responsible Division: Policy and Operation Division in collaboration with Training Division All eligible children (irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, disabilities and other disadvantaged groups status) are enrolled in PPE Female teachers have equal participation in PPE teaching Equal access of children at school irrespective of their gender, religion, ethnicity, disability and disadvantaged groups status Ensure enrollment of all eligible children (irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, disabilities and other disadvantaged groups status) in PPE Ensure government s equity based quota system rules and regulations for recruiting teachers are followed. Ensure at least one teacher from each school receives training on gender and IE who will act as the school focal point to assist teachers to identify children experiencing difficulties in learning and provide interventions to support these children in their learning. Focal points to be trained to use tool kit and resource box and to offer support to other teachers. Encourage schools to use screening tools (developed by the Planning Division of DPE) to identify differently abled children Screening for every child to be conducted on entry to school (grade I) and once in each subsequent year on health days. Children identified to be referred to health specialists as required. AUEOs, URC instructors, UEOs and ADPEOs are trained to use tool kit and support school in including all children in learning process. AUEOs to identify and keep record of teachers and parents in sub-cluster with experience of children with special needs. Ensure coverage in underserved areas, including urban slums through collaboration with NGOs and provision of single class schools in remote areas. 223 Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Objectively Verifiable Indicators (Data to be received from the annual primary school census report-apsc for both indicators) 6. A sample monitoring /study undertake to review the status of eligible children s participation in PPE. 7. Number of female and other quota based staff (as mentioned in government rules and regulations) at PPE facilities increased 8. IE guidelines are available in all schools 9. IE guidelines are followed by all teachers and staff at schools 1. Number of teachers receiving IE training 11. Number of schools using the screening tools developed by PEDP II 12. Number of schools having records of teachers and parents with experience of children with special needs 13. Number of different levels of officers trained in IE 14. MLE materials are available for pre-primary level and other classes education for tribal children

247 Subcomponent Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Target IE and Gender Action Plan Activities Education in Emergencies Special support addressing gender and IE needs to continue education in emergency/disaster are available and followed Develop a strategy and action plan to integrate special, gender and IE needs in emergency/disaster situation Society at large is sensitized and effectively engaged to ensure gender responsive and inclusive education Ensure that the PEDP3 communication strategy includes gender and IE issues Responsible Division: Planning and development Division Communications and social mobilization Responsible Division: Policy and Operation Division and Administration Division Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Objectively Verifiable Indicators 15. Gender and IE strategies and action plan formulated and executed OVIs mentioned in 1.1 and Include messages on inclusiveness and gender equality in awareness raising programs. Include information on entitlements and government programs in awareness raising programs. Sustain and strengthen existing mass media campaign to raise awareness that all children have a right to receive appropriate, quality primary education within their locality Targeted Stipends Responsible Division: Stipend Project for Primary School Second Phase School Health and School Feeding Responsible Division: Planning and Development Division All eligible students (irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, disabilities and other disadvantaged groups status) avail targeted stipends to continue their education All students (irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, disabilities and other disadvantaged groups status) access health check up and school feeding services. Continue to raise awareness through IPT, education week, Meena day, local programs on IE and poster campaign etc. Based on the evaluation of the existing stipend programs, prepare guidelines from gender and IE perspective Ensure all eligible students (irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, disabilities and other disadvantaged groups status) receive targeted stipends Ensure all boys and girls show up for health check up and inform them on how to get follow-up care Guide schools to identify children with low nutrition status and organize school feeding for them. 16. Number of girls and students with disability receiving stipend (ethnic minority and other disadvantaged groups to be included to be tracked) 17. Number of boys and girls (irrespective of ethnicity, disabilities and other disadvantaged group status) completing health check once in a year 18. Number of boys and girls with low nutrition status access school feeding services School Provision of safe Provide safe drinking water and 19. Number/percentage

248 Subcomponent Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Target IE and Gender Action Plan Activities Physical Environment drinking water for all children at school Responsible Division: Planning and Development Division Provision of sufficient number of separate toilets for boys and girls with water in schools. sufficient number of separate toilets with disability access for boys and girls with water in schools Needs based Infrastructure Development Responsible Division: Planning and Development Division Field Level Offices Strengthened Responsible Division: Administration Division Decentralized School Management and Governance Responsible Division: Administration Division Provision of disability access to classroom and toilets Need based infrastructure development with core labour standards Construct ramps for disabled children to access classrooms and toilets Women constitute at least 3% of participants in consultations held with the community on infrastructure planning, implementation and monitoring. Include clause in the bid document for employing women (3% unskilled laborer), equal wage for work of equal value for women and men, water and sanitation and other facilities as per labor standard. Component 3: Decentralization and Effectiveness Adequate Ensure deployment and training Representation of of all staff including female at women staff at the field field level. level Orient all field staff on gender All field level staff are and inclusive education objectives sensitized about gender and activities. and IE needs The Decentralized School Management and Governance incorporates gender and IE needs at all levels of its structure Ensure that the field level capacity building plan includes needs and perspectives of female teachers and managers and ensures their participation. Ensure that the AOPs include actions to promote women s participation in decentralized management and governance. Review SMC function to include gender responsiveness and ensure that SLIPs, UPEPs and DPEPs address gender needs Build capacity of SMC and women members to effectively 225 Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Objectively Verifiable Indicators of schools having separate toilets for both boys girls 2. Number/percentage of schools with disability access (ramp) to classrooms and toilets 21. Monitor enforcement and include in the progress report. 22. Number of women field staff deployed and trained 23. Number of field level staff demonstrate adequate knowledge of gender and IE needs (a checklist will be developed by the project to monitor schools for this indicator) 24. Number of schools following the PEDP3 SLIP, UPEP and DPEP and SMC composition guidelines in a gender responsive manner.

249 Subcomponent Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Target IE and Gender Action Plan Activities perform aspects and address Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Objectively Verifiable Indicators gender Ensure that the guidelines on male-female composition of SMC and other committees is followed School Level Leadership Development Responsible Division: Administration Division Organizational Review and Strengthening Responsible Division: Administration Division Grade PECE Strengthened 5 Responsible Division: Administration Division and National Academy for Primary Education (NAPE) Teacher Recruitment and Deployment Responsible Division: Administration Division Annual The HTs become leaders to ensure education for all, gender equality and inclusion in their respective schools MoPME and DPE capacity is strengthened to ensure gender and inclusive education concerns are integrated within all components of PEDP3. All students (irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, disabilities and other disadvantaged groups status) complete their primary education Identify procedures and strategies to ensure full participation and representation of all levels of community in SMC including women, and tribal and marginalised groups and implement strategies/procedures Clarify the roles of HTs as a leader to ensure education for all, gender equality and inclusion. Train HTs on administration, management with orientation of gender aspects to enable them to address gender based needs of teachers and students. An institutional review to assess the capacity of the system to respond to the gender differential needs of different target groups through various components in PEDP3. Accordingly, arrange TA to provide capacity development support to IE Cell and other line divisions under PEDP3. Encourage all students (boys and girls) to complete their education by participating in terminal examinations. Adequate representation of women teachers in primary education sector Fill the quota for female teachers Annual Primary School Ensure all data are collected in a 25. Number of HT/teachers trained on gender and IE 26. Number of schools following gender and IE practices (a checklist will be developed by the project to monitor schools for this indicator) 27. Institution/organizations mainstream gender and IE components 28. Cycle Completion rate, primary education (boys, girls and all) 29. Cycle Drop Out Rate (boys, girls and all) 3. Coefficient of efficiency & Number of input years per graduate 31. Percentage of GPS/NNGPS that meet 3 of 4 school-level quality indicators (PSQL) 32. Number of female teachers recruited and deployed 33. Sex disaggregated

250 Subcomponent Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Target IE and Gender Action Plan Activities Primary Census census reveal and recognize gender and IE gaps sex-disaggregated manner to the extent possible School Responsible Division: M&E Division National Student Assessment Analysis and report to include gender perspectives National Assessments reveal and recognize gender and IE gaps National Assessments results will be compiled in a sexdisaggregated manner. Mainstreaming Gender and IE Action Plan Objectively Verifiable Indicators data are available for all relevant KPIs 34. Number of school fulfill the IE and gender gaps as identified in census 35. Sex disaggregated data are available for all relevant KPIs Responsible Division: M&E Division 4.4 Strengthening Monitoring Functions Responsible Division: M&E Division 4.5 Human Resource Development Responsible Division: Administration Division Component 4: Planning and Management Primary education data Annual School Census and other are available in a assessments collect and segregated way disaggregated data (gender, (gender, ethnicity, ethnicity, disabilities and other disabilities and other disadvantaged groups). disadvantaged groups) to identify gender and IE gaps and needs. Training needs Ensure training needs assessment assessment of all male includes all male and female staff and female staff at all at all levels. levels conducted Integrate training modules on Gender training is gender and IE from PEDP3 in included in HRD HRD training. training. Include the promotion of Increased participation women s participation in of women in decision- decision-making positions in the making positions in the HRDM plan. HRDM plan. Fill in vacancies and new posts Adequate fulfilling the quota for women. representation of women employees in Take necessary and specific primary education actions to recruit and train women sector teachers and education managers. 36. Disaggregated data (gender, ethnicity, disabilities and other disadvantaged groups) are available for all relevant KPIs 37. Number of male and female employees in primary education sector 38. Number of male and female employees in primary education sector received training on gender and IE issues. Qualitative Studies/research to be undertaken The Mainstreaming G&IE Action Plan recognizes that to mainstream gender and IE in PEDP3 and beyond in the primary education sector, several qualitative studies should be undertaken contingent upon available funding. These studies will identify specific pertinent and relevant findings and valuable information in different sub-components to successfully mainstream gender and IE. The following table presents the suggested studies and responsible divisions to undertake the studies. Experts in the relevant areas should execute these studies if and when the financial resources are available to engage them either during or post-pedp3. 227

251 Table A2 (ii): Suggested Qualitative Studies to be undertaken to mainstream Gender and IE in PEDP3 and beyond Relevant subcomponent 1.2 School Classroom-based Assessment Study description and 1.3 Curriculum and Textbooks Strengthened; and 1.6 Teacher Education and Development 1.5 ICT in Education 1.6 Teacher Education and Development Mainstreaming Inclusive Education Mainstreaming Inclusive Education Communications and social mobilization Targeted Stipends 1. A qualitative review by a gender and IE specialist to examine if textbooks are gender and IE responsive. Includes recommendations for NCTB s revision of text books 2. A qualitative review and revision (if necessary) by gender and IE specialist to ensure teacher s guides and training curriculum are gender and IE responsive 3. A qualitative study to assess the status of participation of boys and girls to learn ICT in classroom. 4. A qualitative study to assess the outcome of teachers training in terms of addressing the gender differential needs of boys and girls in the classroom. 5. A qualitative study to review the status of children s access to schools irrespective of gender, ethnicity, disability and underserved areas. 6. A qualitative study to review the status of disparities between girls and boys in access to education, retention, performance and leaning outcomes, irrespective of ethnicity, disability and underserved areas 7. A qualitative review on the status of implementation of the Communication Strategy once the strategy is approved 8. A qualitative study to evaluate the effectiveness of stipend program in terms of access to education and learning outcome Decentralized 9. A qualitative review to assess to what extent School Management and the IE and gender needs are addressed in the Governance decentralized school management and governance structure. Responsible Division Training in collaboration with Policy and Operation Division NCTB in collaboration with Policy and Operation Information Division Management Training Division collaboration Policy Operation Division Policy and Operation Division in collaboration with Training Division Policy and Operation Division in collaboration with Training Division Policy and Operation Division and Administration Division Stipend Project for Primary School Second Phase in collaboration with Policy and Operation Division Administration Division Implementation and Monitoring Mechanism of Gender and IE Action Plan Each responsible division will implement and monitor the action plan in collaboration with other divisions/units. The responsible division will include relevant actions in the Annual Operational Plan and allocate adequate budget. Implementation arrangements including staff, TA provision, and estimated costs of implementation have been integrated into the overall arrangements and total budget of the program and will be specified as per the targets set in the annual operational plan (AOP). The monitoring of the Action Plan will rely on existing sex-disaggregated data and gender-based analysis. The IE Cell under Director, Policy and Operations, has the overall responsibility to report on the status of implementation the Action Plan. In this regard, the IE Cell will 1) provide technical and facilitation support to other line divisions to identify relevant actions in their respective AOPs and; 2) monitor and report on the implementation status of the Action Plan. 228 in and

252 ANNEX 3: SOCIAL MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ADB AusAID ARP CBO CHT CIDA CUL DC DEO DFID DLAC DPE DP EC GoB GRC HCG HTG IDA JICA LAP MoPME NGO OM F1 OP 4.1 OP 4.12 PAH PAP PEDP I PEDP II PEDP3 RP SEC SECP SIDA SMF SPS SR2 SR3 UEO UNICEF WB 229 Asian Development Bank Australian Agency for International Development Abbreviated Resettlement Plan Community-Based Organization Chittagong Hill Tracts Canadian International Development Agency Compensation-Under-Law Deputy Commissioner District Education Officer Department for International Development District Land Allocation Committee Directorate of Primary Education Development Partners European Commission Government of Bangladesh Grievance Redress Committee House Construction Grant House Transfer Grant International Development Association Japan International Cooperation Agency Land Acquisition Proposal Ministry of Primary and Mass Education Non-Government Organization ADB s Operational Manual, Section F1 Operational Policy 4.1 on Indigenous Peoples Operational Policy 4.12 on Involuntary Resettlement Project Affected Household Project Affected Person First Primary Education Development Program Second Primary Education Development Program Third Primary Education Development Program Resettlement Pan Small Ethnic Communities Small Ethnic Communities plan Swedish International Development Association Social Management Framework Safeguard Policy Statement 29, ADB ADB s Safeguard Requirements 2: Involuntary Resettlement ADB s Safeguard Requirements 3: Indigenous Peoples Upazila Education Officer United Nations International Children s Education Fund World Bank

253 DEFINITION OF SELECTED TERMS Compensation: Payment made in cash to the project affected persons/households for the assets acquired for the program, which includes the compensation provided in the Acquisition and Requisition of Immovable Property Ordinance 1982 and others stipulated in this Social Management Framework. Compensation-Under-Law (CUL): Refers to the compensation assessed for the acquired lands and other assets, such as trees, houses/structures, etc., by different government agencies as per the methods provided in the Land Acquisition Ordinance, and paid by the Deputy Commissioners. Consultation Framework: In view of their stakes and interests in the program, the framework is prepared to guide the program preparation team about who are to be discussed/ consulted about the overall program and its positive and negative social impact implications and to seek their inputs and feedback in the different stages of the project cycle. Cut-off Dates: These are the dates on which censuses of the affected persons and their assets are taken. Assets like houses/structures and others, which are built, and the persons or groups claiming to be affected, after the cut-off dates, become ineligible for compensation and assistance. For private lands, these dates will however not constitute cut-off dates, if the legal Notice 3 is already issued before the censuses are taken. In such a situation, the Notice 3 dates are considered cut-off dates, as the acquisition ordinance prohibits changes in the appearance of the lands after issuance of Notice 3. Entitlement: Refers to mitigation measures, which includes cash payments by DCs and DPE, as well as any non-cash measures stipulated in this SMF (e.g., allowing the affected persons to keep felled trees, salvageable building materials, etc.), for which compensation is already paid. Small Ethnic Communities: Small Ethnic Communities which are also identified as Indigenous Peoples in some document: Unless they are already recognized, the Small Ethnic Groups are identified in particular geographic areas based on these four characteristics: (i) selfidentification as members of a distinct indigenous cultural group and recognition of this identity by others; (ii) collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats or ancestral territories in the project area and to the natural resources in these habitats and territories; (iii) customary cultural, economic, social, or political institutions that are separate from those of the dominant society and culture; and (iv) an indigenous language, often different from the official language of the country or region. Involuntary Resettlement: The situation arises where the State s power of eminent domain requires people to acquiesce their rights to personal properties and re-build their lives and livelihood in the same or new locations. Participation/Consultation: Defined as a continuous two-way communication process consisting of: feed-forward the information on the program s goals, objectives, scope and social impact implications to the program beneficiaries, and their feed-back on these issues (and more) to the policymakers and program designers. In addition to seeking feedback on program specific issues, participatory planning approach also serve the following objectives in all development programs: public relations, information dissemination and conflict resolution. Physical Cultural Property: Includes monuments, structures, works of art, or sites of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, scientific, ethnological, or anthropological point of view, including unrecorded graveyards and burial sites, and unique natural environmental features like canyons, forests and waterfalls. Within this broader definition, cultural property is defined as sites and structures having 23

254 archaeological, paleontological, historical, architectural, or religious significance, and natural sites with cultural values. Project-Affected Person/Household: Persons/households whose livelihood and living standards are adversely affected by acquisition of lands, houses and other assets, loss of income sources, and the like. Rehabilitation: Refers to improving the living standards or at least re-establishing the previous living standards, which may include rebuilding the income earning capacity, physical relocation, rebuilding the social support and economic networks. Relocation: Moving the project-affected households to new locations and providing them with housing, water supply and sanitation facilities, lands, schools and other social and healthcare infrastructure, depending on locations and scale of relocation. (Homestead losers may also relocate on their own in any location they choose.) Replacement Cost: The World Bank s OP 4.12 on Involuntary Resettlement describes replacement cost as the method of valuation of assets that helps determine the amount sufficient to replace lost assets and cover transaction costs. In applying this method of valuation, depreciation of structures and assets are not taken into account. For losses that cannot easily be valued or compensated for in monetary terms (e.g., access to public services, customers, and suppliers; or to fishing, grazing, or forest areas), attempts are made to establish access to equivalent and culturally acceptable resources and earning opportunities. Where domestic law does not meet the standard of compensation at full replacement cost, compensation under domestic law is supplemented by additional measures necessary to meet the replacement cost standard. Stakeholder: Refers to recognizable persons, and formal and informal groups who have direct and indirect stakes in the program, such as affected persons/households, squatters, local communities, local governments, community-based and civil society organizations, education advocates. Top-Up Payment: Refers to DPE s payment in cases where the compensation-under-law (CUL) determined and paid by DCs falls short of the replacement costs/market prices of the affected lands and other assets. Top-up payment is made by the project authorities. 231

255 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction 1. Bangladesh has progressed substantially in improving access to primary education particularly in the last two decades. The country has also achieved the Millennium Development Goal of gender parity in primary and secondary education. As per the Annual Sector Perform Report, 21, gross and net enrollments in primary education have increased to from 93.7% and 87.2% in 25 to 13.5% and 93.9% respectively in 29. Despite progress, the primary education sub-sector faces several challenges in achieving the goal of equitable access to quality education for all. Various disadvantaged groups, particularly children from remote and vulnerable areas, poor, minority ethnic groups and urban slums do not have access to quality schooling. More than 1 types of schools under different institutions operate without a framework for common learning outcomes. It is estimated that 2-3 million children are out of school, despite various initiatives of the Government (stipends, school feeding, special projects). Ensuring access to quality education, particularly minimum learning outcomes to all as stipulated in the national curriculum and improved cycle completion, for those facing various forms of exclusion remain the biggest challenge. Due to poverty induced by natural calamities and other shocks, many families resort to non-formal and madrasa education, which do not follow a common standard framework. 2. The Government of Bangladesh in its draft National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction (NSAPR) for has identified education as key to poverty reduction. The NSAPR aims at ensuring completion of quality primary education for all children irrespective of social, geographic, gender, ethnic differentials as well as differential physical and mental capabilities. The National Plan of Action II (NPAII), , of the Government commits to the education for all (EFA) program and highlights the need for improving quality while retaining the focus on equitable access to basic education. The NSAPR and the NPAII reinforce the Government s Compulsory Primary Education Act of 199. The NSAPR provides for different specific initiatives to ensure equitable access to quality education, retention and equity at the primary level for all: primary education stipend for children from poor families; expansion of non-formal education targeted to extreme poor and in remote areas; reduction of education divides in terms of contents and standards between different streams; coverage of underserved areas; improvement in equity of outcome through allocation of appropriate resources; need based program for physically challenged and other vulnerable children; and introduction of school feeding program. 3. The Second Primary Education Development Program (PEDPII) under the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME), the first sub-sector wide approach jointly financed by the Government and 11 development partners (DPs), worked towards addressing several aspects of the EFA goals. The Government, with support from the Developing Partners (DPs), developed and implemented the third Primary Education Program (PEDP3), a follow on program37 based on the lessons learned and the government s priorities articulated in NPAII, NSAPR, NEP and other related documents. PEDP 3 aims to reinforce the ongoing reforms within a well-developed policy framework based on lessons learned from PEDPII and specifically addresses the inclusive education agenda with a focus on deepening reforms to address the needs of the poor and other excluded groups. This Additional Financing (AF) will add funds to continue reforms and activities being implemented under PEDP 3. The AF will not finance any new components; the 37 The Government is calling the program Third Primary Education Development Support Program 232

256 nature of activities will remain the same though the scope and coverage is expected to be improved. Background 4. This Social Management Framework (SMF) is proposed to deal with social safeguard issues that may arise during implementation of the PEDP 3. It must be mentioned that the AF will not include any new component. So, no new safeguard policies would be triggered. This SMF is an updated version of the original SMF for PEDP 3, based on the findings and lessons learned from the latter. This updated SMF will be applicable for all program activities including the AF henceforth. 5. PEDP 3 AF is also being implemented by The Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) under the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME), Government of Bangladesh. The proposed AF and restructuring will not entail a change in the original Project Development Objective, the three major Parts ( thrust areas ) for intervention under the project, or the nine Disbursement Linked Indicators (DLIs). The objective of the AF is to deepen the reform agenda and extend the closing date of the project (PEDP 3); the AF will entail adjustments and an enlarged scope of work with respect to the original components and activities. The nature of the activities will remain the same. The original project is well-performing. The Mid-Term Review (MTR) conducted after the first 3 months of implementation rates the progress towards development objectives and implementation as satisfactory. 6. The objective of the AF remains the same as of PEDP 3: to further improve the country s primary education system and to provide quality education to all Bangladeshi children in every classroom. The program will be implemented over a three-to-six year period with the support of a number of development partners (DPs) including the Asian Development Bank, DFAT, DFATD, DFID, EC, JICA, Netherlands, SIDA, UNICEF and the World Bank/IDA. 7. It is envisaged that the program activities will trigger the World Bank s Operational Policy on Indigenous Peoples (OP 4.1) and ADB s Safeguard Requirements 3(SR3) on Indigenous Peoples Safeguards. WB OP 4.12 on Involuntary Resettlement (IR) safeguards or ADB s SR2 on the same did not trigger for PEDP 3, as all new civil works had been undertaken within the school premises, so far, and did not cause any displacement or adverse impact on livelihoods. The AF is also not expected to trigger OP 4.12/SR2, but the SMF (as was the case in the original) includes all guidelines and policies to be followed in case they are triggered. MoPME/DPE has decided that IR safeguards should be taken into account in both PEDP 3 and PEDP 3 AF, as in future, schools may need to be constructed in private or public acquired lands beyond the existing campuses. As such, consistent with the World Bank s Operational Policies and ADB s Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS38), and those of other (DPs), the SMF proposes principles, policies, guidelines and procedure to identify and address impact issues concerning Small Ethnic Communities (SEC) and IR safeguards. The SMF will apply to the PEDP 3 and PEDP 3 AF as a whole, and provide the basis to prepare and implement impact mitigation plans as and when school physical works are found to cause adverse impacts on SECs and others, including private landowners and public land users. Lessons Learned from PEDP 3 (Implementation till date) 8. This section is based on close consultations with the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), DPE, and local communities, findings from secondary sources such as annual monitoring reports generated by DPE and LGED, and studying the project databases. The 38 To be followed as per ADB s Operational Manual, section F1 (OM F1) 233

257 objective of this exercise was to update the original SMF for PEDP3 for the purposes of the AF as well as the program as a whole. Land usage and relevant safeguards policies: 9. LGED is continuing to undertake huge number of small scale infrastructure throughout the country, but the program encourages vertical extension of new constructions or horizontal extensions structure within the existing land and boundary of school premises. No land acquisition and resettlement has been required for the program activities so far, and thus no resultant negative impact on the community people including women, vulnerable, and ethnic groups/communities has occurred due to the land usage. Joint social screening exercise had been conducted for each sub-project (11,53 screening reports are available). LGED consults with the local community at all stages of their activities jointly with the School Management Committees (SMCs) and other relevant stakeholders. All relevant information (i.e. type of civil works, duration etc.) are displayed for community s prior knowledge and information on the information boards in front of schools and construction sites. 1. Water and Sanitation facilities had been partly undertaken by LGED initially, which will now be fully undertaken by the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE). These are also not expected to have negative impact on local community people as they will not require land acquisition or displacement of any sort; all civil works relevant to this component will be carried out within the existing school premises. Provisions for female toilets and toilet for persons with disability in WASH blocks in the schools are taken keeping gender needs and special needs in consideration. LGED produces a report on the social aspects in their biannual reports. Small Ethnic Communities (SECs) 11. The program has been actively working in areas where SECs live including the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) where they are largely prevalent. OP 4.1/SR3 is therefore triggered for the Program. There is a dedicated database for the program with disaggregated data for SECs and gender. Although DPE carries out regular consultation with local people and designs school related civil works in a participatory manner, sub-project level SEC Plans may require to be developed in terms of documentation and reporting, based on the level of impact on IPs. Awareness raising and community level consultations with SECs are carried out regularly but the documentation is weak with regards to this. 12. An important finding from the safeguards implementation monitoring reports for PEDP3 was that accessibility to schools in localities where SECs live is an issue. Considering the sociocultural specificity and geographical distinctness in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, LGED has already prepared a report for patterns of school premises based on the remoteness and landscape. Three types of school patterns have been proposed based on community consultations; the designs were prepared in a highly participatory manner through community engagement and workshops. The main objective of this exercise is to make the schools as culture friendly as possible. In keeping with this objective, text books of three grades are under process of printing in five ethnic languages. The SMCs are an important medium to engage with local communities. 13. As the students from the poorest strata are eligible for the stipend, the selection is based on poverty mapping. This automatically tends to include the most vulnerable including SECs and students with disabilities who typically fall into the highest level of poverty stricken population. 14. In CHT, the Hill District Council (HDC) recruits teachers directly instead of DPE, whereas in the rest of the country, appointments are done by DPE centrally. Since local communities are better aware of the Council and its procedures and representatives they are encouraged to apply. The familiarity is a big factor in encouraging women in these areas to apply. This then results in 234

258 improved cultural orientation as well as inclusion in areas where SECs live. Educational qualification for the SEC teachers is flexible to encourage them to apply in primary education sector, in order to reduce the gap between SEC and mainstream teachers and to bolster higher enrolment and retention of the SEC students. Gender and Inclusion 15. As per recommendations from various development partners associated with the Program and their strategic as well as administrative requirements, a standalone Gender and Inclusive Education (IE) Plan has been prepared. The document contains an action plan with a monitoring framework for specific outcomes and a large number of indicators. The purpose of preparing a standalone document on Gender and IE was primarily to highlight the gender and inclusiveness issues, achievements so far, gaps and recommendations for further strengthening this component. DPE regularly monitors the indicators according to the action plan and prepares an annual report to be shared with the DPs. The Gender and IE Plan is annexed to the overall Program document and is currently being updated. 16. Females are encouraged to apply as teachers at all levels particularly for the pre-primary ones. According to DPE, the current employment rate of female teachers is more than expected, around 71% whereas the target was 6%. In 213, among 11.5 lakhs applicants, 14, female teachers were recruited. Female teachers, in addition to the quota for them, also get the benefit of quotas for Freedom Fighters and Ethnic Minorities (Upojaati). Though the minimum level of education requirement is SSC, in most cases HSC and even degree pass females also apply for these jobs. The reason for this is seen as a positive result of stipends for female students at all education levels who after completion of their studies are encouraged to apply for these jobs. Moreover, there is an attempt to employ female teachers in their respective regions for reducing family and social barriers. SMF Objectives 17. The SMF provides principles, policies, guidelines, and procedures to help MoPME/DPE to select, design and implement the school civil works to ensure that PEDP 3 Enhances social outcomes of the activities implemented for individual schools; Identifies and mitigates adverse impacts that physical works might cause on people, which also include protection against loss of livelihood activities; and Ensures compliance with the social safeguard policies of World Bank, ADB, and other DPs on SECs and IR. Program Components & Social Safeguard Issues 18. Proposed major activities of PEDP 3 and PEDP 3 AF are: 235 Provide quality preprimary education of one year to all children aged 5-6 years Mainstream inclusive education Provide primary education in flexible setting to children who dropped out of school or have no access to a formal primary school Provide stipends to increase enrollment & completion in primary education To support children s improved health and nutrition in contribution to improved achievement and attendance in school Provide sufficient schools/classrooms to allow universal access; schools to meet standards in quality hygiene, water and sanitation Address education in emergency through mitigating the impact of disaster Develop of Primary and Pre-Primary curriculum Develop and distribute new teaching-learning materials (TLM) including textbooks

259 Improve quality of teachers through training Enhance effective training deliveries of PTI through technical support Develop capacity of school management committees through training workshops 19. Among other activities proposed to promote inclusive education, Universal Access component of the program includes development of school physical facilities. The total program target for PEDP3 and the AF is as follows: construct additional classrooms (39,3 nos.) in existing school facilities and premises of which 7% have already been tendered; installation of 39,3 water-points (comprising tube-wells and other alternative sources for safe drinking water such as rain water harvesting, dug well etc.), of which 1% has been completed; 75, toilets for men and women of which 1% has been completed (no more stand-alone toilets will be constructed, instead 18,5 WASH blocks comprising three toilet compartments, including one for disabled children, with hand wash facilities will be constructed). Major maintenance works will support refurbishment of 5, existing schools. The program will support the extension of DPE headquarter in Dhaka within their existing office campus, and a Leadership Centre at Cox s Bazaar within the premises of the District Primary Education Office (DPEO). Some small scale construction such as extension of Primary Teachers Training Institute (PTI) in various locations and storerooms, all within the existing premises, will be undertaken. No land acquisition or displacement will take place for these purposes. 2. The program has positive impact on SECs of the country and hence WP OP 4.1 and ADB s SR3 for Indigenous Peoples (IP)39 safeguards would trigger, but OP 4.12 /SR2 on IR did not triggered as all extension and new works of classrooms construction and repair and maintenance of schools had been restricted within existing premises. However, this SMF retains the guidance on land use and mitigation for adverse impacts caused due to land acquisition in the rare cases of triggering the IR safeguards requirement. Land requirements and availability, which would vary from one school to another in terms of scope of civil works and, more importantly availability of land under schools ownership, could not be determined until specific schools are identified and civil works needs are rightly assessed. However, land-related issues and impacts for individual schools are not expected to be significant. School Selection Guidelines 21. In view of the SMF objectives, MoPME/DPE will undertake a number of suggested tasks while selecting schools for expansion and new construction. MoPME/DPE/LGED/DPHE will not however undertake school physical works: That will affect SECs with long-term negative consequences in the following manner: Threaten their cultural tradition and way of life May severely restrict access to common property resources and livelihood activities May affect places/objects of cultural and religious significance (places of worship, ancestral burial grounds, etc.) That will (anywhere in the country, including areas inhabited by SECs), Require involuntary land donation, contribution against compensation and purchases that are not offered on willing buyer-seller basis Affect private homesteads 39 As the Government of Bangladesh has reservation to use the term IP, the SMF would use the term Small Ethnic Community (SEC), which is the government approved synonym to define the same group of peoples. 236

260 Render households using public lands homeless Significantly restrict access to common property resources and livelihood activities of groups and communities Cause adverse impacts on physical cultural resources like buildings and objects that bear cultural and historical significance (ref: World Bank s OP 4.11 on Physical Cultural Resources). Screening & Mitigation Guidelines 22. Where screening results indicate potentials of adverse impacts, MoPME/DPE s action on a school will be consistent with the following sets of guidelines. Framework for SECs Plan. Consistent with OP 4.1 and SR3, it provides principles and guidelines to identify and deal with adverse impacts on SECs, and a consultation framework for adoption of mitigation and development measures (Section B, pages 1119 of SMF); and Guidelines for Land Use & Impact Mitigation. Consistent with the Bangladesh Land Acquisition Ordinance, 1982, OP 4.12, and SR2, it provides principles, policies and guidelines for use of public and private lands and adverse impact mitigation; mitigation measures and standards; mitigation plan requirements and preparation process; implementation and monitoring arrangements for mitigation plans (Section C, pages 231 of SMF). Institutional & Implementation Arrangements 23. DPE will supervise and monitor SMF implementation and will ensure that the SMF is implemented in its entirety or to the extent applicable. At the local level, Upazila Education Officer (UEO), who is a member of the Upazila Education Committees, will perform all process tasks specified in the SMF, especially those related to obtaining lands from private and public ownerships where required, as well as those related Small Ethnic Communities. As to monitoring, UEOs will directly provide DPE the up-to-date monthly information on all activities undertaken to obtain lands and those related to civil works for individual schools. A joint screening will be carried out by LGED/DPHE, SMC and the Upazila Education Office. This will determine whether OP 4.12/SR2 or OP 4.1/SR3 will be triggered or not. The same joint team/committee will be responsible for preparing the safeguards mitigation plans (IR Plan and/or SEC Plans, in accordance with the guidelines of this SMF) but DPE will require specialized assistance from consulting firm/individual consultants to prepare these plans. LGED/DPHE and DPE will appoint environmental and social safeguards consultants for review and approval of the plans which DPE will be responsible to implement. The World Bank and ADB will check the plans on a sample basis yearly; field visits will also be carried out to validate the plans. A consolidated Bi-Annual Social Monitoring Report (SMR) will be prepared by LGED/DPHE and DPE and submitted to the Banks. Jointly with DPE, the DPs will evaluate the year s progress during the Joint Annual Review Mission. DPE will set up computerized databases that will include district-wise information on planned civil works, community consultations, options used to obtain lands, purchase and acquisition and compensation payment, gender disaggregated data on SECs as well as others needed to implement the SMF. Grievance Redress 24. MoPME/DPE will establish a transparent procedure at Upazila level to answer queries related to the program - and schools undertaken for expansion/improvements and new construction; address complaints and grievances about any irregularities in application of the SMF guidelines for impact assessment and mitigation; and other personal/community concerns. Based on consensus, the procedure will help to resolve issues/conflicts amicably and quickly 237

261 saving the complainants resorting to expensive, time-consuming legal actions. A Grievance Redress Committee (GRC) decision will however not pre-empt a complainant s right to seek resolution in the courts of law. However, a decision agreed at any level of hearing would be binding on DPE. (For membership composition of the GRC and other details, please see page 1 of the SMF.) 238

262 A. PEDP 3 AND PEDP 3 AF: SOCIAL SAFEGUARD ISSUES AND IMPLICATIONS Background 1. This Social Management Framework is adopted to deal with social safeguard issues that have been observed during the implementation so far of PEDP 3 and may arise during implementation of the AF. To build on the achievements made under PEDP I, PEDP II and PEDP 3, the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) under the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME), Government of Bangladesh, is preparing this AF to further improve the country s primary education system and to provide quality education to all Bangladeshi children in every classroom. It is aimed, among other improvements, at making primary education inclusive and accessible to all, achieving full enrolment of all school-age children by 215; improve the measurement of student learning and the quality of the teaching environment, as well as significantly increasing the completion rate of primary education. The program, which started in July 211, will be implemented over a three-to-six year period with the support of a number of development partners including the Asian Development Bank(ADB), the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT, the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD, Department for International Development of the United Kingdom (DFID), European Commission (EC), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the Netherlands Government, Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank/International Development Association (WB/IDA). 2. Because of its activities in areas inhabited by SECs, especially the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT), PEDP 3 applied the World Bank s Operational Policy on Indigenous Peoples (OP 4.1) and ADB s Safeguard Requirements 3 (SR3) on Indigenous Peoples4. OP 4.1 and SR3 will also apply to PEDP 3 AF activities which will continue in these areas. PEDP 3 has not triggered OP 4.12 and SR2 41 on IR, so far, as all repair works and additional classrooms have been constructed on existing school premises. PEDP II also did not trigger OP 4.12 because lands, wherever needed, were provided by the beneficiary communities. PEDP 3 however did not require any land (acquired or contributed) so far. It is expected that local communities will continue to actively participate in PEDP 3and PEDP 3 AF in the way of contributing lands. Nevertheless, DPE has decided that IR should also be taken into account in PEDP 3 and the AF activities. 3. Accordingly, this Social Management Framework (SMF) is aimed at dealing with safeguard issues that may arise during PEDP3 and the AF implementation throughout the country, including the areas populated by SECs Consistent with the World Bank s Operational Policies, ADB s SPS, and similar documents of other development partners, the SMF proposes principles, policies, guidelines and procedure to identify and address impact issues concerning indigenous peoples and involuntary resettlement. The SMF will apply to the PEDP3 and the AF as a whole, and provide the bases to prepare and implement impact mitigation plans as and when school physical works are found to cause adverse impacts on indigenous peoples, as well as private landowners and public land users. 4. Section A of this framework outlines the objectives of the SMF, physical activities (hereinafter subproject is also used to mean a school that may involve any type of civil works) 4 41 ADB. 29. Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) 29. Manila, Appendix 3 Safeguard Requirements 2: Involuntary Resettlement, Appendix 2 of SPS

263 under PEDP 3 and the AF that may give rise to social safeguard issues and impacts, safeguard screening requirements, grievance redress procedure, implementation arrangement, etc., which will be used for both OP 4.1, OP 4.12, SR2, and SR3. Sections B and C provide respectively the guidelines and procedure for SECs Plan, and those for identifying and addressing the involuntary resettlement issues and impacts. SMF Objectives 5. The principles, policies, guidelines, and procedures proposed in this SMF are to help DPE to select, design and implement the subprojects to ensure that PEDP3 and the AF, Enhances social outcomes of the activities implemented under the individual subprojects; Identifies and mitigates adverse impacts that the individual subprojects might cause on people, which also include protection against loss of livelihood activities; and Ensures compliance with the social safeguards policies of World Bank, ADB, and other development partners on SECs and involuntary resettlement. Program Components & Social Safeguard Issues 6. The program is comprised of the following four key areas: (a) Universal Access would aim to improve access to quality schooling with a particular focus on the poorest and the disadvantaged; (b) Quality of Teaching and Student Learning would aim to improve the quality of teaching, the learning environment and student learning: (c) Institutional Strengthening would aim to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education service delivery; and (d) Program Planning and Management which aims to improve education sector management and policy development, and strengthening monitoring and evaluation, including for student learning. 7. Each key area consists of several activities which would together address various development and management issues involved in the primary education subsector. Of the four key areas, Universal Access will address various issues that keep many school-age children out of the primary education system. It includes, among other activities, formulating and implementing an action plan to mainstream the disadvantaged children; revamping and implementing a stipends program for poor children; school health and nutrition program; and improving the school physical facilities. All of these are intended to facilitate universal access and sustenance of inclusive education of children who now remain excluded from the system for various socioeconomic reasons. Activities included in the other three components would support and help achieving this goal. 8. School physical facilities will be extended/renovated and created anew to allow for improved learning environment and enhanced capacity for student enrolment in general, as well as those needed to ensure mainstreaming of disadvantaged children into the system. Improved learning environment in general would require various physical improvements in many of the existing schools, including provision of separate toilets for boys and girls, arsenic-free water supply and the like. Increased enrolment and accessibility would require expansion of current enrolment capacity of many existing schools, and building new schools in areas where they are presently non-existent or not adequate in number and capacity to cater to the school-age children. 9. To facilitate inclusive education focusing on poor and working children, girls, tribal and religious minorities, disabled, children with special needs, there would also be a need in addition to stipend, and school feeding and health and nutrition programs to provide certain facilities to the existing and new schools in remote areas. Many schools in the cyclone-affected coastal regions will be rebuilt with expanded classroom capacity, and combined with cyclone shelters for use by the local communities. School physical works have however been prioritized in terms of needs 24

264 1. The total program target for need based infrastructure and civil works under school environment of PEDP 3 and the AF is as follows: construct additional classrooms (39,3) in existing school facilities and premises of which 7% have already been tendered under PEDP3; installation of 39,3 water-points comprising tube-wells and other alternative sources for safe drinking water such as rain water harvesting, dug well etc. of which 1% has been completed; 75, toilets for men and women of which 1% has been completed (no more stand-alone toilets will be constructed, instead 18,5 wash blocks comprising three toilet compartments, including one for disabled people, with hand wash facilities will be constructed). Major maintenance works will support refurbishment of 5, existing schools. The program will support the extension of DPE Headquarter in Dhaka within their existing office campus, and a Leadership Centre at Cox s Bazar within the premises of the District Primary Education Office. Some small scale construction such as extension of Primary Teachers Training Institute in various locations and storerooms all within existing premises will be undertaken. No land acquisition or displacement will take place for these purposes. 11. DPE expects that all physical works, including those for additional classrooms, will all be carried out within the existing compound, that is, on lands owned by the schools. However, land requirements and availability, which would vary from one school to another, could not be determined until the specific schools are identified and the civil works needs assessed. Where structural designs permit enrolment capacity might as well be expanded by adding additional classrooms on top of the existing buildings, instead of building them on the ground. As being planned, in keeping with the sector wide approach, land needs would be determined on a caseby-case basis, based on school location and the lands presently available. As of now it is assumed that land-related issues and impacts for the individual schools are not expected to be significant. So far, the project did not require any land acquisition, displacement of people, or related adverse impacts on income and livelihoods as all civil works had been constructed within existing school premises. Guidelines for Social Safeguards Screening 12. In keeping with the SMF objectives to enhance their social or intended outcomes, DPE will adhere to the following guidelines for expansion of existing and construction of new schools. For schools that will require additional lands for expansion and construction of new building, DPE will undertake community/stakeholder consultations prior to their inclusion in the works program. In addition to those for mobilizing community support for children s education, the other important objective of these consultations would be to determine (i) if the communities and/or well-to-do individuals / families can make the required lands available on donation; (ii) whether the lands could be purchased directly on willing buyer-seller basis; or (iii) whether the lands will have to be obtained through legal acquisition. Consultation topics would include, among other issues, the (i) objectives of PEDP 3 and the AF as a whole and those of physical works required for the schools; (ii) social safeguard implications of using private and public lands; (iii) identification of individuals/families who could be convinced by DPE and community for land donation; (iv) availability of public lands in the area which could be used for new schools; and (v) any other issues that would help to avoid acquisition and yet would somehow make the land available. To the extent feasible, DPE will try to (i) avoid subprojects that will require private land acquisition; (ii) carry out the extension/renovation works in the lands already owned by schools; (iii) use their own or other public lands for building new schools. Where adverse impacts could not be avoided completely, DPE will screen all subprojects to identify the potential safeguards issues and impacts by using a specified instrument 241

265 (Annex A1) and, if required, will prepare and implement impact mitigation plans as per the guidelines provided in this SMF. DPE will not undertake school physical works that have attributes as those described in the following list- 13. That will affect SECs with long-term negative consequences in the following manner: Threaten cultural tradition and way of life May severely restrict access to common property resources and livelihood activities May affect places/objects of cultural and religious significance (places of worship, ancestral burial grounds, etc.) That will (anywhere in the country, including areas inhabited by SECs), Require involuntary land donation, and purchases that are not offered on willing buyerseller basis Affect private homesteads Render households using public lands homeless Affect mosques, temples, graveyards, cremation grounds, and other places/objects that are of religious and cultural significance Significantly restrict access to common property resources and livelihood activities of groups and communities Screening & Mitigation Guidelines 14. The screening exercise will basically examine whether or not the physical works proposed for the individual schools are in accord with the above school selection guidelines and identify any safeguard issues and what are needed to address them. Screening will also inform DPE about the ownership of the lands required for the civil works and how they might possibly be obtained, and what might transpire in terms of safeguard impact mitigation. In view of the screening results, DPE s action on a school will be consistent with the following sets of guidelines. Framework for SEC Plan. Consistent with OP 4.1 and SR3, it provides principles and guidelines to identify and deal with adverse impacts on SECs, and a consultation framework for adoption of mitigation and development measures, in project areas where SECs are present (Section B); and Guidelines for Land Use & Impact Mitigation. Consistent with the Bangladesh Land Acquisition, 1982, OP 4.12, and SR2 it provides principles, policies and guidelines for use of public and private lands and adverse impact mitigation; impact mitigation measures and standards; mitigation plan requirements and preparation process; and implementation and monitoring arrangements for mitigation plans (Section C). Community/Stakeholder Consultations Strategy 15. Community and stakeholder consultations in this section are primarily aimed at community provision of land for expansion of existing and construction of new schools. The main objective is to explore how lands for schools could be obtained without going for timeconsuming, cumbersome acquisition under the 1982 ordinance. (Consultation objectives and procedures for preparation and implementation of SEC Plan and Resettlement Plan are outlined in Sections B and C.) 16. Tasks in this respect may vary from one school/location to another depending on information DPE or Upazila Education Officer (UEO) may already have about the required improvements, need for new schools and, most of all, land availability. Where no such information is available with DPE/UEO, civil works for existing and new schools, including locations, will also be decided through consultations with the beneficiary communities and other 242

266 stakeholders like local governments (Union Parishads, Pourasabhas (Municipal Committee), and Upazila Parishads); civil society organizations like NGOs and community-based organizations (CBOs); and others who may have been engaged in education advocacy These consultation meetings will be open and ensure free expression of interests and concerns by all participants.43 While discussing the project objectives and gathering community inputs/feedbacks, consultations will have a strategic focus on land availability status for the improvements required for existing and construction of new schools. The consultation topics will generally include the program objectives relating to primary education; needs for improving / expanding existing and building new schools; land requirements and availability; community inputs/feedback on program objectives and land needs; community s rights and responsibilities in this regard, and those of the DPE, UEO, DPs and other agencies participating in program design and implementation. At least 3% of the community people should be women who would participate in the consultation in the planning process, implementation and monitoring. 18. An important part of the consultation meetings would be joint verification with the communities and other stakeholders of land availability on the ground, and identification of an option as to how the required lands could be obtained and the social issues, if any, could be addressed. For existing and new schools, the joint committee comprising DPE/UEO and the participants will address the land availability issues as specified below. 18. Lands for Existing Schools DPE/LGED will verify whether or not the existing school premise has enough land to accommodate the additional classrooms, separate toilets for boys and girls and carry out any other land-based improvements. Where lands available within the school premise are not adequate, the verifiers will identify owners of the lands adjacent to the schools, particularly of which that would be most suited for the required civil works. In consulting the concerned landowners, they will explore the following sequenced options with much greater emphasis on the first. (These options are elaborated in section C of the SMF). a) Voluntary Donation: Whether the landowners would be willing to donate the required land area on voluntary basis. (This may require a good deal of persuasion by DPE/UEO and the communities.) b) Purchase on Willing Buyer-Seller Basis: As an alternative to time-consuming acquisition, whether the landowners would offer the land on willing buyer-seller basis to DPE at current a market price or at a price acceptable to them. 42 Each Upazila has an Upazila Education Committee (UEC), chaired by the Chairman of the Upazila Parishad. Among others, its membership consists of Upazila Nirbahi Officer, Upazila Education Officer, and Upazila Engineer of LGED, Union Parishad Chairmen, and persons known to advocate development of education. The UEC will identify the needs for improvement of existing schools and need and location of new schools in the Upazila. Working through the Union Parishad, the committee will deal with the land availability issues and determine how the required lands, if any, would be obtained. Consultation is defined as a continuous two-way communication process consisting of: feed-forward the information on the program s goals, objectives, scope and social impact implications to the program beneficiaries, and their feed-back on these issues (and more) to the policymakers and program designers. In addition to seeking feedback on program specific issues, participatory planning approach also serve the following objectives in all development programs: public relations, information dissemination and conflict resolution

267 c) Legal Acquisition: Where none of these above two options works, DPE may decide for acquisition depending on how important the civil works are. (The verifiers will inform the landowners about the long and complex legal process in claiming compensation from the acquisition authority.) 2. For existing schools, consultations will put most emphasis on voluntary donation and direct purchase on willing buyer-seller basis. There are specific guidelines in Section C for obtaining lands by using these two methods, and the persons leading consultations should be thoroughly aware of them. Lands for New Schools 21. Wherever available, DPE s priority will be to build new schools, with and without cyclone shelters or dormitories, on khas and other available public lands. All other options will also be explored before resorting to acquisition. Local verification and consultations will include the following tasks. With the help of local community and UP/Municipality, DPE will search for khas and other unused public lands in the area where a new school is to be built.44 Wherever feasible, alternative locations within reasonable distance will also be considered to take advantage of using public lands. In cases where private lands must be used, DPE will choose the school locations (i) to avoid lands that belong to small and marginal landowners; and (ii) where lands could be obtained through voluntary donation and direct purchase (that is, without acquisition). 22. Where a decision is reached as to how lands could be obtained, DPE will also examine whether the civil works would involve any social safeguard issues. During physical verification they, together with the community members, will record the information sought in the screening form provided in Annex A Identification of appropriate sites and resolution of land issues may require multiple rounds of consultation and persuasion of potential donors and sellers, and following up on making lands available for civil works. As noted earlier, a school will be included in the civil works program only after the land availability issues are resolved. As such another crucial factor is consultation timing, which will largely depend upon the knowledge and information the DPE/UEO may have on particular schools at any stage of the program preparation and implementation. Institutional & Implementation Arrangements 24. DPE will ensure that the SMF is implemented in its entirety or to the extent applicable. As described above and as follows in Sections B and C, there are several major tasks that are to be performed by DPE and/or other entities which will assist them to prepare and implement the civil works programs. Following identification of the schools for expansion and location of new schools, the major tasks are: 44 Records of khas may or may not be available with the district land administration or at the Upazila level. Most often khas lands in the rural areas, which are not significant in amount, are occupied illegally by local influential persons. On the other hand, lands belonging to other GoB agencies can be easily identified often because of their presence in the locality. 244

268 Community and stakeholder consultations, which will provide information on land availability and SEC45 issues. The specific tasks may include those described in paragraphs 19 to 21. Organizing the consultation meetings informing the communities and other stakeholders and organizations. Tasks consists of: a) Identification of potential land donors, as well as those who might sell on willing buyer-seller basis. b) Following up with the landowners who would offer lands under the two options (other than acquisition) and legal transfer of ownerships. c) Search and identification of suitable public lands for new schools, contacting the landowning agencies and following up on obtaining permission. Social safeguard screening. Upazila Education Officer (UEO) will screen the chosen subprojects, in association with key community members, including the landowners. Safeguard impact assessment, and preparation and implementation of impact mitigation plans, such as SECPs and RPs/ARPs, where public lands will be taken back from authorized/unauthorized private uses and/or private lands acquired. DPE will require specialized consulting assistance to perform these tasks, either through individual consultants or a consulting firm. 25. In cases of private land acquisition, major tasks are: Preparation of land acquisition proposals (LAPs) as per standard requirements of the acquisition authority. LAP submission to Deputy Commissioners (DCs heads of the Acquiring Bodies) and following up on DLAC (District Land Allocation Committee) approval. Following up with the land acquisition authority, this will consist of major legal steps, including compensation payment. Compensation payment by DPE itself (explained in Section C). 26. At the local level, Upazila Education Officer (UEO), who is a member of the Upazila Education Committees, will perform all process tasks specified in the SMF, especially those related to obtaining lands from private and public ownerships, as well as those concerning SECs. A joint screening will be carried out by LGED/DPHE, SMC and UEO. This will determine whether OP 4.12/SR2 or OP 4.1/SR3 will trigger or not. The same joint team/committee will be responsible for preparing the safeguards mitigation plans (RAPs and/or SEC Plans in accordance with the guidelines of this SMF) but DPE will require specialized assistance from consulting firm/individual consultants to prepare these plans. LGED/DPHE and DPE will appoint environmental and social safeguards consultants who will review the plans and assist DPE in approving the plans, which DPE will be responsible to implement. The Bank and ADB will check the plans on a sample basis yearly; field visits will also be carried out to validate the plans. Regarding monitoring, UEOs will gather and directly provide DPE the up-to-date monthly information on all activities undertaken to obtain lands and those related to civil works for individual schools. 27. A consolidated Bi-Annual Social Monitoring Report (SMR) will be prepared by LGED/DPHE and DPE and submitted to the Banks and shared with all other development partners. 45 As applicable 245

269 28. DPE will supervise and monitor SMF implementation. Jointly with DPE, the DPs will evaluate the year s progress during the Joint Annual Review Mission. DPE will set up computerized databases that will include district-wise information on planned civil works, community consultations, options used to obtain lands(purchase or acquisition), and compensation payment, as well as other vital information needed to implement the SMF. 29. DPE will hand over the land for construction to the civil works Implementing Agency (IA) LGED after compliance of all safeguard requirements on IR and SEC. DPE must have a MOU with the IA with the specific condition that: No contract of civil works would be awarded without 1% compensation payment to the displaced person for the construction site. 3. The program will have particular institutional arrangement with specific budgetary allocation and human resources for the implementation of the sub-component for the SECs and people from char, haor, baor, and tea garden areas. Such arrangement may consider involving their representative government institutions which, in the case of Chittagong Hill Tracts, can be the Hill District Councils (HDCs), the CHT Regional Council (CHTRC) and the Ministry of CHT Affairs (MoCHTA), besides specific personnel in the Program Management and Implementation Office. In addition, this should also include adequate capacity building support for the relevant institutions. Grievance Redress 31. DPE will establish a procedure to answer queries related to PEDP 3 and schools undertaken for improvements and new construction; address complaints and grievances about any irregularities in application of the SMF guidelines for impact assessment and mitigation; and other personal/community concerns. Land-related complaints may range from disputes over ownership and inheritance of the acquired lands to affected non-land assets; donations under threats; etc. Based on consensus, the procedure will help to resolve issues/conflicts amicably and quickly saving the complainants resorting to expensive, time-consuming legal actions. A Grievance Redress Committee (GRC) decision will however not pre-empt the complainant s right to seek resolution in the courts of law. 32.DPE will constitute GRC at the Upazila level, with memberships to ensure impartial hearings and transparent decisions. Membership of GRCs in Chittagong Hill Tracts Upazilas and others heavily populated by SECs will take into account any traditional conflict resolutions arrangements that are in practice. The GRC are proposed to have the following memberships: Upazila Education Officer (UEO) Union Parishad Member (or Ward Commissioner) from Complainant s Ward Headman/ Leader of the local SEC46 Representative of a Local or National NGO Headmaster of the High School of the Complainant s Ward/Area Convenor Member Headmaster of the Primary School of the Complainant s Ward/Area A Professor of College in the Upazila Headquarters (Nominated by Principal) A Representative of the Program Consultant Member Member Member Member Member Member Secretary If the aggrieved person/complainant is a woman, the GRC convenor will ask a female UP / Municipality Member to participate in the hearing. 46 Applicable only for areas having impact on areas where SECs are present 246

270 33. During community/stakeholder consultations in Chittagong Hill Tracts and other areas that are significantly inhabited by SECs, DPE will identify any existing traditional conflict resolution mechanisms. If they exist and SECs intend, the GRCs will include two persons from such traditional conflict resolution bodies to replace the two headmasters of the high school and primary school. 34. If resolution attempts at the Upazila level fail, the UEO will refer the complaints to DEO along with the minutes of the hearings. If a decision made at this level is found unacceptable by the aggrieved person, DEO can refer the case to DPE with the minutes of the hearings at both Upazila and district levels. A decision hearing on complaints will remain open to the public. The GRCs will record the details of the complaints and the reasons that led to acceptance or rejection of the particular cases. The UEO will keep records of all resolved and unresolved complaints and grievances and make them available for review as and when asked for by DPE, IDA and other development partners and any entities interested in the program. 36. A web portal on Grievance Redressing System may be introduced where facilities for addressing grievances online by common people would be available. All on-going & closed cases of grievances should be publicly available through this portal Capacity Building 37. DPE has very limited institutional capacity to implement the SMF, especially the provisions dealing with the issues related to land availability and impact mitigation. Under PEDP II, school physical works were carried out on lands provided by the beneficiary communities. While community provision still remains a strong possibility, DPE has nevertheless planned to organize specific capacity-building training programs to train key DPE staff and UEOs, who would be directly involved in implementation, in the concepts and interpretations of the policies and guidelines adopted in the SMF. All training programs will be supported by the program.. Budget and Financing 38. As required by the World Bank s project financing policy and SPS of ADB, DPE will pay for the costs of lands, as well as those of impact mitigation activities mentioned in sections B and C. These costs are expected to vary a great depending on how lands are obtained and the nature and scale of impacts they might cause. All of these would remain largely unknown until the civil works are proposed for specific schools. As a result, presently there are no realistic bases to propose a SEC budget. Under the circumstances, it is proposed that, DPE will ensure availability of funds to pay for the lands that might be purchased directly or acquired under the 1982 ordinance and compensation for any kind of economic displacement. Detailed budgets will be included in IPPs, as and when they prepared to deal with resettlement issues. 247

271 39. The following steps will be followed for the monitoring and reporting. World Bank and ADB Third party: Evaluation (Firm) PMU DPE: biannual report on gneder and IP disaggregated data of enrollments, stipends, drop outs LGED: bi-annualsocial safeguard report on school constrcutions and its social impacts DPHE: Biannual report on WATSAN facilties constrcution and its social impact Approval and Disclosure 4. This SMF is a harmonized document prepared by DPE in keeping with the relevant laws and policies of GoB, WB, ADB and other DPs involved with the program. As required by the development partners project financing policy, the SMF will be subjected to review and clearance by the designated regional sector unit of the World Bank, ADB, and other DPs, and formally agreed with the Government of Bangladesh before the program appraisal. 41. Since the number of schools to be screened and monitored is huge, DPE will recruit specialized consultants to prepare and implement the safeguards mitigation plans (RAPS/Abbreviated RAPs and/or SEC Plans) where required and will be responsible for reviewing and approving these. The Bank and ADB will review the plans on a sample basis and conduct spot-checks, especially in areas where SECs are present. DPE will be responsible for submitting on a bi-annual basis consolidated social monitoring reports to the Bank and ADB. 42. DPE will disseminate information on progress and monitoring of safeguard issues in its web portal. Cost of the additional measures (Database administration and web administration) will be allocated by the program. 43. DPE will disclose a Bangla translation of the SMF to the public in Bangladesh by notifying in two newspapers, one in Bangla and other in English, and make it available in its web site as well as in its district and Upazila offices. The World Bank will make the SMF available at its Country Office Information Centre and InfoShop. The SMF will also be posted in the ADB website. 248

272 B. FRAMEWORK FOR SMALL ETHNIC COMMUNITIES PLAN Background 1. Bangladesh is by and large religiously, ethnically and linguistically homogeneous. With a population of some 16 million and a land area of approximately 144, square kilometers, (estimated 21); Bangladesh is densely populated. It is the third largest Muslim majority country of the world. More significant, Bangladesh has the third largest population of poor people; according to the United Nations, 4 per cent of Bangladeshis live below the poverty line (26). Over 85% of the population is Bengali Muslims; the remaining 15% are Hindu, with a very small numbers are Christians and Buddhists. More than 99 percent speak Bengali. 2. Bangladesh is rich in cultural diversity due to presence of different Small Ethnic communities who are also known and addressed as the Adivasis/ /Tribal. They are diverse in their culture, language, religion, traditions and patterns of social, economic and cultural life. In the recent National Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper adopted by the Government of Bangladesh, the term adivasi/ethnic minorities was used. Tribal peoples, both from the CHT and the plains, increasingly refer to themselves as Small Ethnic Communities in English, and as adivasi in Bangla. 3. The largest concentration is in the Chittagong Hill Tracts but other areas in which these communities live include Chittagong, greater Mymensingh, greater Rajshahi, greater Sylhet, Patuakhali and Barguna. Chakma, Garo, Manipuri, Marma, Munda, Oraon, Santal, Khasi, Kuki, Tripura, Mro, Hajong and Rakhain are some of the wellknown adivasi/small ethnic communities of Bangladesh. In the census of 1991 Bangladesh government identifies 29 SECs of population 1,25,978. Different reports provide different numbers of tribal/ethnic minority population and it is estimated to be around 2-3 million. For the purposes of this document they will be referred to as Small Ethnic Communities (SEC). The constitution of Bangladesh recognizes the presence of the SECs or tribals. The Articles 28 & 29 of its Constitution makes provision of equal rights for its citizens and also stipulates affirmative measures for disadvantaged sections of the society. There are also a number of domestic legal documents (such as the Chittagong Hill Tracts Manual 19, Chittagong Hill Tracts Regional Council and Hill District Councils Acts, or the Bengal Tenancy Act, 195) that have specific legal provisions for tribal peoples. 4. The constitution of Bangladesh recognizes the presence of the SECs or tribals. The Articles 28 & 29 of its Constitution makes provision of equal rights for its citizens and also stipulates affirmative measures for disadvantaged sections of the society. There are also a number of domestic legal documents (such as the Chittagong Hill Tracts Manual 19, Chittagong Hill Tracts Regional Council and Hill District Councils Acts, or the Bengal Tenancy Act, 195) that have specific legal provisions for tribal peoples. 249

273 Source: ADB 2nd Rural Development Project IP Plan, March SECs47 comprise about less than 1% (3 million)48 of the population of Bangladesh living mainly in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) and in rural communities in Mymensingh, Sylhet, Dinajpur and Rajshahi. The small ethnic communities in CHT possess separate identities, specific racial backgrounds, different languages, and distinct heritage and culture. The largest groups are the Chakmas, Marmas, and Tripuras. They differ in their social organization, marriage customs, birth and death rites, food and other social customs from the people of the rest of the country. There is lack of information on their socioeconomic indicators. These communities largely speak Tibeto-Burman languages. 6. Lack of basic infrastructures in some places of CHT also makes it very difficult to recruit and retain teachers for schools that are located in the remote areas. Under PEDP II a Plan for Expanding Education of Tribal Children (EETC) was developed for extension and rehabilitation of the existing government schools for the out-of-school children; capacity building of indigenous/tribal institutions; social mobilization to motivate parents to send children to school; supplementary reading materials development in indigenous language; and recruitment and training of teachers in the hill tracts. 7. PEDP 3 aims to address some of these issues within the context of the four key areas proposed to undertake. The program will also examine the extent to which EETC activities have been implemented and incorporate any necessary modifications in view of the lessons learned under PEDP II. The PEDP 3 component on Universal Access that aims to promote inclusive primary education has a particular focus on CHT. As in the plains districts, many schools in the region will see improvements in the form of additional classrooms, separate toilets for boys and girls, clean water supply and those needed for a quality learning environment. To address the current accessibility constraints, especially in the remote areas of the region, under the PEDP 3 and the AF, and based on findings from the implementation of the program so far LGED has developed a report on Hill friendly School Building designs for CHT on basis of local The Government uses the term adivasi/ethnic minority in its Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. According to the 1991 census, there were 1.2 million indigenous peoples belonging to some 29 tribes. Both figures are however disputed by the indigenous peoples. According to their estimates IP population in the country are nearly 3 million who belong to 45 tribes

274 consultation and participatory process. This will reduce the accessibility issue due to lack of adequate infrastructure and will encourage horizontal expansion of schools where required in an appropriate way. Moreover, this could also facilitate teacher recruitment and retention for schools in the remote areas. 8. It is determined that the program will trigger the World Bank s Operational Policy on Indigenous Peoples (OP 4.1) and ADB s Safeguard Requirements 3: Indigenous Peoples (SR3). Although it would finance school physical works, it is still not certain whether PEDP 3 will trigger OP 4.12 and SR2 on Involuntary Resettlement. MoPME/DPE has nevertheless decided that involuntary resettlement should also be taken into account in PEDP 3. As such, consistent with the World Bank s Operational Policies and ADB s Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS2), and those of other (DPs), the SMF proposes principles, policies, guidelines and procedure to identify and address impact issues concerning Small Ethnic Communities and involuntary resettlement. The SMF will apply to the PEDP 3 and the AF as a whole, and provide the bases to prepare and implement impact mitigation plans as and when school physical works are found to cause adverse impacts on Small Ethnic Communities and others, including private landowners and public land users. 9. Applicability of OP 4.1 and ADB s Safeguard Requirement 3 (SR3) in the plains districts and CHT will in general depend on (i) the presence and prevalence of SECs in the close vicinities of the schools that are undertaken for expansion/improvements as well as location and sites of the new schools; and (ii) whether or not the required physical works would affect them in manners to threaten their cultural way of life and restrict access to their livelihood activities.49 Given their scope for individual schools and availability of khas land 5 in CHT, it is assumed that the civil works are highly unlikely to cause impacts that would threaten SECs in any significant manner. Yet, in view of the uncertainty DPE has decided to formally adopt this framework outlining principles, policies, guidelines and procedure to identify the impact issues and potential risks and, if required, formulate and execute Small Ethnic Communities Plans. This will apply whenever physical works for existing and new schools in CHT or plains districts are found to cause adverse impacts on Small Ethnic Communities. The purpose of the Plan(s)furthermore will be to enhance as much as is feasible the positive benefits of the program in a manner that is tailored to their social and cultural norms. Objectives of Small Ethnic Communities Plan 1. The objective of ADB and World Banks SEC Safeguards policies is to design and implement projects in a way that fosters full respect for SMCs identity, dignity, human rights, livelihood systems, and cultural uniqueness as defined by the Small Ethnic Communities themselves so that they (i) receive culturally appropriate social and economic benefits, (ii) do not suffer adverse impacts as a result of projects, and (iii) can participate actively in projects that affect them. 11. Keeping consistency with the above safeguard requirements, the main objectives are to ensure that the program activities in general, and the physical works in particular, do not adversely affect Small Ethnic Communities, and that they receive culturally compatible social 49 The issues that have been identified to have constraining effects on enrolment, attendance and completion rates of primary education will be addressed separately in a much broader way in various DPE activities and through other administrative and civil society stakeholders. 5 Records of khas land may or may not be available with the district land administration or at the Upazila level. Most often khas lands in the rural areas, which are not significant in amount, are occupied illegally by local influential persons. 251

275 and economic benefits. This will require DPE to carefully select and screen all schools and their locations and sites, that are to be expanded or built anew, and determine presence of Small Ethnic Communities in the school localities and ensure their participation in the civil works selection and implementation processes. Depending on prevalence of Small Ethnic Communities and their needs and concerns which will be assessed through consultations (see consultation below) DPE will work with the following guidelines: Plan and design civil works for existing schools and select location and sites of new schools to avoid or minimize, to the extent feasible, adverse impacts on Small Ethnic Communities. Where adverse impacts on Small Ethnic Communities are unavoidable, adopt and implement socially and culturally appropriate measures to mitigate them. Wherever feasible, adopt special measures in addition to those for impact mitigation to reinforce and promote any available opportunities for socioeconomic development of Small Ethnic Communities communities. To the extent feasible, DPE will try to avoid subprojects that will require private land acquisition in SEC locality; Where adverse impacts could not be avoided completely, DPE will screen all subprojects to identify the potential safeguards issues and impacts by using a specified instrument (Annex A) and, if required, will prepare and implement impact mitigation plans as per the guidelines provided in this SMF. Defining the Small Ethnic Communities 12. No single definition can capture the diversity of the Small Ethnic Communities, as they are found in varied and changing contexts. As such, DPE will use the World Bank and other development partner guidelines to identify SECs in particular geographic areas by examining the following characteristics. Self-identification as members of a distinct indigenous cultural group and recognition of this identity by others; Collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats or ancestral territories in the project area and to the natural resources in these habitats and territories; Customary cultural, economic, social, or political institutions that are separate from those of the dominant society and culture; and An indigenous language, often different from the official language of the country or region. A group that has lost collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats or ancestral territories in the project area because of forced severance also remains eligible for coverage under ADB s safeguard policy. 13. Table 1 shows the distribution of Small Ethnic communities living in 28 districts of the country. A recent study CHT shows, about 82% of children of 5-16 years are enrolled in primary or secondary schools (UNDP, 29). The study also reports that three-fifths of children go to government primary schools irrespective of their distances from the residences. The average travel time for going to a nearby school, irrespective of communities, is around half an hour. The dropout scenario among the students is very high, 65% children discontinue their education before completion of primary schooling and 19% after completion of the same. In almost all schools both at primary and secondary level, the medium of instruction is Bangla. Table 1: Location of Small Ethnic Communities in Bangladesh 252

276 Sl. No. Location Small Ethnic SL No communities Location Small Ethnic communities 1. Greater Mymensingh Garo, Hajong, Koch, Barman, Dalu, Hodi, Banai, Rajbangshi 5. Greater Sylhet (Sumangonj, Mouvlibazar, Sylhet, Hobigonj district) Monipuri, Khasia, Garo, Hajong, Patro, Kharia, Santal, Oraon 6. South-West Satkhira, district) (Jessore, Khulna Bagdi (Buno), Rajbangshi, Santal 7. North-Bengal (Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Gaibandha, Noagaon, Bagura, Sirajgonj, Chapainawabgonj, Natore district) Santal, Oraon, Munda, Malo, Mahali, Khondo, Bedia, Bhumij, Kole, Bhil, Karmakar, Mahato, Muriyar, Musohor, Pahan, Paharia, Rai, Sing, Turi (Mymensingh, Tangail, Netrokona Jamalpur and Sherpur district) 2. Gazipur Barman, Koch 3. Coastal Area (Patuakhali, Barguna and Coxsbazar district) Rakhain 4. Chittagong Tracts Chakma, Marma, Tripura, Bawm, Pangkhu, Lusai, Tanchangya, Khiang, Mru, Asam, Gurkha, Chak, Khumi Hill (Bandarban, Rangamati and Khagrachari district) Garo, Small Ethnic Communities Plan 14. As noted in Section A, selection of expansion works and other improvements and location of new schools will largely indicate whether or not, or in the manner, Small Ethnic Communities would be benefitted or adversely affected. Wherever affected adversely, in the plains or CHT, DPE will prepare and implement Small Ethnic Communities Plans (SECP) in accord with the principles, guidelines and procedure outlined below. To avoid or minimize adverse impacts and, at the same time, ensure culturally appropriate benefits, DPE will select, design and implement the physical works in adherence to the following principles: Fully include Small Ethnic Communities in general and their organizations in the process leading to identification, planning and implementation of expansion/improvements works and locations and sites of new schools and dormitories for children and teachers; Carefully screen, together with Small Ethnic Communities, the required physical works on existing schools and locations and sites of new ones for a preliminary understanding of the nature and magnitude of potential impacts, and explore alternatives to avoid or minimize any adverse impacts; Where alternatives are infeasible and adverse impacts are unavoidable, immediately make an assessment of the key impact issues jointly with Small Ethnic Communities and others knowledgeable of Small Ethnic Communities cultures and concerns; Undertake the tasks necessary to prepare SECPs with the most appropriate measures to mitigate the adverse impacts and, if opportunities are there, development measures for the general SEC communities; and Not undertake civil works where the communities remain unconvinced about the benefits to offer broad support for the project (see details below). A Brief outline of a standard Small Ethnic Communities Plan is in Annex D1 253

277 SEC Participation and Consultation Strategy 15. Participation of SECs in selection, design and implementation of the subprojects will largely determine the extent to which the SECP objectives would be achieved. Where adverse impacts are likely, DPE will undertake free, prior and informed consultations with the wouldbe affected SECs communities and those who work with and/or are knowledgeable of SEC development issues and concerns. To facilitate effective participation, DPE will follow a timetable to consult SECs at different stages of the program cycle, especially during preparation of the civil works program. The primary objectives would be to examine the following. Whether there is a broad community consensus in support for expansion of existing and construction of new schools and to seek their inputs/feedbacks to avoid or minimize the potential adverse impacts associated with the required civil works; Identify the culturally appropriate impact mitigation measures; and Assess and adopt economic opportunities which DPE could promote to complement the measures required to mitigate the adverse impacts. 16. Consultations will be broadly divided into two parts. First, prior to selection of schools located in an area predominantly inhabited by Small Ethnic Communities, DPE/UEO will consult the Small Ethnic Communities about the need for, and the probable positive and negative impacts associated with, the expansion/renovation works. Second, prior to detailed impact assessment, the objectives would be to ascertain (i) how the SECs in general perceive of the need for undertaking physical works for particular schools and gather any inputs/feedbacks they might offer for better outcomes; (ii) whether or not the communities broadly support the proposed works; and (iii) any conditions based on which the SECs may provide broad support for the proposed works, which would eventually be addressed in SECPs and design of the physical works. 17. To ensure free and informed consultation, DPE/UEO will, Facilitate widespread participation of indigenous people communities with adequate gender and generational representation; customary/traditional SEC organizations; community elders/leaders; and civil society organizations like NGOs and CBOs; and groups knowledgeable of SEC development issues and concerns. Provide them with all relevant information about the subproject, including that on potential adverse impacts, organize and conduct the consultations in manners to ensure free expression of their views and preferences. Document and share with IDA and other DPs the details of all consultation meetings, with SEC perceptions of the proposed works and the associated impacts, especially the adverse ones; any inputs/feedbacks offered by SECs; and an account of the conditions agreed with SECs that may have provided the basis for broad based community support for the proposed works. 18.Once broad based community support is received, DPE/UEO will assess the impact details at household and community levels, with a particular focus on the adverse impacts perceived by SECs and the probable (and feasible) mitigation and community development measures. To ensure continuing informed participation and more focused discussions, DPE/UEO will provide SECs with the impact details of the proposed civil works. Barring those that are technical in nature, consultations will cover topics/areas concerning cultural and socioeconomic characteristics (see paragraph 21 below), as well as those SECs consider important. Starting with those for broad base support for the subproject, consultations will continue throughout the preparation and implementation period, with increasing focus on the households which might be directly affected. 254

278 Consultation timing, probable participants, methods, and expected outcomes are suggested in the matrix in Annex B Consultation and communication strategy being employed by the present PEDP 3 program played a significant part in the design of three models for Hill friendly schools, keeping access, cultural appropriateness and gender in mind. The SMCs were an important medium to engage with the communities. It was found that involving the Local Government (LG) representatives and leaders from the Small Ethnic Communities including the SMC members by organizing cultural activities, disseminating information on the benefits and stipends by using billboards and poster in public places proved to be a fruitful method for communicating with local communities to achieve participatory results and raise awareness:. Contents of Small Ethnic Communities (SECs) Plan 2 SECPs will primarily aim at mitigating adverse impacts and reinforcing and promoting any available development opportunities in the subproject areas, with a particular focus on the SECs who might be directly affected. Depending on nature and magnitude of impacts, an SECP may generally consist of the following: Baseline data, including analysis of cultural characteristics; education; social structure and economic activities; land tenure; customary and other rights to the use of land and other natural resources; relationship with the local mainstream peoples; and other factors that may have been suggested by SECs during consultations and are to be addressed in civil works design and implementation. (Key areas of investigation are also suggested below.). Strategy for local participation, indicating timing of consultation and the participants, such as affected SECs, SEC organizations, and individuals and entities which have provided useful feedback and inputs during initial consultations. Mitigation measures and activities, which will generally follow Small Ethnic Communities preferences and priorities, including those agreed between the Small Ethnic Community peoples organizations and DPE during consultations. Institutional capacity, taking into account DPE s staff experience, consulting services, and Small Ethnic Communities and civil society organizations in designing and implementing IPPs. SECP implementation schedule, taking least disruptions to the Small Ethnic Communities livelihood and other activities into consideration. Monitoring and evaluation, with the participation of Small Ethnic Communities representatives and organizations, and other civil society organizations that may have been operating in these areas. Financing the SECP. Budgets and sources of fund needed to implement the mitigation measures and development activities, if any, agreed between the Small Ethnic Communities and DPE. Small Ethnic Communities Socioeconomic Characteristics & Concerns 21. Baseline data (on the various aspects suggested above) and identification of social concerns will primarily focus on the cultural and socioeconomic characteristics of SCCs and the potential vulnerability that might be caused by the proposed school physical works. Data on the following socioeconomic characteristics are expected to indicate the nature and magnitude of adverse impacts and provide the essential inputs for SECPs. Social & Cultural Characteristics 255 Relationships with areas where they live -- relating to religious/cultural affinity with the ancestral lands, existence and use of livelihood opportunities, etc.

279 Use of any SEC languages for social interactions and their use in reading materials and for instructions in formal/informal educational institutions in the Small Ethnic Community localities. Food habits/items that may differ from non-small Ethnic Communities and the extents to which they are naturally available for free or can only be grown in the Small Ethnic Communities territories, and which are considered important sources of protein and other health needs of Small Ethnic Communities. Interactions and relationships with other Small Ethnic Communities in the same and other areas. Presence of customary social and political organizations characteristics indicating internal organization and cohesion of the communities, and their interaction with those of the non-sec population in these areas. Presence of Small Ethnic Communities organizations, like community based organizations (CBOs)/NGOs, working with SEC Small Ethnic Communities development issues, and their relationships with the mainstream organizations also engaged in community development activities. Other cultural aspects likely to be affected or made vulnerable by the proposed school physical works. Settlement Pattern Physical organization of homesteads indicating organizational patterns with the existing community facilities, such as schools, places of worship, cremation/burial grounds, water supply and sanitation, etc. The extent to which the SEC settlements/neighborhoods are spatially separated from those of the non-small Ethnic Communities, indicating interactions and mutual tolerance of each other. Present distance between the SEC settlements/neighborhoods and the schools selected for expansion and new construction. Economic Characteristics Land tenure indicating legal ownership and other arrangements under which Small Ethnic Communities presently use lands for living, cultivation or other uses. Access to natural resources prevailing conditions under which SEC Small Ethnic Communities may have been using natural resources like forests, water bodies, and others that are considered important sources of livelihood. Occupational structure indicating relative importance of household s present economic activities, and the extent to which they might be affected or benefited. Level of market participation engagement in activities that produce marketable goods and services, and how and to what extent market participation would be affected or enhanced. Impact Mitigation & Development Measures 22. To use private and public lands and avoid or minimize adverse impacts on SECs, DPE will apply the same principles and guidelines proposed in the following section for involuntary resettlement (Section C). Eligibility and standards for compensation will also use those proposed therein. In addition, particular attention will be paid not to intrude into the SEC localities by non-local workers, or resort to actions and behavior that could be construed culturally insensitive and disrespectful by SECs. 23. Choice of appropriate and culturally compatible development measures will largely depend on preferences and priorities of the affected SECs and their communities. Wherever feasible and 256

280 opportunities exists, these measures will be undertaken beyond those meant for adverse impact mitigation. In general such measures might vary from one area to another in the plains and CHT and may include SEC employment in school construction and maintenance activities; basic water supply and sanitation facilities; etc. 24. Grievance redress 2. The project will ensure that Small Ethnic Communities are aware of and have easy access to the grievance redress mechanisms described in the previous chapter (presented schematically below). This will be a critical component to be covered under the communication strategy. DPE GRC members: UP member/ward commissioner For women s complains female UP member GRC Convenor: Upazila Education Officer (UEO) GRC members: Headmaster of primary school Headmaster of High school Principal of college GRC members: SEC leaders NGO Rep of program personnel Monitoring and Reporting As executing agency, DPE will be responsible for monitoring and evaluation of activities related to SECs. DPE, with the help of the IA, will collect ethnicity-disaggregated data. DPE will regularly analyse the program output and impact indicators, including by ethnicity. A Gender and SEC specialist may be appointed who would build the capacity of the EA and relevant IA personnel to collect ethnicity-disaggregated Project data and ensure that monitoring and evaluation procedures include indicators for monitoring impact on the Project s beneficiaries. DPE will provide World Bank, ADB and other DPs with the following information for their review of performance and compliance with the SPS. Social safeguard screening: As and when requested, filled-out screening form (Annex A1) for all schools/contract packages included in the civil works program. Updates for formal review missions, which would include summary information on schools that have significant adverse impacts on Small Ethnic Communities. Semi-annual report on compliance of safeguard requirements on SECs for all civil works contract packages and other PEDP 3 activities. DPE information will include impacts of its activities- both positive and negative on the target beneficiaries including information on Ethnic groups and gender. 257

281 The LGED will continue reporting their activities through their bi-annual social safeguard reports which will include the school construction and repair works and its impacts both positive and negative on the target beneficiaries including information on Ethnic groups and gender. DPHE will include the information on implementation of Hill friendly school designs and its impacts on the SEC students and teachers. The DPHE will include a bi-annual report on the WATSAN activities and its impact on the communities if any and need to ensure it is not violating OP 4.1 and OP Monitoring Indicators: Indicators Inclusive education for SECs Number of schools in SEC areas in relation to density of school going children (coverage) SEC students enrolment (year and grade; %) SEC students dropout (year and grade; %) SEC students pass rate at grade 5 (year; %) SEC students receiving stipend (year, grade, % of total SEC applicants) Teacher s training on SEC sensitivity Number of training/workshops Teaching in Mother Language Number of schools in SEC areas using textbooks in local ethnic languages (year, grade; %) Number of local/sec teachers employed at schools in SEC areas Gender balance Percentage of male and female teachers in SEC areas Percentage of students enrolled (grade, year) Percentage of stipend holders (year, grade) Reporting 258 Actions Upazila education offices will develop a data bank for primary education. School wise gender disaggregated data on SEC students is required. Head teachers, AUEOs will provide supervision and direction to teachers to improve practice and ensure all SEC children are included in the learning process and assist teachers to identity and support SEC learning difficulties. Training on SEC needs and sensitivity will be given. Develop system to allow SEC children to be taught in mother tongue at least in pre-primary and early grade classes with bangla being introduced in phased manner. Where teachers do not speak local languages provide schools resources to recruit classroom assistants to support children in their mother tongue. Materials for MLE developed by NGOs and CHTF to be reviewed for use with SEC children from appropriate language groups. To ensure no child excluded from attending school within home catchments area. Listing of the SEC children with the support from the community and relevant stakeholders needed to be done. At least 5% of stipend holders among SEC are girls and recruitment of SEC female teachers in SEC predominant areas. Sex Disaggregated data on SEC to be presented in the bi-annual reports Annual Primary School Census (APSC) collects gender-wise data of primary school teacher and students, Pre-primary school s students, Enrolment of students, Enrolment Rate (GER & NER) of students, Repeaters in all school s students, Repeat ion rates, Dropout rates, survival rates, student absenteeism, Transition rate, Primary Scholarship/ Completion examination result, pupil- teacher ratio, No. of teacher training etc. Biannual report will present gender-wise data for SEC in its report as other students.

282 Indicators 259 Actions

283 C.PEDP 3: GUIDELINES FOR USING PRIVATE & PUBLIC LANDS AND IMPACT MITIGATION Land Needs & Impact Mitigation Issues 1. The need for using private and public lands will arise where schools do not presently have land under their ownership to accommodate the required improvements, such as separate toilets for boys and girls; additional classrooms; dormitories for students and teachers in CHT; or carry out any other land-based improvements. For such schools, the lands have to come from private and/or public ownerships. Depending on actual situation on the ground, new schools with and without cyclone shelters and dormitories -- would either be built on private lands or, where available, on public lands, such as khas and those belonging to various GoB agencies As to how private lands would be obtained may vary depending on how the local communities cooperate with DPE, in terms of providing lands on donation or other arrangements.52 Unless there is an absolute need, DPE would use any feasible option to avoid private land acquisition. Khas lands wherever exist and are considered suitable in terms of location could be easily available for social services institutions like schools. Other public agencies may also be persuaded to let use their lands where they may have remained unutilized. Unless located in urban and peri-urban areas, there is little possibility that public lands would be under use by unauthorized persons or squatters.53 Considering the overall situation, unless there is an absolute need for acquisition, DPE will also consider other options, including voluntary donation, where lands are needed for expansions and new constructions. 3. Obtaining Private Lands: In order to avoid the time-consuming cumbersome process, DPE would obtain lands through acquisition only where other options, as suggested below, will be found totally infeasible: 4. Voluntary Donation: Where landowners agree to donate the lands without the fear of adverse consequences. Direct Purchase: DPE can purchase the lands directly from the owners on a willing buyer-seller basis at least at current market prices. Acquisition: Under the present Acquisition and Requisition of Immovable Property Ordinance, 1982, and mitigating the associated adverse impacts in compliance with the Bank s OP 4.12 on Involuntary Resettlement and OD 4.1 on Indigenous Peoples. Obtaining Public Lands 51 All lands that do not belong to private citizens or not in use by any public entities are administered by the Ministry of Land (MOL). On request, MOL allocates lands for public good purposes to other GoB agencies. Such lands are also leased to private citizens for specified uses, which often stipulate return of the lands whenever MOL needs them. 52 Traditionally, schools are first established by the communities according to their needs, on lands most often donated by individuals who are keenly interested in education, or collectively by the communities. In course of time the communities approached DPE to take them over and, when that happens, schools become a part of the system. Now that DPE is going to the communities with the supply of schools under a time-bound program, it remains uncertain whether DPE could mobilize the support needed for community provision of lands. 53 In rural areas, especially in the coastal regions, khas is often illegally occupied by local rich and influential persons. Such lands can be used for new schools by persuading the occupants or simply by taking legal actions by the district land administration authorities. 26

284 Under Authorized Use: If the required lands are under lease from the Land Ministry or any other GoB agencies, DPE may seek to use such lands by fulfilling the lease conditions. Under Unauthorized Use: Where the current users are well-off and an end to further use would be socioeconomically inconsequential, DPE and communities may persuade them to relinquish occupancy of the lands. However, where the lands are presently used for living and livelihood by the poor and vulnerable, DPE can take them back only by mitigating the adverse impacts in accord with the OP 4.12 and OP 4.1 provisions. 5. DPE will apply the principles and guidelines as proposed in this SMF to all physical works, regardless of their scope, which will involve use of private and public lands that would be obtained through voluntary private donation, direct purchase from landowners; and acquisition by using the present ordinance. Impact Mitigation Objectives 6. The main objectives are to assist the project affected persons (PAPs) to improve, or at least to restore, their living standards and income earning or production capacity to the pre-project levels, in cases where the adverse impacts could not be avoided completely. In view of this, DPE will adhere to the following strategic guidelines while deciding on scope of physical works, as well as options to obtain lands from private and public ownerships. Strictly adhere to the guidelines adopted in this SMF while using the following options to obtain lands: voluntary private donation and direct purchase from landowners (paragraphs 8-9 below). Avoid or minimize displacement of people, especially the socioeconomically vulnerable, who may have been using public lands for residential, commercial and other purposes; Avoid or minimize private land acquisition to extent feasible; and Identify and mitigate unavoidable adverse impacts associated with private land acquisition; displacement from public lands; and any other impacts during implementation of the physical works. Land Use Principles 7. DPE will select to improve existing or build new schools and design and implement them in manners to avoid or minimize use of private and public lands in accord with the following principles: Where lands are required, DPE will consider to, I. Use as much of public lands as possible II. Completely avoid displacement from private homesteads III. Avoid or minimize displacement of homesteads from public lands IV. Use lands of lower value in terms of productivity and uses V. Avoid affecting premises that are used for business/commercial activities VI. Avoid affecting religious sites like places of worship, cemeteries, and buildings / structures that are socially and historically important. 261 Will not undertake civil works that will significantly restrict access of communities, especially the socioeconomically vulnerable members, to common property resources that have been a source of their livelihood.

285 Will not plan, design and implement any physical works that will cause adverse impacts on physical cultural resources like buildings and objects that bear cultural and historical significance (ref: World Bank s OP 4.11 on Physical Cultural Resources). Guidelines for Obtaining Private Lands DPE will obtain private lands in view of the options stated above (paragraph 2), and in compliance the following guidelines: Voluntary Private Donation 8. DPE will seek and obtain private lands on donation where landowners agree to donate them without the fear of adverse consequences. Specific guidelines that will be followed are: Donations will be voluntary, and the landowners will have the right to refuse donations without the fear of reprisal. Donations will not be sought from small and marginal landowners54 who might be made impoverished by the action. Where donations are required, the concerned landowners will be consulted very early in the process leading to the formulation of the civil works program. Will ensure that the donated lands are free of legal disputes and claims, and legally document the donations with the information required by land administration. The donation would be well documented in any one of the following manners: i. Recorded in the local sub-registry office in the regular process of land registration, to establish the ownership by the school/ DPE. In such case a registration fee would be applicable (budget provision to be kept in DPE s revenue head). ii. The transaction done locally and documented in the Judicial Stamp in front of third party witness. All the relevant documents among with signed stamps are received by the Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO) on behalf of DPE. Will share with DPs the legal records of donations for all civil works contract packages that may contain works on multiple schools. Direct Purchase from Landowners 9. To avoid the lengthy acquisition process, DPE may also consider purchasing lands directly from the private landowners, as per the following guidelines: a) If the landowners agree to sell lands on a willing buyer-seller basis. This means that the landowners will not be forced directly or indirectly to sell their lands, or at prices lower than the current market rates. 54 There is no unique definition of small and marginal landowners. These groups are to be determined locally to identify those landowners, whose livelihood/ income generation might be hampered due to loss of the minimum area of land required for the construction. The threshold value for demarcating this group may vary in Upazila to Upazila depending on the land use pattern and the agro-economy of the locality. However, as per Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, marginal land owners and small land owners are defined as having land with the ranges of acres and acres, respectively. 262

286 b) Advertisement in local newspapers for the required land by DPE might be a good option to allow the willing sellers to come forward to sell their lands. c) Prices will be negotiated openly and paid transparently in the presence of community leaders and organizations, NGOs, and others who are respected for fairness and integrity. d) DPE will engage an independent external party to document the negotiation and settlement process. Minutes of negotiations will be prepared with names and address of the participants. This, along with the legal purchase records and evidence of payment will be shared with DPs for all contact packages. e) Negotiated settlement with land holders is the most desired option for acquiring a land which has the potential to accelerate the progress of overall project works under PEDP 3. The safeguards requirement of ADB and OP of World Bank for involuntary resettlement will not trigger in the case of negotiated settlement, unless expropriation would result upon the failure of negotiations. Acquisition of Private Land & Resumption of Public Lands 1. DPE will acquire private lands in cases of absolute need and infeasibility of other options. Consistent with the current practice, acquisitions will be made under the Bangladesh Acquisition and Requisition of Immovable Property Ordinance, 1982 and OP 4.12 on Involuntary Resettlement. The ordinance will legalize the acquisitions in the country s land administration system, and OP4.12 will be used to adopt and implement impact mitigation measures. In keeping with the OP 4.12/SR2, DPE, Will follow the principles and guidelines provided in paragraph 7, to acquire private lands and resume public lands from private uses, and adopt impact mitigation measures. Where portion of a plot remaining after acquisition becomes economically unviable, the landowner will have the option to offer the entire plot to acquisition. Impact Mitigation Principles 11. Adverse impacts are unlikely where lands are received according to the guidelines on voluntary donations or direct purchases are free of encumbrances and disputes/claims. The issue of impact mitigation will arise where lands are acquired or taken back from private uses. In such cases, DPE will plan and implement resettlement of the project affected persons (PAPs) as an integral part of design of the school physical works, as per the following guidelines. a) Not consider absence of legal title a bar to resettlement assistance, especially for the socioeconomically vulnerable groups like squatters. b) Mitigate socioeconomic vulnerability of the PAPs according to the provisions adopted in this SMF. c) Assist persons/households displaced from public lands to relocate on available public lands in the vicinity or general area. d) Encroachers will be considered PAPs and assisted as per the entitlement matrix. e) Mitigate community-wide impacts that may include community facilities, access to common property resources, etc., by rebuilding or providing alternatives in consultation with the user communities. Eligibility for Compensation/Assistance 12. Given the scope of the civil works, which are expected to be quite limited in scope, the following are the categories of persons who are likely to be affected. 263

287 Private Landowners: Persons who have legal rights to the affected lands and other assets, such as houses/structures, trees, etc., built and grown on them. Squatters: Persons/households who do not have legal rights to the affected lands, but use them for residential and livelihood purposes. (Compensation for squatters will follow the mitigation principles proposed above.). Others, who do not have legal rights to the affected lands and any assets built or grown on them, but whose livelihood activities are significantly affected by the civil works. 13. Cut-off Dates: Where lands are to be acquired, DPE will establish the cut-off dates. These are the dates on which censuses of PAPs and affected assets are taken. Assets like houses/structures, that are built and the persons claiming to be affected, after the cut-off dates become ineligible for compensation. For private lands, these dates may not constitute cut-off dates, if the legal Notice 3 is issued before the PAP census. In such a situation, dates of Notice 3 will be considered cut-off dates, as the acquisition ordinance prohibits changes in the appearance of the lands after the notice is issued. Compensation Principles & Standards 14. DPE will use the following principles and standards to determine compensation and assistance for persons/households in the different impact categories. Lands of All Kinds: Replacement costs for an equal amount of land of same use and quality, including the registration costs and stamp duties. Built Assets: Replacement costs of built items outside the homestead at the current market prices of same building materials, plus the current costs of labour to build them. Trees & Other Irreplaceable Items: Current market prices of trees and other items which are irreplaceable. If the acquired lands are agricultural and amount to 2% or more of the total productive area, a transition allowance at three times the value of the crops produced a year in the acquired portion of the land. 15. It is expected that lands for even a new school, which will require relatively larger amount, may affect very few landowners.55 In such cases, DPE would explore the possibility of determining replacement costs/market prices of all affected assets jointly with the affected landowners and beneficiary communities. Or, they will use the methods suggested in Annex C1. Impact Mitigation Plans 16. DPE will document the lands received on voluntary donation and direct purchase from the landowners and share with IDA. Impact mitigation plans will be prepared where private lands are to be acquired and public lands taken back from unauthorized users. Depending on scale of adverse impacts, DPE will prepare and implement one of the following impact mitigation plans: Resettlement Plan (RP). Where land acquisition and resumption of public lands, which may include MoPME s own, for a school affect 2 or more persons. (The number of persons consists of all household members, irrespective of the tenure under which they use the lands.), or 55 Since the school is a one-piece facility, acquisitions will be made in one location and may affect only a few plots that may belong to as many or fewer landowners. 264

288 Abbreviated Resettlement Plan (ARP). Where land acquisition and resumption of public lands for a school affect fewer than 2 persons, documenting the affected persons and valuation of affected assets, impact mitigation measures and budget, and an ARP implementation schedule. Compensation Payment 17. As required by the acquisition ordinance, where lands are acquired, a part of the compensation will be assessed and paid to the title-holding PAPs by the Deputy Commissioners (DCs, heads of the acquisition authority). If this payment, compensation-under-law (CUL), is found lower than the replacement value, DPE will directly pay the difference as top-up to make up for the shortfall. Compensations/entitlements that are stipulated beyond the ordinance (for affected landowners and squatters and others, who are not recognized by the ordinance) will also be directly paid by DPE. 18. If lands are purchased directly from the owners on a willing buyer-seller basis, DPE will directly pay the prices in manners specified in paragraph Top-up Determination and Payment: The amount of top-up due to the affected person will be determined by comparing the total amount of CUL paid by DCs for lands and other acquired assets with the total replacement costs and/or market prices thereof. 2. Based on the principles proposed for impact mitigation, the following matrix defines the specific entitlements for different types of losses, entitled persons, application guidelines, and the institutional responsibility to implement them. Table 2: ENTITLEMENT MATRIX Ownership & Location Entitled Person56 Entitlements Responsibility LOSS OF AGRICULTURAL & OTHER LANDS Private Public lands under legal lease Legal Owners, as determined by DCs, or by courts in cases of legal disputes Leaseholders Compensation-under-law (CUL) replacement costs, whichever is greater. or CUL paid by DCs If applicable (subject to paragraph 17) Top-up equal to the difference between CUL and replacement costs. Transition allowance (TA) for income loss if acquisition amounts to 2% or more of the total productive area (see paragraph 14) Contractual obligations with the public agencies, as determined by DCs. Top-up & TA paid by DPE Paid by DCs. LOSS OF HOUSES & OTHER BUILT ITEMS 56 To comply with the draft Gender Action Plan of PEDP 3, it is to be noted that the eligible female household heads (FHH) would also receive equal compensation as of male entitles person. 265

289 Ownership & Location Entitled Person56 Built items on private lands outside the homesteads57 Legal owners, as determined by DCs, or by courts in cases of legal disputes. Shiftable & nonshiftable structures on acquired public lands Vulnerable Squatters Entitlements Responsibility Compensation-under-law (CUL) or replacement cost, whichever is greater. CUL paid by DCs. Transfer Grant (TG) to cover the carrying costs of any movable items at one-eighth of the replacement costs of the affected items. TG paid DPE Owners retain the salvageable materials. Shiftable structures: House Transfer Grant (HTG) and House Construction Grant Tk 5 per sft of floor area with minimum of Tk 4 and maximum of Tk 6. Non-shiftable structures: Tk 1 per sft of floor area with minimum of Tk 5 and maximum of Tk 7. Early notice on the demolition Technical advice in demolition, relocation and repairing of affected structure Payment for repairing only those damages to structure resulting from demolition, if required Transfer/shifting allowances, if required Transitional allowance Encroachers by HTG and HCG paid by DPE LOSS OF HOMESTEAD ON PUBLIC LANDS Homesteads public lands on Vulnerable Squatters 58 Encroachers Relocation assistance in public lands in the vicinity where squatters are required to relocate their homes. Provision of water supply & sanitation facilities DPE Early notice on the demolition Technical advice in demolition, relocation and repairing of affected structure Payment for repairing only those damages to structure resulting from demolition, if required Transfer/shifting allowances, if According to the stipulations in paragraph 13 of Section A, homesteads, which consist of land, houses and other amenities, cannot be acquired. The built items here mean any structures that may have been built outside the homesteads for any purposes other than living. 58 If any local influential person encroaches the public land or establishes squatters on the Government land targeted for the school, the land will be made available through legal actions by the district land administration authorities. In such case, the Influential Person or the squatters will not be compensated or provided any assistance vacating the Government Land. 266

290 Ownership & Location Entitled Person56 Entitlements - Responsibility required Transitional allowance LOSS OF TREES ON PRIVATE & PUBLIC LANDS On private lands On public lands Legal owners as determined by DCs, or by courts in cases of legal disputes squatters encroachers and Current market value of trees, based on species, size and maturity. Current market prices of fruits on trees, if they are felled before harvest. DCs (included in CUL) Owners will fell and retain the trees and fruits, after payment of compensation. DPE As those stipulated above for trees and fruits. DPE As determined in consultation with IDA and other DPs. DPE and IDA/ADB UNFORESEEN LOSSES As may be identified As identified during preparation & implementation of civil works Income Restoration and Relocation Strategy: 21. The vulnerable Affected Persons (APs), including those experiencing indirect or secondary impact, will be eligible for assistance due to loss of employment/wage because of dislocation. DPE is to arrange training and credit support for Income Generation Activities (IGA) for sustainable income restoration of the eligible members of AP families. The poor and the vulnerable APs will be covered under IGA through Human Resource Development (HRD) and Occupational Skill Development training and subsequent credit support. The RPs will have provisions to provide assistance to affected businesses to restore and regain their businesses. All businesses irrespective of titled/non-titled owners of business premises, will receive a cash grant for loss of access to business premise, plus shifting or moving allowance, and one-time cash grant for loss of income. This assistance is intended to supplement the income loss during transitional period to re-establish businesses in new locations. Given the small size of subprojects, there would be little scope of developing a relocation site for the APs. Preparation of Mitigation Instruments 22. Based on social safeguard screening and consultations with the local communities, DPE would decide how the required lands would be obtained. In cases of acquisition, DPE will undertake the tasks required for planning and implementation of resettlement activities. In this respect, the major preparatory tasks are: 267

291 Land acquisition proposals (LAPs). LAPs will be prepared as per the standard requirements of the acquisition authority indicating, among other information, the amount of lands that are to be acquired. PAP census and fixing the cut-off dates. To prepare RPs and ARPs, will gather details of the impacts and impacted persons with respect, but not limited, to the impact categories and compensation/assistance eligibility criteria adopted in paragraph 12. DPE will establish the cut-off dates as mentioned in Para 13. Market price s. To determine the replacement costs of lands, structures and other replaceable, and market prices of irreplaceable, affected assets (Survey methods suggested in Annex C1). Contents of RP & ARP 23. In cases of acquisition, DPE will prepare RPs or ARPs in view of the number of persons being affected by the expansion and/or new construction works for the individual schools. In view of the principles and guidelines in this SMF, the mitigation plans will include the following.59 Resettlement Pan (RP) Brief description of the school location and proposed civil works, and required private and public lands; Details of the impacts in terms of, but not limited to, the categories suggested in this SMF; Socioeconomic Information and Profile which would outline the results of the social impact assessment, the census survey, and other studies, with information and/or data disaggregated by gender, vulnerability, and other social groupings etc. An account of the alternatives that have been considered to avoid and/or minimize the adverse impacts; An account of the consultations that have been conducted with the displaced persons / households about the mitigation measures and implementation procedure (see below); An account of the entitlements for different types of losses; An account of households, if any, made vulnerable by the acquisition and the special assistance that are to be provided; and Resettlement budget and a RP implementation schedule. A Brief outline of a standard Resettlement Plan is in Annex E1 Abbreviated Resettlement Plan (ARP) 59 Documentation of the private and public lands required for the school, affected persons, and valuation of the affected assets as per the guidelines; Description of compensation and other resettlement assistance that are to be provided; A brief account of consultations with the affected persons about acceptable alternatives (e.g. compensation in cash and kind, etc.); and A budget and an ARP implementation schedule. It is highly unlikely that private land acquisition for a school would require a full-fledged Resettlement Plan. The amount of land for even a new school, which would require 33 decimals each, is expected to be quite modest and acquisition may affect very few plots which may belong to as many or fewer families. If the average family size and the amount of land are considered together, it is very unlikely that acquisition for a school would affect 2 or more persons, which is the benchmark for an RP. 268

292 Stakeholder Consultations 24. As noted in Section A, land availability issues would require extensive community consultations. Unless land is obtained through donation and direct purchase, acquisitions would require further consultations focusing more on the PAPs, regarding the potential adverse impacts, as well as the resettlement measures and implementation procedure. Consultation topics will include, Scope of civil works; land acquisition needs and the expected adverse socioeconomic impacts; and the rights and responsibilities on the parts of the stakeholders themselves and the agencies involved in the project (DPE, World Bank, other development partners, Consultants, etc.). Specifics of the mitigation measures and the process that will be followed to implement them (mitigation principles, compensation eligibility, compensation payment [CUL & top-up] responsibilities, etc.). Legal documents required to claim compensation from DCs and explanation of the process to procure them in cases where the landowners may not have them ready. Explanation of the functions and limitations of GRCs, and how the aggrieved PAPs and others could lodge their complaints and grievances. 25. Depending on actual situation, stakeholder consultations will continue throughout the civil works preparation and implementation period, and DPE would consider stakeholder inputs and feedback to minimize the adverse impacts. Documentation 26. While RPs/ARPs will present summary of the impacts and impacted persons, DPE will ensure availability of the following documentations for review by IDA, ADB, and other DPs. Minutes of stakeholder consultation on matters like social safeguards implications of using private and public lands; alternative means of obtaining the required lands; mitigation measures adopted in this SMF; compensation procedure; etc. Legal records of lands donated by private owners and of those directly purchased by DPE on willing buyer-seller basis, with prices and names and addresses of peoples present during price negotiations and payment, and evidence of actual payment. Inventory of different types of PAPs, based on the census of affected persons / households and assets, as well as replacement costs and current market prices of different types of assets, as determined through market prices surveys, or in collaboration with the communities. Records of compensation payment to individual PAPs. Records of complaints and grievances and the decisions given by GRCs and DPE. Monitoring & Reporting 27. DPE will provide IDA, ADB, and other DPs with the following information for their review of performance and compliance with the OP 4.12, and SR Social safeguard screening: As and when requested, filled-out screening form (Annex A1) for all schools/contract packages included in the civil works program. Legal records as and when executed: Of lands donated by private owners, as well as of those directly purchased by DPE on willing buyer-seller basis, with prices and names and addresses of peoples present during price negotiations and payment, and evidence of actual payment.

293 In cases of acquisition, semi-annual report indicating progress in land acquisition and implementation of impact mitigation plans, including compensation payment by DCs and DPE Updates for formal review missions, which would include summary information on schools that have obtained lands using any of the options suggested above for different types of civil works. 28. An independent review will be carried out to assess how effectively and efficiently the different procedural tasks have been carried out; relative advantage / disadvantages of the suggested land obtaining options; land acquisition and impact mitigation activities, if any, have been carried out; and efficacy of the provisions adopted in this SMF. Land Acquisition & Resettlement Budget 29. As required by the World Bank s project financing policy and SPS of ADB, DPE will pay for the costs of lands, as well as those of impact mitigation activities. These costs are expected to vary a great deal depending on how lands are obtained and the nature and scale of impacts they might cause. All of these would remain largely unknown until the civil works are proposed for specific schools. As a result, presently there are no realistic bases to propose a resettlement budget. Under the circumstances, it is proposed that, DPE will ensure availability of funds to pay for the lands that might be purchased directly or acquired under the 1982 ordinance. Detailed budgets will be included in RPs or ARPs, as and when they prepared to deal with resettlement issues. 27

294 D: GENDER AND INCLUSION 1. A gender Action Plan has been formulated by the DPE in consultation with the Disparity Working Group and various relevant stakeholders. The annual reporting of the Gender and IE Action plan is monitored through the Access and Inclusive Education Cell (AIEC) in DPE. 2. Under PEDP3 to implement the Gender & IE Action Plan, distinct initiatives have been taken in component or sub-component wise. The main objectives of the Gender & IE Action Plan are to create an inclusive and gender perspectives primary education system in Bangladesh. I.e. the curriculum, training, recruitment, infrastructure, school management etc. - all activities under primary education will be gender & inclusive perspectives. 3. The Gender and IE Action Plan is annexed as part of the main program document (separate from this SMF). 271

295 Annex A1 SOCIAL SAFEGUARD SCREENING [The information sought in this form should be verified and recorded during school/site visits and/or community/stakeholder consultations. A DPE staff will fill in the form in presence of community members, local government officials, civil society representatives and others who have interests in the school.] A. GENERAL I NFORMATION Name of School: [ ] Existing School [ ] New School Union: Ward Name & No.: Upazila: District: Screening Date: Names of Persons Participated in Screening: DPE Staff: Local Government Representatives: Community Members: B. SOCIAL SAFEGUARD I NFORMATION The Scheme is located in an area (UP, or Ward or part of a Ward) where residents are: [ ] All mainstream or non-indigenous/tribal peoples [ ] All indigenous/tribal peoples [ ] Majority mainstream or non-indigenous/tribal peoples [ ] Majority indigenous/tribal peoples Scope of Work: [ ] Improvements on Existing School [ ] Construction of New School Existing Schools: Toilets Required Land Belongs to: Number: Total Land Area (decimal/square feet): [ ] School [ ] Private Owners [ ] Others (Name): Additional Class Room Number: Total Land Area (dec/sft): Required Land Belongs to: [ ] School [ ] Private Owners [ ] Others (Name): 272

296 Dormitory (CHT): Required Land is Capacity (# of students): [ ] School Property Total land Area (decimals): [ ] Khas [ ] Under Lease to Indigenous Persons [ ] Under Customary Use [ ] Under Lease to Non-Indigenous Persons Other Civil Works, if any (Describe): If Require Lands are Private, they are Presently Used for [ ] Agriculture No. of Landowners/users: [ ] Residential Purposes No. of household living on them: [ ] Business Purposes No. of persons using the lands: [ ] Other Purposes No. of persons using the lands: Name Purpose: If Require Lands are Public, they are Presently Used for [ ] Agriculture No. of persons using the lands: [ ] Residential Purposes No. of households using the lands: [ ] Business Purposes No. of persons using the lands: [ ] Other Purposes No. of persons using the lands: Name Purpose: New Schools: Required Land Belongs to: [ ] Without Cyclone Shelter & Dormitory Total Land Area (decimals): [ ] With Cyclone Shelter Total Land Area (decimals): [ ] With Dormitory Total Land Area (decimals): [ ] School [ ] Private Owners [ ] Land Ministry (Khas) [ ] Other Ministries (Name): [ ] Other Entities (Name): If Require Lands are Private, they are Presently Used for [ ] Agriculture No. of Landowners/users: [ ] Residential Purposes No. of household living on them: [ ] Commercial Purposes No. of persons using the lands: [ ] Other Purposes No. of persons using the lands: Name Purpose: If Require Lands are Public, they are Presently Used for [ ] Agriculture No. of persons using the lands: [ ] Residential Purposes No. of households using the lands: [ ] Commercial Purposes No. of persons using the lands: [ ] Other Purposes No. of persons using the lands: Name Purpose: 273

297 If private lands are required, they will be obtained through [ ] Voluntary Donation Agreed by Landowners: [ ] Direct Purchase Agreed by Landowners: [ ] Yes [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] No [ ] Other means (Describe): Remarks, if any, about land availability: C. ADDITIONAL I NFORMATION ON SMALL ETHNIC COMMUNITIES SMALL ETHNIC COMMUNITIES (SECS) (IN ADDITION TO THE INFORMATION SOUGHT UNDER S ECTION B) Names of SEC members and organizations which participated in Social Screening: The would-be affected SECs have the following forms of rights to the required lands: [ ] Legal ownership Number of SEC persons/households: [ ] Customary Rights Number of SEC persons/households: [ ] Lease agreements with the Government Number of SEC persons/households: [ ] Others form of Right Number of SEC persons/households: Describe Right: The following are the three main economic activities of the would-be affected SEC households: (a) (b) (c). The following are the social concerns expressed by SEC community and organizations: 274

298 The SEC community and organizations perceive the social outcomes of the scheme: [ ] Positive [ ] Negative [ ] Neither Positive nor Negative In respect of the social impacts and concerns, is there a need to undertake an additional impact assessment study? [ ] Yes [ ] No ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Prepared by (Name and Designation): (A DPE staff should fill in this form) Signature: Date:.

299 Annex B1 SMALL ETHNIC COMMUNITIES CONSULTATION MATRIX Timing Reconnaissance & ground verification of existing and location/sites for new schools and hostels Consultation Participants Project SEC Community Authority DPE/UEO, SEC Communities, Local including government, organizations, NGOs and community others working leaders/elders with SEC issues Consultation Method Expected Outcome Open meetings & discussions, visit of school sites, SEC settlements & surroundings First-hand assessment of SECs perception of potential social benefits and risks, and prospect of achieving broad base support for the civil works Screening of the school and dormitory sites DPE/UEO, Local government, NGOs / CBOs and others working with SEC issues SEC Communities, including would-be affected SECs, SEC organizations, community leaders/elders, key informants Open meetings, focus group discussions, spot interviews, etc. Identification of major impact issues, feedback from SEC communities and would-be affected persons, and establishing broad base community support for the civil works In-depth study of risks and benefits taking into consideration, inter alia the conditions that led to community consensus DPE/UEO, project consultants (Social Scientist), NGOs / CBOs, other knowledgeable persons Would-be affected SECs, SEC organizations, community leaders/elders, key informants Formal/informal interviews; focus group discussions; hotspot discussion on specific impacts, alternatives, and mitigation; etc. More concrete view of impact issues & risks, and feedback on possible alternatives and mitigation and development measures Social impact assessment (SIA) DPE/UEO, project consultants (Social Scientist) Adversely affected individual SECs/households Structured survey questionnaires covering quantitative & qualitative information Inputs for SECP, and identification of issues that could be incorporated into the design of the civil works Preparation civil works SECP DPE/UEO, project consultants (Social Scientist) and other stakeholders SEC organizations, community leaders/elders, adversely affected SECs Group consultations, hot spot discussions, etc. Preparation of SECP, and incorporation of SIA inputs into engineering design to avoid or minimize adverse impacts, and SEC development programs DPE/UEO, DPs, consultants (Social Scientists) & other stakeholders Individual SECs, SEC organizations, community leaders/elders & other stakeholders Implementation monitoring committees (formal or informal) Quick resolution of issues, effective implementation of SECP of and Implementation 276

300 Monitoring Evaluation 277 & DPE/UEO, DPs, consultants (Social Scientists), NGOs & CBOs SEC organizations/ groups and individuals Formal participation review monitoring in and Identification & resolution of implementation issues, effectiveness of SECP

301 Annex C1 SUGGESTED METHODS FOR MARKET PRICE SURVEYS In line with the proposed compensation principles, DPE/UEO, assisted by the program consultants, will conduct market price surveys to determine replacement costs of the acquired lands, structures and other replaceable and market prices of irreplaceable assets by using the methods suggested below. Lands of All Kinds The surveys will explicitly take into consideration the quality of the lands under acquisition. Quality will take into account current uses (residential/commercial, etc.), cropping intensity in cases of agricultural lands, accessibility from the existing roads and to transportation, and any other characteristics that influence the lands market value. These surveys will be conducted on the following three groups of respondents: A random sample of 1-15 landowners in the mouza (or area of the city) in which the lands under acquisition are located and in those adjacent to it; As many of most recent buyers and sellers of similar lands can be found in the same and adjacent areas/mouzas; and Deed writers, as many can be found and agree for interviews, at the land registration offices, who recently handled transactions of similar lands in the same or adjacent areas/mouzas. (They are to be asked about the actual prices, not those written in the deeds.) Market value of the lands will be determined in the following manners: If variations in average prices reported by the three respondent groups are insignificant (or, are 1% or less), current value of the lands will be fixed at the average of the prices reported by the three groups. In cases of significant differences (more than 1%), the current prices will be negotiated in open meetings with the affected landowners and GRC. Replacement costs of land will equal the market price, plus the registration cost or stamp duty. The registration cost will be calculated on the current market price. Built Structures Replacement costs will be based on the current prices of various building materials, labor and other cost items in the local markets. The costs of building materials, such as bricks, cement, steel, sand, bamboo, timber, GI sheet, roofing materials like straw, golpata, etc., and labor will be based on: Survey of current prices of different types of materials with five or so dealers/manufacturers in the local markets. The replacement cost of the structure will be based on the lowest quoted price for each type of material, plus their carrying costs to the sites. The current costs of labor with different skills will be determined by interviewing local contractors, DPE staff, or local construction workers. The PWD schedule of rates would also be used for comparison of rates of materials and labor for analysis of irregular/ non-conventional structures, or plinth area rate for the standard building structure. If these rates are found higher than the market price, PWD rates would govern. Page 278

302 Replacement costs of any other replaceable affected assets will also be based on the current prices of materials, transportation, labor costs, etc. Trees & Other Irreplaceable Assets Market prices of different varieties of trees will be determined by surveying the prevailing prices paid by five or so lumber and fuel-wood traders in the local markets. The compensation for trees will be fixed at the highest prices offered by a trader. The rates fixed by the Department of Forest (DoF) would also be compared. Compensation for all other irreplaceable assets will also be based on survey of their prevailing prices with dealers/traders in the local markets. Fruits and Other Crops Compensation will be fixed at the harvest prices of the fruits and other crops. Harvest prices of different varieties of fruits and crops will be collect ed from a sample of 7-1 dealers in the local markets. The compensation for each type of fruit and crop will be fixed at the highest price offered by a trader. Rates fixed by the Dept. of Agriculture (DoA) would also be compared. The market price surveys will begin as soon as locations of the required acquisitions are identified on the ground. DPE/UEO will document the replacement costs and market prices of various affected assets and make them available as and when asked for review by IDA, ADB, and other DPs. Page 279

303 Annex D1 OUTLINE OF A SMALL ETHNIC COMMUNITIES PLAN This outline is part of the Safeguard Requirements 3. A Small Ethnic Communities plan (SECP) is required for all projects with impacts on Small Ethnic Communities. Its level of detail and comprehensiveness is commensurate with the significance of potential impacts on SECs. The substantive aspects of this outline will guide the preparation of SECs, although not necessarily in the order shown. A. Executive Summary of the Small Ethnic Communities Plan This section concisely describes the critical facts, significant findings, and recommended actions. B. Description of the Project This section provides a general description of the project; discusses project components and activities that may bring impacts on SECs; and identify project area. C. Social Impact Assessment This section: (i) Reviews the legal and institutional framework applicable to Indigenous Peoples in project context. (ii) Provides baseline information on the demographic, social, cultural, and political characteristics of the affected SECs; the land and territories that they have traditionally owned or customarily used or occupied; and the natural resources on which they depend. (iii) Identifies key project stakeholders and elaborate a culturally appropriate and gender-sensitive process for meaningful consultation with SECs s at each stage of project preparation and implementation, taking the review and baseline information into account. (iv) Assesses, based on meaningful consultation with the affected Small Ethnic Communities, the potential adverse and positive effects of the project. Critical to the determination of potential adverse impacts is a gender-sensitive analysis of the relative vulnerability of, and risks to, the affected Small Ethnic Communities given their particular circumstances and close ties to land and natural resources, as well as their lack of access to opportunities relative to those available to other social groups in the communities, regions, or national societies in which they live. (v) Includes a gender-sensitive assessment of the affected Small Ethnic Communities perceptions about the project and its impact on their social, economic, and cultural status. (vi) identifies and recommends, based on meaningful consultation with the affected Small Ethnic Communities, the measures necessary to avoid adverse effects or, if such measures are not possible, identifies measures to minimize, mitigate, and/or compensate for such effects and to ensure that the Small Ethnic Communities receive culturally appropriate benefits under the project. D. Information Disclosure, Consultation and Participation This section: (i) Describes the information disclosure, consultation and participation process with the affected Small Ethnic Communities that was carried out during project preparation; Page 28

304 (ii) Summarizes their comments on the results of the social impact assessment and identifies concerns raised during consultation and how these have been addressed in project design; (iii) In the case of project activities requiring broad community support, documents the process and outcome of consultations with affected Small Ethnic Communities and any agreement resulting from such consultations for the project activities and safeguard measures addressing the impacts of such activities; (iv) Describes consultation and participation mechanisms to be used during implementation to ensure Small Ethnic Communities participation during implementation; and (v) Confirms disclosure of the draft and final IPP to the affected Small Ethnic Communities. E. Beneficial Measures This section specifies the measures to ensure that the Small Ethnic Communities receive social and economic benefits that are culturally appropriate, and gender responsive. F. Mitigative Measures This section specifies the measures to avoid adverse impacts on Small Ethnic Communities; and where the avoidance is impossible, specifies the measures to minimize, mitigate and compensate for identified unavoidable adverse impacts for each affected Small Ethnic Communities. G. Capacity Building This section provides measures to strengthen the social, legal, and technical capabilities of (a) government institutions to address Small Ethnic Communities issues in the project area; and (b)small Ethnic Communities organizations in the project area to enable them to represent the affected Small Ethnic Communities more effectively. H. Grievance Redress Mechanism This section describes the procedures to redress grievances by affected Small Ethnic Communities. It also explains how the procedures are accessible to Small Ethnic Communities and culturally appropriate and gender sensitive. I. Monitoring, Reporting and Evaluation This section describes the mechanisms and benchmarks appropriate to the project for Monitoring, and evaluating the implementation of the SECP. It also specifies arrangements for participation of affected Small Ethnic Communities in the preparation and validation of monitoring, and evaluation reports. J. Institutional Arrangement This section describes institutional arrangement responsibilities and mechanisms for carrying out the various measures of the SECP. It also describes the process of including relevant local organizations and NGOs in carrying out the measures of the SECP. K. Budget and Financing This section provides an itemized budget for all activities described in the SECP. Page 281

305 Annex E1 OUTLINE OF A RESETTLEMENT PLAN This outline is part of the Safeguard Requirements 2. A resettlement plan is required for all projects with involuntary resettlement impacts. Its level of detail and comprehensiveness is commensurate with the significance of potential involuntary resettlement impacts and risks. The substantive aspects of the outline will guide the preparation of the resettlement plans, although not necessarily in the order shown. i. Executive Summary This section provides a concise statement of project scope, key survey findings, entitlements and recommended actions. ii. Project Description This section provides a general description of the project, discusses project components that result in land acquisition, involuntary resettlement, or both and identify the project area. It also describes the alternatives considered to avoid or minimize resettlement. Include a table with quantified data and provide a rationale for the final decision. iii. Scope of Land Acquisition and Resettlement This section: (i) (ii) (iii) and (iv) Discuss the project s potential impacts, and includes maps of the areas or zone of impact of project components or activities; Describes the scope of land acquisition (provide maps) and explains why it is necessary for the main investment project; Summarizes the key effects in terms of assets acquired and displaced persons; Provides details of any common property resources that will be acquired. iv. Socioeconomic Information and Profile This section outlines the results of the social impact assessment, the census survey, and other studies, with information and/or data disaggregated by gender, vulnerability, and other social groupings, including: (i) Define, identify, and enumerate the people and communities to be affected; (ii) describe the likely impacts of land and asset acquisition on the people and communities affected taking social, cultural, and economic parameters into account; (iii) Discuss the project s impacts on the poor, indigenous and/or ethnic minorities, and other vulnerable groups; and (iv) Identify gender and resettlement impacts, and the socioeconomic situation, impacts, needs, and priorities of women. v. Information Disclosure, Consultation, and Participation This section: (i) (ii) identifies project stakeholders, especially primary stakeholders; describes the consultation and participation mechanisms to be used during the different stages of the project cycle; Page 282

306 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) describes the activities undertaken to disseminate project and resettlement information during project design and preparation for engaging stakeholders; Summarizes the results of consultations with affected persons (including host communities), and discusses how concerns raised and recommendations made were addressed in the resettlement plan; Confirms disclosure of the draft resettlement plan to affected persons and includes arrangements to disclose any subsequent plans; and Describes the planned information disclosure measures (including the type of information to be disseminated and the method of dissemination) and the process for consultation with affected persons during project implementation. vi. Grievance Redress Mechanisms This section describes mechanisms to receive and facilitate the resolution of affected persons concerns and grievances. It explains how the procedures are accessible to affected persons and gender sensitive. vii. Legal Framework This section: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Describes national and local laws and regulations that apply to the project and identify gaps between local laws and IDA/ADB's policy requirements; and discuss how any gaps will be addressed. Describes the legal and policy commitments from the executing agency for all types of displaced persons; Outlines the principles and methodologies used for determining valuations and compensation rates at replacement cost for assets, incomes, and livelihoods; and set out the compensation and assistance eligibility criteria and how and when compensation and assistance will be provided. Describes the land acquisition process and prepare a schedule for meeting key procedural requirements. viii. Entitlements, Assistance and Benefits This section: (i) (ii) (iii) Defines displaced persons entitlements and eligibility, and describes all resettlement assistance measures (includes an entitlement matrix); Specifies all assistance to vulnerable groups, including women, and other special groups; and. Outlines opportunities for affected persons to derive appropriate development benefits from the project. ix. Relocation of Housing and Settlements This section: (i) (ii) (iii) describes options for relocating housing and other structures, including replacement housing, replacement cash compensation, and/or self-selection (ensure that gender concerns and support to vulnerable groups are identified); describes alternative relocation sites considered; community consultations conducted; and justification for selected sites, including details about location, environmental assessment of sites, and development needs; provides timetables for site preparation and transfer; Page 283

307 (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Describes the legal arrangements to regularize tenure and transfer titles to resettled persons; Outlines measures to assist displaced persons with their transfer and establishment at new sites; Describes plans to provide civic infrastructure; and Explains how integration with host populations will be carried out. x. Income Restoration and Rehabilitation This section: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Identifies livelihood risks and prepare disaggregated tables based on demographic data and livelihood sources; Describes income restoration programs, including multiple options for restoring all types of livelihoods (examples include project benefit sharing, revenue sharing arrangements, joint stock for equity contributions such as land, discuss sustainability and safety nets); Outlines measures to provide social safety net through social insurance and/or project special funds; Describes special measures to support vulnerable groups; Explains gender considerations; and Describes training programs. xi. Resettlement Budget and Financing Plan This section: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) budget. provides an itemized budget for all resettlement activities, including for the resettlement unit, staff training, monitoring and evaluation, and preparation of resettlement plans during loan implementation. describes the flow of funds (the annual resettlement budget should show the budget-scheduled expenditure for key items). includes a justification for all assumptions made in calculating compensation rates and other cost estimates (taking into account both physical and cost contingencies), plus replacement costs, and includes information about the source of funding for the resettlement plan xii. Institutional Arrangements This section: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) M. describes institutional arrangement responsibilities and mechanisms for carrying out the measures of the resettlement plan; includes institutional capacity building program, including technical assistance, if required; describes role of NGOs, if involved, and organizations of affected persons in resettlement planning and management; and describes how women s groups will be involved in resettlement planning and management, Implementation Schedule This section includes a detailed, time bound, implementation schedule for all key resettlement and rehabilitation activities. The implementation schedule should cover all aspects Page 284

308 of resettlement activities synchronized with the project schedule of civil works construction, and provide land acquisition process and timeline. N. Monitoring and Reporting This section describes the mechanisms and benchmarks appropriate to the project for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the resettlement plan. It specifies arrangements for participation of affected persons in the monitoring process. This section will also describe reporting procedures. Page 285

309 ANNEX 4: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK THIRD PRIMARY EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (PEDP 3) REVISED ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK DIRECTORATE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION MINISTRY OF PRIMARY AND MASS EDUCATION GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH 25 AUGUST, 214 Dhaka, Bangladesh LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

310 ADB AusAid BDT BNBC BP CIDA DC DFID DG DLIs DOE DPE DPs DPHE EA EC ECA ECC ECR EIA EMF EMP EEPs GIS GoB IDA IEE LGED MOEF MoU NCTB NEMAP NSDWSSP OP PEDP I PEDP II PEDP3 PTIs SLIPs SMC SWAp UPEPS URCs USD WB Asian Development Bank Australian Overseas Aid Program Bangladesh Taka (Currency) Bangladesh National Building Code Bank Procedures Canadian International Development Agency Deputy Commissioner Department for International Development (of the United Kingdom) Director General Disbursement-linked Indicators Department of Environment Directorate of Primary Education Development Partners Department of Public Health Engineering Environmental Assessment European Commission Environmental Conservation Act Environmental Clearance Certificate Environmental Conservation Rules Environmental Impact Assessment Environment Management Framework Environmental Management Plan Eligible Expenditure Programs Geographic Information System Government of Bangladesh International Development Agency Initial Environmental Examination Local Government Engineering Department Ministry of Environment and Forests Memorandum of Understanding Strengthening Capacity of the National Curriculum and Textbook Board National Environmental Management Action Plan National Safe Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Operational Policies (First) Primary Education Development Program Second Primary Education Development Program Third Primary Education Development Program Primary Teacher Training Institutes School Level Improvement Plans School Management Committee Sector Wide Approach Upazila Primary Education Plans Upazila Resource Centers United State Dollar (Currency) World Bank EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The proposed Additional Financing (AF) of Primary Education Development Program III (PEDP3) will be the follow-on phase of Primary Education Development Program II and III, the government effort to provide quality education to all Bangladeshi children in every classroom. There is an increased focus on results in this new phase. The program, which started Page 287

311 in July 1, 211, is being implemented over a six year period with the support of a number of development partners including the Asian Development Bank, DFAT, DFATD, DFID, EC, JICA, Netherlands, SIDA, UNICEF and the World Bank/IDA. The development objectives of the proposed program are to: (i) increase the number of children enrolled and completing primary education; (ii) reduce social and regional disparities; and (iii) improve the measurement of student learning and quality of the teaching/learning environment. Part of this program includes quality and child-friendly infrastructure (including clean and safe toilets and arsenic free tube wells or piped water supply). The Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) is implementing these infrastructure activities in close collaboration with Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) and Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE). The Directorate of Primary Education (DPE), in consultation with relevant stakeholders, has prepared this revised Environmental Management Framework (EMF) to support the implementing partners of the program to deal with potential environmental issues that may arise during implementation of the various civil works/ subprojects. The purpose of this revised harmonized Environmental Management Framework (EMF) is to modify some of the tools based on the experiences gained during the last couple of years to ensure that neither the infrastructure, both in terms of needs nor quality at primary schools, nor the environment is compromised through the program intervention. The specific objectives of revised EMF are to: (i) outline a revised framework for environmental screening procedures and methodologies for the subprojects to be financed under the project in accordance with the GoB, World Bank and ADB s Safeguard policies/rules; and (ii) specify appropriate roles and responsibilities to carryout environmental screening, monitoring and reporting related to subprojects. To avoid potentially adverse environmental impacts and enhance environmental outcomes of the activities implemented under individual subprojects, the World Bank Operational Policy on Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.1) and ADB s Safeguard Policy Statement (29) is triggered for this Program. Considering that the project is expected to have limited and minimum adverse environmental impacts, the project environment safeguard categorization is Category B. The subproject specific environmental impacts cannot be precisely identified upfront before sites are selected. Additionally, subprojects may have very minor negative environmental impacts if not properly designed, executed and mitigation measures not implemented. The Program is envisaged as a results-based investment lending support to the Government of Bangladesh s primary education sector. The World Bank, jointly with other major development partners, will support a full primary education sector-wide approach, but identifies a selected number of areas where achievements would condition the timing and amount of disbursements. It will provide a mix of financial and technical support aimed at improving impact and efficiency of resources. Since the specific subprojects are not yet identified, specific information on types of subprojects like site/location of the subprojects, land requirements, local communities, geophysical land features and nature for majority of them is not available, this EMF has been prepared to establish the mechanism to determine and assess future potential environmental impacts of subprojects that are to be identified and cleared based on a community demanddriven process, and to set out mitigation, monitoring and institutional measures to be taken during implementation and operation of the subprojects to eliminate adverse environmental impacts, or to reduce them to acceptable limits. The Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) and Department of Public Health Engineering Department (DPHE) are responsible for design, implementation and maintenance of the class rooms under the program. LGED developed an institutional set-up for PEDP II, which is being used in PEDP3. LGED has hired the services of an Environment Page 288

312 Specialist who leads PEDP 3environmental activities. The current arrangement of environmental screening and monitoring would continue for the rest of the period of the program. As being practiced currently, the Executive Engineer (Education) would ensure the overall coordination and would be responsible for monitoring of environmental safeguard issues. Five Assistant Engineers would be responsible for coordination and reporting of environmental safeguard issues and each would be assigned 2 regions. The Assistant Engineer at Regional Office would act as the Environmental Focal Point and be responsible for coordinating environmental activities at field level. The Upazila Assistant Engineer/Sub-Assistant Engineers will be responsible for carrying out the screening and preparing subproject specific EMP. The Upazila Engineer will review the screening report and EMP through field visit. The Upazila Engineer will also be responsible for supervision and monitoring of environmental mitigation activities at Upazila level. The Assistant Engineer at Regional Office will review at least 25% of the screening and EMP reports and implementation of EMP at field level. If IEE is required, it will be the responsibility of the Assistant Engineer at the Regional Office. The Executive Engineer at Regional Office will review all IEE and monitor the implementation of EMP. The Assistant Engineer at Headquarters will ensure quality control and reporting at the regional level. The Environmental Specialist will prepare training materials; conduct staff training; prepare screening, Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) report and Site-specific Environmental Management Plan (EMP) on sample basis; review a certain percentage of the EMPs; and prepare the Annual Environmental Monitoring Reports of the PEDP3. In case of DPHE, a team under the leadership of a Superintending Engineer at the HQ is coordinating the activities under PEDP 3. The unit is also staffed with experienced civil engineers and adequate number of other qualified manpower. At field level under the supervision of a Superintending Engineer in Divisional Head Quarter, an Executive Engineer in every DPHE District office supported by Assistant Engineers, Sub-assistant Engineers, Estimators, and Draftsman execute the project works of installation of water sources and WASH Block. In every Upazila DPHE has a full official set up of thirteen staffs comprising 1 diploma engineer, 4 Mechanics/Work Assistant, 4 VS masons, 2 MLSS, 1 computer operator headed by a graduate civil engineer. The Assistant Engineer at Upazila level primarily undertakes the environmental screening of the works with the help of the Sub-Assistant Engineers. The Executive Engineer at District level verify the reports and send those to the HQ where a consultant with the help of the DPHE Engineers working at HQ prepare the compiled report. In addition, DPE will hire the consultant services to monitor at least 1% of the infrastructure implemented by the LGED and DPHE. The monitoring will include the environmental performance of the subprojects. The development partner(s) in consultation with DPE may also assign a firm/institute as third party monitoring of the physical progress, construction quality, and environmental safeguard and operation status of the infrastructures. The Program will support environmental monitoring to ensure that envisaged purpose of the program is achieved and result in desired benefits without adversely affecting environmental resources. The monitoring activities of PEDP 3will include the compliance of the environmental management plan implementation. In general, the consultant will monitor the following indicators during field visit as spot check and the related mitigation measures: (i) losses of agricultural lands; (ii) drainage congestion/water logging; (iii) surface water pollution; (iv) dust and noise pollution; (v) safe distance between tube-wells and sanitary latrines; (vii) occupational health hazards and safety practices; (viii) maintenance of water supply and sanitation facilities (ix) maintenance of air and water quality, (x) management of surrounding ecosystem and biodiversity (if any) etc. DPE has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Department of the Public Health Engineering (DPHE) for construction of WASH Block and annual water quality monitoring. DPHE/LGED should ensure that schools have a provision of septic tanks and infiltration gallery (soak pit) and program activities do not infringe upon natural ecosystems during the design stage. DPE will provide all the tube-wells information and field test kits to the DPHE Research and Development (R&D) Division. DPHE will coordinate and Page 289

313 implement the testing through its field office and prepare the analytical report. DPHE will also carry out 5% quality check in their zonal laboratories. Capacity building at different levels is necessary in order to implement the EMF successfully. The suggested capacity building measures, for example include: (i) providing environmental competency/human-resources, (ii) training, orientation and awareness activities on environmental planning and management of school and school-facilities, and (iii) mechanisms for coordination and for accessing specific environmental services e.g. water-quality testing, climate resilient school building construction etc. In consideration of increasing workload envisaged for implementation of the EMF and the nonexistence of environmental competency at center, LGED have engaged a full-time Environmental Specialist at Education Unit to look after and monitor the EMF activities for PEDP3. The Specialist will be responsible for implementation of the EMF and its provisions, including compliance checking, facilitation, coordination and ensuring dissemination, orientations and capacity buildings activities. Additional human resources or an agency will be hired/engaged, if necessary, in order to effectively implement the EMF. On behalf of DPE, a consultant carried out the field visit of the existing PEDP II project sites. The consultant reviewed the existing documents in field, school conditions, and water supply and sanitation facilities, discussed with all relevant stakeholders and took their opinion how to improve the environmental practices in primary education program and to integrate environmental concerns to improve the sustainability of the program interventions. Moreover, recent field visit by the World Bank consultant also revealed some issues relating to environmental safeguard of the program interventions. This revised EMF includes the recommendations from these local level consultations and field visit observations. The finalized EMF will be disclosed by the DPE and LGED in their website for public comments within 3 days of notice published in the 2 daily national newspapers (one English and another Bangla). Page 29

314 PROJECT BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION Background 22. The proposed Additional Financing (AF) for Primary Education Development Program III (PEDP3) is the follow-on phase of Primary Education Development Program II & III, the government effort to provide quality education to all Bangladeshi children in every classroom. An Additional Financing now is being contemplated to supplement the financial gap that is felt primarily due to price escalation and also due to revision of the scope of the program to meet the emerging needs. There is an increased focus on results in this new phase. The program, which started in July 211, will be implemented over a three-to-six year period with the support of a number of development partners including the Asian Development Bank(ADB), the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT, the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD, Department for International Development of the United Kingdom (DFID), European Commission (EC), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the Netherlands Government, Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank/International Development Association (WB/IDA). 1. The operation uses a sector-wide approach (SWAP) to support the implementation of the government s program for primary education. Credit disbursements will be made against selected key education budget line items referred to as Eligible Expenditure Programs (EEPs) up to capped absolute amounts. The event and amount of credit disbursements will be based on the achievement of pre-specified and agreed results referred to as disbursement-linked indicators (DLIs), determined in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) and other Development Partners (DPs). 3. The development objectives of the proposed PEDP 3are to: (i) increase the number of children enrolled in and completing primary education; (ii) reduce social and regional disparities; and (iii) improve the measurement of student learning and the quality of the teaching/learning environment. Quality and child-friendly infrastructure (including clean toilets and arsenic free tube-wells, climate resilient and environment friendly school building) will contribute to achieve overall objective of the PEDP 3by adopting appropriate planning and innovative designs. Particular attention will be put in case of construction of school building in vulnerable geographic location (e.g. coastal areas, hilly areas, floodplain, etc.). The infrastructure located in the climate vulnerable areas will be considered for climate proofing and disaster resilient. The Program Development Objective of the proposed Additional Financing (AF) will remain unchanged from the original program and will continue to support the above activities. 4. The Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) is implementing the overall program and the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) and Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) have been assigned to implement the infrastructure development activities. The selection of school for construction of infrastructure is being done primarily based on a need assessment carried out during the PEDP 3preparation. The need assessed earlier is being verified at the field level before undertaking any construction work to see whether that is still required. Moreover, it has been decided that the list would be a live list to take care of the emergency requirements especially due to various natural calamities. It has been agreed that a total of 393 additional class rooms would be provided as and where required to reduce overcrowding of the class rooms. The selection would be needs based on some agreed need assessment and prioritization criteria. The revised financial requirement is estimated at BDT 1,655, (USD 21,217) per room. The remaining life of the classrooms will be considered when selecting such rooms for maintenance. All of the school building will be designed in such a way (e.g. green building) so that it could serve for well ventilation for providing healthy environment and also for allowing maximum daylight for energy conservation. Since coastal areas are vulnerable to cyclone and storm surge, special emphasis will be given for repair and maintenance of school affected by disaster and other extreme climate events. The PEDP 3intends to ensure that every school has at least one safe drinking water source, which is either a tube-well, a piped water Page 291

315 supply or any other alternative sources. The source will be free from arsenic or any other microbial contamination. The program also intends to provide adequate sanitation for teachers, girls and boys students. Through several consultations, the following standards are recommended for PEDP3: (i) Teacher toilets at least one (two if there are over 3 teachers); (ii) Girls toilet 1:5 (between the national standard of 35-75); (iii) Boys WCs 1:75 and (iv) Boys urinals 1:6 (double the national and international standards). However, it was later decided that WASH Blocks with hand washing facilities would be provided instead of standalone toilets. The Male WASH block will have three toilets (one for the disabled), two urinals, one wash basin and foot washing facility. This will be used both by the boys and male teachers. The female WAHS Block on the other hand will have similar facilities except the urinals. The assessed need of toilets during the project preparation is being served as the basis to find out the number of WASH Blocks to be constructed. It has been decided that 18,5 WASH Blocks would be constructed as per the need assessment of which around 3% would be for male and 7% would be for female. 5. Apart from school building/class room, water points and WASH Blocks, PEDP 3 also funds a couple of other construction, renovation and expansion of infrastructure which include renovation/expansion of PTIs, construction of Upazila Resouce Center (URC) and expansion of office of the District Primary Education Officer and Upazila Primary Education Officer which are all small scale construction work. PEPD-III also would support construction of DPE HQ at Dhaka and a leadership Centre at Cox s Bazar. Detail design of these buildings has not yet been finalized. It has been confirmed that none of these construction would require land acquisition. However, as these buildings might be multi-storied building, an environmental assessment should be done to ensure environmental safeguard associated with their design and construction and will be cleared by the DPs before awarding the contract. A TOR for such an environmental assessment is attached as Annex-F of this EMF. 6. The Directorate of Primary Education (DPE), in consultation with the Department of Environment and other relevant stakeholders, has prepared this Revised Environmental Management Framework (EMF) to support the implementing partners (Local Government Engineering Division and Department of Public Health Engineering) of the programs to manage potential environmental issues that may arise during implementation of the subprojects. The EMF will be applicable for all subprojects and/or components to be considered under the PEDP 3AF. About EMF 7. Projects and programs financed with IDA resources must comply with the World Bank Operational Policies. Therefore, program components eligible for funding under the PEDP 3will be required to satisfy the World Bank and ADB's safeguard policies, in addition to conformity with relevant legislation of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB). The other development partners also have their own policies to safeguard the environment in their project planning, implementation and operation. These policies will also be considered to comply with environmental safeguard issue. 8. The types of subprojects to be funded under PEDP 3have been identified at the program design phase. However, specific locations of subprojects will only be identified at the field level during implementation phase. Therefore, it is not possible to identify the subproject and/or components specific environmental issues upfront during program design and appraisal stage. 9. This EMF provides general policies, guidelines, and procedures to be integrated into the implementation of all subprojects under the PEDP3. In preparing this document, relevant environment safeguard practices and compliance (especially the experience of PEDPI and PEDP II) were reviewed. This review included field visits, multi-level consultations, qualitative and quantitative assessments of environmental safeguard compliance processes, a rapid capacity assessment of the implementing agency and its field level staff from environmental safeguard perspective etc. The EMF addresses the environmental related impacts as well as the occupational health and safety issues in the PEDP3. However, the EMF does not explain the Page 292

316 general process of infrastructure planning, implementation, quality control and monitoring. These will be described in the Operational Manual for infrastructure development. OBJECTIVES OF THE EMF 1. The purpose of this Environmental Management Framework (EMF) is to ensure that neither the infrastructure (both in terms of needs and quality) at primary schools nor the environment is compromised through the program intervention. The EMF will contribute the goal of attaining environmental sustainability by: 11. enhancing environmental outcomes of the activities implemented under individual subprojects ; preventing and/or mitigating any negative environmental impact that may emerge from the subprojects ; ensuring the long-term sustainability of benefits from subprojects by securing the natural resource base on which they are dependent; and facilitating pro-active subprojects that can be expected to lead to increased efficiency and improved management in the use of natural resources resulting in improvements in local environmental quality and human well-being. More specifically the objectives of the EMF are: To outline a framework for environmental screening procedures and methodologies for the subprojects to be financed under the program; and To specify appropriate roles and responsibilities to carryout environmental screening/assessment, environmental management (mitigation, monitoring and compensation) and reporting related to subprojects. 12. This will also cover institutional/organizational needs of the implementing agency in executing the recommendations to mitigate any possible environmental negative impacts and other climate induced impacts. 13. As agreed with the Government of Bangladesh and involved Development Partners, a common harmonized EMF is prepared where inputs from the government and DPs were incorporated. This common and harmonized EMF will be followed during the implementation of sub-project activities. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION General Description 14. The program proposes to provide technical and financial support to consolidate achievements under PEDP II and to further improve quality, equitable access and efficiency in primary education through a sector wide approach. Specifically, the program will assist the Government of Bangladesh to: (i) increase the number of children enrolled in and completing primary education; (ii) reduce social and regional disparities; and (iii) improve the measurement of student learning and the quality of the teaching/learning environment. 15. Success in meeting these objectives would be measured by outcome indicators including the following: 1. Increased net enrollment 2. Increased completion rates 3. Improved support for the teaching/learning environment 4. Improved measurement of student learning 5. Reduction in regional disparities for disadvantaged children in access to education Page 293

317 16. The PEDP 3will build on the previous phase s (PEDP II) experience with a greater focus on results. IDA, jointly with other major Development Partners, will continue to support a sectorwide approach but will identify a selected number of areas where achievements would condition the timing and amount of disbursements. It will provide a mix of financial and technical support aimed at improving impact and efficiency of resource use. Due consideration will be given to the use of environment friendly construction materials and recyclable education materials. Component Description 17. The PEDP3 is envisaged as results-based investment lending support to the Government of Bangladesh s primary education sector. Implemented by the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE), disbursements to the program will be made against a set of results, which aim at improving accountability and transparency. Achievements of the indicators will be required for reimbursement against the selected eligible expenditure programs (EEPs). The four key program areas are: Increase Access and Reduce Social and Regional Disparities To improve access to primary education, PEDP3 would support the following, with a particular focus on measures to increase participation of the poorest and most disadvantaged children: (i) provision of one year of pre-primary education to a growing proportion of children; (ii) improved physical facilities (i.e. additional classrooms to reduce classroom overcrowding, toilets and tube wells with arsenic free/safe water, climate resilient school building) ; (iii) coordination and implementation of a school health and nutrition program with schools and their communities, including school feeding and health screenings in selected areas; (iv) implementation of a revamped stipend program with improvements in administration and pro-poor targeting; (v) development and implementation of action plans for mainstreaming disadvantaged children as well as (vi) closer coordination of alternative primary education opportunities with education service delivery in the formal public sector. Quality of Teaching and Student Learning To improve the teaching and learning environment PEDP 3 would support: (i) the revision of the curricula for Grades 1-5 to center it around student learning competencies; (ii) timely delivery of free textbooks to all schools and improving the quality of textbooks; (iii) the development, approval and gradual implementation of a teacher education and professional development program with built-in quality assurance of training; (iv) the establishment of a transparent and effective examination and assessment system ; (v) establishment and piloting of active learning methods and teacher support networks in selected Upazilas; and (vi) various pilot initiatives to expand the use of information and communications technology in primary schools. Institutional Strengthening To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education service delivery at central and decentralized levels, including schools, PEDP3 supports: (i) establishment of guidelines for decentralized school-based management and the provision of school grants; (ii) application of needs-based and merit-based procedures for the recruitment and deployment of teachers and head teachers, and a performance-linked incentive program for teachers; (iii) improved delivery of teacher education programs through strengthening the capacity of PTIs by filling staff vacancies, establishing instructor career paths, and providing professional development; (iv) strengthened institutional capability to manage education service delivery through the development and implementation of a human resource management plan to define career paths, fill staff vacancies and strengthen DPE particularly through capacity building at the Upazila level; (v) provision of new and upgraded facilities for the Directorate of Primary Education which are aligned with increased filling of vacancies and expanded work program, including at the field level; and (vi) alignment of all primary education service providers to support a more unified primary education system. Page 294

318 Program Planning and Management - To improve education sector management and policy development, including strengthening monitoring and evaluation, PEDP3 would support: (i) improving fiscal sustainability and effectiveness of public expenditures for education through improved education budget preparation; (ii) strengthening monitoring and evaluation systems to improve data use for performance and planning based on evidence; (iii) improving the timeliness, quality and coverage of the annual school census; (iv) moving towards an integrated comprehensive framework to include school standards for all categories of primary schools in the country; (v) increasing enrolment and interest in supporting children s education through a communication s strategy; and (viii) increasing public-private partnerships to deliver educational services. Program Areas 18. The PEDP 3will be implemented all over Bangladesh. However, the schools will be selected and prioritized based on the certain parameters. Through several consultations, the followings are the agreed parameters for need assessment and prioritization: While schools may run in double shift, none should be overcrowded Minimum 3 classrooms with one teachers room in a school Classroom/student ratio 1:4 with flexibility of overcrowding up to 4% Number of teachers - at least 4 per school Number of teachers toilets common with boys and girls toilets Number of girls WC-cum- urinal :one for every 5 girls Number of boy WC : one for every 75 boys Number of boys urinal : one for every 6 boys At least one source of drinking water (DW) tap water supply or tube well. Boys and girls toilets to be given separately and proportionately. One school for habitations having catchments of 2 and no school within 2 km 2 The following criteria have been adopted for ranking the infrastructure needs under PEDP 3. Order of prioritization: Additional classrooms 1) Additional class 2) Additional teachers 3) Teachers' room 4) Replace kacha 5) Number of students Order of prioritization: Repair & maintenance 1) Major repair 2) Minor repair 3) Number of students Order of prioritization: Toilets 1) Girls' WC 2) Girls' enrolment 3) Boys' WC 4) Urinals Order of prioritization: Drinking Water 1) Proposed water 2) Girls' enrolment 3) Number of students Page 295

319 The special zones have not been prioritized. If a school is in a special zone, it has been tagged with the zone type so that special attention could be given. Proposed changes under Additional Financing 19. Although additional activities would be brought about under the AF as a result of deepening reforms related to quality enhancement and equity targeting, and extending universal coverage of interventions to the nationalized RNGPS, there would be no major changes in terms of type of infrastructure. A restructuring of the original Credit is proposed in light of implementation experience to date, to: (i) amend Year-3 targets for three DLIs (Teacher Education and Professional Development, Needs-based Infrastructure Development, and Teacher Recruitment and Deployment); (ii) eliminate the 18-month limit for achieving DLIs; (iii) utilize the funds that could not be disbursed for the Year- DLIs, and (iv) change the estimated DLI disbursement schedule from an annual to a bi-annual basis. Outcome indicators, intermediate outcome indicators, and their targets would be revised to reflect scaled-up and expanded program interventions to be carried out by the proposed new closing date of June 3, 218. Further clarity would be provided on indicator definitions, data sources and frequency of data availability, and additional indicators related to the proposed activities for Years 4-6 of the project will be included, consistent with conclusions of the MTR. While it is proposed to continue the practice of allocating equal (disbursement) value to each DLI, the level of financing per DLI would increase for the Year-4 to Year-6 DLIs because their milestones are more complex and challenging than the Year- to Year-3 milestones. The emphases going forward which principally motivate the proposed AF and restructuring are briefly summarized below by each Part of the project. Part 1: The emphasis is on scaling up, from the foundation built to date, to implement a further set of reforms focused on improving quality, while extending project coverage to the newly nationalized RNGPS. There are serious cost implications, in terms of technical assistance, implementation, and monitoring. Priorities are to: Expand the scope of coverage of the higher standards for teacher qualifications (i.e. DPEd), while setting foundations for institutionalization, accreditation and conversion of the program from an in-service to the premier pre-service program for primary teachers in the country; Mainstream the system s proactive accountability for each child s learning by increasing and institutionalizing channels for using the ECL approach and materials; Disseminate and consolidate applying the modernized curriculum which also involves revised textbooks and exams; and Use ICT more extensively to support broader and more effective coverage of training and other development initiatives across the primary education sector. Part 2: The emphasis is more effectively to target mechanisms focused on the remaining, hardest-to-reach population groups, to enroll and retain children in school. Priorities are to boost completion rates and learning outcomes of disadvantaged children by ensuring good quality, targeted Pre-Primary Education reaches them, to infuse school improvement planning with a much stronger results focus, and link policy and activities vis-à-vis Second Chance Education directly and more strategically to the national education policy goals to universalize primary education. For more transparent and effective identification of prioritized sites for needs-based infrastructure, the need list is being converted to a live database, and results of efficiency gains analysis must feed into decisions on options for construction design. Part 3: The emphasis is on continued system strengthening. The major initiatives of the project are evolving in a complex system of over 1, schools, 45, teachers, and 19 million students. The proposed AF and extension of the ongoing project would deepen the development impact of its focus on inclusiveness and quality of primary education by allowing MoPME and Page 296

320 DPE adequate time and more resources to consolidate gains and promote synergies between the numerous interventions PEDP3 introduces on many fronts simultaneously. Under the AF, the project will also contribute to GoB s strategic thinking and systemic planning for implementing the National Education Policy intentions to extend primary education beyond Grade 5. Priorities are to: Build on improvements to date in data collection and analysis (inter alia, improving the tools for Annual School Census, Annual Sector Performance Report, Education Household Survey, National Student Assessment) and the use of data for evidence-based policy decision making at all levels of the system; Garner evidence from the use of SLIP and UPEP funds, in order to guide and support decentralized management and governance, also tackling emerging concerns such as low teacherstudent contact hours; Examine lessons from existing public-private partnerships and bring these to greater use in primary education, especially for pre-primary and second chance education. Types of Infrastructure supported under PEDP 3I and related safeguard issues 2. Under PEDP 3, additional class rooms would be constructed to reduce overcrowding in the class rooms. These are basically of two types, vertical extension and horizontal extension. The architectural plan of the vertical extension is determined by the architectural plan of the existing buildings. In such case, capacity assessment of the foundation of the existing building is extremely important to find out the feasibility of a vertical extension. It is to be noted that in most of the cases, design of the existing buildings are not available. Hence field examinations remain the only available option to determine such suitability. The agency responsible for construction of such class rooms should apply their professional judgment after following all acceptable testing procedures in determining such capacity. In case of horizontal extension, LGED has approved typical architectural design as shown in Annex-K. In case of horizontal extension, the placement of the new infrastructure is very important to maintain a good school environment especially in the backdrop of land scarcity in a densely populated country like Bangladesh. It should also be kept in mind that the schools are not only buildings but they are a combination of many items such as a playground which offer learning opportunities. So it is highly recommended that the possibility of vertical extension should be explored first so that land can be made available for a playground. Only if that seems to be unfeasible, a horizontal extension can be considered. As DPHE is constructing the WASH blocks in the same school campus in many schools, coordination among the two agencies is extremely important. LGED is constructing school cum cyclone shelters in the cyclone prone areas and school cum flood shelters in the flood prone areas. In such cases, the ground floor of the school is kept open and the class rooms are built at the 1st floor. The ground floor of such buildings is used for various community activities during the normal time. However, the adequate number of toilet and source of drinking water should be carefully designed so that these can meet the demand during the peak use. As most of such schools are located in the saline prone areas where drinking water is already a problem, use of rainwater harvesting should be considered in many such schools. In many cases the old, unusable and abandoned school buildings need demolition before commencement of construction of new classrooms. Such demolition work should be carefully planned and implemented. PEDP3 is also supporting construction and maintenance of WASH Blocks. In the original plan, standalone toilets and urinals were planned. But later on, WASH Blocks were introduced to include the hand washing facilities. In the present design, male WASH Block consists of a three toilet compartments, two having English Pan and one having Commode to be used by the disable children. There is also a basin for hand washing, a foot washing facility and two urinals. The female WASH Blocks also have similar features except the urinals. Design of such WASH Blocks has been shown in Annex-L. The effluents from the WASH Blocks are being collected in Page 297

321 leach pits which allow perculation of the effluent to the ground. Extra care should be undertaken where such pits would be put in a high water table area. Provision of installation of source of drinking water in the form of shallow tube wells, deep tube wells and other alternatives sources are also included in the program. All the tube wells installed under the program are tested for arsenic. DPHE laboratory unit undertakes these testing of the 1% new tube wells installed under the program. If arsenic is found, alternative sources are considered in those cases. Some schools are also planned in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region where special designs are being prepared considering the norms and culture of the local people, difficulties in carrying construction material in some of the high and remoter locations and availability of suitable locally available construction materials. Apart from construction of additional class rooms, WASH Blocks and water points, PEDP 3 would also support the extension of the Head Quarter Building of Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) and a Leadership Center at Cox s Bazar. Both the buildings are supposed be multistoried building one within the campus of the present DPE HQ which is located at Section2, Mirpur, Dhaka and the other one within the campus of the office of District Primary Education Officer, Cox s Bazar. The design of the buildings has not yet been finalized. It appears from a preliminary site visit as shown in Annex-I & J that location wise there are no major environmental concerns. However, as they would be multistoried buildings, an Environmental Assessment should be undertaken before commencement of the work to take care of some of the issues usually associated with the construction of a multistoried building such as management of solid and liquid waste and its implication on the existing utility system of city corporation which are in place, impact on traffic congestions, safety issues like fire and earthquake hazard and provision for evacuation etc. RELEVANT GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK General Description 21. A wide range of laws and regulations related to environmental issues are in place in Bangladesh. Many of these are cross-sectoral and several of them are directly related to environmental issues. The most important of these are the Environment Conservation Act, 1995 (ECA, 1995), and the Environment Conservation Rules (ECR, 1997). The ECA 1995 is primarily an instrument for establishing the Department of Environment (DOE), and for controlling industrial and project related pollution. The Act also defines in general terms that if any particular activity is causing damage to the ecosystem, the responsible party will have to apply corrective measures. Until the appearance of ECR, 1997, enforcement of the Act was not possible, as many of the clauses refer to specifications detailed in the Rules. 22. In addition to the Environmental Conservation Act and Rules, there are a number of other policies, plans and strategies which deal with the water sector, agricultural development, coastal area, protected area disaster management and climate change. These are the National Water Policy, 1999; the Forest Act 1927 (last modified 3th April 2); National Forest Policy, 1994; the National Conservation Strategy1992;; National Environmental Management Action Plan (NEMAP), 1995; Coastal Zone Policy, 25; Coastal Development Strategy, 26; National Agricultural Policy, 1999; National Fisheries Policy, 1996; National Livestock Development Policy, 27; Standing Orders on Disaster, 1999 (revised in 21); Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, 29; National Plan for Disaster Management, Some of these policies and legislations are described in this chapter for reference. The Bangladesh National Building Code, 26 and Bangladesh Labor Act, 26 will also be important regarding the occupational health and safety of workers and laborers to be involved in the Project s infrastructure development. Page 298

322 Relevant Policies and Legislation Environment Conservation Act The national environmental legislation known as Environmental Conservation Act, 1995 (ECA'95) is currently the main legislative document relating to environmental protection in Bangladesh, which replaced the earlier environment pollution control ordinance of 1992 and has been promulgated in Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997 (ECR 97). This Act is amended in 2 and 22. The main objectives of ECA 95 are: i) conservation of the natural environment and improvement of environmental standards; and ii) control and mitigation of environmental pollution. 24. The main strategies of the act can be summarized as: Declaration of ecologically critical areas, and restriction on the operation and process, which can be continued or cannot be initiated in the ecologically critical areas Regulation with respect to vehicles emitting smoke harmful to the environment Environmental clearances Remedial measures for injuries to ecosystems Regulation of projects and other development activities Promulgation of standards for quality of air, water, noise and soil for different areas for various purposes Promulgation of standard limit for discharging and emitting waste Formulation and declaration of environmental guidelines 25. Department of Environment (DOE) implements the Act. DOE is under the Ministry of Environment and Forest and is headed by a Director General (DG). The DG has complete control over the DOE. The power of DG, as given in the Act, may be outlined as follows: - The DG has the power to shut down any activities considered harmful to human life or the environment. The operator has the right to appeal and procedures exist for this purpose. However, if the incident is considered an emergency, there is no opportunity for appeal. - The DG has the power to declare an area affected by pollution as an ecologically critical area. DOE governs the type of work or activities that can take place in such an area. - Before beginning new development project, the project proponent must obtain Environmental Clearance from DOE. The procedures to obtain such clearance are in place. - Failure to comply with any part of ECA'95 may result in punishment by a maximum of 1 years imprisonment or a maximum fine of BDT. 1, or both. Environmental Conservation Rules The Environment Conservation Rules provide a first set of rules under the Environment Conservation Act, This rule is further amended in 22 and 23. These provide, amongst others items, standards and guidelines for: Categorization of industries and development projects, including roads and bridges on the basis of actual and anticipated pollution load Requirement for undertaking Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as well as formulating an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) according to categories of industries/development projects/activities Procedure for obtaining environmental clearance Page 299

323 Environmental quality standards for air, surface water, groundwater, drinking water, industrial effluents, emissions, noise and vehicular exhaust 27. The Rules incorporate "inclusion lists" of projects requiring varying degrees of environmental investigation. The Government is also empowered to specify which activities are permissible and which restricted in the ecologically critical area. Under this mandate, MOEF has declared Sunderban, Cox's Bazar-Tekhnaf Sea Shore, Saint Martin Island, Sonadia Island, Hakaluki Haor, Yanguar Haor, Marzat Baor and Gulshan-Baridhara Lake as ecologically critical areas and accordingly has prohibited certain activities in those areas. 28. Under the Environmental Conservation Rules (1997) a classification system was established for development projects and industries on basis of the location, the size and the severity of potential pollution. It classifies industrial units and projects into four categories for the purpose of issuance of Environmental Clearance Certificate (ECC). These categories are: (i) Green (ii) Orange A (iii) Orange B, and (iv) Red 29. Green Category projects are considered relatively pollution-free and hence do not require initial environmental examination (IEE) and EIA. An environment clearance certificate (ECC) from the Department of Environment (DoE) is adequate for a project that fall into the Green category. Orange Category projects fall into two categories. Orange A projects are required to submit general information, a feasibility report, a process flow diagram and schematic diagrams of waste treatment facilities along with their application for obtaining DOE environmental clearance. Orange B projects are required to submit an Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) report, along with their application and the information and papers specified for Orange B projects. Red Category projects are those which may cause significant adverse environmental impacts and are, therefore, required to submit an EIA report. It should be noted that they may obtain an initial site clearance on the basis of an IEE report, and subsequently submit an EIA report for obtaining environmental clearance along with other necessary papers, such as feasibility study reports and no objections from local authorities. The DoE has recently developed IEE and EMP checklists in order to simplify the preparation of conventional and voluminous IEE and EMP reports that may contain irrelevant and unnecessary information. 3. As per ECR 97 all existing and new industries and projects in Orange B and Red category require an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to be prepared (after conducting an IEE or EIA) and submitted along with other necessary papers while applying for environmental clearance. National Water Policy The National Water Policy was promulgated in 1999 with the intention of guiding both public and private actions to ensure optimal development and management of water in order to benefit both individuals and the society at large. The policy aims to ensure progress towards fulfilling national goals of economic development, poverty alleviation, food security, public health and safety, a decent standard of living for the people and protection of the natural environment. According to the policy, all agencies and departments entrusted with water resource management responsibilities (regulation, planning, construction, operation and maintenance) will have to enhance environmental amenities and ensure that environmental resources are protected and restored while executing their activities. Environmental needs and objectives will be treated equally with the resources management needs. The policy has several clauses related to the protection and conservation of the natural environment to ensure sustainable development. Page 3

324 National Safe Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Policy The National Safe Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Policy (NSDWSSP, 1998) was adopted in 1998, and sets out the basic framework for the improvement of public health quality and to ensure an improved environment, together with a set of broad sectoral action guidelines. The policy offered the following various objectives to achieve the goal: To manage water supply and sanitation related basic needs for all To bring about a positive change of peoples attitude towards water and sanitation To reduce the outbreak of water-borne diseases To increase the efficiency of the Local Government and associated communities for handling the problems related to water supply and sanitation more effectively To improve and make the water supply and sanitation system more sustainable To promote proper conservation, management and use of surface water and to control water pollution in light of the scarcity of groundwater To take necessary steps to capture and use rain water 33. Ensuring the installation of one sanitary latrine in each household in the rural areas and improving public health standard through inculcating the habit of proper use of sanitary latrines is mentioned as one of the objectives. About urban sanitation, the policy objective is to ensure sanitary latrine within easy access of every urban household through technology options ranging from pit latrines to water borne sewerage. Installing public latrines in schools, bus stations and important public places and community latrines in densely populated poor communities without sufficient space for individual household latrines is also emphasized. National Policy for Arsenic Mitigation The policy provides a guideline for mitigating the affect of arsenic on people and environment in a holistic and sustainable way. This policy also supplements the National Water Policy 1998, National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation 1998 in fulfilling the national goals of poverty alleviation, public health and food security. Policy statement includes: access to safe water for drinking and cooking shall be ensured through implementation of alternative water supply options in all arsenic affected areas. All arsenicosis cases shall be diagnosed and brought under an effective management system. Impact of arsenic on agricultural environment shall be assessed and addressed. This policy gives preference to surface water over groundwater. The policy has set the target of providing arsenic free water by 21 in the worst affected communities. National Sanitation Strategy The goal of National Sanitation Strategy 25 was to achieve 1% sanitation coverage by 21. The strategy aims to delineate the ways and means of achieving the national target through providing a uniform guideline for all concerned. It defines 1% sanitation at the very least, the term 1% sanitation will mean to include all of the followings: (i) no open defecation; (ii) hygienic latrines available to all; (iii) use of hygienic latrines by all; (iv) proper maintenance of latrines for continual use, and (v) improved hygiene practice. The strategy also defines the Hygiene Latrine - A hygiene latrine would mean to include all of the following: (i) confinement of feces away from the environment; (ii) sealing of that passage between the squat hole and the pit to effectively block the pathways for flies and other insect vectors thereby breaking the cycle of disease transmission, and (iii) venting out foul gases generated in the pit through a properly positioned vent pipe to keep the latrine odor free and encourage continual use of the hygiene latrine. The key suggested strategies for sanitation improvement include: (i) creating effective demand through health education and hygiene promotion; (ii) ensuring individual and community actions; (iii) activating local government institutions to play the key role for improving sanitation coverage; (iv) facilitating adequate supply chain of hygiene latrines ; (v) reaching the hardcore poor; (vi) improvement in urban sanitation; (vii) media Page 31

325 campaign; (viii) strategies for sustainability; (ix) financing for sanitation programs; (x) monitoring and evaluation; and (xi) emergency response. National Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP) NEMAP is an environmental planning exercise initiated by the government through the MoEF following the commitments made under Agenda 21 at UNCED in Rio de Janeiro in June The key element that distinguishes the NEMAP from the NCS is the commitment to full participation of the population at large interest groups, resource users and environmental stockholders, NEMAP identified the key environmental concerns to Bangladesh and provided an action plan to halt or reduce the rate of environmental degradation, improve the natural and manmade environment, conserve habitats and biodiversity, promoting sustainable development and improving quality indicators of human life. NEMAP has prioritized 57 actions on the environmental front and the government is in the process of creating a second-order priority list for immediate implementation. NEMAP outlines an Action Plan not only for the government, but for the community, the society and suggest what each and every citizen can do to protect the environment. The management actions considered in NEMAP are all essential to the sustainable development and environmental protection of the natural and human resources of Bangladesh. For the purpose of management, implementation, acquiring dedicated funds and enabling all different agencies to initiate or implement their own programs singly or in combination of agencies, all the action have been grouped under four heads: institutional, sectoral, location specific and long-term issues. Sectoral issues are: Health and Sanitation, Forest, Biodiversity, Natural Hazards, Education and Awareness, Industry, Water, Agriculture, Energy, Fisheries, Land, Housing and Transport, etc. Bangladesh National Building Code 26 Demolition of Structure (3.1.11a) 37. BNBC sets guideline for demolition of structure. The highlight of the guideline are as follows: At planning stage, detailed survey and study shall be carried out before demolishing the structure. A written notice will be delivered to the adjoining property holder. Required pedestrian precaution should be taken into account before commencing the demolition All utility lines will be disconnected and the sequence of demolition will be maintained as mentioned in the BNBC The owner will provide compensation for all damages and loss of life. Occupational Health and Safety (3.1.11b) 38. Part-7, Chapter -1 of the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) clearly sets out the constructional responsibilities according to which the relevant authority of a particular construction site shall adopt some precautionary measures to ensure the safety of the workmen. According to section of Chapter 1 of part 7, In a construction or demolition work, the terms of contract between the owner and the contractor and between a consultant and the owner shall be clearly defined and put in writing. These however will not absolve the owner from any of his responsibilities under the various provisions of this Code and other applicable regulations and bye-laws. The terms of contract between the owner and the contractor will determine the responsibilities and liabilities of either party in the concerned matters, within the provisions of the relevant Acts and Codes (e.g.) the Employers' Liability Act, 1938, the Factories Act 1965, the Fatal Accident Act, 1955 and Workmen's Compensation Act (After the introduction of the Bangladesh Labor Act, 26, these Acts have been repealed). Page 32

326 39. Section of chapter-1, part-7 of the BNBC, states the general duties of the employer to the public as well as workers. According to this section, All equipment and safeguards required for the construction work such as temporary stair, ladder, ramp, scaffold, hoist, run way, barricade, chute, lift etc. shall be substantially constructed and erected so as not to create any unsafe situation for the workmen using them or the workmen and general public passing under, on or near them. 4. Part-7, Chapter-3 of the Code has clarified the issue of safety of workmen during construction and with relation to this, set out the details about the different safety tools of specified standard. In relation with the health hazards of the workers during construction, this chapter describes the nature of the different health hazards that normally occur in the site during construction and at the same time specifies the specific measures to be taken to prevent such health hazards. According to this chapter, exhaust ventilation, use of protective devices, medical checkups etc. are the measures to be taken by the particular employer to ensure a healthy workplace for the workers. 41. To prevent workers falling from heights, the Code in section to of Chapter 3 of part 7 sets out the detailed requirements on the formation and use of scaffolding. According to section of the same chapter, every temporary floor openings shall either have railing of at least 9 mm height or shall be constantly attended. Every floor hole shall be guarded by either a railing with toe board or a hinged cover. Alternatively, the hole may be constantly attended or protected by a removable railing. Every stairway floor opening shall be guarded by railing at least 9 mm high on the exposed sides except at entrance to stairway. Every ladder way floor opening or platform shall be guarded by a guard railing with toe board except at entrance to opening. Every open sided floor or platform 1.2 meters or more above adjacent ground level shall be guarded by a railing on all open sides except where there is entrance to ramp, stairway or fixed ladder the above precautions shall also be taken near the open edges of the floors and the roofs. 42. The major challenge is the proper implementation of the Code as section 2.1 of Chapter 2 of part 1 duly states that, The Government shall establish a new or designate an existing agency responsible for the enforcement of this Code with a given area of jurisdiction. For the purpose of administering and enforcing the provisions of the Code, the enforcing agency shall have the authority of the Government and shall herein be referred to as the Authority. 43. Part 9, states that if the land is changed and the occupants of the area are against the change, no change in use of an existing building will be allowed. 44. Section of Part 9 clearly states, Additions to existing building shall comply with all of the requirements of the BNBC for new constructions. The combined height and area of the existing building and the new addition shall not exceed the height and open space requirements for new building specified in Part 3 of the Code. Where a firewall that complies with Table of Part 3 is provided between the addition and the existing building, the addition shall be considered as a separate building. Page 33

327 Bangladesh Labor Act The Bangladesh Labor Act of 26 provides the guidance of employers extent of responsibility and workmen s extent of right to get compensation in case of injury by accident while working. Some of the relevant sections are: Section 15. Employer s Liability for Compensation: (1) If personal injury is caused to a workman by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment, his employer shall be liable to pay compensation in accordance with the provisions of this Act; and (2) Provided that the employer shall not be so liable - (a) in respect of any injury which does not result in the total or partial disablement of the workman for a period exceeding three days; (b) in respect of any injury, not resulting in death or permanent total disablement, caused by an accident which is directly attributable to - (i) the workman having been at the time thereof under the influence of drink or drugs, or (ii) the willful disobedience of the workman to an order expressly given, or to a rule expressly framed, for the purpose of securing the safety of workmen, or (iii) the willful removal or disregard by the workman of any safety guard or other device which he knew to have been provided for the purpose of securing the safety of workmen. Section 151. (1) Amount of Compensation: Subject to the provisions of this Act, the amount of compensation shall be as follows, namely: - (a) where death results an amount equal to fifty from the injury cent of the monthly wages of the deceased workman multiplied by the relevant factor; or an amount of fifty thousand rupees, whichever is more; (b) where permanent total an amount equal to disablement results from sixty the injury per cent of the monthly wages of the injured workman multiplied by the relevant factor, or an amount of sixty thousand rupees, whichever is more; and (2) On the ceasing of the disablement before the date on which any half-monthly payment falls due, there shall be payable in respect of that half-month a sum proportionate to the duration of the disablement in that half-month. Others: Standing Orders on Disaster 46. The 'Standing Orders on Disaster, 21' is a substantial improvement over the previous editions (English 1999 and Bangla 1887). New features introduced in this edition include, among others, the following: i) an outline of disaster management regulative framework, ii) an introduction of core groups for emergency response at various levels, iii) multi-agency disaster incident management system, iv) risk reduction roles and responsibilities for all committees and agencies, v) new outlines for local level plans, vi) revised storm warning signals, vii) a report on cyclone shelter design. Conceptually, this edition follows a comprehensive approach emphasizing risk reduction as well as emergency responses relating to all hazards and all sectors. Consequently, it has to be followed not only during disasters, but also at normal times. The Standing Order is designed to enhance capacity at all tiers of government administrative and social structures for coping with and recovering from disasters. The document contains guidelines for construction, management, maintenance and use of cyclone shelters. According to the guideline, geographical information system (GIS) technology will be applied at the planning stage to select the location of cyclone shelter considering habitation, communication facilities, distance from the nearest cyclone-center etc. The advice of the concerned District Committee is to be obtained before final decision. The cyclone shelters should have effective communication facilities so that in times of distress there are no unnecessary delays. For this reason, the road communication from the cyclone shelters should link to cities, main roads and neighboring village areas. Provision of emergency water, food, and sanitation and shelter space for livestock during such periods should also be considered for future construction of shelters. Implication of Policies and Legislations with the PEDP 3 Page 34

328 47. The relevant policy and legislation documents underscore the importance of environmental consideration in the project planning and implementation to promote sustainable development. These provide the general guidelines to integrate environmental issues with different sector projects and programs. The ECR 97 (with amendments later on) is the main legislation in Bangladesh. ECR 97 defined different sectors (industries and projects) as Green, Orange-A, Orange-B and Red categories, without considering the extent and types of interventions. Construction of multi-storied buildings is considered as the Orange B category in ECR 97. However, there is no fixed definition of a multi-storied building. In practice, building more than 1 storied within Dhaka City (as per building construction rules of RAJUK) and building a more than 6-storied building outside of Dhaka city will be considered as Orange B category. It is expected that the primary schools outside of the Dhaka will not be more than 6storied building and as such, no environmental clearance will be required. However, if new construction of more than 6-storied building is considered such as the DPE HQ building, Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) would be required to get the environmental clearance from the Department of Environment (DOE) as per ECR 97. In addition, the Environmental Management Framework (EMF) would need to be submitted to the Department of Environment (DOE) for their review and concurrence. 48. The National Building Code and National Labor Act have defined certain measures to ensure proper safety and work environment as well as the compensation measures to the laborers. By national law, in order to be compensated, contractors must follow these safety provisions and compensation arrangements. The implementing agency must ensure that the appropriate occupational health and safety provisions have been included in the bidding documents and are being implemented by contractor. 49. Many primary schools in disaster prone areas are also used as cyclone/flood shelters for the community. If the school will be considered as shelter, the concerned District Committee should be consulted about its location and other information. 5. As per the policies/guidelines on water supply and sanitation, provision for arsenic safe drinking water and adequate sanitation will have to be ensured for schools. The water quality needs to be monitored to ensure that the supplied water is safe for drinking. The latrines to be constructed in the PEDP 3must be hygienic- confinement of feces away from the environment, blocking the pathways for flies and other insects, proper ventilation of foul gases, proper maintenance for continual use with improved hygiene practice. It has been decided that WASH Blocks having hand washing facilities along with toilets and urinals would be constructed instead of standalone toilets during the remaining period of PEDP 3 and also in the AF. Page 35

329 DEVELOPMENT PARTNER S ENVIRONMENTAL SAFEGUARDS POLICY World Bank Environmental Guidelines 51. The Bank requires environmental assessment (EA) of projects proposed for Bank financing to help ensure that they are environmentally sound and sustainable. The World Bank's environmental assessment policy and recommended processing are described in Operational Policy (OP)/Bank Procedure (BP) 4.1: Environmental Assessment. This policy is considered to be the umbrella policy for the Bank's environmental "safeguard policies" which among others include: Natural Habitats (OP 4.4), Forests (OP 4.36), Pest Management (OP 4.9), Physical Cultural Resources (OP 4.11)), and Safety of Dams (OP 4.37). The Operational Policies (OPs) are the statement of policy objectives and operational principles including the roles and obligations of the Borrower and the Bank, whereas Bank Procedures (BP) are the mandatory procedures to be followed by the Borrower and the Bank. 52. The most relevant policy of WB in PEDP 3activities is OP/BP 4.1 Environmental Assessment. The PEDP 3has been classified as Category B, because the project may have minor site-specific environment impacts, which cannot be determined upfront since the subprojects are not defined at this stage. Most of the impacts are not expected to be very significant or irreversible. The project requires partial environmental assessment of subprojects before implementation. The partial environmental assessment examines the project s potential negative and positive environmental impacts and recommends any measures needed to prevent, minimize, mitigate, or compensate for adverse impacts and improve environmental performance. In World Bank operations, the purpose of Environmental Assessment is to improve decision making, to ensure that project options under consideration are sound and sustainable, and that potentially affected people have been properly consulted. World Bank Environmental Screening under OP/BP All World Bank projects are classified into three environmental assessment categories as shown in the following Table 1. Table 1: World Bank Environmental Screening Category Category A Category B The project is likely to The project has potential adverse Description have significant adverse environmental impacts on human environmental impacts populations or environmentally that are sensitive, diverse, important areas including wetlands, or unprecedented. These forests, grasslands, and other natural impacts may affect an area habitats are less adverse than those broader than the sites or of Category A projects. These facilities subject to impacts are site-specific; few if any of physical works them are irreversible; and in most cases mitigation measures can be designed more readily than for Category A projects. For a Category A EA is narrower than that of Category EA A EA. Like Category A EA, it Requirements project, the project sponsor is responsible for examines the project's potential preparing a report, negative and positive environmental normally an EIA impacts and recommends any measures needed to prevent, minimize, mitigate, or compensate for adverse impacts and improve environmental performance. Category C The project is likely to have minimal or no adverse environmental impacts Beyond screening, no further EA action is required for a Category C project Page 36

330 ADB s Safeguard Policy Statement (29) 54. All projects funded by ADB must comply with the Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS 29) and Operational Manual F1 (21). The purpose of the SPS is to establish an environmental review process to ensure that projects undertaken as part of programs funded under ADB loans are environmentally sound, are designed to operate in compliance with applicable regulatory requirements, and are not likely to cause significant environmental, health, or safety hazards. The SPS (29) requires a number of additional considerations, including (i) project risks and respective mitigation measures and project assurances; (ii) project level grievance redress mechanism including documentation in the EMP; (iii) definition of the project area of influence; (iv) physical cultural resources damage prevention analysis; (v) climate change mitigation and adaptation; (vi) occupational and community health and safety requirements (including emergency preparedness and response); (vii) economic displacement that is not part of land acquisition; (viii) biodiversity conservation and natural resources management requirements; (ix) provision of sufficient justification if local standards are used; (x) ensuring adequate consultation and participation; and (xi) ensuring that the EMP includes an implementation schedule and (measurable) performance indicators. 55. ADBs Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) include operational policies that seek to avoid, minimize, or mitigate adverse environmental and social impacts, including protecting the rights of those likely to be affected or marginalized by the development process. ADB s SPS set out the policy objectives, scope and triggers, and principles for three key safeguard areas: (i) environmental safeguard (ii) involuntary resettlement safeguards, and (iii) Indigenous Peoples safeguards.. All three safeguard policies involve a structured process of impact assessment, planning, and mitigation to address the adverse effects of projects throughout the project cycle. The safeguard policies require that impacts are identified and assessed early in the project cycle; plans to avoid, minimize, mitigate, or compensate for the potential adverse impacts are developed and implemented; and affected people are informed and consulted during project preparation and implementation. A basic principle of the three existing safeguard policies is that implementation of the provisions of the policies is the responsibility of the borrower/client. Borrowers/clients are required to undertake social and environmental assessments, carry out consultations with affected people and communities, prepare and implement safeguard plans, monitor the implementation of these plans, and prepare and submit monitoring reports. Table 2: ADB Environmental Screening Category Category A Category B The project is likely The project has potential Description to have significant adverse environmental adverse impacts on human environmental populations or impacts that are environmentally important irreversible, diverse, areas including or unprecedented. wetlands, forests, These impacts may grasslands, and other affect an area larger natural habitats are less than the sites or adverse than those of facilities subject to Category A projects. physical works These impacts are sitespecific; few if any of them are irreversible; and in most cases mitigation measures can be designed more readily than for Category A projects. For a Category A An Initial Environment EA Examination (IEE) is Requirements project, an Environmental required Impact assessment Category C The project is likely to have minimal or no adverse environmental impacts Category FI A project is classified as category FI if it involves the investment of ADB funds to, or through, a financial intermediary. No environmental assessment is required All FIs will ensure that their investment are in compliance with Page 37

331 (EIA) is required although environmental implications need to be reviewed applicable national laws and regulations and will apply the prohibited investment activities list. DFAT Environmental Management Guidelines 56. The Environmental Management Guide for Australia s Aid Program 23 provides an overview of DTAF s Environmental Management System (EMS) and outlines the steps to be followed in environmental assessments of activities and the procedures for managing potential environmental impacts. The EMS forms an integral part of its overall management system and activity cycle. The objective of the EMS is to ensure activities in the Australian Government s aid program that are likely to have impacts on the environment are properly assessed and managed. The EMS enables DTAF to meet its legal obligations under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). The EMS also provides the means for DTAF to continuously improve environmental performance in aid activities and to demonstrate the agency s commitment to sound environmental management practices. For each policy, program, plan, or activity an initial assessment is carried out to evaluate the environmental impacts by answering environmental marker questions, identifying DAC (subsector) codes, and selecting environment generic field codes. Findings are incorporated into the policy, program, plan or activity implementation and monitoring and evaluation. Page 38

332 GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR EMF 57. For programmatic or sectoral projects/programs, in which specific subprojects are not known in advance, it is recommended that a set of environmental principles for the design and construction of small civil works be agreed upon in the Environmental Management Framework (EMF). The DPE, LGED and DPHE will follow a set of principles in implementing the infrastructures under PEDP 3to ensure environmental sustainability of the project. The general principles of the environmental management in PEDP 3are mentioned below: General Principles The Joint Program Director or his/her assigned official at the DPE will be responsible overall for environmental compliance in PEDP3. The Program Coordinators (Superintending Engineers) of LGED and DPHE will be responsible for subproject specific environmental compliance and relevant reporting in PEDP3. All the subprojects to be funded under the PEDP 3will be subjected to an environmental screening/assessment in order to prevent execution of subprojects with significant negative environmental impacts. The designs should avoid or minimize the need for resettlement of population, as well as the impact on green and recreational areas and buildings of historical or architectural value. If above impacts are unavoidable, resettlement plans, mitigation and compensatory measures will be included in project costs. The design should be harmonized with local surroundings including landscaping and planning for other uses for all additionally created spaces in order to minimize negative impacts on environmental quality and property values. It is assumed that there is likely to be no major harmful impacts on environment from civil construction under the program. However, particularly in the case of Chittagong Hill Tracts, given the remote and inaccessible locations of many areas where carrying costs of construction materials could be comparatively high, there should be priority given on the use of locally available construction materials (e.g. Bamboo and wood). Another, particularly important point in this regard is the preservation of the surrounding ecosystems around the school building which means there should not be any hill cutting and destruction of ecosystem for civil works. Planting of exotic/alien invasive species (e.g. teak) of trees will be avoided rather indigenous tree species will be planted to conserve the native biodiversity and maintain ecosystem integrity. Design and construction of school building in the vulnerable coastal areas will consider climate proofing design (e.g. raising of plinth level for flood, increase strength of building to resist cyclone and storm surge, avoidance of erosion prone site, etc.) Alternative solutions and final designs should be subjected to public and community consultation with special emphasis on students/teachers. The preference of students and teachers will be given priority in designing the infrastructure. To minimize public nuisances, construction activities should follow strict environmental guidelines. Construction schedules and the timing of necessary interruption of public utilities should be informed to the affected community. The implementing agency will be responsible for obtaining and ensuring clearance required from government or local government agencies/committees, if necessary. All areas and infrastructure affected during construction should be restored to their original condition, specially sidewalks, green street dividers, gardens, sidewalk trees, utilities, and side streets impacted by traffic diversion. Annual water quality monitoring of the all the installed tube-wells under Primary Education Development Program will be carried out to ensure safe drinking water facilities to the students and teachers. Page 39

333 Provision for adequate sanitation facilities for the teachers and students will be made and a mechanism for regular cleaning and routine maintenance will be developed. No program activities will be carried out in disputed lands or lands restricted for development or Environmentally Sensitive areas. Climate resilient and flood proofing considerations will be integrated in the design of relevant subprojects. Environment friendly and energy-efficient options will be promoted in the infrastructure. To solve the drinking water problem in remote hilly areas and coastal areas, rainwater harvesting and other feasible options will be explored. ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Introduction 58. This section deals with the main potential environmental concerns likely to arise from the various subprojects and/or components interventions proposed under the PEDP3. The program will support mainly four (4) types of the subprojects. These are: i) new building construction, ii) expansion or major renovation of existing buildings; iii) regular operation and maintenance and minor renovation of buildings and iv) water supply and sanitation provision. The new building construction mostly includes construction of additional class room and construction of WASH Blocks. The nature of civil works proposed to be financed under the program is not likely to cause significant and/or irreversible adverse environmental impacts. Most of the project impacts would be localized due to the relatively small-scale activities. However, there are some issues of concern that cut across the range of proposed interventions. Field studies and lessons from similar programs show that issues such as selection of appropriate sites, preference of students and teachers are some of the key concerns that influence project success and sustainability. The typical environmental impacts related to the school construction and water supply and sanitation issues are discussed below. Typical Environmental Impacts Loss of Land 59. If a new building is constructed on agricultural land, it will reduce the availability of agricultural land and ultimately will reduce crop production. During design phase, alternative options should be explored and assessed to identify suitable land, which has less impact on agricultural production. Again, construction of a new building may change the topography of the intervention area. Surrounding agricultural land may gradually be converted to non-agricultural uses. Drainage Congestion/Water Logging 6. The construction of new structure may interfere with cross drainage and can cause flooding or drainage congestion in adjacent areas during period of high rainfall. This may affect commercial activities in the market and cause potential risk to community health, crop damage and in extreme cases long-term loss of agricultural lands. In addition, lack of proper drainage for rainwater/liquid waste or wastewater owing to the construction activities harms the environment in terms of water and soil contamination and mosquito growth. The need to maintain the natural drainage channels during the construction under the program (primarily school building) are to prevent pooling of water, wastewater and mosquito breeding is important. Migration of fish and other aquatic organism may be disrupted due to the arresting of water flows or drainage congestion. There is possibility of the loss of native fish diversity, if fish cannot migrate for spawning or searching of breeding ground due to the arresting of fish pass. However, the impact of blockage of drains due to such minor construction activities on fish migration and fish diversity is unlikely. Stagnant water due to poor drainage, blocked sewers, and overflowing Page 31

334 septic tanks or soak pits may create adverse health effects. These issues should be properly addressed and taken into consideration during the design phase of subprojects. Surface/Ground Water Pollution 61. During construction, surface water quality may deteriorate due to construction activities, and sewerage from construction sites and work camps. Construction will modify groundcover and topography, which may change the surface water drainage patterns, including infiltration and storage of stormwater. Dust from material stockpiles may also increase sediment and contaminant loading of surface water bodies. Disruption of Natural Ecosystem 62. Construction of new buildings and other earthwork may disrupt the integrity of existing ecology and natural ecosystem and biodiversity. Clearing of vegetation may impact shelter, feeding and/or breeding and/or physical destruction and severing of habitat areas. In addition, illegal sourcing of fuel wood by construction workers will impact natural flora and fauna. Precautionary measure should be put in place in case of construction of the school building in ecologically critical areas and other nature reserve. Dust and Noise Pollution 63. Dust generation from construction sites, material stockpiles and access roads is a nuisance in the environment and can be a health hazard. Dust pollution occurs due to handling of soils during construction and mainly from lack of watering the ground. Such pollution is also a function of weather conditions in dry season nuisance is more; during rainy season, dust nuisance subsides. Dust is more important during pre-construction / construction stages. Noise pollution is normally due to some construction-related activities and machinery. Noise and vibration may impact people, property, fauna, burrowing wildlife (e.g. snake), other nocturnal animal and break the synchrony of natural ecosystem. Occupational Health and Safety 64. Construction work may pose health and safety risks to the construction workers and site visitors leading to severe injuries and deaths in extreme cases or a major accident). There is potential for diseases to be transmitted including malaria, diarrhea, and dysentery etc. exacerbated by inadequate health and safety practices. The population in the proximity of the construction site and the construction workers will be exposed to a number of (i) biophysical health risk factors, (e.g. noise, dust, chemicals, construction material, solid waste, waste water, vector transmitted diseases etc.) and (ii) risk factors resulting from human behavior (e.g. STD, HIV etc.). A lack of first aid facilities and health care facilities in the immediate vicinity would aggravate the health conditions of the victims. 65. Lack of water and sanitation facilities at construction sites inconveniences construction workers and affect their personal hygiene. Arsenic Risk 66. The major environmental concern for the installation of new tube-well is to ensure safe drinking water provision to the students. Arsenic poses the major environmental and health risk in the project. In the absence of proper testing facilities and alternative option, students may continue to consume arsenic contaminated water in arsenic affected-areas of the project. The long-term exposures to arsenic in drinking water may result in black spots, thickening and roughness of palms and soles, white intermittent dots, nodular growth on palms and soles, swelling of feet and legs, peripheral neuropathy, kidney and liver disorder etc. in initial and secondary stages. Gangrene or cancer may result in the final stage. Disaster and extreme climate events 67. Due to the increased frequency and intensity of tropical cyclone, storm surge, sea level rise, flooding, river erosion, salinity intrusion and other extreme climate events, the coastal areas of the project site may be vulnerable for workers and students. Therefore pre-disaster, disaster Page 311

335 and post disaster preparedness would be required in the project site. Proper adaptation and disaster risk reduction measure will be adopted in the emergency situation. Risk from Poor School Sanitation 68. Sanitary latrines provide enormous health benefits to communities. However, they should be designed, constructed and maintained properly. Close location of latrines to tube-wells can lead to groundwater contamination. Again, lack of proper design, construction and maintenance can create drainage congestion. Inadequate maintenance of latrines and water logging also may create mosquito-breeding habitat. Lighting and Ventilation System 69. Poor indoor lighting in classroom may have many harmful effects on health and wellbeing (e.g. eyesight) of teachers and students. Inadequate ventilation in classrooms may lead to respiratory problems, and easier transmission of infectious diseases. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN PEDP3 Environmental Screening and Assessment 7. In general, the environmental screening process identifies what level of environmental assessment is required for subprojects and/or components. It is one of the crucial stages of project decision making. The screening process also provides information to decision-making authorities about the nature of a subproject before its implementation. Broadly speaking, the purpose of the environmental screening is to get relevant concerns addressed early on before further design of a project and to ensure that actions to mitigate environmental impacts or enhance environmental opportunities are budgeted for. The environmental screening is about taking stock in time to avoid losing later opportunities. The participation and consultation with beneficiaries/local communities are important in identifying the potential impacts of the interventions. Partial environmental assessment (or Initial Environmental Examination) will be carried to get more information for the new construction to achieve the following objectives: To establish the environmental baseline in the study area, and to identify any significant environmental issue; Page 312

336 To assess these impacts and provide for measures to address the adverse impacts by the provision of the requisite avoidance, mitigation and compensation measures; To integrate the environmental issues in the project planning and design; To develop appropriate management plans for implementing, monitoring and reporting of the environmental mitigation and enhancement measures suggested. 71. Considering the nature and magnitude of potential environmental impacts from relatively limited-scale construction (except DPE HQ at Dhaka and Leadership Training Building at Cox s Bazar), renovation, refurbishing construction work and other associated components of PEDP3, the proposed operation has been classified as Category B according to the World Bank and ADB environmental categorization. Since, no screening/assessment of the proposed operation was carried out during the preparation phase; screening will be required for all subprojects. A sample-screening format for construction is attached in Annex-A and Annex-B. The Bangla form will be used for the screening purposes at field level. A project influence area (PIA) map with possible location of the school will need to be attached with screening format. The DoE requirements would be addressed as per the categorization of program subprojects as per the Environmental Regulations of Bangladesh. In case of DPE HQ and Leadership Training Building in Cox s Bazar, an environmental assessment should be carried out to take care of the environmental issues during the design phase of the building. The recommendations of such assessment should be followed during design and construction of the building. 72. For the decision of the new tube-well installation, the following information should be collected and analyzed. Arsenic concentration of the tube-wells (with depth and year of installation) within 5 m radius of proposed point Level of dissolved iron and salinity in the locality The depth of water tables Geological information Distance from closest sanitary latrine Drainage facility ph of water 73. The following information should be collected and analyzed for the sanitary latrine construction. Distance from water source Drainage facility Closest water table Soil condition 74. In addition to the information related to installation of new tube-wells and/or construction of latrines, the project should analyze the present condition to understand the real need for water supply and sanitation facilities and existing hygiene practices. This will specifically help the project to recommend specific measures to improve the maintenance and hygiene practices for the existing and new facilities. Screening format for water supply and sanitation facilities attached as Annex-B can help in understanding the existing sanitation and water supply facilities in the school and need for appropriate maintenance strategy. 75. Considering the large numbers of the subprojects, the PEDP 3proposes a flexible approach for the environmental documentation for different types of the project. Table-2 provides subproject environmental screening table. Table-3: Subproject Environmental Screening Table Types of subprojects Water supply option (Tube-well) Environmental Assessment Documentation Required Site -specific environmental screening information as per Page 313

337 Sanitary latrine Maintenance and minor renovation of buildings Major renovation/expansion and construction of new class room /building Construction of buildings more than 6 storied buildings format (Annex-B). Site-specific Environmental Management Plan (EMP) if necessary. Site-specific environmental screening information as per format (Annex-B Site-specific Environmental Management Plan (EMP) if necessary. Site-specific environmental screening information as per format (Annex-A). Site-specific Environmental Management Plan (EMP) if necessary. Site-specific environmental screening information as per format ( Annex :A) Site-specific Environmental Management Plan (EMP) will have to be prepared. Site-specific environmental screening format and Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) are required. Site-specific Environmental Management Plan (EMP) will have to be prepared. Environmental Clearance from Department of Environment (DOE) is required. Lessons learnt from the original project: Third party validation of the water and sanitation facilities 76. To assess the effectiveness of the water sources and toilets installed/constructed so far, a third party independent sample testing and verification of arsenic, iron, manganese and microbial contents as well as sanitation facilities provided both under PEDP II and PEDP 3 was undertaken in 213. About 286 schools were sampled out of which 173 were from PEDP II, 52 were from PEDP 3, 5 schools from the list of school which were supposed to get alternative water sources and 11 schools where tube wells were provided by other agencies were selected. Some of the key observations and recommendations from that third party validation are as follows: It was found that in some tube wells, concentration of arsenic, iron, manganese, fecal coliform and chloride are more than the allowable limit both in the PEDP II and PEDP 3 tube wells. The tube wells where concentration of arsenic was found more than the acceptable limit should be closed and alternative source of water should be provided. It was found that no information is available in the school about the depth of the strainer of the tube wells which is important to have an idea about the aquifer from where water is being extracted. This is also vital. Information required developing a plan for future installation of tube wells. Detailed records of any tube well installed through PEDP should be properly maintained. Proper planning for installation of tube wells in an area involves identification of the aquifer yielding the adequate amount of water with safe drinking water quality over the designed life of the tube well. Lowering of water table, especially during dry season, is a common feature all over Bangladesh. This is primarily due to over extraction of irrigation water as well as reduced recharge. Thus, providing the tube well strainer at the appropriate depth is essential to have a prolonged life of the installed tubewell. About 52% of the schools reported nonfunctional tube wells most of which were provided through PEDP II intervention. The primary reasons for non-functionality are: stolen pump heads, broken pump handles, damaged check valves, broken plungers, corrosion of well pipe due to high salinity, lowering of water table, Low/no yield due to inadequate pump Page 314

338 development following installation, abandonment of wells in high salinity and high iron area. It has been observed that a number of PEDP II well have been abandoned because of high salinity and/or high iron. In such case avoidance of high salinity and high iron prone areas may be one option. However, seeking alternative sources, such as, rainwater harvesting, use of treated surface water, pond sand filtration, etc. may alleviate the problem. Development and use of water quality map in planning and installation of water sources may be an appropriate approach. A number of schools reported that the tube wells installed through PEDP II provided water for a few months after installation, but after that there was no yield in these tube wells. This generally happens when the well is not properly developed (at least for 72hrs) after installation. Subsequently, the fine sand and silt around the well strainer deposit inside the well clogging the strainer openings. Adequate well development will ensure design yield of the installed tube well. Although most of the tube wells surveyed have concrete bases and platforms, proper drainage facilities to drain out wastewater is absent in many cases (about 4% of the schools surveyed). Thus, puddles of water and muddy spoils are evident in these schools. Proper drains should be constructed to drain wastewater to the drainage area such as the nearby ditch or pond. These drains should be kept clean on a regular basis to prevent water logging. Lessons learnt from field visits 77. During the implementation of PEDP 3, construction, expansion and maintenance of infrastructure went through environmental screening. Report on environmental issues was submitted by DPE as part of reporting obligation. Consultant of LGED and DPHE visited many sites as a part of their routine job to monitor the compliance of the recommendations of the environmental screening at the field level. Moreover, a number of field visits were undertaken by the World Bank professionals to see the compliance of the environmental safeguard issues. Some of the issues came out from these are summarized below: It seems that the data captured by the field offices some time are not properly reflecting the field condition and the environmental issues. It was felt that the screening format needs to be modified to make those more effective in capturing the field condition. The screening format is updated in the revised version and is attached to the Annex. Also the capacity of the officials who are associated with the environmental screening and monitoring at the field and HQ level should be enhanced. It was found during the filed visits that the construction materials are not properly stacked in the school premises which pose safety concern to the children in many instances. A guide line needs to be prepared for the contractors observance of which would be made mandatory for them and would be a part of the tender/contract document. Such a guide line has been attached with this EMF as Annex- C. While the male and female WASH Blocks are supposed to be separately located considering the cultural norm of the country, it is not being properly followed. Sometime shortage of land a cause for such noncompliance. However, even if due to scarcity of land which compel to construct male and female WASH Blocks side by side, all efforts should be made to keep the entry in the opposite direction. Environmental Mitigation 78. It is expected that the issues those described above in the lessons learned section would be noted by the implementing associates and necessary efforts would be made to avoid the negative issues in the remaining works of PEDP 3. The primary objective of the environmental management and monitoring is to record environmental impacts resulting from PEDP 3activities and to ensure implementation of the mitigation measures in order to reduce adverse impacts Page 315

339 and enhance positive impacts from specific activities. Based on the information obtained from the environmental screening/assessment, a site-specific Environmental Management Plan (EMP) will be prepared. The EMP will indicate the impacts predicted, mitigation measures to minimize the impacts, identify the institutional arrangements for undertaking the mitigation measures and monitoring arrangements, implementation schedules of the mitigation arrangements and reporting requirements and cost estimates. For example, if the subproject requires a plantation to compensate for the trees lost due to construction/expansion of new structure, the cost of plantation of similar species must be considered in subproject design. A sample environmental management plan format is included in Annex A and Annex B and a typical environmental mitigation measures have been suggested in Annex-G. The EMP will also include specific guidelines to be followed during construction stage as well as resource extraction (e.g. sand, timber, metal, etc.,) for all specific construction activities financed under the project. 79. Though construction activities are likely to have minimal on-site environmental impacts, most of the negative environmental impacts are likely to be seen off-site, where construction materials such as sand, clay for bricks and timber will be sourced. Therefore, all tender/bidding documents for construction/renovation activities will include clauses to ensure that contractors obtain construction materials from authorized sites with proper licenses. In addition, the contractors will be required to adhere to the guide lines as shown in Annex C, which will form part of the contract conditions. Environmental Supervision and Monitoring 8. The purpose of environmental supervision is to make sure that specific mitigation parameters are identified in the environmental assessment and as bound by the contract are satisfactorily implemented. In addition, monitoring is necessary to ensure that the envisaged purpose of the project are achieved and result in desired benefits to the target population without adversely affecting natural environmental resources. The monitoring activities of PEDP 3will include verifying compliance with the environmental management plan implementation. In general, the following indicators and the related mitigation measures would be monitored during construction and operation stage: (i) loss of agricultural lands; (ii) drainage congestion/water logging; (iii) surface water pollution; (iv) dust and noise pollution; (v) distance between tubewells and sanitary latrines; vii) occupation health and safety practices; viii) maintenance of water supply and sanitation facilities, (ix) impact of climate change and disasters, etc. Monitoring formats are attached as Annex-D and Annex-E in this regard. A Management Information System (MIS) will be developed to record the environmental mitigation and monitoring information along with the infrastructure development data. A climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction plan will also be developed in some vulnerable locations. The MIS will have provision of built-in report generation with various options. 81. In addition, the arsenic level testing in the drinking water installed under PEDP 3will be carried out on an annual basis using the field test kit method. 5% of the total water samples will be tested at the laboratory for quality assurance. The water quality monitoring report will include the Upazila-wise comparison of the data with the previous year monitoring and also between the test results of the field-test kit method and laboratory test method. The report will also cover the present water supply option of the arsenic affected tube-well. The findings of the report will help in planning the next year s tube-well installation and piped water supply options. An operation phase monitoring of the water supply and sanitation facilities by the LGED/DPHE/SMC is also recommended to take necessary action for smooth operation and maintenance.. Such monitoring may include the following indicators: (i) Is the latrine and area around it clean? (ii) Is the Latrine and area around it free from fly nuisance? (iii) Is there a cover or other means to keep the flies out? (iv) Is the latrine and the area around it free from odors? (v) Page 316

340 Is the area around the latrine free from stagnant water? (vi) Is the latrine slab smooth and easy to clean? (vii) Is the latrine slab strong and without any cracks? (viii) Is the tube-well platform clean? (ix)are there proper drainage facilities? (x) Are hand-washing facilities available in or near the latrine? A format in this regard has been included as Annex-E. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT AND CAPACITY BUILDING Institutional Arrangement 82. The Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) was assigned for the infrastructure development in the Primary Education Development Project II (PEDP II). LGED has set-up its institutional arrangements for the implementation of the PEDP II. The Superintending Engineer (Education) acts as the Project Coordinator for infrastructure development. The Superintending Engineer Office supported the Executive Engineer (Education) with 74 staff (technical and support staff). The key staffs are 1 Senior Assistant Engineer, 8 Assistant Engineers, 1 Monitoring Officers, 1 Assistant Monitoring Officers and 3 computer operators. The Superintending Engineer is supported by a number of individual consultants. LGED also set-up 1 regional level offices at Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Sylhet, Barisal, Rangpur, Mymensigh, Faridpur and Comilla. Each Regional Office is headed by an Executive Engineer (Education and Training) with 19 technical and support staff. The key staffs at the regional office are: 1 Assistant Engineer, 1 Monitoring Officer, 1 Estimator (Sub-Assistant Engineer), 1 Draftsman (Sub-Assistant Engineer), 2 Sub-Assistant Engineers and an Assistant Monitoring Officer. In addition, at the district levels and Upazila levels, LGED offices are also involved in the implementation of the program activities. LGED will maintain the same institutional structure for the PEDP 3implementation and will include an Environmental Specialist as an individual consultant. The ToR of the Environment Specialist (individual consultant) is attached in Annex-H. 83. In addition to the special arrangement and staffing for the primary education project, LGED has its own regular set-up at district and Upazila level. The Upazila based LGED offices are responsible for implementation of the field level activities. These offices have also been involved with Primary Education Project since 199 with support from primary education set-up, District level offices and Head Quarter Divisions. The Design Division at Dhaka has been responsible for providing the engineering design and cost estimation of the infrastructures. Executive Engineer (Education) office, Dhaka will act as Environmental Focal Points at Headquarters and will be responsible for coordination with 2 regional offices on environmental issues in addition to their other regular activities. The Executive Engineer (Education) will ensure the overall coordination and responsible for monitoring of environmental safeguard issues. The Assistant Engineer at Regional Office will act as the Environmental Focal Point and will responsible for coordinating environmental activities at field level. The Upazila LGED Office will be responsible for reviewing existing facilities, Subproject screening and environment management plan (EMP) preparation and implementation. Specifically, the Upazila Sub-Assistant Engineer/Assistant Engineer will be responsible for carrying out the screening and preparing subproject specific EMP preparation. The Upazila Engineer will review the screening report and EMP through field visit. The Upazila Engineer will also be responsible for supervision and monitoring of environmental mitigation activities at Upazila level. The Assistant Engineer at Regional Office will review at least 25% of the screening and EMP reports and implementation of EMP at field level. If IEE is required, it will be the responsibility of the Assistant Engineer at the Regional Office. The Executive Engineer (Education & Training) at Regional Office will review all IEE and monitor the implementation of EMP. The Assistant Engineer at the Headquarters will ensure quality control and reporting at regional level. The Environmental Specialist will prepare the training materials, conduct training of staff, prepare screening, IEE report and EMP on sample basis, review certain percentage of the EMP and prepare Quarterly and Annual Environmental Reports of the PEDP3. Page 317

341 84. In addition, DPE will hire the consultant services to monitor at least1% of the infrastructure implemented by the LGED The monitoring will include the environmental performance (environmental screening, EMP and implementation of environmental mitigation measures) of the subprojects. The monitoring report will have a dedicated section on Environment. A Geographic Information System (GIS) will be developed at DPE to record all the Primary School locations and data. The development partner(s) in consultation with DPE may also assign a firm/institute as third party monitoring of the physical progress, construction quality, and environmental safeguard and operation status of the infrastructures. 85. The DPHE have one Superintending Engineer as a focal person for the environmental management and reporting. A team under the leadership of the Superintending Engineer at the HQ is coordinating the activities under PEDP 3. The unit is also staffed with experienced civil engineers and adequate number of other qualified manpower. At field level under the supervision of a Superintending Engineer in Divisional Head Quarter, an Executive Engineer in every DPHE District office supported by Assistant Engineers, Sub-assistant Engineers, Estimators, and Draftsman execute the project works of installation of water sources and WASH Block. In every Upazila DPHE has a full official set up of thirteen staffs comprising 1 diploma engineer, 4 Mechanics/Work Assistant, 4 VS masons, 2 MLSS, 1 computer operator headed by a graduate civil engineer. The Assistant Engineer at Upazila level primarily undertakes the environmental screening of the works with the help of the Sub-Assistant Engineers. The Executive Engineer at District level verifies the reports and sends those to the HQ where a consultant with the help of the DPHE Engineers working at HQ prepares the compiled report. 86. For the purpose of annual water quality monitoring, DPE has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Department of the Public Health Engineering (DPHE). DPE will provide all the tube-wells information and field test kits to the DPHE Research and Development (R&D) Division. DPHE will coordinate and implement the testing through its field office and prepare the analytical report. DPHE will also carry out 5% quality check in their zonal laboratories. DPE will pay DPHE the laboratory test cost, field test cost and reporting cost. AS DPHE would also be responsible for construction of WASH Blocks and various source of drinking water, they would follow the similar reporting pattern as LGED with the help of their field level officials and coordinated by the staff at DPHE HQ. 87. For climate proof and disaster resilient school building, LGED may work together with Department of Disaster Management (DDM), BUET and other relevant organizations for designing and construction of climate resilient school building in vulnerable coastal areas. Based on expected climate impacts in vulnerable coastal areas such as flooding, cyclone, storm surge, the project will adopt simple measures such as raising the plinth level of the school structures, safeguards against cyclone and storm surge or river bank erosion of foundation and providing adequate structural strength to withstand high wind pressure etc. A climate change adaptation expert would be consulted to advise such measures at the program level. 88. The other key stakeholder is the School Management Committee (SMC). SMC will be responsible for the site selection, the design criteria definition as per teachers and students needs, supervising the construction, ensuring proper operation and maintenance of the water supply and sanitation facilities as well as the cleaning and maintenance of school room and premises. Capacity Building 89. Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) is one of the leading government agencies that have incorporated environmental assessment to their project planning. It also reconstituted it Environmental Unit with an Additional Engineer as head of the unit. LGED has prepared the Environmental Assessment Guidelines for LGED Projects with the support of the IDA-funded Rural Transport Improvement Project (RTIP) in late 28. The guidelines, prepared in collaboration with RTIP, aimed to provide the framework EIA for different sector projects undertaken by LGED for planning, implementation and subsequent operation. The guidelines constitute simple procedures and formats to undertake IEE and EIA of proposed projects and subprojects to identify potential negative impacts and draw up an EMP Page 318

342 where necessary. LGED has implemented several IDA funded projects and familiar with Bank safeguard policies. 9. However, the LGED unit responsible for the Education does not have adequate experience on the environmental management. Capacity building at different levels is necessary in order to implement the EMF successfully. The suggested capacity building measures, for example include: i) providing environmental competency/human-resources, ii) training, orientation and awareness, activities on environmental planning and management of school and school-facilities, and iii) mechanisms for coordination and for accessing specific environmental services e.g. water-quality testing, climate resilient school building design and construction, etc. 91. In consideration of increasing workload envisaged for implementation of the EMF and the nonexistence of environmental competency at center, LGED will have a full-time Environmental Specialist at Education Unit to look after the EMF activities for PEDP3. The Specialist will be responsible for implementation of the EMF and its provisions, including compliance checking, facilitation, coordination and ensuring dissemination, orientations and capacity buildings activities. Additional human resources or agency will be hired, if necessary, in order to effectively implement the EMF. 92. The Environmental Specialist will lead the capacity development efforts in LGED Education Unit. The Project Coordination will form a team who will be responsible for the environmental training in the PEDP 3staff. The team will work in close cooperation with the LGED Environmental Unit and Environment Specialist. The team with the support of environmental specialist will: (i) coordinate environmental training for staff and local contractors; (ii) develop and review different training materials; and (iii) assess further capacity needs for environmental training. The staff assigned as the Environmental Focal Points and also all the Executive Engineers and Assistant Engineers will receive training on priority basis. The other staff and selected staff of DPE will also receive training gradually. 93. Capacity building program should be undertaken for the DPHE field and HQ staff so that the environmental screening of the works can be accomplished properly. The consultant working at DPHE should play important role in preparing training plan and training material to impart such training at various levels. Orientation Program is imparted by the management both in head quarter and field level to increase awareness on roles and responsibilities of quality works of Water Sources and Wash Block. 94. The program will also consider the capacity building of the SMC for the maintenance of the water supply and sanitation facilities. The option of linking with the existing government program of health and hygiene education will also be explored. Special attention will be provided to the boys and girls for encouraging them to spread the messages they have learned from teachers, health workers or other sources. Children have special advantages and special roles in spreading health messages to others. This will also help to properly maintain the hygienic condition of the urinals, toilets and water supply conditions in the schools. Grievance Redress Mechanism 95. Environmental issues will be integrated with the project Grievance Redress System. The Office of the Joint Program Director will be responsible for developing appropriate formats for complaints and redress as well as disseminating information about the Grievance redress system. A grievance redress procedure will be established to deal with various non-legal issues that may arise during preparation and implementation of the infrastructure and environmental activities. The grievance mechanism should be scaled to the risks and adverse impacts of the project. It should address affected people's concerns and complaints promptly, using an understandable and transparent process that is gender responsive, culturally appropriate, and readily accessible to all segments of the affected people at no costs and without retribution. The affected people will be appropriately informed about the mechanism. Complainants can however send letters of complaint to any level and the level where they are received will act these upon. The Grievance Redress Committees (GRCs) will try to resolve conflicts amicably by bringing Page 319

343 together the directly concerned parties. The GRCs will however not provide legal advice to the contestants. Decisions made by using this mechanism will be binding on the project authority. Page 32

344 CONSULTATION AND INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Consultation 96. On behalf of DPE, a consultant carried out the field visit of the existing PEDP II project sites as part of the EMF preparation. The consultant reviewed the existing documents in field, school conditions, and geographic location of school, water supply and sanitation facilities, discussed with all relevant stakeholders and took their opinion how to improve the environmental practices in primary education program and to integrate environmental concerns to improve the sustainability of the program interventions. Field visit were undertaken during implementation of PEDP 3 which revealed useful information regarding improving environmental safeguard. This revised EMF included the recommendations from consultations and field visits observations. Disclosure 97. The revised EMF will be disclosed by the DPE in their website for public comments within 3 days of the notice published in the 2 daily national newspapers (one English and another Bangla). LGED and DPHE will also disclose this document on their website. In addition, the World Bank will publish this document in Info Shop and ADB in its website. Monitoring and Reporting 98. LGED and DPHE will monitor and measure the progress of implementation of the EMP. The extent of monitoring activities will be commensurate with the project s risks and impacts. In addition to recording information to track performance, LGED and DPHE will undertake inspections to verify compliance with the EMP and progress toward the expected outcomes. For subprojects likely to have significant adverse environmental impacts, the borrower/client will retain qualified and experienced external experts or qualified NGOs to verify its monitoring information. The LGED and DPHE will document monitoring results, identify the necessary corrective actions, and reflect them in a corrective action plan. They will implement these corrective actions and follow up on these actions to ensure their effectiveness. They will prepare periodic monitoring reports that describe progress with implementation of the EMP and compliance issues and corrective actions, if any. They will submit at least half yearly monitoring reports during construction for subprojects likely to have significant adverse environmental impacts or when requested by any of the DPs. Page 321

345 ANNEX-A: Site Specific Environmental Screening (SSES) Report for Construction of Class Room/New Building SECTION-I: ROOM SUB-PROJECT IDENTIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION OF CLASS Name of the Work/School: Name of the District: Name of the Upazila & Village: EMIS Code of the School: SECTION-II: PROPOSED ACTIVITIES AS PER PRELIMINARY SCHEME DESIGN Title of Activities Land development Description of Proposed Activities (length, width, area, volume, height etc.) Filling a low land by Sand filling ( 3ft X 2 ft X 1 ft) Remarks Construction of main School Building Construction of boundary wall Construction of Internal Road Construction of Toilet/WASH Block SECTION III: PIA map (Field offices to draw an updated site map containing key environmental features and proposed interventions including outlet of the drainage network) Page 322

346 SECTION-IV: ENVIRONMENTAL SCREENING FOR ADDITIONAL CLASS ROOM CONSTRUCTION Environmental issues/ Parameters/ values (Use blank spaces/ rows for additional parameters, if needed) Solid waste generation Impact without intervention Baseline Environment status No=,Adverse=Beneficial =+ Impact during implementation No=,Adverse=Beneficial =+ Air quality (Dust/ smoke/smell/pollution) Soil Erosion Noise pollution Drainage congestion/ Water logging Water quality Loss or filling up of natural water body Impact on agricultural land Odor No=,Adverse=Beneficial =+ a. Is there any significant generation of solid waste from the existing facilities? _ Liquid waste generation Impact after implementation a. Is there any significant generation of liquid waste from the existing facilities? b. Where are the liquid wastes being discharged? Is there any potential source of air pollution due to functioning of the existing facilities? - Do the existing facilities expedite or trigger soil erosion? - Is there any significant source of noise pollution due to functioning of the existing facilities? Is there any drainage congestion or water logging in the school/site premises? Is there presence of Arsenic, Manganese or Iron in the ground water? ( Mention the source of information and also attached the report, if available with the screening format) Is there any natural water body in the complex and is there any plan to fill it up due to construction work. Is there any impact on agricultural land due to the existing facilities? How far is the agriculture land from the school premises? What type of crop is grown in those agricultural land? Is there any significant source of odor due to the operation of the existing Predicted Environmental Impact Suggested MMs NMMN, NMMR, MMS Pollution of soil, surface and ground water. MMS-1 Environmental guide lines should be followed during construction phase. Pollution of surface water MMS-1 Environmental guide lines should be followed during construction phase. MMS-1 Env guide line during construction phase should be followed. MMS-1 Env guide line during construction phase should be followed.

347 facilities? Spread of pathogens Breading place of Mosquitoes Is there any threat of spread of pathogens due to operation of the existing facilities? (proximity of the water source to the latrine) Any water logged area? Waste dumping site? Big trees? Wetland Wildlife habitat Rare and endangered species Forests Protected area Plantation/ Vegetation Service facility to the local people Women s right ( i, e separate toilet for the women etc.) Employment/ Livelihood Accident risks Access to means of Page 3

348 communication Homestead displacement Land Use Pattern Migration/resettlement Religious sites Archaeological sites Page 4

349 SECTION-V: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (EMP) for construction of additional class room A. MITIGATING/ ENHANCEMENT PLAN Adversely impacted parameters requiring mitigation Construction Phase Impacts ( Dust, noise, solid and liquid waste etc. ) Location (If applicable) Mitigation measures MMS-1: Follow Environmental Guide lines during construction of the school building. Implementation period Person/ institution responsible During Construction Concerned Executive Engineer of LGED. Generation of Solid Waste Generation of liquid waste MMS-4: B. MONITORING PLAN Critical parameters/mms to be monitored MMS-1,MMS-3,MMS-5 MMS-* Monitoring indicators Whether the environmental guide lines are being followed. Period Frequency During Construction During Operation. Every quarter LGED/SMC Person/ institution responsible Concerned Executive Engineer of LGED of his representative.

350 ANNEX-B Site Specific Environmental Screening (SSES) Report for Construction of Water and Sanitation Facilities SECTION-I: SUB-PROJECT IDENTIFICATION (FOR water and sanitation facilities) Name of the Work/School: Name of the District: Name of the Upazila: EMIS Code of the School: SECTION-II: PROPOSED ACTIVITIES AS PER PRELIMINARY SCHEME DESIGN Title of Activities Land development Construction of WASH Block Installation of DTW Description of Proposed Activities (length, width, area, volume, height etc.) Filling a low land by Sand filling ( 3ft X 2 ft X 1 ft) Remarks

351 SECTION-III: ENVIRONMENTAL SCREENING FOR WATER AND SANITATION FACILITIES Environmental issues/ Parameters/ values (Use blank spaces/ rows for additional parameters, if needed) What is the type of existing latrines? (are these single pit/ double pits/ twin pit latrine attached with a septic tank?) Is the number of toilets adequate? Generation of Solid Waste Disposal of fecal waste from the toilets Baseline Environment status Impact without intervention No=,Adverse=Beneficial =+ Impact during implementation Impact after implementation No=,Adverse=Beneficial =+ No=,Adverse=Beneficial =+ Predicted Environmental Impact Suggested NMMR6 / MMS61 Disposal of liquid waste from toilets/construction activities Availability of hand washing facility Availability of water for hand washing Provision for separate toilet for male and female Are the location of the female toilets appropriate? 6 NMMR : No Mitigation Measure Recommended MMS: Mitigation Measures Suggested; put MMS-1, MMS-2, MMS-3 and so on (as many as required) in respective cells and relate and describe those briefly at the end in the designated place 61

352 Is the environment of water supply facility clean with facilities for draining out of water? Are there any reported events of sickness or contamination by drinking the existing water source? What is the source of existing drinking water in the school? Is there any concern about the quality of water such as arsenic, salinity, microbial contamination Distance of water source from nearest toilet Drainage facility of waste water from water sources Height of the location of the water source/toilets? Are they susceptible to flood and cyclone etc. Spread of pathogens water quality Is there any threat of spread of pathogens due to the operation of the existing facilities? Is there presence of Arsenic, Manganese or Iron in the ground or surface water? (Please mention the source of information) Page 3

353 SECTION-IV: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (EMP) for water and sanitation facilities C. MITIGATING/ ENHANCEMENT PLAN Adversely impacted parameters requiring mitigation Construction Phase Impacts ( Dust, noise, solid and liquid waste etc. ) Location (If applicable) Mitigation measures Implementation period MMS-1: Follow Environmental Guide lines during construction of the school building. During Construction Person/ institution responsible Concerned Executive Engineer of LGED. Generation of Solid Waste Generation of liquid waste D. MONITORING PLAN Critical parameters/mms to be monitored MMS-1 Monitoring indicators Whether the environmental guide lines are being followed. Period Frequency During Construction Every quarter During Operation. MMS-* Person/ institution responsible Concerned Executive Engineer of DPHE or his representative.

354 ANNEX-C Guide lines to be followed during Construction of Infrastructure The following environmental guide lines stated below should be followed during the construction work. Such as: 1. The contractor will erect sufficient number of temporary sanitary toilets and shelter both for male and female workers at the site with proper sanitation system. 2. The contractor will ensure supply of pure drinking water to the workers during the time of construction. 3. The contractor will keep a first aid box at the site for any accident. 4. The contractor will take necessary precaution for the safety of his workers and also for the safety of the pedestrians. 5. The contractor will stack materials systematically in a safe place so that pedestrians do not fall in troubles/ accident and will not occupy any class room. 6. The contractor will not engage any child labor in the work. 7. The contractor will not pollute any nearby source of surface water by any of their activities. 8. The contractor will try to minimize sound pollution. If such sound producing activity become unavoidable, it should be matched with the local condition so that the adverse impact can be kept minimum. 9. The contractor will engage local people in the work as far as possible. The vulnerable destitute women should get preference. 1. The contractor will not hamper the drainage network of the area by any of their activity. 11. The contractor will not cut or damage any tree in and around the project area without the permission of the supervising authority. 12. The contractor will take every initiative to reduce dust emission during the construction work i,e sprinkling of water on the dust etc The contractor will not set any temporary burner under any tree. 14. If required, the contractor will collect filling earth from existing ditches, ponds and fallow lands to avoid land loss. 15. No class rooms would be used by the contractors for the construction work.

355 ANNEX-D Environmental Monitoring During Construction Phase SUB-PROJECT IDENTIFICATION Name of the Work/School: Name of the District: Name of the Upazila: EMIS Code of the School: Description of Parameter Whether followed Remarks or not The contractor will erect sufficient number of Yes temporary sanitary toilets and shelter both for male NO and female workers at the site with proper sanitation system. The contractor will ensure supply of pure drinking Yes water to the workers during the time of NO construction. The contractor will keep a first aid box at the site Yes for any accident. NO The contractor will take necessary precaution for Yes the safety of his workers and also for the safety of NO the pedestrians. The contractor will stack materials systematically Yes in a safe place so that pedestrians do not fall in NO troubles/ accident and do not occupy any classroom. The contractor will not engage any child labor in Yes the work. NO The contractor will not pollute any nearby source Yes Page 3

356 of surface water by any of their activities. NO The contractor will try to minimize sound Yes pollution. If such sound producing activity NO becomes unavoidable, it should be matched with the local condition so that the adverse impact can be kept minimum. The contractor will engage local people in the work Yes as far as possible. The vulnerable destitute women NO should get preference. The contractor will not hamper the drainage Yes network of the area by any of their activity. NO The contractor will not cut or damage any tree in Yes and around the project area without the permission NO of the supervising authority. The contractor will take every initiative to reduce Yes dust emission during the construction work i,e NO sprinkling of water on the dust etc. The contractor will not set any temporary burner Yes under any tree. NO If required, the contractor will collect filling earth Yes from existing ditches, ponds and fallow lands to NO avoid land loss. Comments and recommendations of the monitoring team: Signature of the Monitoring Team/Officer in charge: Page 4

357 ANNEX-E Monitoring of Class Room, Water and Sanitation Facilities During Operation Phase SUB-PROJECT IDENTIFICATION Name of the Work/School: Name of the District: Name of the Upazila: EMIS Code of the School: Description of Parameter Status of waster Remarks disposal Are the latrines clean or are the dirty and smelly? Yes NO Are the latrines kept under lock and Yes key during school time? NO Are the urinals smelly? Yes NO Do the latrines need any special Yes maintenance? NO Are constructions/maintenance of the Yes latrines OK? (are the doors, plaster, NO roof etc. in good condition?) Does the water source affected by Yes arsenic? NO When the arsenic test was last done Yes and by whom. NO Can the latrines be locked from Yes inside? NO Do these latrines have privacy in terms Yes of proper doors and location? NO Do the girls students stay at home Yes because of having no proper latrines or NO because they have to share with boys? Page 5

358 Is the number of latrines available Yes sufficient for the number of students / NO teachers in each shift we have in the school? etc. Is the slope of the toilet OK? Yes NO Is there any clogging of water in the Yes toilets? NO Yes NO Comments and recommendations of the monitoring team: Signature of the Monitoring Team/Officer in charge: Page 6

359 ANNEX-F: Sample Terms of Reference (TORs) for an Environmental Assessment of DPE Buidling (DPE will develop customize the ToR and share with the DPs and get no objection. EIA need to be completed at the design phase and requires to be cleared by the donors before tender) 1. Introduction. State the purpose of the TORs, identify the new building projects to be assessed and explain the executing arrangements for the environmental assessment (EA). 2. Background Information. Provide pertinent background for any parties who may conduct the EA, whether they are government agencies, consultants or NGOs. Include a brief description of the major components/sub-components of the proposed project, a statement on its need and objectives, the implementing agency, a brief history of the project (including alternatives considered), its current status and timetable, and the identities of any associated projects. Identify other projects in progress or planned within the region which may compete for the same resources. Major types of projects to be described include, as appropriate: traditional public housing, government assisted housing, upgrading of existing informal housing and new sites and services projects. 3. Objectives. Summarize the general scope of the EA and discuss its timing in relation to other aspects of project preparation, design, and execution. Identify constraints, if any, regarding the adequacy of existing environmental baseline data and needs to phase additional data collection (e.g., seasonal rainfall, river flows, flooding, natural habitats, etc.) and assessment efforts to avoid hindering the project development schedule. 4. EA Requirements. Identify laws, regulations and guidelines that will govern the conduct of the assessment or specify the content of its report. They may include any or all of the following: National laws and/or regulations on environmental assessments; Regional, provincial or communal environmental assessment regulations; and EA regulations of any other financing organizations involved in the project. World Bank Operational Policy 4.1: "Environmental Assessment," and other pertinent environmental/social safeguard policies, eg, resettlement (land acquisition), natural habitats, etc and also other donors policies. Note: housing projects may include a board array of components, some of which may cause direct adverse environmental and social impacts and are consequently likely to be classified as category A or B. These TORs focus upon those projects likely to be classified A or B and which would therefore require an EA under provisions of OP 4.1. Accordingly, TORs will have to be crafted to address the particular impacts International agreements/conventions on environment to which the borrowing country is a signatory. Identify design or operating standards which project components must meet to be in compliance with environmental safeguards, eg, effluent discharge limitations,, receiving water quality standards, air emission standards and zoning, drainage and building codes, etc. 5. Study Area. Specify the service area of the project, including its area of influence, eg, increased transport, solid waste management, drainage, etc. and proposed inter connections. 6. Scope of Work. The consultancy needs to address the following tasks:

360 Task 1. Description of the Proposed Project. Provide a full description of the project: location; general layout, including description and drawings/diagrams for rehabilitation/new components, including building materials; land ownership and characteristics (eg, flooding potential, hazards, seismicity, use of land for waste disposal, industrial or extractive activities); population served, present and projected; adjacent communities/industries to site; existing/new roads or other supportive infrastructure; energy needs and source of supply; anticipated influent and effluent characteristics (depending upon level of treatment) and solid wastes; pre-construction and construction activities (including equipment used for earthmoving operations, handling of waste materials such as oil, borrow pits); transport and disposal of asbestos or other toxic waste in the case of rehabilitation projects, schedule, staffing and support facilities and services; operation and maintenance activities; and, required off-site investments. Task 2. Description of the Environment. Assemble, evaluate and present relevant baseline data on the environmental characteristics of the development and area of influence. Include information on any changes anticipated before the project commences. (a) Physical environment: geology ( including seismic characteristics), topography and soils and geotechnical considerations (general description for overall study area, including potential for soil erosion); temperature (effects of vegetation removal), rainfall and runoff characteristics, flooding and hazard potential; groundwater characteristics; description of runoff and drainage, receiving waters (identity of streams, lakes, or marine waters; annual average discharge or current data by month, water quality; existing discharges or withdrawals). Noise disturbance (b) Biological environment: terrestrial habitats in areas affected by construction, facility siting, use for disposal of wastes; aquatic, estuarine or marine habitats in affected waters; rare or endangered species; sensitive habitats, including parks or reserves, significant natural habitats; species of commercial importance in/near the land site(s) and receiving waters. (c) Sociocultural environment: present and projected population; present land use/ownership; planned development activities; community structure; present and projected employment by industrial category; distribution of income, goods and services; recreation; public health; cultural properties; indigenous peoples; and customs. Potential for traffic accidents. Task 3. Legislative and Regulatory Considerations. Describe the pertinent laws, regulations and standards governing environmental quality, pollutant discharges to surface waters and land and to public sewers, building codes of practice, protection of sensitive areas and endangered species, siting, land use control, etc., at international, national, regional and local levels (The TORs should specify those that are known and require the consultant to investigate for others. Task 4. Determination of the Potential Impacts of the Proposed Project. In this analysis, distinguish between significant positive and negative impacts, direct and indirect impacts, and immediate and long-term impacts. Identify impacts that are unavoidable or irreversible. Wherever possible, describe impacts quantitatively, in terms of environmental costs and benefits. Assign economic values when feasible. Characterize the extent and quality of available data, explaining significant information deficiencies and any uncertainties associated with predictions of impact. Provide TORs for studies to obtain the missing information. Special attention should be given to: Siting: sensitive issues eg, displacement of prime agricultural land and other land uses; impacts upon drainage patterns, vegetation removal and wetlands and other habitats; hazardous natural or man-made conditions; dislocation of resident populations; historic or cultural resources Construction: degradation of natural habitats; increase of erosion/flooding ( hazard vulnerability); depletion of groundwater, sewage disposal, landscaping, material disposal ( especially toxic wastes such as asbestos), etc. Page 3

361 Overloading of existing infrastructure and services and depletion of resources, eg, lumber, fuel or overtaxing of industries such as brick-making Dislocation of existing residents. Task 5. Analysis of Alternatives to the Proposed Project. Describe alternatives that were examined in the course of developing the proposed project and identify other alternatives that would achieve the same objectives. The concept of alternatives extends to siting and design, technology selection, rehabilitation/construction techniques and phasing, and operating and maintenance procedures for collection systems, treatment works, disposal and sludge management. Compare alternatives in terms of potential environmental impacts, land and energy requirements, capital and operating costs, reliability, suitability under local conditions, and institutional, training, and monitoring requirements. When describing the impacts, indicate which are irreversible or unavoidable and which may be mitigated. To the extent possible, quantify the costs and benefits of each alternative, incorporating the estimated costs of any associated mitigating measures. Include the alternative of not constructing the project to demonstrate environmental conditions without it. Task 6. Development of an Environmental Management Plan (EMP). Estimate the impacts and costs of the mitigation measures and of the institutional and training requirements to implement them. Assess compensation to affected parties for impacts that cannot be mitigated. Prepare an EMP, including proposed work programs, budget estimates, schedules, staffing and training requirements, and other necessary support services to implement the mitigating measures, monitoring, etc. Consider compensation to affected parties for impacts that cannot be mitigated. Include measures for emergency response to natural and accidental events (e.g., flooding, entry of raw sewage into rivers, streams, etc), and health and safety, as appropriate Prepare a detailed plan to monitor the implementation of mitigating measures and the impacts of the project during construction and operation. Include in the plan an estimate of capital and operating costs and a description of other inputs (such as training and institutional strengthening) needed to implement the plan. For projects that include a land disposal facility, environmental monitoring should include a regular schedule of monitoring the quality of surface and ground waters. Provide environmental protection clauses for application by consultants and contractors. Review the authority and capability of institutions at local, provincial/regional, and national levels and recommend steps to strengthen or expand them so that the EMP may be effectively implemented. The recommendations may extend to new laws and regulations, new agencies or agency functions, intersectoral arrangements, management procedures and training, staffing, operation and maintenance training, budgeting, and financial support. Task 7. Assist in Inter-Agency Coordination and Public/NGO Participation. The Consultant will assist the government in coordinating the EA with relevant agencies and the government will consult with affected groups likely to be affected by the proposed project and with local NGOs on the environmental and social aspects of the proposed project. For projects categorized A, these groups will be consulted at least twice: in meetings held during preparation before the TORs for the EA are finalized and when a draft EA is available (a summary of the EA will be available prior to the meeting). For projects categorized B, these groups should be consulted once a draft EA has been prepared and a summary of the EA conclusions will, be made prior to the meeting. For both A and B category projects the draft EA should also be available in a public place accessible to affected groups and local NGOs. Relevant materials will be provided to affected groups in a timely manner prior to consultation and in a form and language that is understandable and accessible to the groups being consulted. The Consultant should maintain a record of the public consultation and the records should indicate: means other than consultations) eg, surveys) used to seek the views of affected stakeholders; the date and Page 4

362 location of the consultation meetings, a list of the attendees and their affiliation and contact address; and, summary minutes. 7. Report. Provide an EA report that is concise and limited to significant environmental issues. The main text should focus on findings, conclusions and recommended actions, supported by summaries of the data collected and citations for any references used in interpreting those data. Detailed or uninterrupted data are not appropriate in the main text and should be presented in appendices or a separate volume. Unpublished documents used in the assessment may not be readily available and should also be assembled in an appendix. Organize the environmental assessment report according to the outline below. (This is the format suggested in OP 4.1; the TORs may specify a different one to satisfy national agency requirements as long as the topics required in the Bank's directive are covered): Executive Summary Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework Description of the Proposed Project Description of the Environment Analysis of Alternatives Environmental Management Plan, incl. mitigation, monitoring, capacity development and training and implementation schedule and costs and environmental protection clauses for use by consultants and contractors. Inter-Agency and Public/NGO Involvement List of References Appendices:. List of Environmental Assessment Preparers;. Records of Inter-Agency and Public/NGO Communications;. Data and Unpublished Reference Documents. 8. Consulting Team. The following specialties should be considered for the core consulting team: environmental engineering, environmental planning (or other environmental generalists); ecology (terrestrial, aquatic or marine, depending on type of discharge); water quality; soils science (for land application); wastewater utility management; and sociology/anthropology. Other specialties that may be needed depending on the nature of the project are public health, agronomy, hydrology, land use planning, limnology/oceanography (especially for outfall design), water quality modeling, and resource economics. Note: the team will be required to work closely with specialists undertaking the social analysis and to define arrangements for the final report, especially if the EA and social analysis are to be combined in one report 9. Schedule. This section will specify dates for progress reviews, interim and final reports, and other significant events. 1. Other Information. Include here lists of data sources, project background reports and studies, relevant publications, and other items to which the consultant's attention should be directed.. Examples are pre-feasibility studies, population and land use projections, land use plans, industrial activity information, water quality studies, sewerage service needs surveys, public health reports, sewer system evaluations. Page 5

363 ANNEX G: Typical Environmental Mitigation Measures for Building Construction Impact Change in land use and loss of agricultural land Impact Description Change in land use pattern and topography of the project Drainage congestion/water logging Improper site selection and construction can create localized drainage problem/water logging Losses of tress and vegetation Cutting or trimming of trees, losses of vegetation Dust and noise pollution Dust generation during construction phase. Spillage of the material will be occurred from physical works Noise generation from physical interventions Blocking of Roads/access/approach Improper storage of construction material may block the roads/access/approach to the school or the community Surface Water Pollution Occupational health and safety Improper disposal of solid and liquid waste generate from construction sites will pollute the water quality Chances of any accidents, spread of communication diseases Day Lighting and ventilation system Selection of appropriate Water Supply Technology Poor lighting and ventilation may impact on students and teachers Without proper analysis, the new source can be arsenic contaminated Mitigation Measures * Avoid agricultural land for subproject activities * If avoidance is not possible, analyze the alternative and choose the best option * Consider the drainage system of the whole area in subproject design * Maintain cross-drainage at all times during construction * Prevent all solid and liquid wastes entering waterways by collecting solid waste and wastewater from brick, concrete * Consider alternation options to reduce the loss of trees and vegetation * A green fence will be raised with native tree species around the school * Plant same species of trees and vegetation as compensatory measures * Spray of water during dry season and in windy conditions * Immediate compaction after construction of base course * Cover the stockpiles of fine materials in construction yard * Plan the work schedule of noise creating activities in consultation of local community * Employ best available work practices on-site to minimize occupational noise levels * Construction materials and machinery should not be placed in a manner that blocks any roads, paths or local accesses * unloading of construction materials should be carried in a manner and time so as to avoid blockage of roads/paths/access * Waste should not be placed on the roads * Prohibit direct disposal of solid and liquid wastage into nearby water body. * Spoil Management Plan should be implemented by the contractor * Implement suitable safety standards for all workers and site visitors * Provision of first aid facility * Arrangement of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities for the labors working in the subprojects * Adequate windows in proper direction in consultation with students and teachers * Identify unions and Upazilas based on DPHE survey where shallow or deep tube-wells are feasible * Analyze local surrounding arsenic test results and recommend for tubewells or not

364 Selection of appropriate location for water source and sanitary latrine Location may not be convenient to female students and impacts on natural resources and common property resources. Close distance between water point and sanitary latrine can contaminate groundwater. * Discuss with school committee and students and select a location which is convenient for school and not impacting on trees or any other common property resources. * A minimum distance of 15 m should be maintained between a tube-well and a latrine to prevent contamination of water resources. In case of shallow shrouded hand tube-wells, this distance should be 2 m as horizontal filters are used in this type of tube-wells. Integration of drainage facilities with water supply and sanitary latrine Water quality testing In absence of proper drainage facilities, water logging can be created around school. * Drainage facilities will be integrated with water supply options and sanitary latrine facilities in planning and design. New water source may not be safe for drinking * After installation of tube-wells, arsenic will be tested and be used only it satisfy the Bangladesh standard Page 3

365 ANNEX H: Sample Terms of Reference of Environment Specialist The Environmental Specialist, preferably with the post-graduation specialization in environmental engineering/science, shall have attest 1 years of working experience related to preparation or EA, integration of environmental and social issues in the design, implementation and operation of rural infrastructure projects. Experience in environmental management of school infrastructure is preferred. The specific roles and responsibilities of the Environmental Specialist shall include, but not limited to the following: Lead the overall EMF implementation and capacity building in LGED Education Unit Monitor and review the certain percentage of screening process for subprojects Review Costing subproject specific EMP Ensure inclusion of EMP and its cost in bidding document Supervise the implementation of the EMP by the Contractors Develop good practice construction guidelines to assist the contractors in implementing the EMP Carry out environmental monitoring to ensure compliance with the EMP & GoB requirements. Prepare and submit regular environmental monitoring and implementation progress reports Continuously interact with the implementing agency regarding the implementation of the environmental compliance Work closely Training team and ensure proper capacity building of staff and contractors Qualification of Environmental Specialist At least Masters Degree in environmental studies/ management/science /engineering About 1 years of experience in environmental assessment Experience in rural infrastructure development projects or other projects in similar nature Experience in education project is preferable Ability to lead, organize and co-ordinate Good verbal and written communication skills in both English and Bangla Demonstrated interpersonal skills, and proven ability to work in a different multicultural context Annex: I Preliminary site visit of the proposed location of DPE HQ at Dhaka The proposed location of the extension of DPE HQ is within the campus of the existing HQ of Directorate of Primary Education at Mirpur Section-2, Dhaka. The area is accessible through the main gate of the existing office and just beside the main road that passes from Mirpur-1 to Mirpur-1.

366 There is no human settlement in the proposed land and no eviction of temporary housing would be required. However some planted trees would be required to cut down which should be compensated through planned plantation after the construction. Basement floor should be incorporated in the design to accommodate the vehicle of the occupants so that no parking at the adjacent road would be necessary. However, an environmental assessment should be undertaken before the commencement of the work so that issues like management of solid and liquid waste, fire safety and emergency evacuation and energy and water efficiency in the building can be ensured to reduce its carbon foot print. Page 3

367 ANNEX J: Preliminary site visit of the proposed location of Leader Ship Centre at Cox s Bazar A visit to the proposed site of the Leadership Centre of DPE at Coxs Bazar to be constructed under PEDP3 was undertaken on August 21, 214. During the visit Mr Zahidul Islam Khan, Monitoring Officer and Mr Rafiq, Head Assistant of District Primary Education Office and Upzlia Engineer of Sadar Upazila of LGED, Coxs Bazar was present. The proposed site for the Leadership Center is within the campus of the office of District Primary Education Officer (PPEO) and stands in the middle of the city. The area is surrounded by roads at two sides while there is a small canal flowing by another side. The fourth side (the rear side of the office) has a common boundary with private property. It was known from the DPEO officials that the campus was previously used as the hostel of the PTI and the playground was then used by the participants. The two storied hostel building and the residence of the Hostel Super is still in the campus but not being used for a long time and are left abandoned. Fig-1: Entrance of the office campus of DPEO Fig-2: Entrance road inside of the campus of office of DPEO

368 Proposed location Fig-3 : Photograph and schematic diagram of location of the proposed site with the existing office campus of DPEO Fig-3 : Photograph and schematic diagram of location of the proposed site with the existing office campus of DPEO If we enter into the office of the DPEO, there is a big playground at the left hand side. The land on the right hand side of the entrance road has been proposed as the location of the Leadership Centre. Within the proposed area, there are two old abandoned buildings which might need to be demolished before the commencement of the construction. One is a two storied building previously used as the hostel for the PTI and another one is a single story building previously used as the residence of the hostel Super. The Page 3

369 old residence of the Super would certainly require demolition while the old hostel might require demolition if demanded by the design. Proposed location Fig-4: The two buildings in the proposed location which might need to be demolished. It would be necessary to cut down a few trees due to the construction of the new building. But considering the number and type of the trees, these do not appear to be significant. However, plantation program can be planned in the proposed premises to offset this. The land does not require any land filling. There is no human settlement in the proposed site. It would be necessary to cut down a few trees due to the construction of the new building. But considering the number and type of the trees, these do not appear to be significant. However, plantation program can be planned in the proposed premises to offset this. The land does not require any land filling. There is no human settlement in the proposed site. Page 4

370 Fig-5: A few trees are there in the proposed location but do not appear to be very significant The campus has only one entrance. There is a Small road by the side of the proposed location through which a second entrance can be made if necessary. Fig-6: The Main gate of the office which is the only entrance at the moment. Fig-7: A road passed by one side of the office campus Page 5

371 A small drain like canal runs by the side of the office campus which is connected to Bakkhali River and plays important role in draining out storm water from the city. Fig-8: Small canal passing by the side of the office campus It seems that there are no major concerns from environmental safeguard point of view. The site is not located in ecologically critical area. There is neither any human settlement in the proposed site nor any temporary shop which might be required to evict. The site also does not pose any threat to indigenous population. However, as the old buildings need to be demolished to start the new construction, special care should be taken in such activities. Presence of asbestos has to be carefully assessed. If any trace of asbestos is found, special care should be undertaken in disposing the debris, also the labors working in such debris should also use proper safety equipment to avoid health hazard. Page 6

372 Annex-K: Typical Design of school building under PEDP3 Page 7

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