# Chapter What can the marginal product of labour be defined as? a. change in profit change in labour b. change in output change in labour

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1 Chapter What is the amount of money that a firm receives from the sale of its output called? a. total gross profit b. total net profit c. total revenue d. net revenue 2. Susan used to work as a telemarketer, earning \$ per year. She gave up that job to start a catering business. In calculating the economic profit of her catering business, how is the \$ income that she gave up counted, in terms of the catering business? a. total revenue b. opportunity costs c. explicit costs d. sunk costs 3. What would be an example of an explicit cost of production? a. the cost of forgone labour earnings for an entrepreneur b. the lost opportunity to invest in other capital markets when the money is invested in one's business c. the cost of flour for a baker d. the cost of training programs postponed indefinitely Scenario 13-1 Joe wants to start his own business. The business he wants to start will require that he purchase a factory that costs \$ To finance this purchase, he will use \$ of his own money, on which he has been earning 10 percent interest per year. In addition, he will borrow \$ , and he will pay 12 percent interest per year on that loan. 4. Refer to Scenario For the first year of operation, what is the explicit cost of purchasing the factory? a. \$ b. \$ c. \$ d. \$ Refer to Scenario For the first year of operation, what is the opportunity cost of purchasing the factory? a. \$ b. \$ c. \$ d. \$ What relationship does a production function measure? a. inputs and quantity of output b. inputs and revenue c. inputs and costs d. inputs and profit 7. What can the marginal product of labour be defined as? a. change in profit change in labour b. change in output change in labour

3 12. When a firm's only variable input is labour, what does the slope of the production function measure? a. the quantity of labour b. the quantity of output c. the total cost d. the marginal product of labour 13. Let L represent the number of workers hired by a firm and let Q represent that firm's quantity of output. Assume two points on the firm's production function are (L = 12, Q = 122) and (L = 13, Q = 130). What is the marginal product of the 13th worker? a. 8 units of output b. 10 units of output c. 122 units of output d. 130 units of output 14. On a 100-acre farm, a farmer is able to produce 3000 bushels of wheat when he hires 2 workers. He is able to produce 4400 bushels of wheat when he hires 3 workers. Which of the following possibilities is consistent with the property of diminishing marginal product? a. The farmer is able to produce 5600 bushels of wheat when he hires 4 workers. b. The farmer is able to produce 5800 bushels of wheat when he hires 4 workers. c. The farmer is able to produce 6000 bushels of wheat when he hires 4 workers. d. The farmer is able to produce 6200 bushels of wheat when he hires 4 workers. 15. What distinguishes short-run cost analysis from long-run cost analysis for a profit-maximizing firm in the short run? a. Output is not variable. b. The number of workers used to produce the firm's product is fixed. c. The size of the factory is fixed. d. There are no fixed costs. 16. What is the cost of producing the typical unit of output? a. the firm's average total cost b. the firm's opportunity cost c. the firm's variable cost d. the firm's marginal cost 17. What is the amount by which total cost rises when the firm produces one additional unit of output called? a. average cost b. marginal cost c. fixed cost d. variable cost Scenario 13-2 A firm experiences decreasing marginal product of labour with the addition of each worker regardless of the current output level. 18. Refer to Scenario How will average total cost behave? a. It will always rise. b. It will always fall. c. It will be U-shaped, first falling, then rising. d. It will remain constant.

4 19. Refer to Scenario How will average fixed cost behave? a. It will always rise. b. It will always fall. c. It will be U-shaped, first falling, then rising. d. It will remain constant. 20. Refer to Scenario How will marginal cost behave? a. It will always rise. b. It will always fall. c. It will be U-shaped, first falling, then rising. d. It will remain constant. 21. If marginal cost is rising, what must be happening? verage variable cost must be falling. b. Average fixed cost must be rising. c. Marginal product must be falling. d. Marginal product must be rising. 22. What does diminishing marginal product suggest? dditional units of output become less costly as more output is produced. b. Marginal cost is upward sloping. c. The firm is at full capacity. d. Average product is rising. 23. For what reason is average total cost very high when a small amount of output is produced? verage variable cost is high. b. Average fixed cost is high. c. Marginal cost is high. d. Marginal cost is low. 24. When marginal cost is less than average total cost, what do we know? a. Marginal cost must be falling. b. Average variable cost must be falling. c. Average total cost is falling. d. Average total cost is rising. 25. When is marginal cost equal to average total cost? a. when average variable cost is falling b. when average fixed cost is rising c. when marginal cost is at its minimum d. when average total cost is at its minimum The curves below reflect information about the average total cost, average fixed cost, average variable cost, and marginal cost for a firm. 26. What is the firm's efficient scale? a. the quantity of output that minimizes average total cost b. the quantity of output that minimizes average fixed cost c. the quantity of output that minimizes average variable cost d. the quantity of output that minimizes marginal cost

5 Figure Refer to Figure Which of the curves is most likely to represent average total cost? 28. Refer to Figure Which of the curves is most likely to represent average fixed cost? 29. Refer to Figure Which of the curves is most likely to represent average variable cost? 30. Refer to Figure Which of the curves is most likely to represent marginal cost? Table 13-1 Number of Workers Chocolates Produced per Week Marginal Product of Labour Cost of Factory Cost of Workers Total Cost of Inputs \$150 \$ 275 \$

6 31. Refer to Table What is the marginal product of the second worker? a. 110 b. 200 c. 260 d Refer to Table What is the total cost associated with making 890 boxes of premium chocolates per week? a. \$1250 b. \$1325 c. \$1400 d. \$ Refer to Table One week, Adrian earns a profit of \$125. If her revenue for the week is \$1100, how many boxes of chocolate did she produce? a. 140 b. 330 c. 780 d At what level of output will average variable cost equal average total cost? a. when marginal cost equals average total cost b. for all levels of output in which average variable cost is falling c. when marginal cost equals average variable cost d. at no level of output, as long as fixed costs are positive 35. When a firm is able to put idle equipment to use by hiring another worker, what will result? a. Variable costs will rise. b. Variable costs will fall. c. Fixed costs will fall. d. Fixed costs and variable costs will rise. 36. In the long run, what happens to inputs? a. Inputs that were fixed in the short run remain fixed. b. Inputs that were fixed in the short run become variable. c. Inputs that were variable in the short run become fixed. d. Variable inputs are rarely used. 37. When do economies of scale arise? a. when an economy is self-sufficient in production b. when individuals in a society are self-sufficient c. when fixed costs are large relative to variable costs d. when workers are able to specialize in a particular task 38. When, for a firm, long-run average total cost decreases as the quantity of output increases, we have which of the following situations? a. economies of scale b. diseconomies of scale c. coordination problems arising from the large size of the firm d. fixed costs greatly exceeding variable costs

7 Figure Refer to Figure Which of the curves is most likely to characterize the short-run average total cost curve of the smallest factory? TC A b. ATC B c. ATC C d. ATC D 40. Refer to Figure Which curve represents the long-run average total cost? TC A b. ATC B c. ATC C d. ATC D 41. Refer to Figure This firm experiences diseconomies of scale at what output levels? a. output levels below M b. output levels between M and N c. output levels at N d. output levels above N 42. Refer to Figure At levels of output below M, what does the firm experience? a. economies of scale b. diseconomies of scale c. economic profit d. accounting profit

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