# OPERATING SYSTEMS. Systems and Models. CS 3502 Spring Chapter 03

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1 OPERATING SYSTEMS CS 3502 Spring 2018 Systems and Models Chapter 03

2 Systems and Models A system is the part of the real world under study. It is composed of a set of entities interacting among themselves and with the environment. A model is an abstract representation of a system. The system behavior is dependent on the input data and actions from the environment.

3 Abstraction The most important concept in analysis and design A high-level description of a collection of objects Only the relevant properties and features of the objects are included.

4 System A system has: Structure Behavior The model of a system is simpler than the real system in its structure and behavior. But it should be equivalent to the system.

5 A High-Level Model

6 Using Models A user can: Manipulate the model by supplying it with a set of inputs Observe its behavior or output Predict the behavior of the real system by analyzing the behavior of the model.

7 Behavior of a Model Depends on: The passage of time Input data Events generated by the environment

8 Types of Model The most general categories of models are: Physical models Graphical models Mathematical models. These are the most flexible ones and are the ones studied here.

9 Solutions to Mathematical Models Analytic, the solution is a set of expressions that define the behavior of the model. Numeric, mathematical techniques are used to derive values for the model behavior within given intervals. Deterministic and stochastic models are solved with numerical techniques.

10 Models with Uncertain Behavior Models are further categorized as: Deterministic - models that display a completely predictable behavior (with 100% certainty) Stochastic - models that display some level of uncertainty in their behavior. This random behavior is implemented with random variables.

11 Model of a Simple Batch System

12 Stochastic Models One or more attributes (implemented as random variables) change value according to some probability distribution. Example of random variables in the simple batch OS model: Inter-arrival time of jobs CPU service time of jobs

13 Random Variables The values of most workload parameters change randomly, and are represented by a probability distribution. For example, in a model of a computer system, the interarrival intervals of jobs usually follow an exponential distribution. Other probability distributions that are used in the models discussed in this book are: normal, uniform, and Poisson. In the simulation models considered, most workload parameters are implemented as random variables.

14 Simulation Models A simulation model is a mathematical model implemented with a general-purpose programming language, or a simulation language. A simulation run is an experiment carried out for some observation period and with the simulation model to study the behavior of the model.

15 Continuous and Discrete Models Continuous models change their state continuously with time. Mathematical notation is used to completely define the behavior. For example, the free-falling object. Discrete models only change their state at discrete instants. For example, arrival of a job in the Simple batch OS model.

16 Simulation Results For every simulation run there are two types of output: Trace - sequence of events that occur during the simulation period Performance measures - summary statistics about the simulation.

17 Studying Operating Systems To study the structure and behavior of an OS is a very complicated task Modeling and simulation are used to study the different components and various aspects of an operating system.

18 Performance Measures Measures that indicate how well (or bad) is the system being studied carrying out its functions, with respect to some aspect In studying a system, usually several performance measures are necessary.

19 Approaches for Studying Performance Measurements on the real system Simulation models Analytical models

20 Performance: External Goals Goals that can be measured without looking at the internals of a system Examples Maximize Work Performed (Throughput) Minimize Response Time Fairness Scheduling processes Goals often conflict

21 Performance: Internal Goals Performance Goals for sub-systems that are internal to the computer(s) Examples Maximize CPU Utilization % time CPU is busy Maximize Disk Utilization % time Disk is busy Minimize Disk Access Time Time it takes to perform a disk request

22 Performance Study Define a set of relevant objectives and goals Decide on the following: The performance metrics The system parameters The system factors The system workloads

23 Workload on a System The performance measures depend on the current workload of the system The workload for a system can be characterized by another series of measures, which are made on the input to the system Errors in characterizing the workload may have serious consequences.

24 Workload Parameters Inter-arrival time Task size I/O request rate I/O service rate Memory request

25 System Parameters System memory Processor speed Number and type of processors Degree of multi-programming Length of time slice Number and type of I/O ports

26 Arrival Interval & Rate Arrival Interval is the time between 2 resource requests arriving Arrival Rate = 1 / Arrival Interval How often requests for a resource arrive Denoted by λ

27 Service Time & Rate Service Time is the time to actually perform a request e.g. 500 Msec / request Service Rate = 1 / Service Time Denoted by μ e.g. 2 requests / second

28 Arrival Rate vs Service Rate Arrival Rate < Service Rate Resource can handle requests Queuing Time will be small If Arrival Rate significantly less Resource may be under-utilized

29 Arrival Rate vs Service Rate Arrival Rate = Service Rate Resource fully utilized Resource can generally handle requests But Requests will often be queued

30 Arrival Rate vs Service Rate Arrival Rate > Service Rate Resource unable to handle all requests Queuing Time may be large If difference is large Resource will be over-utilized

31 Arrival Rate vs Service Rate Both rates will change from one instant to another Queuing system & resource scheduling handle momentary imbalances Long-term imbalances indicate a system with a major resource utilization problem

32 Service Time Is the Service Time for a given request always the same?

33 Service Time Service Time for a given request can vary A request to read data from a certain part of a disk will not always take the same amount of time. For some resources, a request s Service Time may be affected by the previous requests that have been executed

34 Relevant Performance Measures Throughput Capacity Response time Utilization Reliability Speedup Backlog

35 Meaning of Performance Measures The average number of jobs in the system The average number of jobs in the queue(s) (i.e., that are waiting) The average time that a job spends in the system The average time that a job spends in the queue(s) The CPU utilization Throughput - the total number of jobs serviced.

36 System Capacity The capacity of a system is determined by its maximum performance The nominal capacity of a system is given by the maximum achievable throughput under ideal conditions The usable capacity is the maximum throughput achievable under specified constraints.

37 Bottleneck The computer system reaches capacity when one or more of its servers or resources reach a utilization close to 100%. The bottleneck of the system will be localized in the server or resource with a utilization close to 100%, while the other servers and resources each have utilization significantly below 100%.

38 Modeling Bottleneck The bottleneck of the computer system described here can be localized at the processor, the queue, or the memory. The queue may become full (reaches capacity) very often as the processor utilization increases. The memory capacity may also be used at capacity (100%). Thus, in any of the three cases, the processor, the queue, or the memory will need to be replaced or increased in capacity.

39 Efficiency and Reliability The efficiency of a system is the ratio usable capacity to nominal capacity The reliability of a system is measured by the probability of errors. Also defined as the mean time between errors. Availability is the fraction of time that the system is available for user requests, also called the system uptime.

40 A More Complete Model of a Computer System

41

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