A Construct Validity Study of the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A Construct Validity Study of the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support"

Transcription

1 Journal of Applied Psychology 1991, Vol. 76, No. 5,67-64 Copyright 1991 by the American Psychological Association. Inc /91/S.00 A Construct Validity Study of the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support Lynn McFarlane Shore Department of Management and W T. Beebe Institute of Personnel and Employment Relations Georgia State University Lois E. Tetrick Wayne State University Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchinson, and Sowa (1986) recently conducted a study focused on a measure of perceived employer commitment that they called the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS). In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of the SPOS and to determine the distinctiveness of this construct from other similar constructs. Participants were 0 employees in a large corporation headquartered in the southeastern United States. The results support the SPOS as a unidimensional scale that is distinguishable from affective and continuance commitment. However, the data raise some question as to the empirical distinction between the SPOS and satisfaction. A great deal of research has been conducted on the concept of organizational commitment (Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 198). Many other commitment concepts have been proposed and researched as well (Morrow, 198), such as job involvement (Lodahl & Kejner, 1965; Kanungo, 1979), career salience (Greenhaus, 1971), union commitment (Gordon, Philpot, Burt, Thompson, & Spiller, 1980), and occupational commitment (Vandenberg & Scarpello, 1988). Each of these attitudes focuses on the individual's attachment to a particular aspect of the work situation, such as a job, union, or organization. What has been less thoroughly studied are employee perceptions of employer commitment to the individual (i.e., perceived organizational support). Recently, Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchinson, and Sowa (1986) suggested that perceived organizational support is an antecedent of organizational commitment and offered a measure of perceived employer commitment, which they called the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS). They used a social exchange view to explain the relationship between these two forms of commitment. Essentially, this view suggests that an employee's inferences about the organization's commitment to him or her contributes to the employee's subsequent commitment to the organization. Eisenberger et al.'s (1986) results strongly supported this social exchange perspective of the commitment process. The notion that an employee's commitment to the organization develops as a result of an exchange relationship is not new in the commitment literature (Gouldner, 1960; Scholl, 1981). According to Etzioni (1961), employees become attached to an organization because they see a beneficial or equitable exchange relationship between their contributions to the organization and the rewards they receive for service. Consistent with Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Lynn M. Shore, Department of Management, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4014, Atlanta, Georgia this perspective is Becker's (1960) notion of side bets: investments in the organization serve to bind the employee to the organization. Thus, attachment to an organization is seen as a state that can arise not necessarily through some crucial act on the part of the employee but rather through the accumulation of a series of relatively small side bets. Kanter (1968) also suggested that investment was an important mechanism for producing member continuance. To the extent that such investments are seen as irreversible, they provide employees with a personal stake in the fate of the organization, as well as making leaving costly. The social-exchange literature hence suggests that organizational commitment reflects employees' perceptions about the nature of the relationship that exists between themselves and the employing organization. However, this perspective appears to be very similar to the construct of perceived organizational support. According to Eisenberger et al. (1986), "employees develop global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being" (p. 501). Whereas measures of organizational commitment tend to focus on employees' attitudes toward the organization (e.g., "I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization"), the SPOS focuses on the employees' perceptions of the organization's attitude toward them (e.g., "The organization fails to appreciate any extra effort from me"). In fact, research shows that perceived organizational support is significantly associated with organizational commitment (Eisenberger et al., 1986) and affective and calculative attachment to the organization (Eisenberger, Fasolo, & Davis-LaMastro, 1990). Given the conceptual similarity between organizational commitment and perceived organizational support, it is critical to investigate the distinctiveness of measures of these constructs. Another conceptual issue pertaining to the SPOS is whether employees have developed perceptions of organizational support that are distinct from their satisfaction with various aspects of their work experience. Much research has explored the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational 67

2 68 LYNN McFARLANE SHORE AND LOIS E. TETRICK commitment (e.g., Farkas & Tetrick, 1989; Vandenberg & Lance, in press). Porter, Steers, Mowday, and Boulian (1974) argued that the two constructs are distinct because commitment represents a global reaction to the organization as a whole whereas satisfaction is an affective reaction to various facets of the work situation. Furthermore, there is empirical evidence that satisfaction and commitment are distinct (Brooke, Russell, & Price, 1988). Like organizational commitment, perceived organizational support represents an attitudinal response to the organization as a whole. It could therefore be argued that this new construct should also be distinct from satisfaction. In addition, because organizational commitment is correlated with both perceived organizational support (Eisenberger et al., 1986) and job satisfaction (e.g., Farkas & Tetrick, 1989), it could also be logically inferred that perceived organizational support and satisfaction should be related. However, because of a lack of empirical evidence, the extent to which the individual really distinguishes satisfaction from perceived organizational support and the nature of the relationship between these two constructs is unclear. Thus, a comparison of the SPOS with work satisfaction would assess the degree of independence that perceived organizational support has from satisfaction with a number of facets of work, such as the supervisor, co-workers, pay, opportunities for growth, job security, the job itself, and the organization. Although initial research on the psychometric properties of the SPOS appears promising (e.g., Eisenberger et al., 1986; Kottke & Sharafinski, 1988), little evidence has accrued about the construct that underlies this scale. In particular, there has been no systematic study of the distinctiveness and redundancy of the SPOS in relation to other similar constructs, which is one means of establishing the construct validity of a scale (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the construct validity of the SPOS by using confirmatory factor analysis techniques. The SPOS was compared with the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ; Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979) and the Affective Commitment Scale (ACS) and Continuance Commitment Scale (CCS; Meyer & Allen, 1984). In addition, the SPOS was compared with the Specific Satisfactions Scale from the Job Diagnostic Survey (Hackman & Oldham, 1975) and the Overall Job Satisfaction Scale (Seashore, Lawler, Mirvis, & Cammann, 198) because much controversy exists in the literature on the nature of the relationship between satisfaction and commitment (Farkas & Tetrick, 1989; Scholl, 1981). Sample Method Participants were 0 employees holding a variety of job positions (e.g., mechanics, secretaries, and supervisors) in a large multinational firm headquartered in the southeastern United States. There were 7 male and 58 female employees, and the average age of the employees was 47.9 years. Average organizational tenure for participants was.48 years. Data Collection Procedures and Measures The present research was part of a larger organizational survey with several purposes. A stratified random sample (by age and tenure) of 1,071 employees were contacted by mail and asked to participate in a longitudinal study of employee attitudes. Three hundred and eight of those contacted were newly hired and were not included in the present study. Of the remaining employees who agreed to participate (N = 48), 95% (7V= 0) returned their surveys. Thus, 4% of the employees who were asked to participate in the present study (N= 76) actually did so. The survey consisted of a series of questions on employee work attitudes, ratings of job performance, employee development experiences, and demographic information. Only measures used in the present study are described. These included the SPOS (Eisenberger et al., 1986); the short form of the OCQ (Mowday et al., 1979); the ACS and CCS (Meyer & Allen, 1984); the Specific Satisfactions Scale, which includes measures of satisfaction with security, pay, growth, coworkers, and supervision (Hackman & Oldham, 1975); the Overall Job Satisfaction Scale (Seashore et al., 198); and a single item asking respondents how satisfied they were with the organization. Attitude measures on the employee survey utilized 5-point scales and were scored such that higher values reflected a higher degree of support, commitment, or satisfaction. For the Specific Satisfactions Scale, anchors ranged from very dissatisfied (1) to very satisfied (5), and for the other attitude measures the anchors ranged from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). Items were grouped by scale in the questionnaire (i.e., they were not randomly intermixed). Analysis Data were analyzed in a two-step process. First, using LISREL-PC, Version 7 (Jbreskog & Sorbom, 1988), we assessed the covariance matrix of the items for each measure against a one-factor model to determine whether the scale was unidimensional. Then, four manifest indicators of each commitment construct, represented by the scales, were formed to test the distinctiveness of perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, affective commitment, continuance commitment, and satisfaction. This procedure was elected to avoid the use of item-level factor analysis as well as to enhance the subject-to-degrees-of-freedom ratio for testing the relations of interest (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). The indices of fit provided by LISREL-PC that were used to assess the goodness of fit of the models estimated were the ratio of chi-square to degrees of freedom, the goodness-of-fit index (GFI), the adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI), and the root-mean-square residual (rmsr). In addition, the normed fit index (NFI; Bentler& Bonett, 1980) and the parsimonious fit index (PFI; Mulaik et al., 1989) were used on the basis of a null model of complete independence. Although Bentler and Bonett suggested that a NFI of.90 or greater signifies that the model estimated has accounted for the sample covariance matrix, Tanaka (1987) reported that this may be overly severe. Therefore, for this study, a criterion of.80 for the NFI in conjunction with the PFI was used to assess the adequacy of fit for the models estimated. Results Prior to examining the relations among the SPOS, OCQ, ACS, CCS, and satisfaction, we submitted each scale to confirmatory factor analysis to establish its unidimensionality (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). The results of these confirmatory factor analyses are shown in Table 1 along with the means, standard deviations, and coefficient alpha estimates of internal consistency. A single-factor model was found to adequately ac-

3 SURVEY OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT 69 Table 1 Results of Tests ofunidimensionality for the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS), Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ), Affective Commitment Scale (ACS), Continuance Commitment Scale (CCS), and Satisfaction Scale SPOS OCQ ACS CCS Satisfaction Facets of satisfaction Security Pay Growth Co-workers Supervision Job Organization No. of items M SD a x , df on AGFI Fit indices Note. All chi-square values were significant, p <.001. GFI = goodness-of-fit index; AGFI = adjusted goodness-of-fit index; rmsr = root-mean-square residual; NFI = normed fit index; PFI = parsimonious fit index. rmsr NFI PFI count for the covariance matrices among the SPOS, OCQ, ACS, and CCS items (NFI =.906,.917,.887, and.870, respectively). Therefore, having obtained evidence of the unidimensionality of these scales, we followed Anderson and Gerbing's (1988) recommendation against using single items as indicators by forming composites of the items within each scale to serve as indicators of perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, affective commitment, and continuance commitment. That is, each item from a given scale was randomly assigned to one of four composites, which served as an indicator of that respective construct. The means and standard deviations of the resulting indicators for each construct are shown in Table. The single-factor model for the 14 items of the Specific Satisfactions Scale plus the items of the Overall Job Satisfaction Scale and the Organizational Satisfaction item did not adequately account for the covariance matrix (NFI =.66). Subsequently, a seven-factor model was estimated, which did receive support (NFI =.907). Therefore, the data indicated that each facet of satisfaction should be treated as a separate variable. However, because there were, at most, only 4 items to measure a specific satisfaction, a single composite indicator for each facet of satisfaction was formed as shown in Table. Thus, the covariance matrix among the manifest indicators (4 manifest indicators each for SPOS, OCQ, ACS, and CCS plus the 7 manifest indicators of satisfaction with security, pay, growth, co-workers, supervision, job, and organization) was computed and submitted to further analyses. Examination of the correlation matrix among the manifest indicators (see Table ) reveals that the indicators of a given construct were generally more strongly correlated with each other than with the indicators of the other constructs. However, there were moderate to strong correlations among all of the indicators of perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, affective commitment, and satisfaction. Only the indicators of continuance commitment appeared to be independent of the other variables. On the basis of this pattern of correlations, a two-factor model was estimated in which the indicators of the SPOS, OCQ, ACS, and satisfaction scales loaded on one factor and the indicators of the CCS loaded on a second factor. This model did not attain adequate fit, x (9) = 140. (GFI =.67, AGFI =.551, rmsr =.06, NFI =.765, PFI =.69), signifying that perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, affective commitment, and satisfaction were differentiable, at least in part. Next, an 11 -factor model was estimated in which the underlying, correlated dimensions were perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, affective commitment, continuance commitment, and seven specific facets of satisfaction (security, pay, growth, co-workers, supervision, job, and organization). On the basis of the overall fit indices (NFI =.940, PFI =.70) and the difference in the chi-square, Ax (40) = 1,054.9, p <.001, this model represented substantial improvement in fit over the two-factor model. The standardized factor loadings were all above.60 but are not reported here to conserve space. Examination of the factor correlations presented in Table indicated that the OCQ and the ACS were strongly correlated with each other (r =.89). This is consistent with prior research, which has suggested that the OCQ and the ACS both measure affective commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1984). Furthermore, the SPOS was strongly correlated with both of these measures of commitment (r=.71 and.70, respectively). When the correlations with the specific facets of satisfaction differed for the SPOS, OCQ, or ACS, the SPOS appeared to be more strongly correlated (i.e., satisfaction with supervision correlated.65 with SPOS and only.44 and.45 for the OCQ and ACS, respectively). One exception was that the OCQ was correlated.71 with overall job satisfaction whereas the SPOS correlated only.61 with overall job satisfaction. This pattern of correlations raises questions

4 640 LYNN McFARLANE SHORE AND LOIS E. TETRICK Table Zero-Order Correlations Among Manifest Indicators of the Survey of Perceived Organizational Scale (ACS), Continuance Commitment Scale (CCS), and Specific Satisfactions (Security, Pay, Indicator M SD SPOS1. SPOS. SPOS 4. SPOS4 5. OCQ1 6. OCQ 7. OCQ 8. OCQ4 9. ACS1 10. ACS 11. ACS 1. ACS4 1. CCS1 14. CCS 15. CCS 16. CCS4 17. Security 18. Pay 19. Growth 0. Co-workers 1. Supervision. Job. Organization *.85*.87*.6*.51*.4*.64*.66*.80*.8*.5* *.5*.85*.50*.5*.7*.5* *.75*.6* *.4*.5*.64*.0*.5*.50*.1*.6* *.78* * * p<.05. as to the distinctiveness of the SPOS, OCQ, ACS, and the facets of satisfaction. A number of additional models were developed and tested to further explore the distinctiveness of the SPOS, OCQ, ACS, and the facets of satisfaction. A 5-factor model was estimated in which all facets of satisfaction were collapsed onto a single factor. This resulted in a considerable increase in the PFI over the 11 -factor model shown in Table (PFI =.789 vs..709), although the chi-square difference was significant, Ax (1) = 19.1, p <.01. The major change in the factor correlations was that the SPOS, OCQ, and ACS were all strongly correlated with satisfaction (r =.86,.8, and.77, respectively), which was partially due to the correction for attenuation resulting from the presence of multiple indicators for satisfaction. Because the largest correlation was still between the OCQ and ACS, a 4-factor model was fit to the data. The change in chi-square was significant, Ax (4)= 116.4, p <.01. However, the PFI reflected only a negligible decrement (see Table ; NFI =.889, PFI =.787), suggesting that the ACS and OCQ were not distinguishable. To test whether the SPOS could be differentiated from either satisfaction or affective commitment as measured by the OCQ and ACS, we estimated two -factor models. The fit indices and factor correlations are presented in Table. When perceived organizational support was combined with satisfaction, the PFI dropped from.787 to.77, A*; () = , p <.01, and when perceived organizational support was combined with affective commitment, the PFI dropped to.698, Ax () = 67.90, p <.01. In addition, for this latter model, the NFI dropped below.80 to.777, suggesting that this model did not adequately account for the data. Therefore, these analyses suggest that perceived organizational support as measured by the SPOS is empirically distinct from affective commitment as measured by the ACS and OCQ; however, there is some question as to whether perceived organizational support is distinguishable from satisfaction, at least as measured here. Discussion Given the popularity of commitment measures among researchers, it is critical to carefully evaluate the construct validity of each new measure prior to its extensive use. An important first step in the establishment of construct validity is to examine the factor structure of a scale. Consistent with Kottke and Sharafinski (1988), the present results have provided support for the unidimensionality of the SPOS as a measure of perceived organizational support. Furthermore, we have provided evidence that the SPOS is empirically distinct, as well as conceptually distinct, from affective and continuance commitment. Thus, the present study suggests that employees are able to distinguish their own commitment levels to the organization from their perceptions of the organization's commitment to them. This is important in light of Morrow's (198) review of the literature, which showed a plethora of commitment-related concepts and measures, many of which appeared to be redundant. The data did confirm that perceived organizational support is strongly correlated with affective commitment, as would be expected on the basis of the social exchange theory expressed by Eisenberger et al. (1986,1990) because organizational commitment is purported to develop as a result of perceived organizational support. What remains unclear is the relative lack of a relation between perceived organizational support and continu-

5 SURVEY OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT 641 Support (SPOS), Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ), Affective Commitment Growth, Co-workers, Supervision, Job, and Organization) * -.15* -.15* *.8*.66*.5*.4*.4*.4*.51* * *.9*.50*.5*.5* -.19* * *.8*.9*.9*.6*.6*.8*.66*.5*.66* ance commitment, especially in light of Eisenberger et al.'s (1990) finding that perceived organizational support was positively related to calculative involvement in the organization. One possible explanation, drawn from an examination of the items of the CCS, is that exchange ideology moderates the relation between perceived organizational support and continuance much as it was found to moderate the relation between perceived organizational support and absences (Eisenberger et al., 1986). Another explanation is that positive organizational experiences may lead to perceptions of organizational caring (perceived organizational support) and subsequent affective commitment, whereas perceptions of being treated poorly by the organization (e.g., lack of promotions or a demotion) may lead to the more negative form of commitment that is reflected in the CCS. The results also show that affective commitment, as measured by the ACS and OCQ, is empirically distinct from satisfaction. However, the empirical distinction between satisfaction and perceived organizational support as measured by the SPOS received less support. Perhaps both satisfaction and perceived organizational support reflect a global belief about the "personified" organization. This interpretation is consistent with theories of work adjustment and turnover (e.g., Wanous's [1980] matching model), which suggest that employees expect their needs to be fulfilled by the organization and that unfulfilled needs lead to lowered job satisfaction, lowered organizational commitment, and increased turnover. This notion of the personified organization is also similar to reciprocity, an element of organizational commitment suggested by Scholl (1981) and Gouldner (1960). Gouldner described reciprocity as a universal belief that (a) people should help those who have helped them and (b) people should not harm those who have helped them. According to Scholl (198J), reciprocity is the notion that an employee should repay benefits or opportunities provided by the organization through future performance. Thus, prior research linking satisfaction and organizational commitment may represent an employee belief system that caring organizations meet the needs of employees, such as the need for a satisfying and fulfilling job, and that this caring deserves commitment in return. This study raises the question as to whether individuals perceive that the organization is supportive because they are satisfied with their situation or whether perceived organizational support may be antecedent to satisfaction. In addition, it is not clear from the present results whether perceived organizational support and satisfaction should be treated as distinct concepts. In our view, perceived organizational support and satisfaction are different from one another in a number of ways. First, perceived organizational support is a global measure of employer commitment whereas satisfaction is focused on various facets of work. Second, although perceived organizational support is a cognitive assessment (i.e., set of beliefs) about organizational caring, satisfaction is an affective reaction to different elements of the work situation. We suspect that perceived organizational support may directly affect satisfaction, resulting in the lack of empirical independence found in the present study. Interestingly, the distinction between these constructs has not been studied previously. Clearly, further research is needed to address the relationship between perceived organizational support and satisfaction as well as differential antecedents and consequences of these two constructs. The present study provides evidence for the distinctiveness of the SPOS with affective and continuance commitment but shows less support for a lack of redundancy with satisfaction.

6 64 LYNN McFARLANE SHORE AND LOIS E. TETRICK Table Factor Correlations Factor SPOS. OCQ. ACS 4. CCS 5. Security 6. Pay 7. Growth 8. Co-workers 9. Supervision 10. Job 11. Organization.70*.5*.89*.5* 11 -factor model 8 -.1*.*.6*.64* -.15*.06. 9*. 45* _ -.16*. 8*.6*.66*.01. 9*.6* -.0.9*.8* *.5*.66* SPOS OCQ ACS CCS Satisfaction SPOS OCQ + ACS CCS Satisfaction 1. SPOS + satisfaction. OCQ + ACS. CCS 5-factor model combining specific satisfactions'",71*.70*.86* 4-factor model combining the OCQ and ACS'.74*.86*.89*.8*.8* *.06 -factor model combining SPOS and satisfaction 11.78* 1. SPOS + OCQ + ACS. CCS. Satisfaction.91* -factor model combining SPOS with affective commitment 1 Note. SPOS = Survey of Perceived Organizational Support; OCQ = Organizational Commitment Questionnaire; ACS = Aifective Commitment Scale; CCS = Continuance Commitment Scale. a X (189) = 65.8; goodness-of-fit index (GFI) =.911; adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI) =.870; root-mean-square residual (rmsr) =.04; normed fit index (NFI) =.940; parsimonious fit index (PFI) =.70. b % (0) = ; GFI =.857; AGFI =.81; rmsr =.055; NFI =.908; PFI =.789. c x (4) = 674.8; GFI =.87; AGFI =.799; rmsr =.056; NFI =.889; PFI =.787. d X (7) = 84.8; GFI =.799; AGFI =.756; rmsr =.04; NFI =.861; PFI =.77. " x (7) = 1,47.8; GFI =.6; AGFI =.554; rmsr =.068; NFI =.777; PFI =.698. *p<.05. This was an important first step in the establishment of the construct validity of the SPOS. Further studies are needed to address several unanswered questions. The fundamental nature of perceived organizational support is not yet clear. Greater construct explication is needed, particularly given the present findings with regard to satisfaction. Though research suggests positive performance outcomes of perceived organizational support (Eisenberger et al., 1990), little is known about factors that create these perceptions. Particularly needed are studies that track the development of these perceptions among new employees. When the construct that underlies the SPOS is more fully understood, the real utility of this scale relative to other similar scales can be assessed. References Anderson, J. C, & Gerbing, D. W (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 10, Becker, H. S. (1960). Notes on the concept of commitment. American Journal of Sociology, 66, -40. Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness

7 SURVEY OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT 64 of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin 88, Brooke, P. P., Jr., Russell, D. W, & Price, J. L. (1988). Discriminant validation of measures of job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 7, Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 5, Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchinson, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, Etzioni, A. (1961). A comparative analysis of complex organizations. New York: Free Press. Farkas, A., & Tetrick, L. E. (1989). A three-wave longitudinal analysis of the causal ordering of satisfaction and commitment on turnover decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, Gordon, M. E., Philpot, J. W, Burt, R. E., Thompson, C. A., &Spiller, W E. (1980). Commitment to the union: Development of a measure and an examination of its correlates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, Gouldner, H. P. (1960). Dimensions of organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 4, Greenhaus, J. H. (1971). An investigation of the role of career salience in vocational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1, Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (198). LISREL 7. Chicago: SPSS Inc. Kanter, R. M. (1968). Commitment and social organization: A study of commitment mechanisms in Utopian communities. American Sociological Review,, Kanungo, R. N. (1979). The concepts of alienation and involvement revisited. Psychological Bulletin, 86, Kottke, J. L., & Sharafinski, C. E. (1988). Measuring perceived supervisory and organizational support. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48, Lodahl, T. M., & Kejner, M. (1965). The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49, 4-. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1984). Testing the "side-bet theory" of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, Morrow, P. C. (198). Concept redundancy in organizational research: The case of worker commitment. Academy of Management Review, 8, Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W, & Steers, R. M. (198). Employee-organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism and turnover. New \brk: Academic Press. Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, Mulaik, S. A., James, L. R., Van Alstine, J., Bennett, N., Lind, S., & Stilwell, C. D. (1989). Evaluation of goodness-to-fit indices for structural equation models. Psychological Bulletin, 105, Porter, L. W, Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, Scholl, R. W (1981). Differentiating organizational commitment from expectancy as a motivating force. Academy of Management Review, 6, Seashore, S. E., Lawler, E. E., Mirvis, P., & Cammann, C. (Eds.). (198). Observing and measuring organizational change: A guide to field practice. New \fork: Wiley. Tanaka, J. S. (1987). "How big is big enough": Sample size and goodness of fit in structural equation models with latent variables. Child Development, 58, Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. (in press). On the causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Management. Vandenberg, R. J., & Scarpello, V (1988). A longitudinal assessment of the determinant relationship between employee commitment to the occupation and the organization. Unpublished manuscript, Georgia State University, Atlanta. Wanous, J. (1980). Organizational entry: Recruitment, selection, and socialization of newcomers. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Received January,1991 Revision received May 8,1991 Accepted May 9,1991 Correction to Edwards and Baglioni In the article "Relationship Between Type A Behavior Pattern and Mental and Physical Symptoms: A Comparison of Global and Component Measures," by Jeffrey R. Edwards and A. J. Baglioni, Jr. (Journal of Applied Psychology, 1991, Vol. 76, No., pp ), the sentence "Items with negative loadings were reversed" should be deleted from the note to Table. The original scoring procedures were used for all TABP measures for the analyses reported in Table.

Organizational Commitment. Schultz, 1

Organizational Commitment. Schultz, 1 Organizational Commitment Schultz, 1 Schultz, 2 Organizational Commitment Organizational commitment has an important place in the study of organizational behavior. This is in part due to the vast number

More information

PERCEIVED COWORKER SUPPORT AND TASK INTERDEPENDENCE IN LAW ENFORCEMENT: A TEST OF THE MEDIATING EFFECTS OF FELT RESPONSIBILITY

PERCEIVED COWORKER SUPPORT AND TASK INTERDEPENDENCE IN LAW ENFORCEMENT: A TEST OF THE MEDIATING EFFECTS OF FELT RESPONSIBILITY PERCEIVED COWORKER SUPPORT AND TASK INTERDEPENDENCE IN LAW ENFORCEMENT: A TEST OF THE MEDIATING EFFECTS OF FELT RESPONSIBILITY R. David Fass New Mexico State University, Hrfass@nmsu.eduH, (505) 521-0833

More information

Affective Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention of academics in Malaysia

Affective Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention of academics in Malaysia 2010 International Conference on Business and Economics Research vol.1 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Affective Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention of academics in Malaysia

More information

TIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

TIONAL EFFECTIVENESS ROLE OF EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT IN ORGANIZA ANIZATIO TIONAL EFFECTIVENESS G.P.P.. Mishra* THE study leads us to believe that in the eyes of employees they do a lot for their organization and they also have

More information

Replications and Refinements

Replications and Refinements The Journal of Social Psychology, 2008, 2009, 148(2), 149(1), xxx xxx 119 124 Copyright 2008 2009 Heldref Publications Replications and Refinements Under this heading are brief reports of studies providing

More information

The Effect of Inter-functional Coordination on Organizational Commitment in the Hotel Industry

The Effect of Inter-functional Coordination on Organizational Commitment in the Hotel Industry The Effect of Inter-functional Coordination on Organizational Commitment in the Hotel Industry Cheng Peng Hospitality Management Program Department of Consumer Sciences The Ohio State University and R.

More information

A Review of the Research on Perceived Organizational Support

A Review of the Research on Perceived Organizational Support International Business Research; Vol. 8, No. 10; 2015 ISSN 1913-9004 E-ISSN 1913-9012 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education A Review of the Research on Perceived Organizational Support

More information

Assessing Affective Commitment in the Three-Component Model and the Two Factor Theory:

Assessing Affective Commitment in the Three-Component Model and the Two Factor Theory: Running Head: Assessing Affective Commitment Assessing Affective Commitment in the Three-Component Model and the Two Factor Theory: A Comparison between the Theories of Meyer and Allen and Herzberg, Mausner

More information

Relationship between HRM Practices and Organizational Commitment of Employees: An Empirical Study of Textile Sector in Pakistan

Relationship between HRM Practices and Organizational Commitment of Employees: An Empirical Study of Textile Sector in Pakistan Vol. 6, No.1, January 2016, pp. 23 28 E-ISSN: 2225-8329, P-ISSN: 2308-0337 2016 HRMARS www.hrmars.com Relationship between HRM Practices and Organizational Commitment of Employees: An Empirical Study of

More information

Perception of Organizational Politics and Influence of Job Attitude on Organizational Commitment. Abstract

Perception of Organizational Politics and Influence of Job Attitude on Organizational Commitment. Abstract 1 Perception of Organizational Politics and Influence of Job Attitude on Organizational Commitment Phatsorn Thiphaphongphakaphun 1 Piraphong Foosiri,D.B.A. 2 Abstract This research purposed to study the

More information

Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission.

Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. Editorial: New Developments in the Employee-Organization Relationship Author(s): Lynn M. Shore and Jacqueline A. -M. Coyle-Shapiro Source: Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 24, No. 5, Special Issue:

More information

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT & ITS ANTECDENTS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY.

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT & ITS ANTECDENTS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT & ITS ANTECDENTS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY. DANIEL CERNAS ORTIZ University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, 76203 Tel: (940) 565-3338, Fax: (940) 565-4394 e-mail:

More information

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan ABSTRACT The focus of this research is to determine the impact of

More information

CHAPTER 4 METHOD. procedures. It also describes the development of the questionnaires, the selection of the

CHAPTER 4 METHOD. procedures. It also describes the development of the questionnaires, the selection of the CHAPTER 4 METHOD 4.1 Introduction This chapter discusses the research design, sample, and data collection procedures. It also describes the development of the questionnaires, the selection of the research

More information

The Effects of Management Accounting Systems and Organizational Commitment on Managerial Performance

The Effects of Management Accounting Systems and Organizational Commitment on Managerial Performance The Effects of Management Accounting Systems and Organizational Commitment on Managerial Performance Yao-Kai Chuang, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan ABSTRACT This Study examines the interactive effects

More information

The Construct of the Learning Organization: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation

The Construct of the Learning Organization: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation ARTICLES The Construct of the Learning Organization: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation Baiyin Yang, Karen E. Watkins, Victoria J. Marsick This research describes efforts to develop and validate a

More information

Validation of a new LINOR Affective Commitment Scale

Validation of a new LINOR Affective Commitment Scale September 2012 Validation of a new LINOR Affective Commitment Scale Research project by PhD Student Kristina Schoemmel, Professor Hans Jeppe Jeppesen, & Associate Professor Thomas Jønnson LINOR (Leadership

More information

Perceived Organizational Support, Discretionary Treatment, and Job Satisfaction

Perceived Organizational Support, Discretionary Treatment, and Job Satisfaction Journal of Applied Psychology Copyright 1997 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 1997, Vol. 82, No. 5, 812-820 0021-9010/97/$3,00 Perceived Organizational Support, Discretionary Treatment,

More information

Influence of the Big Five Personality Traits of IT Workers on Job Satisfaction

Influence of the Big Five Personality Traits of IT Workers on Job Satisfaction , pp.126-131 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/astl.2016.142.23 Influence of the Big Five Personality Traits of IT Workers on Job Satisfaction Hyo Jung Kim 1Dept. Liberal Education University, Keimyung University

More information

The Influence of Individual Characteristics and the Work Environment on Varying Levels of Training Outcomes

The Influence of Individual Characteristics and the Work Environment on Varying Levels of Training Outcomes Cornell University School of Hotel Administration The Scholarly Commons Articles and Chapters School of Hotel Administration Collection 2001 The Influence of Individual Characteristics and the Work Environment

More information

MEASUREMENT OF DISCONFIRMATION IN ONLINE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR

MEASUREMENT OF DISCONFIRMATION IN ONLINE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR MEASUREMENT OF DISCONFIRMATION IN ONLINE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR Chinho Lin, Institute of Information Management of National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan R.O.C. Email: linn@mail.ncku.edu.tw Yu-Huei Wei, Department

More information

THE MEDIATING ROLE OF WORK INVOLVEMENT IN A JOB CHARACTERISTICS AND JOB PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP

THE MEDIATING ROLE OF WORK INVOLVEMENT IN A JOB CHARACTERISTICS AND JOB PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP THE MEDIATING ROLE OF WORK INVOLVEMENT IN A JOB CHARACTERISTICS AND JOB PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP 1 By: Johanim Johari Khulida Kirana Yahya Abdullah Omar Department of Management Studies College of Business

More information

The Effect of Communication Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment

The Effect of Communication Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment , Vol.14 NoII (2013) BritishJournal Publishing, Inc. 2013 http://www.bjournal.co.uk/bjass.aspx The Effect of Communication Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment Elif Engin Public Relations Department,

More information

Career-Oriented Versus Team-Oriented Commitment and Behavior at Work

Career-Oriented Versus Team-Oriented Commitment and Behavior at Work Journal of Applied Psychology 1998, Vol. 83, No. 5, 717-730 Copyright 1998 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0021-9010/98/$3.00 Career-Oriented Versus Team-Oriented Commitment and Behavior

More information

UNCORRECTED PROOFS. The effects of perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support on employee turnover.

UNCORRECTED PROOFS. The effects of perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support on employee turnover. 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 Journal of Organizational Behavior Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI:.0/job. Summary Introduction The effects of perceived organizational support and

More information

An Empirical Investigation of Consumer Experience on Online Purchase Intention Bing-sheng YAN 1,a, Li-hua LI 2,b and Ke XU 3,c,*

An Empirical Investigation of Consumer Experience on Online Purchase Intention Bing-sheng YAN 1,a, Li-hua LI 2,b and Ke XU 3,c,* 2017 4th International Conference on Economics and Management (ICEM 2017) ISBN: 978-1-60595-467-7 An Empirical Investigation of Consumer Experience on Online Purchase Intention Bing-sheng YAN 1,a, Li-hua

More information

ROLE OF WORK FAMILY CONFLICT ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

ROLE OF WORK FAMILY CONFLICT ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS ROLE OF WORK FAMILY CONFLICT ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Dr. M. Shoukat Malik Director, Alfallah Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan

More information

A Study on Job Satisfaction of Employees of Manufacturing Industry in Puducherry, India

A Study on Job Satisfaction of Employees of Manufacturing Industry in Puducherry, India ISSN 2278 0211 (Online) A Study on Job Satisfaction of Employees of Manufacturing Industry in Puducherry, India Dr. A. Ravichandran Director, Christ College of Engineering & Technology, Puducherry, India

More information

Factors Influencing Employability Self-efficacy of Engineering Students in Taiwan

Factors Influencing Employability Self-efficacy of Engineering Students in Taiwan Volume 1, Issue 1, August 2012 PP. 10-14 s Influencing Employability Self-efficacy of Engineering Students in Taiwan Chun-Mei Chou 1, Chien-Hua Shen 2 Institute of Vocational and Technological Education

More information

LHS 24,3. Simon L. Albrecht and Manuela Andreetta School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Caulfield, Australia

LHS 24,3. Simon L. Albrecht and Manuela Andreetta School of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University, Caulfield, Australia The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/1751-1879.htm LHS 24,3 228 Received 8 September 2010 Accepted 30 November 2010 The influence of empowering

More information

Measuring Cross-Cultural Orientation: Development of a New Instrument

Measuring Cross-Cultural Orientation: Development of a New Instrument Measuring Cross-Cultural Orientation: Development of a New Instrument Rakesh Mittal New Mexico State University In this study I design and present a new instrument, Cross-Cultural Orientation Inventory

More information

The Effect of Organizational Communication and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment in Small Businesses

The Effect of Organizational Communication and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment in Small Businesses The Effect of Organizational Communication and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment in Small Businesses ABSTRACT Ali Talip Akpinar (Corresponding Author) Assistant Professor of Management and

More information

Differential Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Innovative Performance

Differential Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Innovative Performance Differential Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Innovative Performance Usman Raja, PhD and Muhammad Abbas Abstract The paper investigated the differential effects of challenge related stressors

More information

A STUDY ON LINKING ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES, WORK ENGAGEMENT AND SERVICE CLIMATE AT FASHION RETAILS OF KOCHI.

A STUDY ON LINKING ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES, WORK ENGAGEMENT AND SERVICE CLIMATE AT FASHION RETAILS OF KOCHI. A STUDY ON LINKING ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES, WORK ENGAGEMENT AND SERVICE CLIMATE AT FASHION RETAILS OF KOCHI. INTRODUCTION Organizational success and its contributors are emerging with changing times and

More information

The Moderating Effect of Gender and Tenure on the Relationship between Perceived Supervisor Support and Organizational Commitment

The Moderating Effect of Gender and Tenure on the Relationship between Perceived Supervisor Support and Organizational Commitment San Jose State University SJSU ScholarWorks Master's Theses Master's Theses and Graduate Research Spring 2017 The Moderating Effect of Gender and Tenure on the Relationship between Perceived Supervisor

More information

Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Do Fairness Perceptions Influence Employee Citizenship?

Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Do Fairness Perceptions Influence Employee Citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology 1991, Vol. 76, No. 6, 845-855 Copyright 1991 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0021-9010/91/$3.00 Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational

More information

ISSN: International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM) Volume 2, Issue 1, April 2015

ISSN: International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM) Volume 2, Issue 1, April 2015 Impacts of Job Satisfaction and Organizational commitment: A Study Describing Influence of Gender Difference on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Dr. Shine David Assistant Professor, Institute

More information

The Relationships among Organizational Climate, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in the Thai Telecommunication Industry

The Relationships among Organizational Climate, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in the Thai Telecommunication Industry The Relationships among Organizational Climate, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in the Thai Telecommunication Industry Sanguansak Bhaesajsanguan Candidate DBA Commercial College, Burapha

More information

AFFECTIVE AND CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT IN CALL CENTRES: VALIDATION OF MEYER AND ALLEN QUESTIONNAIRE ABSTRACT

AFFECTIVE AND CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT IN CALL CENTRES: VALIDATION OF MEYER AND ALLEN QUESTIONNAIRE ABSTRACT Psychology and Psychiatry AFFECTIVE AND CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT IN CALL CENTRES: VALIDATION OF MEYER AND ALLEN QUESTIONNAIRE Assis. Prof. Dr. Leonor Pais 1 Dr. Cristina Souza de Castro 1 Assis. Prof. Dr.

More information

3.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CONCEPT ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT

3.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CONCEPT ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT 37 CHAPTER 3 ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT The main focus of this chapter is to explore the concept organisational commitment. The discussion includes the following aspects: theoretical background; definition

More information

Antecedents and Outcomes of Employee Benefit Satisfaction: An Updated Model

Antecedents and Outcomes of Employee Benefit Satisfaction: An Updated Model Antecedents and Outcomes of Employee Benefit Satisfaction: An Updated Model Mel E. Schnake Valdosta State University Previous research on the antecedents and outcomes of employee benefit satisfaction is

More information

Impact of Business Value Planning on Business-IT Alignment

Impact of Business Value Planning on Business-IT Alignment Global Journal of Finance and Management. ISSN 0975-6477 Volume 6, Number 4 (2014), pp. 361-366 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com Impact of Business Value Planning on Business-IT

More information

Introduction. pulled into traveling by internal and external factors (Crompton, 2003). Push factors are more

Introduction. pulled into traveling by internal and external factors (Crompton, 2003). Push factors are more The effects of motivation and satisfaction of college football tourist on revisit and recommendation: a structural model Erinn D. Tucker School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration Oklahoma State University

More information

THE IMPACT OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BRANDIX LINGERIE (PVT) LIMITED PLANT 03

THE IMPACT OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BRANDIX LINGERIE (PVT) LIMITED PLANT 03 THE IMPACT OF PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BRANDIX LINGERIE (PVT) LIMITED PLANT 03 R K N D DARSHANI*; H P R PRIYANKARA** *LECTURER, DEPARTMENT

More information

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ATTRITION IN IT INDUSTRIES- WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO WIPRO TECHNOLOGIES

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ATTRITION IN IT INDUSTRIES- WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO WIPRO TECHNOLOGIES AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ATTRITION IN IT INDUSTRIES- WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO WIPRO TECHNOLOGIES Dr. K.Sunanda, Associate Professor, Shadan Institute of Management Studies for Girls, Telangana,

More information

Vlerick Leuven Gent Working Paper Series 2003/14

Vlerick Leuven Gent Working Paper Series 2003/14 Vlerick Leuven Gent Working Paper Series 2003/14 PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT DEVELOPMENT DURING ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION: ADAPTATION TO REALITY AND THE ROLE OF RECIPROCITY ANS DE VOS Ans.DeVos@vlerick.be

More information

Relationship among Organizational Commitment, Trust and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study in Banking Industry

Relationship among Organizational Commitment, Trust and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study in Banking Industry Abstract Research Journal of Management Sciences ISSN 2319 1171 Relationship among Organizational Commitment, Trust and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study in Banking Industry M Sheik Mohamed 1, M Mohiadeen

More information

The Role of Perceived Supervisor Support on the Link between Knowledge Sharing and Creative Problem Solving Capacity

The Role of Perceived Supervisor Support on the Link between Knowledge Sharing and Creative Problem Solving Capacity The Role of Perceived Supervisor Support on the Link between Knowledge Sharing and Creative Problem Solving Capacity Uğur YOZGAT 1, R. Hande SERİM BAHADINLI 2, Recep Baki DENİZ 3 1 Marmara University,

More information

PRESENTATION FOR POLICY AND PROGRAM PERSONNEL WORKFORCE RESILIENCY. Measures of Employee Experience

PRESENTATION FOR POLICY AND PROGRAM PERSONNEL WORKFORCE RESILIENCY. Measures of Employee Experience PRESENTATION FOR POLICY AND PROGRAM PERSONNEL WORKFORCE RESILIENCY Measures of Employee Experience Dr. Nancy P. Rothbard David Pottruck Associate Professor University of Pennsylvania November 10, 2011

More information

Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Diligence, Commitment, and Innovation

Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Diligence, Commitment, and Innovation Journal of Applied Psychology ~ght 1990 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 1990, Vol. 75, No. 1, 51-59 0021-9010/90/$00.75 Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Diligence, Commitment,

More information

Cognitive Factors and its Impact on Job Satisfaction- A Study on Selected Information Technology Enabled Service Companies in Bengaluru

Cognitive Factors and its Impact on Job Satisfaction- A Study on Selected Information Technology Enabled Service Companies in Bengaluru DOI:10.18311/sdmimd/2017/15724 Cognitive Factors and its Impact on Job Satisfaction- A Study on Selected Information Technology Enabled Service Companies in Bengaluru Anthony Samson 1 * and K. Nagendra

More information

The Moderating Effects of Value Similarity and Company Philosophy on the Climate- Commitment Relationship

The Moderating Effects of Value Similarity and Company Philosophy on the Climate- Commitment Relationship Cornell University School of Hotel Administration The Scholarly Commons Articles and Chapters School of Hotel Administration Collection 1989 The Moderating Effects of Value Similarity and Company Philosophy

More information

Psychological Empowerment: A Key to Boost Organizational Commitment, Evidence from Banking Sector of Pakistan

Psychological Empowerment: A Key to Boost Organizational Commitment, Evidence from Banking Sector of Pakistan Psychological Empowerment: A Key to Boost Organizational Commitment, Evidence from Banking Sector of Pakistan Ms. Maryam Saeed Hashmi Lecturer, Institute of Business and Management, University of Engineering

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF MARKET-ORIENTED ARTEFACTSOF THE FIRM ON SALES FORCE BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDES: FURTHER EMPIRICAL FINDINGS

THE INFLUENCE OF MARKET-ORIENTED ARTEFACTSOF THE FIRM ON SALES FORCE BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDES: FURTHER EMPIRICAL FINDINGS THE INFLUENCE OF MARKET-ORIENTED ARTEFACTSOF THE FIRM ON SALES FORCE BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDES: FURTHER EMPIRICAL FINDINGS Mark Farrell, Charles Sturt University Track: Market Orientation and Relationship

More information

HOW TO SAY SORRY: INCREASING REVISIT INTENTION THROUGH EFFECTIVE SERVICE RECOVERY IN THEME PARKS

HOW TO SAY SORRY: INCREASING REVISIT INTENTION THROUGH EFFECTIVE SERVICE RECOVERY IN THEME PARKS SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY, 2010, 38(4), 509-514 Society for Personality Research (Inc.) DOI 10.2224/sbp.2010.38.4.509 HOW TO SAY SORRY: INCREASING REVISIT INTENTION THROUGH EFFECTIVE SERVICE RECOVERY

More information

Studying the Employee Satisfaction Using Factor Analysis

Studying the Employee Satisfaction Using Factor Analysis CASES IN MANAGEMENT 259 Studying the Employee Satisfaction Using Factor Analysis Situation Mr LN seems to be excited as he is going to learn a new technique in the statistical methods class today. His

More information

EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Olayide Abosede Aina, MBA, DM Esteamop Consulting, Atlanta, GA, USA Kewal K. Verma, M.Tech., Ph.D. BCA International, Austin, TX, USA July 2017 1

More information

Journal of Diversity Management Third Quarter 2009 Volume 4, Number 3

Journal of Diversity Management Third Quarter 2009 Volume 4, Number 3 A Comparison Of The Elements Of Motivation In The Hospital Industry Versus The Retail And Manufacturing Sectors Rickey Casey, D.B.A., University of the Ozarks, USA Jay Robbins, D.B.A. Ouachita University,

More information

International Journal of Asian Social Science

International Journal of Asian Social Science International Journal of Asian Social Science journal homepage: http://www.aessweb.com/journal-detail.php?id=5007 JOB CHARACTERISTICS AS PREDICTORS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG PRIVATE SECTOR WORKERS

More information

HRM and Dairy. Research Questions. Purpose of the Study. Dependent Variable. Explanatory Variables

HRM and Dairy. Research Questions. Purpose of the Study. Dependent Variable. Explanatory Variables HRM and Dairy Managing for Commitment: How Human Resource Management Practices Affect Dairy Employee Attitudes Richard Stup, Ph.D. AgChoice Farm Credit Popular press is filled with articles, information,

More information

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE OF EMPLOYEES WORKING IN PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS OF RAIPUR REGION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ICICI BANK LTD.

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE OF EMPLOYEES WORKING IN PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS OF RAIPUR REGION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ICICI BANK LTD. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE OF EMPLOYEES WORKING IN PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS OF RAIPUR REGION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ICICI BANK LTD., RAIPUR Suresh K. Pattanayak 1, Dr. Monika Sethi 2 1,2 Asst. Professor,Raipur

More information

Organizational error management culture and its. measurement: Development of an improved questionnaire

Organizational error management culture and its. measurement: Development of an improved questionnaire Organizational error management culture and its measurement: Development of an improved questionnaire In the research described in Chapters and 3, survey data on organizational error management culture

More information

The Effect of Factors Affecting Social Behavior and Prosocial Behavior (Case Study: City of Steel of Mobarakeh)

The Effect of Factors Affecting Social Behavior and Prosocial Behavior (Case Study: City of Steel of Mobarakeh) The Effect of Factors Affecting Social Behavior and Prosocial Behavior (Case Study: City of Steel of Mobarakeh) Mashallah Valikhani, Ph.D. Assistant professor, Management Department, lamic Azad University,

More information

AN ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INTERNET BANKING

AN ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INTERNET BANKING CHAPTER V AN ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INTERNET BANKING 5.1 INTRODUCTION Banking industry is also one of the predominant industries adopting technologies which are

More information

A summary of a doctoral thesis written under the scientific guidance of prof. Grażyna Gruszczyńska-Malec

A summary of a doctoral thesis written under the scientific guidance of prof. Grażyna Gruszczyńska-Malec A summary of a doctoral thesis written under the scientific guidance of prof. Grażyna Gruszczyńska-Malec Title: PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT. HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK SYSTEM PERSPECTIVE Author: MA INTRODUCTION

More information

Linking employees justice perceptions to organizational commitment and intention to leave: The mediating role of perceived organizational support

Linking employees justice perceptions to organizational commitment and intention to leave: The mediating role of perceived organizational support 101 Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (2006), 79, 101 120 q 2006 The British Psychological Society The British Psychological Society www.bpsjournals.co.uk Linking employees justice

More information

A Structural Equation Modeling to Understand the Moderating Effect of Correlates on Structural and Process Determinants

A Structural Equation Modeling to Understand the Moderating Effect of Correlates on Structural and Process Determinants A Structural Equation Modeling to Understand the Moderating Effect of Correlates on Structural and Kirti Arekar K.J. Somaiya Institute of Management Studies & Research (kirtiarekar@somaiya.edu) Bharthi

More information

The impact of work related variables on librarians organizational commitment and job satisfaction

The impact of work related variables on librarians organizational commitment and job satisfaction Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, Vol.15, no.3, Dec 2010: 149-163 The impact of work related variables on librarians organizational commitment and job satisfaction ABSTRACT Noor Harun

More information

THE EFFECT OF UNEQUAL SALARY SCALE ON HUMAN RESOURCES TURNOVER

THE EFFECT OF UNEQUAL SALARY SCALE ON HUMAN RESOURCES TURNOVER THE EFFECT OF UNEQUAL SALARY SCALE ON HUMAN RESOURCES TURNOVER Dr. Ziad Alzubi Department of Accounting, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan Amman-Jordan Abstract Unequal salary scale is considered one of

More information

BEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCES OF JOB INSECURITY AND PERCEIVED INSIDER STATUS FOR CONTINGENT WORKERS

BEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCES OF JOB INSECURITY AND PERCEIVED INSIDER STATUS FOR CONTINGENT WORKERS Track 08: Valorizzazione del capitale umano, comportamenti organizzativi e performance dei sistemi economici BEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCES OF JOB INSECURITY AND PERCEIVED INSIDER STATUS FOR CONTINGENT WORKERS

More information

A study of the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention among hospital employees

A study of the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention among hospital employees Health Services Management Research 21: 211 227. DOI: 10.1258/hsmr.2007.007015 # 2008 Royal Society of Medicine Press A study of the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and

More information

Reconceptualizing Organizational Commitment Using the Theory of Reasoned Action: Testing Antecedents of Multiple Organizational Behaviors

Reconceptualizing Organizational Commitment Using the Theory of Reasoned Action: Testing Antecedents of Multiple Organizational Behaviors Portland State University PDXScholar Dissertations and Theses Dissertations and Theses 1-1-2012 Reconceptualizing Organizational Commitment Using the Theory of Reasoned Action: Testing Antecedents of Multiple

More information

CAUSES AND PROPOSED SOLUTIONS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN DISTRICT HOSHIAPUR (PUNJAB): AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

CAUSES AND PROPOSED SOLUTIONS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN DISTRICT HOSHIAPUR (PUNJAB): AN EMPIRICAL STUDY CAUSES AND PROPOSED SOLUTIONS OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN DISTRICT HOSHIAPUR (PUNJAB): AN EMPIRICAL STUDY Abstract Lalita Kumari (JRF), Guru Nanak Dev University The

More information

Performance Appraisal: Dimensions and Determinants

Performance Appraisal: Dimensions and Determinants Appraisal: Dimensions and Determinants Ch.V.L.L.Kusuma Kumari Head of the department, Department of business studies, Malla reddy engineering college for women, Maisammaguda, Secunderabad. Abstract : The

More information

Investigating the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Is There a Mediating Effect?

Investigating the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Is There a Mediating Effect? Abstract Investigating the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Is There a Mediating Effect? Autoria: Renata Simões Guimarães e Borges The objective of this research is

More information

LJMS 2010, 4 Special Issue

LJMS 2010, 4 Special Issue LJMS 2010, 4 Special Issue Labuan e-journal of Muamalat and Society, Vol. 4, 2010, pp. 1-13 Labuan e-journal of Muamalat and Society DIFFERENCES BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION, ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT AND

More information

The direct and interactive roles of work family conflict and work family facilitation in voluntary turnover

The direct and interactive roles of work family conflict and work family facilitation in voluntary turnover Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Year: 2009 The direct and interactive roles of work family conflict and work family facilitation in voluntary turnover Okechukwu E. Amah* Abstract The direct effect of work family conflict

More information

MODELLING THE 2009 WORK ENVIRONMENT SURVEY RESULTS THE TECHNICAL REPORT APRIL 2010

MODELLING THE 2009 WORK ENVIRONMENT SURVEY RESULTS THE TECHNICAL REPORT APRIL 2010 MODELLING THE 2009 WORK ENVIRONMENT SURVEY RESULTS THE TECHNICAL REPORT APRIL 200 CONTACT INFORMATION This paper was prepared by Taylor Saunders. If you have any questions about the information in this

More information

An Empirical Study on the Effect of Work/Life Commitment to Work-Life Conflict

An Empirical Study on the Effect of Work/Life Commitment to Work-Life Conflict Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Physics Procedia 24 (2012) 1343 1349 2012 International Conference on Applied Physics and Industrial Engineering An Empirical Study on the Effect of Work/Life

More information

The Effects of Job Rotation Practices on Employee Development: An Empirical Study on Nurses in the Hospitals of Vellore District

The Effects of Job Rotation Practices on Employee Development: An Empirical Study on Nurses in the Hospitals of Vellore District The Effects of Job Rotation Practices on Employee Development: An Empirical Study on Nurses in the Hospitals of Vellore District Kokila Mohan Research Associate, VIT Business school, VIT University Email:

More information

A Study of Employer Branding on Employee Attitude

A Study of Employer Branding on Employee Attitude A Study of Employer Branding on Employee Attitude Seema Wadhawan 1 and Smrita Sinha 2 1 Research Scholar -Amity Business School, Amity University, Noida 2 Assistant Professor, Head of the Dept., Business

More information

Estimation of multiple and interrelated dependence relationships

Estimation of multiple and interrelated dependence relationships STRUCTURE EQUATION MODELING BASIC ASSUMPTIONS AND CONCEPTS: A NOVICES GUIDE Sunil Kumar 1 and Dr. Gitanjali Upadhaya 2 Research Scholar, Department of HRM & OB, School of Business Management & Studies,

More information

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED CLIMATE OF PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN THAILAND AND ACADEMICS JOB PERFORMANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT*

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED CLIMATE OF PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN THAILAND AND ACADEMICS JOB PERFORMANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT* RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED CLIMATE OF PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN THAILAND AND ACADEMICS JOB PERFORMANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT* Dr. Wasantha Rajapakshe, Coordinator, Department of Business Administration,

More information

THE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR IN YASHIMARINE LOGISTICS (P) LTD., AT CHENNAI

THE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB ATTITUDE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR IN YASHIMARINE LOGISTICS (P) LTD., AT CHENNAI INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976-6510(Online), ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 6, Issue 1, January

More information

Master's Theses and Graduate Research

Master's Theses and Graduate Research San Jose State University SJSU ScholarWorks Master's Theses Master's Theses and Graduate Research Fall 2016 The Moderating Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Perceived Supervisor Support on the

More information

The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction between Psychological Capital and Job Burnout of Pakistani Nurses

The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction between Psychological Capital and Job Burnout of Pakistani Nurses Pak J Commer Soc Sci Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences 2014, Vol. 8 (2), 399-412 The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction between Psychological Capital and Job Burnout of Pakistani Nurses

More information

Validity of Scandura and Ragins' (1993) Multidimensional Mentoring Measure: An Evaluation and Refinement

Validity of Scandura and Ragins' (1993) Multidimensional Mentoring Measure: An Evaluation and Refinement University of Miami Scholarly Repository Management Faculty Articles and Papers Management 1-1-2004 Validity of Scandura and Ragins' (1993) Multidimensional Mentoring Measure: An Evaluation and Refinement

More information

Toward An Understanding of the Behavioral Intention to Use Mobile Banking Services

Toward An Understanding of the Behavioral Intention to Use Mobile Banking Services Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) PACIS 2004 Proceedings Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) December 2004 Toward An Understanding of the Behavioral

More information

Investigating the Effect of Job Alienation on the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Branches of Sepah Bank in Shahreza and Dehaghan as Case Study)

Investigating the Effect of Job Alienation on the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Branches of Sepah Bank in Shahreza and Dehaghan as Case Study) Investigating the Effect of Job Alienation on the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Branches of Sepah Bank in Shahreza and Dehaghan as Case Study) Mashallah Valikhani, PhD Assistant Professor, Management

More information

The Herzberg Model for Romanian employees motivation

The Herzberg Model for Romanian employees motivation The Herzberg Model for Romanian employees motivation ADRIANA ANAMARIA ALEXANDRU Department of Statistics and Econometrics Academy of Economic Studies 6 Romana Square, Bucharest Romania adrianaalexandru@yahoo.com

More information

Influences of the Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Organizational Commitments on the Effects of Organizational Learning in Taiwan

Influences of the Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Organizational Commitments on the Effects of Organizational Learning in Taiwan 2010 International Conference on E-business, Management and Economics IPEDR vol.3 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Hong Kong Influences of the Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Organizational Commitments

More information

CONSTRUCT EQUIVALENCE ACROSS GROUPS: AN UNEXPLORED ISSUE IN MENTORING RESEARCH

CONSTRUCT EQUIVALENCE ACROSS GROUPS: AN UNEXPLORED ISSUE IN MENTORING RESEARCH EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT 10.1177/0013164404268665 PELLEGRINI AND SCANDURA CONSTRUCT EQUIVALENCE ACROSS GROUPS: AN UNEXPLORED ISSUE IN MENTORING RESEARCH EKIN K. PELLEGRINI AND TERRI A.

More information

JYVÄSKYLÄ UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS

JYVÄSKYLÄ UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS JYVÄSKYLÄ UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL TRUST AS ANTECEDENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN FINNISH AND ESTONIAN SMEs Management and Leadership Master

More information

Available online ISSN: Society for Business and Management Dynamics

Available online  ISSN: Society for Business and Management Dynamics An exchange perspective of job satisfaction: A study of banking sector of Pakistan Muhammad Zeeshan Shaukat* 1, Dr. Aslan Amat Senin* 2 and Ishfaq Ahmed* 3 Abstract Satisfaction of employees with their

More information

Organizational commitment and Job Satisfaction: A study of Manufacturing Sector *Dr. Garima Mathur, **Megha Salunke

Organizational commitment and Job Satisfaction: A study of Manufacturing Sector *Dr. Garima Mathur, **Megha Salunke *Dr. Garima Mathur, **Megha Salunke ABSTRACT Everyone has some attributes and traits within their personality; few are loyal towards their organization as they want to be but few are loyal or committed

More information

A Study of Customers Attitudinal and Behavioral Responses toward Lodging Companies Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives ABSTRACT

A Study of Customers Attitudinal and Behavioral Responses toward Lodging Companies Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives ABSTRACT A Study of Customers Attitudinal and Behavioral Responses toward Lodging Companies Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives Suna Lee School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration Oklahoma State University

More information

Linking supervisor and coworker support to employee innovative behavior at work: role of psychological Conditions

Linking supervisor and coworker support to employee innovative behavior at work: role of psychological Conditions Linking supervisor and coworker support to employee innovative behavior at work: role of psychological Conditions Vipra Arora Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India

More information

Role of Work Family Conflict on Organizational Commitment and Organizational Effectiveness

Role of Work Family Conflict on Organizational Commitment and Organizational Effectiveness Role of Work Family Conflict on Organizational Commitment and Organizational Effectiveness Prof. DR. Shoukat Malik Director, Alfallah Institute of Banking and Finance,Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan

More information

SSRG International Journal of Economics and Management Studies (SSRG-IJEMS) volume4 issue4 April 2017

SSRG International Journal of Economics and Management Studies (SSRG-IJEMS) volume4 issue4 April 2017 Job Satisfaction among HDFC Bank Employees: - A Case Study of Srinagar City Dr Ajaz Ahmad Mir Assistant Professor Department of Commerce Islamai College Srinagar (J & K) 190002 Abstract In this highly

More information

The influence of organizational socialization tactics on newcomer. adjustment. A study on university graduates of China

The influence of organizational socialization tactics on newcomer. adjustment. A study on university graduates of China The influence of organizational socialization tactics on newcomer adjustment A study on university graduates of China Xiao LI Osaka University March 2016 Author Note Xiao LI, Department of Economics, Osaka

More information