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1 Effects of leadership on total quality management on purchasing efficiency in public companies in Kenya: a survey of selected public companies in south Nyanza Rebby Chepkoech School of Business and Economics, Kisii University and Dr. Willy Muturi, PhD School of Business and Social Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Corresponding author s Abstract Total quality management (TQM) is the organization-wide effort to install and make permanent climate in which it continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers. The study aims to investigate the effects of total quality management on purchasing efficiency in public companies. The study will be guided by the following objectives; examine how leadership affects total quality management on purchasing efficiency in public companies, affects total quality management on purchasing efficiency in public companies. The study will informed by Armand V. Feigenbaum Theory and Kaoru Ishikawa Theory. The study will apply Survey research design. The target population will be 900 staff drawn from Kisii Bottlers, Sony Sugar and Gusii water and Sanitation Company, including the senior management and middle management in the five departments. For this study the researcher will take 10% of the target population to get the desired sample of 60. Study will employ the use of questionnaires and document guided. Cronbach Alpha Coefficient indicator will be used to test internal consistency of the items. The study will collect both quantitative and qualitative data therefore descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyze the data Key words: Leadership, TQM, Procurement Efficiency. 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background of the study Total quality management (TQM) is an approach to improving the competitiveness, effectiveness and flexibility of a whole organization (Irwin, 2005).It is essentially a way of planning, organizing and understanding each activity, and depends on each individual at each level. For an organization to be truly effective, each part of it must work properly together towards the same goals, recognizing that each person and each activity affects and in turn is affected by others. It s a way of ridding people s lives of wasted effort by bringing everyone into the processes of improvement, so that results are achieved in less time. TQM is both a philosophy and asset of guiding concept, principles and practices that represent the foundation of organizations that strive to continuously improve. TQM applies human resource and quantitative tools for improving all the process occurring within an organization and for meeting the customer current and future needs. It integrates the functions of management, technical and analytical tools and continuous improvement practices. TQM address the quality of management as well as the management of quality. It involves everyone into the organization (managers and workers) in a long term practice to develop process that are customer- oriented flexible and responsive and that constantly improve quality. It s the role of management to ensure that all functions understand the objectives, benefits and purpose of TQM. Careful preparation and understanding is required if its process is to be successful, worthwhile and relevant. TQM exists to improve organizational efficiency by ensuring that things are carried out right, the first time, every time and striving for zero defects and elimination of all waste, (Juran, 2004). 1

2 Prachter, (2002) views TQM as an approach for continuously improving the quality of goods and services delivered through the participation of all levels and functions of the organizations. It can be viewed as process, wherein the top management along with other people in the organization works to improve the product and service quality including the work environment at every stage with the aim of enhancing customer and employee satisfaction. Therefore, TQM is total because it involves everyone, not just top management but encompasses all. It is often termed as a journey, not a destination; it requires a complete turnaround in corporate culture and management approach. TQM is a pragmatic long term system approach initiated and driven by the top management to bring about a total culture change, interlink and integrate every function, process and every activity of an organization through crossfunctional involvement and participation of people to meet the dynamic needs of customers and to create a loyal but at the same time a diversified customer base. Burman and Evans, (2008) refers TQM as a quest for quality that involves everyone in an organization. He cites three philosophies in TQM approach; first, is the never ending push to improve, which is referred to as continuous improvement, secondly, is the involvement of everyone in the organization and thirdly is the goal of customer satisfaction;; which means meeting or exceeding customer expectations. TQM suggest that for an organization to remain competitive the customer requirements should be met at lowest cost possible. TQM focuses every aspect of the organizations activity towards the customer needs. The new clause for customer related processes under ISO 9001:2000 requires the organization to identify and document requirements, and to clarify with the customer the requirements it is to fulfill as part of the contract. Management therefore needs establish performance measurement instruments that would reveal the level of customer satisfaction, and having known that an organization should be in a position to respond appropriately to customer needs. Ellram, (2003) emphasized the importance of achieving annual improvements in quality and reductions in quality-related costs.any improvement that takes an organization to levels of quality performance previously achieved is termed as a breakthrough. Breakthroughs are focused on improving or eliminating chronic losses.all breakthroughs follow a common sequence of discovery, organization, diagnosis, corrective action and control. The term customer is associated with the concept of quality chains which emphasize the linkages of suppliers and customers. Quality chains are both internal and external, thus internally purchasing is the customer of design and the supplier of production. The Japanese concept of kaizen, or ongoing improvement, affects everyone in an organization at all levels. Thus, while top management provides leadership, continuous improvement is also understood and implemented at shop floor level. Some of consequences of this principle include: Once a culture of common beliefs, principles, objectives and concerns has been established, people will manage their own task and will take responsibility to improve process they own. Recognition of the importance of implementing a system to provide information to managers about quality processes which enable them to plan, control and evaluate performance. Total quality management has various terms which are incorporated in such as quality assurance, quality management and total quality control, (Adkins, 2004). Javidan, (2001) suggested that the quality of a company is determined by the philosophy, commitment and the quality policy of the top management and the extent to which this policy can be put in actual practice since this is basically a management function, involving direction by top management and co-ordination of all quality related activities throughout the company. TQM is an approach to improving the competitiveness, effectiveness and flexibility of the whole organization. For organizations to be true effective, each part of it must work properly together towards the same goals, recognizing that each person and each activity affects and in 2

3 turn is affected by others. TQM is also a way of ridding people s lives of wasted efforts by bringing everyone into the process of improvement, so that results are achieved in less time. TQM must be truly organization-wide, and it must start with the top management. The most senior directors and management must demonstrate that they are serious about quality. The middle management have a particularly important role to play, since they must not only grasp the principles of TQM, they must go on to explain them to the people for whom they are responsible, and that their own commitment is communicated.only then will TQM spread effectively throughout the organization.this level of management must also ensure that the efforts and achievements of their subordinates obtain the recognition, attention and reward that they deserve. The quality policy must be the concern of all employees, and the principles and objectives communication as widely as possible. Effective leadership and total quality management result in the company or organization doing the right things, right first time, (Tannebaum, 2010). Vallerand, (2003) TQM has been effectively used in organizations especially manufacturing firms to ensure that quality of product produced meets the requirements of the customer at reduced cost, that has led to efficient performance improvement and no need of deadon- arrival products, which represent immensely more desirable products. Purchasing can certainly benefit from having embraced TQM indeed, the task of application is usually easier because managers are more likely to know value chain well, the suppliers and employees. TQM application is an opportunity to take an overall view of work content, loads and volumes, to look back on what has been achieved during the reporting period, the cost, and delays and agree objectives for the next. A badly designed frame work of application is operated by untrained and poorly motivated managers and hostility introduced, will damage relationships and provide no benefits. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Total quality management (TQM) is the organization-wide effort to install and make permanent climate in which it continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers. While there is no widely agreed-upon approach, TQM efforts typically draw heavily on the previouslydeveloped tools and techniques of quality control. Total quality management enables the company to identify, evaluate and develop a framework for implementing effective quality and productivity initiatives which will hence increase the profitability and competitiveness of organization. It is also a tool to encourage strong quality performance and to maintain this high level of quality performance and to motivate where there is poor quality performance to do better. This research aims at leadership as a factor affecting quality management on purchasing efficiency as many companies are inviting the success of total quality management and appreciating it. In most cases there is lack of full implementation of TQM hence creating inefficiency in the working environment. Full implementation of TQM improves purchasing efficiency in public companies. 1.3 Objectives of the Study General Objective The general objective of the study is to find out the effects of total quality management on purchasing efficiency in public companies in South Nyanza Specific objective To examine how leadership affects total quality management on purchasing efficiency in public companies. 1.4 Significance of the Study The study will help the management of public Companies to realize the need, method and benefit of implementing total quality management for efficient performance.. The study acts as a guideline and base for future research on total quality management in different organizations. 3

4 2.0 Literature review 2.1 Theoretical Literature Theoretical Concept of TQM It is rather difficult to mark the birth of quality control historically. Juran (1989) stated that strategies for managing quality have already been adopted since mankind s early civilization. For example, the inspection of incoming food. However, it would be much more practical to mark the birth of quality control since the time Frederick Taylor introduced scientific management in around 1875 when the concept of mass production and the division of labor began to appear in the American industrial sector (DeVor et al., 1992: 8). Walter Shewhart marked another important era of quality development in 1925 when he developed the statistical approach to study manufacturing process variations (Shewhart, 1931). Statistical process control, as it was then named, was used extensively during the Second World War for military purpose. Nevertheless, many prefer to mark the birth of quality control during the postwar Japan period from 1945 onwards when the General Headquarters led by MacArthur established the Civil Communication Section with the objective of reviving the infrastructure of Japan ruined by the war. In 1946, the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) was established, followed by a national campaign of training in quality control methods. In 1950, William Edwards Deming visited Japan and offered seminars on statistical process control for Japanese industrialists. This was quickly followed by the visit of another American quality expert, Joseph Juran in 1954 whose teachings had placed more emphasis on top management leadership rather than statistical methods. 2.2 Empirical Literature Van Weele, (2008) Purchasing efficiency is important as the purchasing department plays an ever increasingly important role in the supply chain in an economic downturn. A reduction in the cost of raw material and services can allow companies to competitively market the price of their finished goods in order to win business. An obvious performance measure of the success of any purchasing department is the amount of money saved by the company. However there are a number of performance measurements that businesses can use when they measure purchasing performance. Administrative costs are the basis for measuring purchasing efficiency. This performance measurement does not relate to the amount of purchased items that the department has procured. The measurement relates to how well the purchasing department is performing in the activities they are expected to perform against the budget that is in place for the department. If the purchasing costs are within the budget then the efficiency of the purchasing department will exceed expectations. If the department is using funds over and above the budget then the purchasing function is not efficient. Improving the efficiency of the purchasing process provides important opportunities to increase a firm's profitability. In a mathematical programming model that uses total cost of ownership information to simultaneously select suppliers and determine order quantities over a multi-period time horizon. The total cost of ownership quantifies all costs associated with the purchasing process and is based on the activities and cost drivers determined by an activity based costing system, (Stretton, 2001). Ellram, (2003) the price that the purchasing department paid for an item is not necessarily a good measurement for purchasing performance. The price of an item may fluctuate due to market conditions, its availability, and other demand pressures; therefore the purchasing department may not be able to control the price. A popular method of assessing purchasing effectiveness is to review the inventory turnover ratios. The ratio measures the number of times, on average; the inventory is used, or turned, during the period. The ratio used to measure the liquidity of the inventory. However, this is not always a great measure of purchasing effectiveness as seasonal requirements for having items in stock can make this measurement inaccurate. In many organizations the Purchasing and Supply function is viewed as a routine low level activity. A couple of years ago a national 4

5 survey of CEO's and FD's revealed that 48% could not readily recall their annual total expenditure on goods and services (defined as all non-wage & salary expenditure) though they had no problem listing turnover, sales, profits, headcount and salary costs. Strange really, when one considers most sectors spend considerably more on goods and services than they do on wages and salaries. It follows therefore that in many organizations a re-assessment of Procurement performance will yield beneficial results by way of significant contributions to bottom line and competitive advantage. Credit card purchasing offers real opportunities to reduce complexity, costs, and time delays in purchasing. Purchases may be walk-in or placed by telephone, fax, or online, thereby expediting the buying process at the front end and reducing time delays for cardholders. The local government agency determines which employees receive cards and rules governing use of each card, including purchase restrictions with daily and monthly dollar limits, (Stanley, 2007). Chatman & Jehn, (2004) the purchase agreements giving you good discounts are not being used to a satisfactory extent. Purchase processes and follow-up of status, approval, delivery, invoice processing, etc. are timeconsuming. And you have difficulties in following your own purchasing policy and guidelines for order approval and entry. Consequently, you're missing out on large purchasing savings, and you spend far too much time on manual purchasing processes and invoice processing. This time is lost from the core business and productive support tasks/functions. Streamlining of purchase to pay processes demands prioritization. This prioritization depends on a clear business case and will obtain the desired savings and gains. Businesses adopting enterprise purchase-to-pay realize savings on purchases, fast digital processes instead of manual, clarity, overview and strengthened integration with suppliers on invoices and digital catalogues. The use of OIOUBL business documents strengthens the flexibility and accuracy of your daily cooperation with your suppliers and future-proofs your business for new formats. Leadership Tannebaum, (2010) Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of the organization of which they are members. Leadership in general, defines a leader as a group member whose influence on group attitudes, performance, or decision making greatly exceeds that of the average member of the group. Leadership is an influential process of getting people to do things differently. Leadership sets goals, but in doing so takes account of the conditions that have already determined what the organization can do and to some extent what it must do. A leader plays several roles such as chief entrepreneur, chief administrator, crisis solver, task manager, figurehead, spokesman, resource allocator, negotiator, motivator, advisor, inspiration list, census builder and policy maker. As such a leader has to balance between being authoritarian, perceptive listener, and compromising decision maker and strongly participative at times. Whilst early theories tend to focus upon the characteristics and behaviors of successful leaders, later theories begin to consider the role of followers and the contextual nature of leadership To execute strategy is to execute change at all levels of an organization. This makes it a concern for leadership when implementing a strategy especially if it involves a major change is that right leaders be in the right positions to facilitate execution of the new strategy. Leadership challenge therefore is to galvanize commitment among people within the organization as well as stakeholders outside the organization to embrace change and implement strategies intended to competitively position the organization). One of the keys to successful strategy implementation is for management to communicate the case for organizational change so clearly and persuasively to organizational members so that there is determined commitment throughout the ranks to carry out strategy and meet performance targets).the strategist as a leader has to lead the process of 5

6 making corrective adjustments. A strategy leader also needs to deal with company politics when implementing strategy because internal political considerations impact on decisions affecting organizational performance, (Prachter, 2002). Hofstede, (2001) Top management commitment is very important for the successful implementation of TQM in an organization. Quality is viewed as ultimately and inescapably the responsibility to top management. Because top management creates the organizations systems that determine how products and services are produced, the quality improvement process must begin with managements own commitment to TQM. Top management must communicate to TQM to the entire organization to create awareness, interest, desire and action. They should provide the vision of where the organization is going with its quality efforts, and create cultural change within the organization. Giving employees the responsibility for improvements and the authority to make change accomplish them provides a strong motivation for employees. This puts decision making into the hands of those who are closest to the job and have considerable insights into problems and solutions. Marshall and Nanayakkara, (2009) argues that the people who know the most about what is right or wrong with system or process are those who do it. A key element in employee involvement is that each worker assumes the responsibility of inspecting quality of his own work. This is a practice commonly referred to as Quality at source, eliminates inspection as a method of quality control. Employees should also be encouraged to communicate upwards to top management. As employees are organization s human resources, they should be involved in top management resources management procedures. Because employees are the prime source of human resources, their education, skills and experience needed for a job need to be assessed and matched with the job requirements. Goelzer, (2004) TQM in leadership is not an accident but rather a dynamic process which requires continuous improvement. This philosophy seeks to improve all factors related to the process of converting inputs into output on an ongoing process. Under continuous improvement, the old adage if it is not broke, don t fix it gets transformed into just because it isn t broke doesn t mean it can t be improved. The long-term heath of an organization depends on treating quality improvement as a never ending quest. Opportunities to develop better methods for carrying out work always exist, and a commitment to continuous improvement ensures that people will never stop learning about the work they do. Continuous improvement efforts may either be incremental or breakthrough improvements which can be achieved by use of improvement tools and techniques such as organizational learning, business process re-engineering, benchmarking, and sigma techniques, among others. Continuous improvement for a quality management system is a mandatory requirement of ISO 90001:2000. Planning for continuous improvement must identify data to be collected, how it will be analyzed, who will decide on outcomes of processes and how continuous improvement will be implemented. ISO 9000:2000 provides two continuous improvement strategies and is concerned with identification of non-conformities and how they can be avoided in future. The second strategy is prevention and requires the anticipation of circumstances that cause nonconformities rather than waiting for it to happen before responding. Top management has to ensure that they implement systems that seek overtime to continually improve the overall performance of the organization, similarly, education and training reinforces this role for everyone in the organization, (Birdwhistell, 2000). 2.3 Critical Review Supply Chain is all about managing the flow of materials and information among the respective stakeholders. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is all about managing people and processes to ensure fulfillment of customer needs and desires. Whether it is procurement, production planning, inventory management, distribution, warehousing, waste management or logistics including (reverse), it is absolutely imperative that people and process focus help achieve 6

7 customer results. The integration of TQM principles with SCM will be a significant enabler for sigma level improvements in SCM performance. Purchasing management and total quality management (TQM) can help provide organizations with a sustainable competitive advantage by improving product quality and service while reducing cost. Organization related to both manufacturing and services, irrespective of size have attempted application of various TQM tools like sigma six to improve efficiency and effectiveness of operational processes along with skill and capability improvement of people to ensure achievement of desired customer satisfaction. However most of the information related to TQM application reveals that it has been majorly implemented in processes such as manufacturing, new product development, etc., but very limited application in SCM processes. Purchasing efficiency is interdependent on various functions and diverse people involvement and hence TQM integration can only be possible with collaborative effort of all the participants of SCM to ensure effective customer oriented quality based improvement across the entire network. This is more of a mindset change from just work to improving work in a process centric manner. Many organizations have found TQM too deliberative and quantitatively oriented to utilize in fastchanging markets. Denison, (2004) identified a variety of myths associated with quality systems, one of which is the idea that staff follow quality control procedures during their daily work. 2.4 Summary of Gaps to be filled Purchasing efficiency and total quality management (TQM) can help provide organizations with a sustainable competitive advantage by improving product quality and service while reducing cost. An effective purchasing function is one of the essential competencies to TQM success and quality management. In an increasingly complex business environment, today s firms are continuously looking for new ways to remain competitive. Purchasing efficiency helps provide a sustainable competitive advantage by improving product performance and service while simultaneously reducing cost An effective purchasing function has also been considered a key business process in the supply chain. Purchasing role in TQM is very important as an intermediary in the supply chain, connecting suppliers with purchasing internal customers who, in turn, provide products and services for external customers. Despite the importance of purchasing efficiency and TQM to supply chain success, there has been relatively little research to date regarding quality management purchasing and its effect on purchasing operational performance and internal customer satisfaction. 3.0 Methodology 3.1 Introduction This section of the study outlines the methodology to be used in this research project. It gives detail on research design, target population, sampling design, data collection procedure and data analysis method used. 3.2 Research Design Survey research will be applied. A survey is an attempt to collect data from members of a population in order to determine the current status of that population with respect to one or more variables (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). Survey design is chosen because it s economical and has a rapid turn around in data collection. It also has the advantage of identifying attributes of a large population from a small group of individuals (Babbie, 1990 & Fowler, 2002). That is why it will be the choice of the researcher to describe the factor affecting total quality management (TQM) on purchasing efficiency in public companies. Questionnaires will be used to select samples for observation and analysis, in order to estimate and interpret the actual population characteristics. 3.3 Target Population The target population will be staff at Kisii Bottlers, Sony Sugar and Gusii water and sanitation company, including the senior management and middle management in the five departments. 7

8 Table 3.1 Target Population Departments Employees Percentage (%) Kisii Sony GWASC Kisii Sony GWASCO bottlers sugar O bottlers sugar Procurement Human Resource Stores Sales And Marketing Finance Total Source: Field data 3.4 Sample Size A sample is a selection of the population selected for observation and analysis. A sample is defined as a small part or the quantity intended to show what the whole is like. Stratified random sampling method is used so as to allow for adequate representation of the different categories of the population. For the purpose of generalization stratified random sampling is used to select the sample within each stratum so as to eliminate biasness and to allow representation. Advantages of stratified sampling are: it ensures inclusion in the sample of subgroups which otherwise would be omitted by other sampling methods because of their smaller number of population. Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) state that 10% - 30% of the target population is representative but advise a higher percentage for better results. For this study the researcher will take 10% of the target population to get the desired sample of 60. Table 3.2: Sample size Departments Frequency Sample Size Percentage (%) Kisii Sony GWA Kisii Sony GWA Kisii Sony GWA bottlers sugar SCO bottlers sugar SCO bottlers sugar SCO Procurement Human resource Stores Sales and marketing Finance Total Source: Field data 8

9 3.5 Data Collection Methods Instruments refer to the tools to be used for collecting data and how the tools will be developed, Oso and Onen (2005).This study will employ the use of questionnaires and document guided. The selection of these tools has been guided by the nature of data to be collected and time available as well as the objectives of the study Questionnaires Nsubuga (2000) defines questionnaires as a presentation of carefully selected and orderly question to respondents who are expected to react usually in written to this collection of items. Two different questionnaires will be developed for heads of department and heads of sections. The researcher will use structured and close ended questions based on likert scale as they are easy to construct, are reliable and objective than any other opinion scales, Kothari (2009).Closed ended questions are easier to code and analyze in relation to open ended questions. Items in the checklist were randomized to avoid biasing results. The targeted population will also be literate thus difficulties of responding to questions never arose. The researcher will mainly be concerned with gathering data on variables that cannot be observed such as views, beliefs, attitude, perceptions, opinions and biographical information related to implementation of strategic plans. Such information will best be collected through the use of questionnaires, McMillan and Schumacher, (2001). Questionnaires helped solicit data required to confirm or disconfirm hypothesis. Questionnaires will be administered by the researcher by dispatching to the respondents. The researcher will allow respondents a period of two weeks to fill the questionnaires after which dully completed questionnaires will be collected for coding and analysis Document Analysis The term Document refers to paper work, photographs, works of art and Television programs, O Leary (2009).Nsubuga,(2000) refers to document analysis as a systematic examination of current existing records as sources of data which may be of graphical type and include paintings, drawings, cartoons and photographs. Therefore documents rate and enhance credibility of the issue under investigation. Jwan and Ong ondo (2011) recognize that documents give background information about the topic and provide information that will form part of the conceptual framework. Document analysis will in this study entail examining the purchasing efficiency to ascertain how the organizations to take into account issues such as recruitment and selection, staff development, estates and equipment s, cost sharing, additional income generation and its motto, mission and objectives and be able to establish their relationship with strategies to implement the TQM projects Validity and reliability of the research instruments Validity According to O leary (2009) validity is premised on the assumption that what is being studied can be measured and captured. It is thus the extent to which a research instrument is able to measure what was intended to measure. The researcher will ensure that the items are prepared according to the objectives of the study. Horsprikins (1981) states that validity should not just depend on the subjective judgment of the researcher. Apart from undertaking an extensive literature review to identify relevant content areas, the researcher in this case will seek for suggestions from educational experts, colleagues and supervisors to analyze the validity of the instruments. The items in the questionnaires and interview schedule will be availed to the supervisors to rate the ability of each item and its relevancy to the study. This will help to rate the ability of the instrument to measure the content they are intended to measure (content validity), correlate the results (concurrent validity) and measure what the instrument is purported to measure (face validity). Reliability Adams, et al (2007) defines reliability as the degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same conditions. It is therefore a measure of how consistent the results from a test are. Reliability of the instruments will be assessed by checking 9

10 the stability of the instrument by conducting a pilot study at university of Eldoret. Whereas for interviews the researcher will do mock interviews with colleagues. Pilot study is the pre-testing of the research instruments in the field to randomly selected subjects to determine the reliability of the instruments.the findings from the pilot study will not be used in the final research but will be used to lay a framework for testing reliability. The pilot study and mock interviews will be used to check suitability of the questionnaire and interview schedule in relation to suitability and simplicity of language used, clarity of items and choices in responses, relevancy to content and purpose, time that will be taken by each respondent, adequacy of space for responses, sequencing, access, pacing, comfort zones, note taking, roles, objectivity, conversational flow and ambiguities. Cronbach Alpha Coefficient indicator will be used to test internal consistency of the items. In this case a score obtained from one item will be correlated with scores obtained from other items in the instrument. Cronbach Alpha Coefficient will then be computed to determine how items in the instrument correlate. A value of Cronbach alpha above 0.70 will be used as a reasonable test of scale reliability,(gaur and Gaur 2009). A high value of the Cronbach coefficient suggest that items that make up the scale hang together and there is a consistency among the items in measuring the underlying concept of interest. Items that will be found to be unclear or open to misinterpretation will be reviewed and corrected according to comments given. 3.6 Data Analysis For the purpose of establishing important and objective information, all relevant methods will be employed where necessary in line with the objective of the study. The questionnaires will be received and edited for accuracy, competence, uniformity, consistence and acceptability. Errors and omissions detected will be corrected. There will be data coding, tabulation and analysis. After editing, the data will be coded according to the various sub topics present in the questionnaire. Coding helps to eliminate the crudeness of data into acceptable data for easy tabulation. The study will collect both quantitative and qualitative data therefore descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyze the data. This entails the use of mode, percentages for descriptive statistics and chi square for inferential statistics. Mutiple regression model will enabled the researcher to test causal effect. This test will be preferred since data that will be collected will be based on nominal scale.data obtained from interviews will be analyzed by generating themes and codes. Reference Adkins, B. and Caldwell, D. (2004). "Firm or subgroup culture: Where does fitting in matter most?" Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(8) pp Alexander, P., Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology Arjan, W.V (2008) "A Purchasing Performance Measurement and Evaluation". Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, fall 1984, Burman, R. and Evans, A.J. (2008) "Target Zero: A Culture of safety", Defense Aviation Safety Centre Journal, pp Birdwhistell, R. (2000) Kinesics and context: Essays on body motion communication. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Chatman, J. A., & Jehn, K. A. (2004). "Assessing the relationship between industry characteristics and organizational culture: How different can you be?". 10

11 Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), Daniel R., Haaland, S. and Goelzer, P. (2004) "Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: Is Asia Different from the Rest of the World?" Organizational Dynamics pp 109 Ellram, Lisa M. (2003) Structured Method for Applying Purchasing Cost Management Tools. International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, 19 Fisher, K., Marshall, M., & Nanayakkara, A. (2009). Motivational orientation, error monitoring, and academic performance in middle childhood: A behavioral and electrophysiological investigation. Mind, Brain, and Education, Harris, S.G. (2007) "Organizational Culture and Individual Sense making: A Schema-Based Perspective." Organization Science, Vol. 5,(3): pp Hofstede, G. (2001) Culture s consequences: Company values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. House, R. J. (2002) A brief history of GLOBE. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 13, 3-4: Irwin, H. (2005) Communicating with Asia: Understanding people and customs. St Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin. Javidan, M. and House, R. (2001) Cultural acumen for the global manager: lessons from Project GLOBE. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 29, 4: Marsen, S. (2003) Professional writing: The complete guide for business, industry and IT. Basingstoke: Palgrave. 147 Prachter, B. (2002) when the little things count and they always count: 601 essential Things that everyone in business needs to know. New York: Marlowe and Company. Preston, P. (2005) Nonverbal communication: Do you really say what you mean? Journal Of Healthcare Management. Vol. 50, Rajagopal, Shan and Kenneth N. Bernard, (2000) Cost Containment Strategies: Challenges for Strategic Purchasing. International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Stretton, H.; Orchard, L. (2001). Public goods, public enterprise, public choice : theoretical foundations of the contemporary attack on government. Basingstoke Macmillan ISBN Tannebaum, R. and Schmidt, W. H. (2010), How to choose a leadership pattern. Harvard Business Review Verderber, R. and Verderber S. (2002). Inter-Act: Using interpersonal communication 11

12 Skills, 6th Ed. Los Angeles, CA: Wadsworth. Vallerand, R. J. (2003). The Academic Motivation Scale: A Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic. Educational and Psychological Measurement,

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