Strategic Management Management Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts and Cases

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1 STRATEGIC ACTIONS: STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 13 Entrepreneurship Strategic Management Management of Strategy Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts and Cases Concepts and Cases Seventh edition Michael A. Hitt R. Duane Ireland Robert E. Hoskisson

2 KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES Studying this chapter should provide you with the strategic management knowledge needed to: 1. Define strategic entrepreneurship and corporate entrepreneurship. 2. Define entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial opportunities and explain their importance. 3. Define invention, innovation, and imitation and describe the relationship among them. 4. Describe entrepreneurs and the entrepreneurial mind- set. 5. Explain international entrepreneurship and its importance Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13 2

3 KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES (cont d) Studying this chapter should provide you with the strategic management knowledge needed to: 6. Describe how firms internally develop innovations. 7. Explain how firms use cooperative strategies to innovate. 8. Describe how firms use acquisitions as a means of innovation. 9. Explain how strategic entrepreneurship helps firms create value Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13 3

4 Strategic Entrepreneurship Strategic Entrepreneurship Taking entrepreneurial actions using a strategic perspective. Engaging in simultaneous opportunity seeking and competitive advantage seeking behaviors. Designing and implementing entrepreneurial strategies to create wealth. Strategic entrepreneurship actions can be taken by: Individuals Corporations 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13 4

5 Strategic Entrepreneurship and Innovation Entrepreneurship is concerned with: The discovery of profitable opportunities The exploitation of profitable opportunities Firms that encourage entrepreneurship are: Risk takers. Committed to innovation. Proactive in creating opportunities rather than waiting to respond to opportunities created by others Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13 5

6 Entrepreneurial Opportunities Entrepreneurial Opportunities Conditions in which new products or services can satisfy a need in the market. Entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial managers must be able to: Identify opportunities not perceived by others. Take actions to exploit the opportunities. Establish a competitive advantage Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13 6

7 Innovation Process Invention The act of creating or developing a new product or process Brings something new into being. Technical criteria are used to determine the success of an invention Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13 7

8 Innovation Process (cont d) Invention Innovation The process of creating a commercial product from an invention. Brings something new into use. Commercial criteria are used to determine the success of an innovation Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13 8

9 Innovation Process (cont d) Invention Innovation Imitation The adoption of an innovation by similar firms Usually leads to product or process standardization. Products based on imitation often are offered at lower prices but with fewer features Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13 9

10 The Importance of Innovation Innovation Is a key outcome firms seek through entrepreneurship. Is often the source of competitive success. Corporate Entrepreneurship Innovations produced in large established firms Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

11 Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurs Individuals acting independently or as part of an organization who create a new venture or develop an innovation, take risks entering innovations into the marketplace. Can be any manager or employee in an organization. Entrepreneurial capabilities include: Intellectual capital Entrepreneurial mind-set Transfer of entrepreneurial competence to others Effective human capital 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

12 International Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship can: Fuel economic growth Create employment Generate prosperity for citizens There is a strong positive relationship between the rate of entrepreneurial activity and economic development in a nation Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

13 International Entrepreneurship (cont d) There must be a balance (in the culture) between Individual initiative and The spirit of cooperation and group ownership of innovation. Successful entrepreneurial firms: Provide appropriate autonomy. Offer incentives for individual initiative. Promote cooperation and group ownership of an innovation Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

14 Incremental and Radical Innovation Incremental Innovation Is the usual case for innovation in organizations. Provides small increments in current product lines. Improves existing knowledge and processes. Can create value. Radical Innovation Is rare because of difficulty and risk. Provides significant technological breakthroughs. Creates new knowledge and processes. Can create value Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

15 FIGURE 13.1 Model of Internal Corporate Venturing Source: Adapted from R. A. Burgelman, 1983, A model of the interactions of strategic behavior, corporate context, and the concept of strategy, Academy of Management Review, 8: Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

16 Internal Corporate Venturing The set of activities used to create inventions and innovations through internal means. R&D spending is linked to success in internal corporate venturing. Product Champion An organizational member with an entrepreneurial vision of a new good or service who seeks to create support for the vision s s commercialization Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

17 Internal Corporate Venturing (cont d) A A bottom-up process in which product champions: Pursue new ideas, often through a political process. Develop and coordinate the commercialization of a new good or service until it achieves success in the marketplace. Forms of internal corporate venturing: Autonomous strategic behavior Induced strategic behavior 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

18 Venturing: Strategic Behaviors Autonomous Strategic Behavior Based on a firm s s knowledge and resources that are the sources of the firm s s innovation. AA firm s s technological capabilities and competencies are its basis for new products and processes. Induced Strategic Behavior AA top-down process whereby the firm s s current strategy and structure foster product innovations. The strategy in place is filtered through a matching structural hierarchy Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

19 Implementing New Product Development and Internal Ventures To be innovative and develop internal ventures requires: An entrepreneurial mindset Risk propensity An emphasis on execution Individuals with an entrepreneurial mindset Engage the energies of everyone in their domain both inside and outside the organization Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

20 Cross Functional Product Development Teams Cross-functional Product Development Team Facilitate integration of activities associated with different organizational functions. Design, manufacturing, marketing, etc. New product development processes can be completed more quickly. Products can be more easily commercialized when cross- functional teams work effectively Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

21 Cross Functional Product Development Teams Cross-functional Product Development Team Product development stages are grouped into parallel or overlapping processes, allowing the firm to tailor its product development efforts Unique core competencies Needs of the market 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

22 Barriers to Cross-Functional Teams Effectiveness Different orientations and perceptions Individuals from separate functions have different orientations on issues. Create differing approaches to product development activities. Organizational Politics Cause aggressive competition for resources among different organizational functions. Organizations must achieve cross-functional integration with minimal political conflict Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

23 Facilitating Integration and Innovation Shared Values Are framed around the firm s s strategic intent and mission. Become the glue that promotes integration between functional units. Effective Leadership Sets goals and allocates resources Goals include integrated development and commercialization of new goods and services Effective Communication 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

24 FIGURE 13.2 Creating Value through Internal Innovation Processes 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

25 Cooperative Strategies for Entrepreneurship and Innovation Cooperation and integration of knowledge and resources is required to successfully commercialize inventions. Entrepreneurial firms need investment capital and distribution capabilities. Established companies need the technological knowledge possessed by entrepreneurial firms. Firms innovate through the sharing their knowledge and skills in a cooperative relationship Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

26 Acquisitions to Buy Innovation Acquisitions Can rapidly extend the product line. Can quickly increase the firm s s revenues. Key risks of acquisitions The firm may substitute the ability to buy innovations for an ability to produce innovations internally. The firm may lose intensity in R&D efforts. The firm may lose its ability to produce patents Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

27 Capital for Entrepreneurial Ventures Venture Capital Firms Seek high returns on their investment. Value the competence of the entrepreneur or the human capital in the firm. Place weight on the expected scope of competitive rivalry the firm is likely to experience. Evaluate the degree of instability in the market addressed Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

28 Capital for Entrepreneurial Ventures Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) Are new stock priced to reflect the firm s s high potential. Often yield much larger equity investments than can be obtained from venture capitalists. Investment bankers frequently play major roles in the development and offering of IPOs. Firms that have previously received venture capital backing usually receive greater returns from IPOs Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

29 Creating Value through Strategic Entrepreneurship Be effective in identifying opportunities. Be flexible and willing to take risks. Have sufficient resources and capabilities to exploit identified opportunities. Sustain a competitive advantage while identifying and exploiting opportunities. Develop an entrepreneurial mind-set among managers and employees. Seek to enter and compete in international markets Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved

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