TRB WEBINAR PROGRAM Planning and Preliminary Engineering Applications Guide to the Highway Capacity Manual: Contents

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1 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD TRB WEBINAR PROGRAM Planning and Preliminary Engineering Applications Guide to the Highway Capacity Manual: Contents Tuesday, May 30, :00-3:30 PM ET

2 The Transportation Research Board has met the standards and requirements of the Registered Continuing Education Providers Program. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to RCEP. A certificate of completion will be issued to participants that have registered and attended the entire session. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by RCEP.

3 Purpose Discuss how the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) can be used to support agencies planning, programming and management decisions in a costeffective manner. Learning Objectives At the end of this webinar, you will be able to: Describe what planning and preliminary engineering mean in an HCM context Understand why the Guide was developed, its intended audience, and its general structure Identify common planning tasks to which HCM methods can potentially be applied Apply the case studies provided in the Guide to specific planning tasks

4 Planning and Preliminary Engineering Applications Guide to the HCM Part 1: Content May 30, 2017

5 NCHRP is a State-Driven Program Sponsored by individual state DOTs who Suggest research of national interest Serve on oversight panels that guide the research. Administered by TRB in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration.

6 Practical, ready-to-use results Applied research aimed at state DOT practitioners Often become AASHTO standards, specifications, guides, syntheses Can be applied in planning, design, construction, operations, maintenance, safety, environment

7 Welcome Brian Dunn Transportation Planning Analysis Manager, Oregon DOT Planning & Preliminary Engineering Subcommittee Chair, TRB Committee on Highway Capacity & Quality of Service Member of project panel for the Guide

8 Instructors Tom Creasey, PE, Ph.D. Principal, Stantec Chair, TRB Highway Capacity & QOS Committee Co-author of the Guide Paul Ryus, PE Principal Engineer, Kittelson & Associates, Inc. Member, TRB Highway Capacity & QOS Committee Co-author of the Guide 5

9 Learning Objectives Define planning and preliminary engineering in an HCM context Understand why the Guide was developed, its intended audience, and its general structure Identify common planning tasks to which HCM methods can potentially be applied Identify the case studies provided in the Guide that demonstrate the application of HCM planning methods to specific planning tasks 6

10 Webinar Content 1. Overview 2. Scope and Structure 3. Applications and References 4. Part 1: Guide Overview 5. Part 2: Medium-Level Analyses 6. Part 3: High-Level Analyses 7. Case Studies (Webinar #2) 8. Wrap-Up 7

11 Webinar Content 1. Overview 2. Scope and Structure 3. Applications and References 4. Part 1: Guide Overview 5. Part 2: Medium-Level Analyses 6. Part 3: High-Level Analyses 7. Case Studies (Webinar #2) 8. Wrap-Up 8

12 Purpose of the Guide The HCM is commonly used by transportation agencies to evaluate the current or forecast operations of roadway facilities Less well known is that the HCM can also be used to cost-effectively and reliably support agencies planning, programming, and management decisions 9

13 Scope of the HCM The HCM has traditionally focused on describing detailed methods for estimating roadway operational performance Concepts, step-by-step computational methods, example problems More limited information has been available for planning applications Default values, generalized service volume tables, quick estimation methods 10

14 Planning Applications in an HCM Context Evaluation of predicted or forecasted conditions for various facility types Application of HCM methods using combinations of actual data, default values, and/or simplifying assumptions More generalized answers (e.g. Is this sufficient? ) over wider areas and/or longer timeframes Back-of-the-envelope calculations Input to project prioritization processes Source of performance measures used in performance monitoring 11

15 Current Use of the HCM in Planning State DOTs, MPOs, local governments, and others were surveyed Less-experienced users less likely than expert users to see value in using the HCM for planning More use with short-term than long-term planning 12

16 Users Desired HCM Improvements for Planning Develop a P&PE Applications Guide (77%) Provide travel time reliability measures (63%) Extend HCM to system and corridor analyses (63%) Integrate HCM methods better with travel demand models (60%) Provide systemwide MOEs (60%) 13

17 NCHRP Project Objectives Develop a guide on the use of the HCM for planning and preliminary engineering applications by identifying appropriate methods and applications, illustrating them with case studies. Aspects included: Appropriate use of different parts of HCM for a broad spectrum of planning/preliminary engineering applications Use in scenario planning Coordination with other analytical tools Oversaturated conditions in a planning context 14

18 Webinar Content 1. Overview 2. Scope and Structure 3. Applications and References 4. Part 1: Guide Overview 5. Part 2: Medium-Level Analyses 6. Part 3: High-Level Analyses 7. Case Studies (Webinar #2) 8. Wrap-Up 15

19 Levels of Planning Analysis High level Large analysis area Low detail Medium level Focus on a single roadway facility, segment, or intersection Greater detail Low level Highly focused and highly detailed 16

20 17 Relative Detail of HCM-Based Analysis Methods

21 Focus of the Guide Multifacility Single facility, point 18

22 19 Guide s Relationship to the Project Life Cycle

23 Guide s Relationship to the HCM: Similarities Documents cross-reference each other Both documents present methods for estimating a variety of transportation performance measures Guide s methods are derived from HCM methods Simplified to reflect the amount and quality of data typically available for planning studies 20

24 Guide s Relationship to the HCM: Differences Guide is not intended to replace the HCM Guide s methods should not be used to make final decisions about roadway design features Computational tools HCM: Specialized software Guide: Computations by hand, worksheets, spreadsheets 21

25 Audiences for the Guide Current HCM users Planning or preliminary engineering level analyses with limited available data Questions requiring a quick, reasonable answer Planners who may not be aware of the HCM or consider themselves HCM users, but who can nevertheless use it for portions of their work Coordinated use of the HCM with planning models and tools Integration of HCM methods and defaults into planning tools System performance monitoring University students 22

26 Organization of the Guide Guide is not intended to be read cover-to-cover Four parts Overview Medium-level analysis High-level analysis Case studies Guide uses lettered sections A V to contrast with numbered HCM chapters

27 Organization of the Guide Part 1: Overview (Sections A G) Entry point to the guide for non-hcm users Menus directing readers to guidebook sections addressing different planning applications Topics referenced throughout the manual Working with traffic demand data Predicting future intersection traffic control Using default values to reduce data needs Using service volume tables to reduce computational effort Field Measurements? Use Defaults 24

28 Organization of the Guide Part 2: Medium-Level Analysis (Sections H P) Entry point to the guide for HCM users HCM 6th Edition refers readers to specific guidebook sections Organized by HCM system element Freeways, two-lane highways, urban streets, etc. Plus bicycle, pedestrians, transit, and truck (freight) modes Typical subsections Scoping and screening method HCM method with defaults Alternate or extended HCM method 25

29 Organization of the Guide Part 3: High-Level Analysis (Sections Q S) Extensions of the HCM to larger study areas Corridors Areas and systems Systemwide performance monitoring 26

30 Organization of the Guide Part 4: Case Studies (Sections T V) In-depth examples of applying the Guide s methods Freeway master plan Arterial bus rapid transit analysis Long-range transportation plan 27

31 Webinar Content 1. Overview 2. Scope and Structure 3. Applications and References 4. Part 1: Guide Overview 5. Part 2: Medium-Level Analyses 6. Part 3: High-Level Analyses 7. Case Studies (Webinar #2) 8. Wrap-Up 28

32 Applications and References within the PPEAG Reference tables associating applications tasks with related sections and case studies Application areas Screening and scoping Areawide transportation planning Project impact and alternatives analysis System performance monitoring 29

33 Webinar Content 1. Overview 2. Scope and Structure 3. Applications and References 4. Part 1: Guide Overview 5. Part 2: Medium-Level Analyses 6. Part 3: High-Level Analyses 7. Case Studies (Webinar #2) 8. Wrap-Up 30

34 Part 1 Sections A. Introduction B. Medium-Level (Facility-Specific) Analyses C. High-Level Analyses D. Working with Traffic Demand Data E. Predicting Intersection Traffic Control F. Default Values G. Service Volume Tables 31

35 Section A: Introduction Overview Scope of the Guide Definitions Applications Levels of analysis Relationship to the Guide to the project life cycle Target audience How to use the Guide Hierarchy of analysis methods 32

36 Section B: Medium-Level (Facility-Specific) Analyses Overview Project traffic and environmental impact studies Typical process Typical analysis tools Basic data needs How the HCM can support these types of analyses Applications of default values 33

37 Medium-Level Analysis Tasks Addressed in the Guide Project Impact and Alternatives Analysis Task Input to travel demand models (if used) Reference Sections in Part 3 Related Case Studies in Part 4 Estimate capacities and free-flow speeds R 3.1 Traffic assignment in travel demand models (if used) Estimate congested speeds R 3.2 Input to microsimulation model (if used) Estimate free-flow speeds H-N None Microsimulation model (if used) validation and error checking Estimate capacity for error-checking simulated bottlenecks H-N None Project impact and alternatives analyses Estimate segment speeds for air quality and noise analyses H-N 1.3, 2.4 Estimate auto intersection utilization (v/c ratios) H-N 2.2, 2.3 Estimate delay H-N 2.4 Estimate queuing H-N 1.5, 2.5 Interpret results H-N 1, 2 Analyze travel time reliability H, K 1.6 Estimate quality of service for transit, bicycles and pedestrians O 2.6 Estimate truck level of service P None Corridor analysis Q None 34

38 Section C: High-Level Analyses Overview Screening and scoping studies Roles of the HCM and the Guide Long- and short-range areawide transportation planning Typical process, tools, data needs How the HCM can support these types of analyses System performance monitoring Context Roles of the HCM and the Guide 35

39 Screening and Scoping Tasks Addressed in the Guide Screening and Scoping Task Screen for potential level of service (LOS) hot spots Reference Sections in Parts 2 and 3 Related Case Studies in Part 4 Auto LOS problems H-N 1.4, 2.4 Truck LOS problems P None Transit, bicycle, and pedestrian LOS problems Identify potential auto capacity problems Preliminary evaluation of improvement alternatives O 2.6 H-N 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 Auto improvements H-N 1.7 Truck improvements H-N None Transit, bicycle, and pedestrian O

40 Areawide Transportation Planning Tasks Addressed in the Guide Task Input to travel demand models (TDMs) Reference Sections in Part 3 Related Case Studies in Part 4 Estimate segment capacities and free-flow speeds R 3.1 Traffic assignment in TDMs Estimate congested speeds R 3.2 Post-processing TDM Outputs Estimate speeds for AQ analyses R 3.3 Quick screening to identify v/c and LOS hot spots R 3.3 Estimate delay R 3.3 Estimate queuing R 3.3 Interpret results R 3.3 Analyze travel time reliability R 3.4 Estimate quality of service for autos, trucks, transit, R None bicycles, and pedestrians Corridor analyses Q None 37

41 System Performance Monitoring Tasks Addressed in the Guide Task Estimate monitoring site capacities and free-flow speeds Volume-only monitoring sites Reference Sections in Part 3 Related Case Studies in Part 4 R4 3.1 Traffic assignment in travel demand models R5 3.2 Travel time-only monitoring sites Estimate congestion S3 None Performance analysis Auto and truck vehicle miles traveled by level of service R5 None Estimate delay R5 3.3 Estimate queuing R5 3.3 Analyze travel time reliability R5 3.4 Estimate multimodal level of service for transit, bicycles, R5 None and pedestrians Estimate truck level of service R5 None 38

42 Section D: Working with Traffic Demand Data Overview Selecting an analysis hour Converting daily volumes to shorter timeframes Seasonal adjustments to traffic volumes Rounding traffic volumes Observed volumes vs. actual demand Constraining demand due to upstream bottlenecks Converting link volumes to turning movements 39

43 Section E: Predicting Intersection Traffic Control Overview Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Estimating 8th- and 4thhighest hour volumes Applying MUTCD warrants Graphical method Identifies likely future intersection control for use in a planning analysis Not intended for final decisions 40

44 Section F: Default Values to Reduce Data Needs Overview When to consider default values Sources of default values Developing local default values Field Measurements? Use Defaults 41

45 Section G: Service Volume Tables to Reduce Analysis Effort Overview Description When to consider service volume tables K- D- Four-Lane Streets Six-Lane Streets Factor Factor LOS C LOS D LOS E LOS C LOS D LOS E Posted Speed Limit = 45 mph ,500 33,600 36,800 25,400 51,700 55, ,100 30,800 33,700 23,400 47,400 50, ,900 30,200 33,100 23,000 46,500 49, ,600 27,700 30,300 21,000 42,700 45, ,500 27,500 30,100 20,900 42,300 45, ,400 25,200 27,600 19,100 38,800 41,500 Sources of generalized service volume tables HCM Florida DOT Local tables 42

46 Webinar Content 1. Overview 2. Scope and Structure 3. Applications and References 4. Part 1: Guide Overview 5. Part 2: Medium-Level Analyses 6. Part 3: High-Level Analyses 7. Case Studies (Webinar #2) 8. Wrap-Up 43

47 Part 2 Sections H. Freeway Analyses I. Multilane Highways J. Two-Lane Highways K. Urban Streets L. Signalized Intersections M. Stop-Controlled Intersections N. Roundabouts O. Pedestrians, Bicyclists, and Public Transit P. Truck Level of Service 44

48 Typical Part 2 Section Outline Overview Applications Analysis Methods Overview Scoping and Screening Method Section Analysis Applying the HCM with Defaults Simplified HCM Facility Method Reliability (freeways, urban streets, signals) Multimodal LOS cross-reference Case study cross-reference 45

49 Scoping and Screening Applying generalized service volume tables Developing service volumes Applicable system elements: Freeways Multilane highways Two-lane highways Urban streets Peak-Hour Peak-Direction (veh/h/ln) AADT (2-way veh/day/ln) Area LOS E LOS E Type Terrain LOS A-C LOS D (capacity) LOS A-C LOS D (capacity) Urban Level 1,550 1,890 2,150 14,400 17,500 19,900 Urban Rolling 1,480 1,810 2,050 13,700 16,700 19,000 Rural Level 1,460 1,770 2,010 12,100 14,800 16,800 Rural Rolling 1,310 1,600 1,820 11,000 13,400 15,200 46

50 Section Analysis Using the HCM with Defaults Applies the HCM operations method, but using default values for many inputs to reduce data requirements Requires access to HCM-implementing software Guide provides information on what input data are needed to apply the method Guide suggests default values for inputs that can be defaulted Applicable system elements: Freeways, multilane highways, two-lane highways Urban streets, signalized intersections 47

51 Example Data Requirements for Multilane Highways For For HCM Facility Input Data (units) Section Method Default Value Hourly directional volume (veh/h) Must be provided Number of directional lanes Must be provided Terrain type (level, rolling, etc.) Must be provided* Lane width (ft) 12 Total lateral clearance (ft) 12 8 (rural), 16 (low-density suburban), Access points/mile 25 (high-density suburban) Free-flow speed (mph) Must be provided Percentage heavy vehicles (%) 10 (rural), 5 (suburban)** Peak hour factor (decimal) 0.88 (rural), 0.95 (suburban) Section length (mi) Must be provided Intersection performance data Must be provided 48

52 Simplified HCM Method Most HCM operations methods require specialized software to implement Many target users of the Guide won t have access to this software Using the HCM method with defaults may require more resources than available or appropriate for the analysis The Guide presents simplified methods that are HCM-compatible, but can be performed by hand or implemented in a basic spreadsheet Multiple performance measures can be calculated Simplified methods available for all system elements 49

53 Example Data Requirements for the Simplified Signalized Intersection Method Performance Measure Input Data (units) Cap Del LOS MMLOS Que Default Value Number of turn lanes Must be provided Other geometry HCM Exhibit Signal timing HCM Exhibits and (total entering volume <1,000 Peak hour factor (decimal) veh/h), 0.92 (otherwise) Percentage heavy vehicles (%) 3% Parking activity None Pedestrian activity None Volumes by movement (veh/h) Must be provided Analysis period length (h) 0.25 h Cap = capacity, Del = delay, LOS = motorized vehicle level of service, MMLOS = motorized vehicle component of multimodal level of service, Que = queue length 50

54 Other Topics in Part 2 Freeways Method adaptations for advanced freeway management practices Urban streets Method extension to over-capacity conditions 51

55 Section O: Pedestrians, Bicyclists, and Public Transit Freeways Multilane and Two-Lane Highways Urban Streets Signalized Intersections Stop-Controlled Intersections Roundabouts Off-Street Pathways Kittelson & Associates, Inc. 52

56 Section P: Truck Level of Service The HCM doesn t provide a truck LOS measure NCFRP Report 31 does, and it has been incorporated into the Guide Truck LOS is based on the degree to which a roadway provides ideal truck conditions Usable by trucks with legal size and weight loads No at-grade railroad crossings Provides reliable truck travel at truck free-flow speeds Low cost (i.e., no tolls) 53

57 Webinar Content 1. Overview 2. Scope and Structure 3. Applications and References 4. Part 1: Guide Overview 5. Part 2: Medium-Level Analyses 6. Part 3: High-Level Analyses 7. Case Studies (Webinar #2) 8. Wrap-Up 54

58 Part 3 Sections Q. Corridor Quick Estimation Screenline Analysis R. Areas and Systems S. Roadway System Monitoring 55

59 Section Q: Corridor Quick Estimation Screenline Analysis Quick method for assessing corridor capacity More-detailed assessments would use Section R (area) techniques or facility-specific methods from Part 2 56

60 Section R: Areas and Systems Area- and systemwide analysis is typically performed in a travel demand modeling environment Section R provides guidance on: Using HCM procedures to generate the key performance analysis inputs required by typical demand models Post-processing demand model output to generate additional performance measures Supports HCM-compatible analyses and measures as a project moves from need to concept to design 57

61 Section S: Roadway System Monitoring Guidance on identifying and diagnosing travel-time reliability and capacity problems Method assumes that the agency has access to archived average travel times by road segment and time of day The travel time index, the ratio of actual to free-flow travel time, is a useful indicator of congestion problem spots Florida DOT 58

62 Webinar Content 1. Overview 2. Scope and Structure 3. Applications and References 4. Part 1: Guide Overview 5. Part 2: Medium-Level Analyses 6. Part 3: High-Level Analyses 7. Case Studies (Webinar #2) 8. Wrap-Up 59

63 Part 4: Case Studies (Webinar Part 2) Case Study 1: Freeway Master Plan Case Study 2: Arterial Bus Rapid Transit Analysis Case Study 3: Long-Range Transportation Plan Part 2 of the webinar will also address the use of HCM performance measures in roadway monitoring 60 60

64 Webinar Content 1. Overview 2. Scope and Structure 3. Applications and References 4. Part 1: Guide Overview 5. Part 2: Medium-Level Analyses 6. Part 3: High-Level Analyses 7. Case Studies (Webinar #2) 8. Wrap-Up 61

65 Resources The Guide can be downloaded from HCM Volume 4 Free, one-time registration required Five spreadsheet computational engines provided on Volume 4 to help implement some of the Guide s methods Project underway to develop additional outreach and training materials to support the Guide These materials will be posted on Volume 4 over the course of 2017 as they are completed 62

66 Summary The Guide provides a resource for both HCM users and planning professionals to: Conduct quick back-of-the-envelope evaluations where neither a full HCM analysis nor simulation is necessary Maintain consistency with the HCM throughout the project development process Incorporate HCM methods into planning tools Develop inputs used by planning models Improve the accuracy and consistency of computations performed by planning models Post-process model outputs to generate additional performance measures 63

67 Questions? 64

68 Panelists Presentations After the webinar, you will receive a follow-up containing a link to the recording

69 Today s Participants Tom Creasey, Stantec Consulting Services, Inc., Paul Ryus, Kittelson & Associates, Brian Dunn, Oregon Department of Transportation,

70 Get Involved with TRB Getting involved is free! Join a Standing Committee ( Search for AHB40 (Highway Capacity and Quality of Service) Become a Friend of a Committee Networking opportunities May provide a path to become a Standing Committee member For more information: Create your account and update your profile Next webinar on NCHRP Report 825: Applications on June th TRB Annual Meeting: January 7-11, 2018

71 Get Involved with NCHRP Suggest NCHRP research topics Volunteer to serve on NCHRP panels Lead pilot projects and other implementation efforts at your agency For more information:

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