Contents i Contents Page 1 A New Transportation Plan Community Involvement Goals and Objectives... 11

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1 Contents i Contents 1 A New Transportation Plan... 1 Why develop a new plan?... 1 What area does the LRTP focus on?... 2 Why is this LRTP important?... 3 Meeting Requirements for Transportation Planning... 4 Regulatory Commitments... 4 First Steps for a New Future Community Involvement... 7 TransVision... 7 TransVision Shaped the LRTP... 7 TransVision Components... 8 Summary Goals and Objectives Introduction Goals Guiding LRTP Development Goal 1: Safety and Health Goal 2: Build, Operate, and Maintain Quality, Affordable, and Attractive Improvements Goal 3: Economic Vitality Goal 4: Optimize Community Connectivity Goal 5: Improve Mobility and Access in Anchorage and the Region Goal 6: Transportation Choices Goal 7: Preserve and Enhance the Natural and Developed Environment... 19

2 ii Anchorage Bowl 2025 Long-Range Transportation Plan 4 Travel in Anchorage Today Introduction Who Travels in Anchorage Why People Travel How People Travel When People Travel What Determines Household Travel Where Do People Travel Summary Status of the System Today Introduction Roads Public Transportation Pedestrian Facilities Bicycle System Freight Distribution Regional Connections Congestion Management Population and Employment Growth Introduction Information Sources Forecast Findings Distributing Anchorage Bowl Growth Summary Meeting Future Transportation Needs Introduction Methods to Analyze and Evaluate Transportation Systems Formulating Possible Future Transportation Alternatives Analyzing Candidate Scenarios Evaluating and Comparing Alternatives... 60

3 Contents iii Roads Public Transportation Pedestrian and Bicycle System Freight Distribution Regional Connections Congestion Management Plan Recommendations Introduction A Call to Action Managing Systems More Effectively LRTP Elements and Projects Transportation and Anchorage Funding Introduction Earmarks and Other Federal Funding Railroad Grade Separation Funds Summary of LRTP Costs and Application of Revenues Roadway Operations and Maintenance Conclusion Implementation Plan Introduction Anchorage 2020, Land Use, and Title Financial Issues Public Involvement Roads Transit Public Transportation Pedestrian and Bicycle System Freight Distribution Regional Connections Congestion Management Coordination of Local Plans

4 iv Anchorage Bowl 2025 Long-Range Transportation Plan Maintenance and Operation Air Quality Process From the LRTP to Project Implementation Air Quality and the Transportation Plan Background Impact of the 2025 LRTP on Air Pollutant Emissions Appendices A Abbreviations and Glossary B Environmental Justice Evaluation C Street Typology Additions to Functional Classifications D AMATS Checklists for Project Agency Sponsors Tables 4-1 Household and Travel Statistics for Comparative Metropolitan Areas Household Income, Trips, and Transit Use Average Travel Time by Trip Purpose Road Classifications and Their Characteristics Crashes Reported at Selected Intersections, Average Weekday Truck Counts at Spot Locations, Ride Sharing in the Anchorage Area, Existing Congestion Management Strategies Projections for 2025 Regional Growth Projected Household Growth by Planning Area, Performance of Existing, No-Build, and Planned Project Scenarios Performance Comparison for 2002 and 2025 Project Scenarios Performance Comparison for 2002 and 2025 Project Scenarios and the Preferred Network People Mover Service and Ridership, Population and Employment with 1/4-Mile Access to Transit Routes, 2002, 2013, and Existing and Estimated Riders for 2002 Bus Routes and Service Expected Results for People Mover Route Restructuring, Mode Share and Purposes of Weekday Trips by Transit, 2002 and

5 Contents v 7-9 Economic Considerations for Transit Scenarios, 2002 and Priority List of Alaska Railroad Capital Projects for 2004 to Estimated Operating Outcomes for Commuter Rail New Congestion Management Strategies Recommended, Recommended Road Improvement Projects Recommended Pedestrian and Trail Projects Improvements Associated with Recommended Road Projects Recommended Plan Cost Projected Plan Revenue Sources Comparison of Costs and Revenues Available to Implement National Highway System LRTP Projects Comparison of Costs and Revenues Available to Implement Non-National Highway System LRTP Projects Transit Operation and Capital Funding LRTP Cost and Revenue Allocation Summary, Annual Highway Operation and Maintenance Funding Annual Trail Maintenance Alaska Railroad Corporation Capital and Operation Funding Maximum 24-Hour Average PM-10 Concentrations by Year, Figures 1-1 AMATS Boundaries Land Use Policies from Anchorage Who Travels in Anchorage Why People Travel Home and Non-home Trips by Purpose How People Travel When People Travel Household Trips per Day Household Trips by Household Size Household Trips by Workers in Household Anchorage Residential Land Use,

6 vi Anchorage Bowl 2025 Long-Range Transportation Plan 4-10 Anchorate Total Employment, Anchorage Retail and Related Employment, Traveler Residence Locations for All Home-Based Trips Non-home Termini Locations of All Home-Based Trips National Highway System Road Ownership Average Daily Traffic, Freeway Level of Service, Intersection Level of Service, Morning Peak Period, Intersection Level of Service, Afternoon Peak Period, Automobile Travel by Time of Day, People Mover Passenger Boardings and Service Hour Trends Transfers to Reach Transit Destinations Transit Trip by Purpose, Walking Trips by Purpose, Pedestrian Sidewalks, Paths, and Trails, Bike Trips by Purpose, Freight Generators and Attractors Port of Anchorage Tonnage Trends, Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport Passenger and Cargo Trends, Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport Passengers, Alaska Railroad Freight Trends, Regional Transportation Hubs and Corridors Vehicle Ownership and Use, Persons per Vehicle Entering Employment Sites During Morning Commute, Vehicle Miles of Travel Saved by Transit, Carpool, and Vanpool, Regional Population Growth Projected Commuters from Chugiak- Eagle River and the Mat-Su Valley to Anchorage Employment Anchorage 2002 and 2025 Employment by Industry Sectors Household Density... 55

7 Contents vii 6-5 Anchorage Bowl Planning Areas Household Growth by Traffic Analysis Zone, Employment Growth, Weekday Trips, 2002 and LRTP Goals and Objectives Sample of the Evaluation Measures Matrix Missing Links in the Anchorage Road Network MOA OS&HP Functional Street Classifications of Anchorage Roads Existing and Committed Road Network Projects LRTP Projects Total Daily Performance of No-Build 2002 Road Network in Total Daily Performance of Existing Plus Committed Projects in Total Daily Performance of 2023 LRTP Projects in Total Daily Performance of Ingra-Gambell Streets Couplet and Seward Highway Corridor in Hourly Traffic Flow for International Airport Road Additional Candidate Projects Total Daily Performance of Additional Projects in Total Daily Performance of Additional Projects with Boniface International Airport Road Expressway in Recommended Road Projects Total Daily Performance of Recommended Road Projects Average Daily Traffic for Highways, Arterials, and Collectors People Mover Bus System, People Mover Route Restructuring Bus System Estimated 2013 and 2025 Weekday Riders for Route Restructuring with Weekday Service at 30-Minute Frequencies Estimated 2013 and 2025 Weekday Riders for Route Restructuring with Weekday Service at 15-Minute Frequencies Accessibility Findings for North-South and East-West Primary Corridors Advanced Technology Transit System Scenario... 85

8 viii Anchorage Bowl 2025 Long-Range Transportation Plan 7-25 Comparison of Advanced Technology BRT and Other Route Restructuring and Service Enhancement Scenarios Transit Availability for Trips in Alaska Population Projection, Age 65 and Older, AnchorRIDES Trends, Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Data, Recommended Pedestrian and Bicycle System Truck Origin (Productions) by Traffic Analysis Zones Road Projects That Enhance Freight Distribution Managing Demand and Available Capacity on the Glenn Highway, 2025 Morning Peak Hour Historical Gap Between Capacity Needs and Actual Projects for U.S. Cities, Annual Peak Hours of Traveler Delay Peak-Period Traffic Strains Road Capacities Recommended Road Projects Vehicles Removed Through Improved Connections Benefits of the Connecting Corridor Easing the Glenn Highway Commute Recommended Transit Routes and New Service Areas Recommended Pedestrian and Bicycle System LRTP Revenue by Source Project Decision-Making Process Typical Schedule for a Federal-Aid Highway Requiring an Environmental Impact Statement Source of CO Emissions in a Typical Anchorage Residential Area Anchorage CO Trend Projected CO Emissions from Anchorage Transportation Network Projected PM-2.5 Emissions from Anchorage Transportation Network