FHWA Programs Supporting Freight

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1 FHWA Programs Supporting Freight Institute for Trade and Transportation Studies Conference Office of Operations 1200 New Jersey Avenue S.E. Washington, D.C Jeff Purdy, AICP PTP FHWA Office of Operations May 23, 2018

2 Outline National Freight System. Intermodal Connectors. National Freight Strategic Plan. National Highway Freight Program. State Freight Plans. Transportation Performance Management and Bottleneck Analysis. Grant Programs. Freight Advanced Traveler Information System (FRATIS). National Coalition on Truck Parking. Freight Analysis Tools. Strategies Moving Forward. 2

3 National Freight System Complex network of 7 million miles of highways, local roads, railways, navigable waterways, and pipelines. Intermodal connections with airports, ports, truck/rail and pipelines. Serves entire spectrum of agricultural, industrial, retail, and service sectors of our economy. More than 3.1 million Americans are employed in operating and supporting the system. Source: FHWA 3

4 Freight Movement is Multimodal Source: FHWA Freight Economy 4

5 Forces Challenging the Nation s Transportation System 70 million population increase and 42% freight volume increase by % of U.S. population absorbed by Megaregions. Most of the population growth in the South and West. Two-thirds of roads are rated less than good condition and a quarter of bridges need significant repair. Revenues insufficient to keep up with rising costs of maintenance and capacity needs. Absence of reliable federal funding for rail, marine highways, and ports. Future trends in technology such as autonomous vehicles highlight the need to address regulatory barriers and infrastructure to support new technology. 5

6 Effects on Freight Transportation Steady growth in the demand for freight transportation. Transportation capacity expanding too slowly to keep up with demand. Congestion causing longer travel times, less reliable trip times, increased costs, and less reliable delivery times. Higher transportation prices and lower reliability impact supply costs for manufacturers, import prices, and inventory requirements. Congestion may impose an unacceptably high cost on the nation's economy and productivity. Freight congestion problems are most apparent at bottlenecks. Source: FHWA 6

7 Freight Intermodal Connectors Last mile connection between major intermodal facilities and the National Highway System (NHS). While less than 1% of NHS, these roads are critical for timely and reliable movement of freight. 4,237 hours of truck delays occur on freight intermodal connectors daily. $353 million is the cost of delay on congested connectors. $3.2 billion is needed to increase capacity on congested connectors. $2.2 billion estimated cost to improve connector pavement condition to Good. Incorporating freight intermodal connectors into plans and programs that include freight elements. Freight Intermodal Connectors by Mode Source: U.S.DOT Seaports 40 % Rail intermodal 26 % Airports 26 % Pipeline 7 % 7

8 Efficiency of Freight Movement Three top challenges: 1. The System Infrastructure in need of repair. 2. Capacity Stretched now and continues to be tested. 3. Congestion At an all-time peak in many locations and across modes. Source: FHWA 8

9 FAST Act: National Highway Freight Program Goals (23 U.S.C. 167) Implement infrastructure and operational improvements that: Strengthen the contribution of freight to economic competitiveness. Reduce congestion and bottlenecks. Reduce the cost of freight transportation. Improve the year-round reliability of freight transportation. Increase productivity, particularly for domestic industries. Improve safety, security, efficiency, and resiliency of freight transportation. Improve the state of good repair. Use technology to improve safety, efficiency, and reliability. Improve the efficiency and productivity of the Freight Network. Support multi-state corridor planning to address highway freight connectivity. Reduce the environmental impacts of freight movement. 9

10 National Freight Strategic Plan (2015 Draft) Describes the freight transportation system, including major corridors and gateways. Assesses the physical, institutional, and financial barriers to improvement. Recommends strategies for improved planning, dedicated funding, and innovative technologies. Annual cost of congestion is estimated at $1 trillion - 7% of U.S. economic output. Congestion costs trucking companies $27 billion a year in extra transportation costs. The freight industry is experiencing a technological revolution through better data collection and analysis, automation, expedited inspection processes, and autonomous vehicle technologies. Source: U.S.DOT 10

11 National Highway Freight Program (NHFP) Funding (23 U.S.C. 167) To improve the efficient movement of freight on the National Highway Freight Network (NHFN). Provides $1.2 billion per year (average), apportioned to States by formula. Eligible activities include construction, operational improvements, freight planning and performance measures. Highway focus, but a maximum of 10% is allocated for rail, port, and intermodal projects. The Federal share is determined under 23 U.S.C States required to have Fixing America s Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act) compliant freight plans to obligate National Highway Freight Program (NHFP) funds. 11

12 FAST Act State Freight Plans (49 U.S.C ) The FAST Act included a provision that requires each State that receives funding under the NHFP to develop a State Freight Plan. A comprehensive plan for the immediate and long-range planning activities and investments of the State with respect to freight. The freight plan may be developed separate from or incorporated into the Long-Range Statewide Transportation Plans required by 23 U.S.C

13 FAST Act State Freight Plans Contents (49 U.S.C ) Significant freight system trends, needs, and issues. Freight policies, strategies, and performance measures that will guide the freight-related transportation investment. Critical rural and urban freight corridors. How the plan will improve ability to meet national multimodal freight goals. Innovative technologies and operational strategies to improve safety and efficiency of freight. Improvements that may be required on roadways traveled by heavy vehicles. Inventory of facilities with freight mobility issues, such as bottlenecks. Significant congestion or delays caused by freight movements and strategies to mitigate. Freight investment plan that includes a list of priority projects and funding. Consultation with the State freight advisory committee. 13

14 State Freight Advisory Committees Each State is encouraged to establish a State freight advisory committee: Representative cross-section of public and private freight stakeholders. Advise State on freight-related priorities, issues, projects, and funding needs. Serve as a forum for discussion for State transportation decisions affecting freight mobility. Communicate and coordinate regional priorities with other organizations. Promote sharing of information between private and public sectors on freight issues. Participate in development of the State freight plan. 14

15 Transportation Performance Management (23 U.S.C. 150) MAP-21 and FAST Act Performance Framework Safety Infrastructure Condition Congestion Reduction System Reliability Freight Movement + Economic Vitality Environmental Sustainability Reduced Project Delivery Delays 15

16 Freight Bottlenecks (23 U.S.C. 150(e)(4)) Travel Speed-Based Delays Reduced speeds and delays due to recurring influence or nonrecurring event. Travel speed Reliability Truck-Based Delays Reduced speeds, delays, or rerouting that are specific to truck movements. Restricted access for legal loads Clearance restriction Source: FHWA

17 Integrating Transportation Performance Management into the Planning Process Source: FHWA 17

18 Better Utilizing Investments to Leverage Development (BUILD) Eligible activities: Highway projects under Title 23. Public transportation. Passenger and freight rail transportation. Port and intermodal infrastructure. Eligible applicants: States. Local governments. Tribal governments. Transit agencies. Port authorities. Metropolitan planning organizations. Other political subdivisions of the State. Criteria Safety. Economic competitiveness. Quality of life. Environmental protection. State of good repair. Innovation. Partnership. Non-Federal revenue for transportation infrastructure investment. 18

19 Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) (23 U.S.C. 503) Eligible activities: Advanced traveler information systems. Advanced transportation management. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring, and condition assessment. Advanced public transportation systems. Transportation system performance data systems. Advanced safety systems. Technologies associated with autonomous vehicles. Integration of intelligent transportation systems. Electronic pricing and payment systems. Advanced mobility and access technologies. Eligible applicants: States. Local governments. Transit agencies. MPOs. Multijurisdictional groups. Research or academic institutions. 19

20 Freight Advanced Traveler Information System (FRATIS) Lack of freight advanced planning and real-time information has negative effect on: Efficient movement of freight transportation. Congestion on roads and long lines at the gates. Planning of freight daily work activities. Environment of neighboring communities. Energy consumption. Safety of the traveling public. Source: Eric Shen, MARAD 20

21 FRATIS Goals Improve communications of intermodal logistics information between the truck drayage industry and port terminals to reduce peak hour congestion. Improve traveler information to intermodal truck drayage fleets to plan around traffic and port congestion. Employ optimization algorithms, allowing technologies to work together to optimize drayage fleet movements. Source: Eric Shen, MARAD 21

22 FRATIS Application Optimization algorithm that reduces the number of unproductive freight moves. Assigns and schedules orders to drivers by considering order location, time windows, and drivers hours. Dispatchers customize schedules and drivers receive plans and routes using real-time traffic information. Application allows for communication with third party systems for status updates and data consistency. Source: Eric Shen, MARAD 22

23 Performance Goals Bobtail trips reduced by 10% Travel time reduced by 15% Fuel consumption reduced by 5% Terminal queue time reduced by 20% Emissions reduced by 5%

24 Jason s Law Survey and Assessment Results of Section 1401(c) of MAP-21, Jason s Law Survey and Comparative Assessment. Truck parking capacity is a problem in all States, although the level of awareness varies significantly among States. Consistent, continued measurement is important to understand dynamic truck parking needs and whether the situation is improving. Truck Parking analysis should be an important component of State and Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) freight plans, regional and corridor-based freight planning. Public and private sector coordination is critical for analysis and project development to address long-term truck parking needs. Next survey to be administered in

25 National Coalition on Truck Parking U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration U.S. Department of Transportation Maritime Administration 25

26 Key Truck Parking Focus Areas Parking Capacity Technology and Data Funding, Finance and Regulations State, Regional, and Local Government Coordination Creative and innovative means to provide parking capacity. Use of technology and data to understand parking demands and maximize utilization of parking. Innovative funding and finance to develop, operate and maintain parking facilities. State, regional, and local government coordination. Understanding how to adapt to future needs, trends, and technology. 26

27 Using Partnerships to Champion Opportunities Local - to support business and industry State - to support safe transportation National to support economic development Need Location Determined by: Origins and destination Corridors Metro regions Hours of service Public Federal State MPO Local Private Facility operators Technology companies Drivers and carriers Responsibility Resources Funding Land Infrastructure Technology 27

28 Agencies Faced with More Complex Policy and Planning Questions Land Use First and Last Mile Transfer Terminals Parking Policies Growth Rates Logistics Taxes Infrastructure Highways, Rail, Ports, Pipeline Facilities Economics Competitiveness Technological Shifts Goods Movement Environment 28

29 Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) Comprehensive resource of national long distance freight flows. Analysis to strategically direct resources for freight transportation system improvements. Flow estimates on the National Highway Freight Network. Network outputs and Origin-Destination (OD) flow data. Origin-Destination Flow Tables. Weight, value and ton-miles by 43 Standard Classification of Transported Goods (SCTG) 2-digit commodities. Truck, rail, water, air, pipelines, multiple modes and mail. Truck Traffic Flow Network. Estimates of long distance truck volumes. Ton-miles and other network attributes. Source: FHWA 29

30 Strategies Moving Forward Transportation system management and operations to improve reliability. Targeted improvements to address freight bottlenecks. Transportation system safety, security, and resiliency. Multijurisdictional and multimodal collaboration. Improved public and private sector coordination. Better freight data and transportation models. Multimodal supply-chain, end-to-end analytical framework. Multimodal solutions to address performance issues. Multimodal infrastructure addressing bottlenecks at intermodal connection points. Research and adoption of new technologies and best practices. Source: U.S.DOT ITS JPO 30

31 Office of Operations 1200 New Jersey Avenue S.E. Washington, D.C Jeff Purdy, AICP, PTP Federal Highway Administration Office of Operations